WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.

2008-01-01

2

Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after plant...

Taiwo Moni A; Kareem Kehinde T; Nsa Imade Y; Hughes Jackies, D. A.

2007-01-01

3

Effect of cowpea seeds contamination rate by the Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus on epidemics development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CABMV) diseased seeds provide at seedling, virus infected plants which are the only source of primary inoculum. Secondary infections are bequeathed by aphids. The objective of this research is to study the development of the secondary infection in field. Therefore, eight cowpea varieties with different seed contamination rate (0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5%) were used over consecutive four years. The infected plants were recorded every week from the tenth day after sowing and over seven weeks. In the same way, aphids' population were evaluated in plots 30 days after sowing. There was no difference for the incidence rate between the average of plots sown with virus free-seeds and those sown with infected seeds with a rate of 0, 5%. In any case, the disease progressed lowly leading to incidences less than 50% at the post-flowering period in spite of a relatively high initial contamination rate of seed. For this group of varieties, the low progression of the disease indicated a high level of resistance to the infection. The high levels of infection especially observed with the varieties with high level of virus transmission to seed, translated the need to reduce aphids' population density notably by the use of insecticides during cowpea growing cycle. The high number of aphids and inoculum availability in the neighbouring plots were undoubtedly at the source of this result. This situation laid out the problematic of the use of seeds then little or not contaminated by the virus. PMID:19093498

Néya, B J; Zabré, J; Millogo, R J; Ginko, S; Konaté, G

2007-12-15

4

Effect of Cowpea Seeds Contamination Rate by the Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus on Epidemics Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CABMV diseased seeds provide at seedling, virus infected plants which are the only source of primary inoculum. Secondary infections are bequeathed by aphids. The objective of this research is to study the development of the secondary infection in field. Therefore, eight cowpea varieties with different seed contamination rate (0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5% were used over consecutive four years. The infected plants were recorded every week from the tenth day after sowing and over seven weeks. In the same way, aphids` population were evaluated in plots 30 days after sowing. There was no difference for the incidence rate between the average of plots sown with virus free-seeds and those sown with infected seeds with a rate of 0, 5%. In any case, the disease progressed lowly leading to incidences less than 50% at the post-flowering period in spite of a relatively high initial contamination rate of seed. For this group of varieties, the low progression of the disease indicated a high level of resistance to the infection. The high levels of infection especially observed with the varieties with high level of virus transmission to seed, translated the need to reduce aphids` population density notably by the use of insecticides during cowpea growing cycle. The high number of aphids and inoculum availability in the neighbouring plots were undoubtedly at the source of this result. This situation laid out the problematic of the use of seeds then little or not contaminated by the virus.

B.J. Neya

2007-01-01

5

Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Samples of leaves or stems were col...

Taiwo, Moni A.; Kareem, Kehinde T.; Nsa, Imade Y.; D A Hughes, Jackies

2007-01-01

6

Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White" and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76 were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.

Nsa Imade Y

2007-09-01

7

Cowpea viruses: effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI) and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm) of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP) apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control. PMID:17900355

Taiwo, Moni A; Kareem, Kehinde T; Nsa, Imade Y; D'A Hughes, Jackies

2007-01-01

8

Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculating three cowpea cultivars: "OLO II", "OLOYIN" and IT86D-719 with three unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars at 10 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Generally, the growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were significantly higher than those of the virus inoculated plants. Inoculation of plants at an early age of 10 DAP resulted in more severe effect than inoculations at a later stage of 30 DAP. The average values of plant height and number of leaves produced by plants inoculated 30 DAP were higher than those produced by plants inoculated 10 DAP. Most of the plants inoculated 10 DAP died and did not produce seeds. However, " OLOYIN" cultivar was most tolerant and produced reasonable yields when infected 30 DAP. The effect of single viruses on growth and yield of cultivars showed that CABMV caused more severe effects in IT86D-719, SBMV had the greatest effect on "OLO II" while CMeV induced the greatest effect on "OLOYIN". Yield was greatly reduced in double infections involving CABMV in combination with either CMeV or SBMV in "OLOYIN" and "OLO II", however, there was complete loss in yield of IT86D-719. Triple infection led to complete yield loss in all the three cultivars. PMID:17286870

Kareem, K T; Taiwo, M A

2007-01-01

9

Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculating three cowpea cultivars: "OLO II", "OLOYIN" and IT86D-719 with three unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV, genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars at 10 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Generally, the growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were significantly higher than those of the virus inoculated plants. Inoculation of plants at an early age of 10 DAP resulted in more severe effect than inoculations at a later stage of 30 DAP. The average values of plant height and number of leaves produced by plants inoculated 30 DAP were higher than those produced by plants inoculated 10 DAP. Most of the plants inoculated 10 DAP died and did not produce seeds. However, " OLOYIN" cultivar was most tolerant and produced reasonable yields when infected 30 DAP. The effect of single viruses on growth and yield of cultivars showed that CABMV caused more severe effects in IT86D-719, SBMV had the greatest effect on "OLO II" while CMeV induced the greatest effect on "OLOYIN". Yield was greatly reduced in double infections involving CABMV in combination with either CMeV or SBMV in "OLOYIN" and "OLO II", however, there was complete loss in yield of IT86D-719. Triple infection led to complete yield loss in all the three cultivars.

Taiwo MA

2007-02-01

10

Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

1980-01-01

11

Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of C...

José Albersio Araujo Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do Nascimento; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão

2012-01-01

12

Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente [...] estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushroom [...] s significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.

Di Piero, Robson Marcelo; Novaes, Quelmo Silva de; Pascholati, Sérgio Florentino.

13

Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor.

Robson Marcelo Di Piero

2010-04-01

14

Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV. Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento.Many factors can affect the yield of cowpea, especially viruses. The main species of viruses infecting cowpea in Brazil are Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV and Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of cowpea genotypes for resistance to CMV in single or in co-infections (CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I and CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I, which was accomplished in two steps. Firstly, 57 genotypes were evaluated in four evaluations: three in aphid proof cages with infection under controlled conditions, and one in field-grown plants under natural infection. To perform the second step, we selected 18 genotypes to be conducted in nine trials, with eight under aphid proof cages control infection, and one under natural infection. The qualitative and quantitative effects resulting from infections were evaluated. In the field trial, we assessed the number of asymptomatic plants, pod length, number of grains per pod, 100-grain mass and yield. Mixed infections reduced the plant height and dry weight, and premature death of some genotypes was observed in infections involving the three viruses. The genotypes BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 and Patativa showed the best behavior in relation to the mixed viral infections, presenting seeds with appropriate commercial standard and with potential for using in breeding programs.

Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira

2012-01-01

15

Attempts to Improve the Method for Screening Cowpea Germplasm for Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of visual symptom screening of cowpea plants in field plots improved screening for Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus (BlCMV-resistance. However, the method failed to improve the speed or accuracy of screening for Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV-resistance. Plants that displayed few visual virus symptoms were selected for screening by a previously published method. This method involved screening by mechanical virus inoculation in the greenhouse. Plants having a low infection percentage in the greenhouse as judged by Direct-Antigen Coating Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAC-ELISA were then screened in the field by randomized virus spread tests from inoculated spreader rows. Infection rates in these tests were also determined by DAC-ELISA. The test resulted in the detection of eleven newly discovered sources of resistance to BlCMV, but no significant new sources of CMV-resistance were found.

A.G. Gillaspie Jr.

2007-01-01

16

Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when "3"5S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

17

Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus....

Robson Marcelo Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de Novaes; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2010-01-01

18

Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi / Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe m [...] osaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSM [...] V), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Iraildes P., Assunção; Liliane R., M.-Filho; Luciane V., Resende; Márcia C. S., Barros; Gaus S. A., Lima; Rildo Sartori B., Coelho; J. Albérsio A., Lima.

19

Cowpea mosaic virus-encoded protease does not recognize primary translation products of M RNAs from other comoviruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

1982-01-01

20

Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Proteolytic processing of the primary translation products of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is the type member of a group of plant viruses, the comoviruses, with a genome consisting of two single stranded RNA molecules separately encapsidated in icosahedral particles. A characteristic feature of the two genome RNAs is that they are both polyadenylated at their 3'-terminus and supplied with a small protein at their 5'end. The genetic information encoded in the virus RNAs is expressed by translation of each RNA into large-sized proteins referred to as polypr...

Franssen, H.

1984-01-01

22

Influence of Seedling Age at Inoculation and Cultivar on the Pathogenicity of a Virus Causing Yellow Mosaic Disease of Commelina Benghalensis L. on Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A screenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of seedling age at inoculation and cultivar onpathogenicity of the virus causing yellow mosaic disease of Commelina benghalensis L, a broad leaf weed, on cowpea.Three cowpea varieties namely Vita 5, IT84S2246D and Ife Brown were grown in pots and inoculated with sapextracted from leaves of C. benghalensis infected with yellow mosaic disease at 7, 14, and 21 days after germination(DAG. It was found that inoculation of cowpea seedlings at 7 DAG subsequently led to the most severe symptoms,which were manifested by mosaic and yellowing of leaves and eventual poor growth and yield attributes. On the otherhand, plant growth and yield attributes that were comparable to those of the healthy control plants were recorded forplants inoculated at 21 DAG. Specifically, in regards to the interaction effects, cv. Vita 5 that were sap-inoculated at 7DAG had the lowest yield attributes, while cv. IT84S2246D inoculated at 21 DAG had the highest yield attributes. Theresults put together showed that although the yellow mosaic virus of C. benghalensis was sap-transmissible andpathogenic to cowpea causing characteristic yellow mosaic disease symptoms and reduction in yield attributes, severityof the disease is less if infection occurs at older stage of cowpea growth.

Taiye Hussein ALIYU

2010-02-01

23

Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

Ocaya, CP.

2001-01-01

24

All-atom Multiscale Simulation of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Swelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An all-atom multiscale computational modeling approach, Molecular Dynamics/Order Parameter eXtrapolation (MD/OPX), has recently been developed for simulating large bionanosystems. It accelerates MD simulations and addresses rapid atomistic fluctuations and slowly-varying nanoscale dynamics of bionanosystems simultaneously. With modules added to account for water molecules and ions, MD/OPX is applied to simulate the swelling of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid solvated in a host med...

Miao, Yinglong; Johnson, John E.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

2010-01-01

25

Subcellular location of the helper component-proteinase of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to obtain HC-Pro antiserum that was used as an analytical tool for HC-Pro studies. The antiserum was used in immunofluorescence assays to study the subcellular location of HC-Pro expressed with other viral proteins in cowpea protoplasts in a natural CABMV infection, or in protoplasts transfected with a transient expression construct expressing HC-Pro separately from other viral proteins under the control of the 35S promoter. In both cases the protein showed a diffuse cytoplasmic location. Similar localisation patterns were shown in live protoplasts when the transient expression system was used to express HC-Pro as a fusion with the green fluorescent protein as a reporter. In an alternative expression system, the HC-Pro coding region was subcloned in-frame between the movement protein and large coat protein genes of RNA2 of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Upon transfection of protoplasts with this construct, HC-Pro was expressed as part of the RNA2 encoded polyprotein from which it was fully processed. In this case, the protein localised in broad cytoplasmic patches reminiscent of the typical CPMV induced cytopathic structures in which CPMV replication occurs, suggesting an interaction of HC-Pro with CPMV proteins or host factors in these structures. Finally, recombinant CPMV expressing HC-Pro showed a strongly enhanced virulence on cowpea and Nicotiana benthamiana consistent with the role of HC-Pro as a pathogenicity determinant, a phenomenon now known to be linked to its role as a suppressor of host defense responses based on post-transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:12416684

Mlotshwa, Sizolwenkosi; Verver, Jan; Sithole-Niang, Idah; Gopinath, Kodetham; Carette, Jan; van Kammen, Ab; Wellink, Joan

2002-10-01

26

The structure of cucumber mosaic virus and comparison to cowpea chlorotic mottle virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV; strain Fny) has been determined to a 3.2-A resolution using X-ray crystallography. Despite the fact that CMV has only 19% capsid protein sequence identity (34% similarity) to cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), the core structures of these two members of the Bromoviridae family are highly homologous. As suggested by a previous low-resolution structural study, the 305-A diameter (maximum) of CMV is approximately 12 A larger than that of CCMV. In CCMV, the structures of the A, B, and C subunits are nearly identical except in their N termini. In contrast, the structures of two loops in subunit A of CMV differ from those in B and C. These loops are 6 and 7 residues longer than the analogous regions in CCMV. Unlike that of CCMV, the capsid of CMV does not undergo swelling at pH 7.0 and is stable at pH 9.0. This may be partly due to the fact that the N termini of the B and C subunits form a unique bundle of six amphipathic helices oriented down into the virion core at the threefold axes. In addition, while CCMV has a cluster of aspartic acid residues at the quasi-threefold axis that are proposed to bind metal in a pH-dependent manner, this cluster is replaced by complementing acids and bases in CMV. Finally, this structure clearly demonstrates that the residues important for aphid transmission lie at the outermost portion of the betaH-betaI loop and yields details of the portions of the virus that are hypothesized to mediate binding to aphid mouthparts. PMID:10906212

Smith, T J; Chase, E; Schmidt, T; Perry, K L

2000-08-01

27

Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus-infected protoplasts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In contrast to the situation concerning bacterial and, to a lesser extent, animal RNA viruses, little is known about the biochemical processes occurring in plant cells due to plant RNA virus infection. Such processes are difficult to study using intact plants or leaves. Great effort has therefore been spent in developing in vitro cultures of plant protoplasts, but the use of these protoplasts has been seriously hampered by various technical problems.It is clear that plant RNA virus infections...

Rottier, P. J. M.

1980-01-01

28

Improved diagnosis of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in Africa: significance for cowpea seed-indexing, breeding programs and potyvirus taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale surveys in Africa for blackeye cowpea mosaic (B1CMV) and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic (CABMV) showed that several CABMV isolates from Southern Africa were either not or poorly recognized by monoclonal antibodies prepared to isolates collected in West Africa. Selection of three new monoclonal antibodies prepared against the Maputo (Mozambique) isolate of CABMV, and their incorporation into a revised panel of monoclonal antibodies, resulted in the assignment of four of these new CABMV isolates to existing serotypes (II, IV, and V) and three others to a new serotype (VI). The South African isolate of passiflora mosaic virus was shown to be related to CABMV isolates in serotype IV. It is proposed that CABMV isolates be assembled into a distinct species in the legume-infecting, aphid-transmissible potyviruses. PMID:8629941

Huguenot, C; Furneaux, M T; Clare, J A; Hamilton, R I

1996-01-01

29

Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus-Morocco and South African Passiflora virus are strains of the same potyvirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of tryptic peptides and partial amino acid sequence analysis have been employed to establish the taxonomic status of the Moroccan isolate of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Some previous reports have suggested CABMV to be very closely related to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (B1CMV) while other reports have concluded that this relationship is distant. In this report a tryptic digest of the coat protein of CABMV-Morocco was compared with those of the coat proteins of B1CMV-Type, B1CMV-W, the mild mottle strain of peanut stripe virus (PStV-MM) and the NY15 strain of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV-NY15), all of which are now recognised as strains of BCMV. The comparisons also included the NL-3 strain of bean necrosis mosaic virus (BNMV-NL3), which had previously been classified as a strain of BCMV. The HPLC peptide profiles indicated that CABMV-Morocco was distinct from BCMV and BNMV. Amino acid sequence analysis of peptides accounting for more than half of the coat protein confirmed that CABMV-Morocco was not a strain of BNMV or BCMV but was a distinct member of the BCMV subset of viruses that previously has been shown to include BCMV, BNMV, soybean mosaic virus, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, passionfruit woodiness virus and South African Passiflora virus (SAPV). Comparison of the partial sequence data with these and other published sequences revealed that the coat protein of CABMV-Morocco is very similar to that of SAPV suggesting that they are strains of the same virus. Since CABMV was described over 25 years earlier than SAPV, the name CABMV should take precedence and SAPV should be renamed CABMV-SAP, the South African Passiflora strain of CABMV. PMID:8002788

McKern, N M; Strike, P M; Barnett, O W; Dijkstra, J; Shukla, D D; Ward, C W

1994-01-01

30

Production of polyclonal antiserum against Cowpea mild mottle virus coat protein and its application in virus detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV), the causal agent of stem necrosis disease, has drawn attention of soybean producers in recent years due to yield losses in the main producing regions of Brazil. Serological methods for viral detection require the use of an antiserum of good quality to achieve specificity and sensitivity. The entire coat protein gene of a Brazilian CpMMV isolate was cloned into a bacterial expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21::DE3 for in vitro expressio...

2013-01-01

31

Comparative analysis of the genomes of two isolates of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) obtained from different hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete genomic sequences of two cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) isolates from Brazil, MG-Avr from passion fruit (which also infects cowpea), and BR1 from peanut (which also infects cowpea, but not passion fruit), were determined. Their nucleotide sequences are 89% identical and display 85% identity to that of CABMV-Z. Both isolates have the typical potyvirus genome features. P3 and VPg are the most conserved proteins, with 99% amino acid sequence identity between the two isolates, and P1 is the most variable, with 50% identity. A significant variation exists at the 5'-end of the genome between the Brazilian isolates and CABMV-Z. However, this variation does not correlate with the biological properties of these three isolates. PMID:21409445

Barros, Danielle R; Alfenas-Zerbini, Poliane; Beserra, José Evando A; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Zerbini, F Murilo

2011-06-01

32

Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

1998-07-01

33

Immune response induced in mice oral immunization with cowpea severe mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english There is increasing interest in the immune response induced by plant viruses since these could be used as antigen-expressing systems in vaccination procedures. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), as a purified preparation (300 g of leaves, 2 weeks post-inoculation), or crude extract from cowpea (Vig [...] na unguiculata) leaves infected with CPSMV both administered by gavage to Swiss mice induced a humoral immune response. Groups of 10 Swiss mice (2-month-old females) were immunized orally with 10 daily doses of either 50 µg viral capsid protein (boosters of 50 µg at days 21 and 35 after immunization) or 0.6 mg protein of the crude extract (boosters of 0.6 mg at days 21 and 35 after immunization). Anti-CPSMV antibodies were quantified by ELISA in pooled sera diluted at least 1:400 at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the 10th dose. IgG and IgA against CPSMV were produced systemically, but IgE was not detected. No synthesis of specific antibodies against the proteins of leaf extracts from V. unguiculata, infected or not with CPSMV, was detected. The use of CPSMV, a plant-infecting virus that apparently does not induce a pathogenic response in animals, induced a humoral and persistent (at least 6 months) immune response through the administration of low antigen doses by gavage. These results raise the possibility of using CPSMV either as a vector for the production of vaccines against animal pathogens or in quick and easy methods to produce specific antisera for viral diagnosis.

Florindo, M.I.; Aragão, M.E.F. de; Silva, A.C.M. da; Otoch, M.L.; Melo, D. Fernandes de; Lima, J.A.A.; Lima, M.G. Silva.

34

Immune response induced in mice oral immunization with cowpea severe mosaic virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the immune response induced by plant viruses since these could be used as antigen-expressing systems in vaccination procedures. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, as a purified preparation (300 g of leaves, 2 weeks post-inoculation, or crude extract from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata leaves infected with CPSMV both administered by gavage to Swiss mice induced a humoral immune response. Groups of 10 Swiss mice (2-month-old females were immunized orally with 10 daily doses of either 50 µg viral capsid protein (boosters of 50 µg at days 21 and 35 after immunization or 0.6 mg protein of the crude extract (boosters of 0.6 mg at days 21 and 35 after immunization. Anti-CPSMV antibodies were quantified by ELISA in pooled sera diluted at least 1:400 at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the 10th dose. IgG and IgA against CPSMV were produced systemically, but IgE was not detected. No synthesis of specific antibodies against the proteins of leaf extracts from V. unguiculata, infected or not with CPSMV, was detected. The use of CPSMV, a plant-infecting virus that apparently does not induce a pathogenic response in animals, induced a humoral and persistent (at least 6 months immune response through the administration of low antigen doses by gavage. These results raise the possibility of using CPSMV either as a vector for the production of vaccines against animal pathogens or in quick and easy methods to produce specific antisera for viral diagnosis.

Florindo M.I.

2002-01-01

35

Intracellular occurrence of cowpea mild mottle virus in two unrelated plant species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The filamentous particles of cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV) were detected only in the cytoplasm of palisade, mesophyll, parenchyma and epidermal cells of Glycine max (Papilionaceae) and Nicotiana clevelandii (Solanaceae). They were aggregated to form either sheets or bundles or, more frequently, brush-like inclusions. Although CMMV was initially considered to be a possible member of the Carlavirus group, it differs from aphid-borne carlaviruses in its intracellular occurrence and transmission by whiteflies and in being frequently seed-transmitted in some leguminous hosts. Because CMMV is also serologically unrelated to any of 12 recognized carlaviruses, we suggest that it now be removed from the carlavirus group and left unclassified until the taxonomic significance of these differences has been fully evaluated. PMID:6629699

Brunt, A A; Atkey, P T; Woods, R D

1983-01-01

36

The genomic sequence of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and its similarities with other potyviruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genomic sequence of a Zimbabwe isolate of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV-Z) was determined by sequencing overlapping viral cDNA clones generated by RT-PCR using degenerate and/or specific primers. The sequence is 9465 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly (A) tail and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) of 9159 nucleotides encoding a large polyprotein of 3,053 amino acids and predicted Mr of 348. The size of the genome and the encoded polyprotein is in agreement with other potyviruses and contains nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites and motifs conserved in homologous proteins of other potyviruses. The P1 and P3 were the most variable proteins while CI, NIb and CP were the most conserved. PMID:12021872

Mlotshwa, S; Verver, J; Sithole-Niang, I; Van Kampen, T; Van Kammen, A; Wellink, J

2002-05-01

37

Capsid protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is a determinant for vector transmission by a beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a bromovirus transmitted by species of chrysomelid beetles, including the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii Barber. An experimental system was set up to identify the viral determinant(s) of the beetle transmission of CCMV. Nicotiana clevelandii was selected as an experimental plant host because it supports the replication and accumulation of both CCMV and a second member of the family Bromoviridae, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Using a reverse genetic system for CMV, a cDNA copy of the CCMV capsid protein (CP) gene was substituted for that of the CMV CP gene. The resulting 'CMV-hybrid' consisted of wild-type CMV RNA1, RNA2, and a chimeric CMV RNA3 expressing the CCMV structural protein. The CMV-hybrid replicated and formed virions in N. clevelandii; in electron micrographs the hybrid virus was indistinguishable from CCMV. In beetle feeding assays, both CCMV and the CMV-hybrid were transmitted by D. undecimpunctata, while beetle transmission of CMV was not observed. Conversely, only CMV was observed to be transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae. Surprisingly, the CMV-hybrid was transmitted more efficiently than the parental CCMV, and a virus-induced alteration in beetle feeding behaviour is proposed to account for the difference. These results indicate that the CCMV CP is a viral determinant for beetle vector transmission. PMID:19828763

Mello, Alexandre F S; Clark, Anthony J; Perry, Keith L

2010-02-01

38

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV.

José Albersio Araujo Lima

2011-11-01

39

Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

2012-01-15

40

Capsid protein properties of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus confirm the existence of two major subgroups of aphid-transmitted, legume-infecting potyviruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the capsid proteins of different legume-infecting potyviruses using specific monoclonal antibodies on immunoblots of crude extracts from infected plants revealed that cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) have coat protein M(r) values of 32K and 35K, respectively. Immunoblot comparisons of BICMV, peanut stripe mosaic virus (PStV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and azuki bean mosaic virus (AzMV) revealed equal reactivity of their 35K coat proteins. Similar comparisons between CAMV and the necrotic strain of BCMV (isolate NL3) showed a serological relationship between their 32K coat proteins, results providing the first evidence of a possible similarity between CAMV and BCMV NL3. Peptides from trypsin digests of the coat proteins of several of these legume-infecting potyviruses were analysed by HPLC. Comparison of the peptide profiles confirmed the serological results in distinguishing the two subgroups. Peptide profiles of coat protein from BICMV, PStV, AzMV and BCMV were almost identical, results suggesting that they could be considered as strains of one virus. In contrast, peptide profiles of various CAMV serotypes and BCMV NL3 were distinct from the first group and exhibited limited similarities to each other. PMID:7996147

Huguenot, C; Furneaux, M T; Hamilton, R I

1994-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cultivar and processing effects on the pasting characteristics, tannin content and protein quality and digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Four popular West African local cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), with distinctly different seed coat colors, were evaluated for their relative amylograph pasting characteristics, condensed tannin content, in vitro protein digestibility and Tetrahymena protein efficiency ratio (t-PER). The effects of roasting and dehulling on these properties were also determined. There were wide variations in the hot paste viscosity characteristics of the different cultivars studied. The raw cowpea flour samples exhibited maximum paste viscosities ranging between 260 Brabender Units (BU) for the Mottled cultivar and 460 BU for the cream-colored Blackeye cultivar. Cowpea cultivars with the greatest peak viscosities showed low stabilities to extended cooking. Roasting depressed paste viscosity properties of all the cowpea cultivars studied. Tannin concentrations were 0.3-6.9 and 7.2-116 mg CE/g flour from whole cowpea seeds and seed coats respectively, increasing with intensity of seed color. Although dehulling removed 98% of the tannin content of raw cowpeas, improvement in protein quality as a result of dehulling was observed for only the highly-pigmented Maroon-red variety. Roasting significantly improved digestibility and more than doubled the t-PER of all cowpea cultivars studied. Roasted cowpeas possess adequate nutritional and functional qualities as protein supplements in cereal-based weaning foods. However, it appears that dehulling is necessary to enhance the nutritional quality of the highly pigmented cultivars of cowpea. PMID:9650727

Plahar, W A; Annan, N T; Nti, C A

1997-01-01

42

Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Fumigant Effect of Some Medicinal Plant and Pirimiphos Methyl Powders against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contact toxicity and fumigant effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Anacardium occidentale (L, Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn seeds powders and Pirimiphos methyl (Actellic dust were evaluated against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.. Contact toxicity assay show that A. indica and P. guineense powders have a comparative effect to synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl. Both were able to cause 100% mortality of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8g/20g of cowpea seeds within 7 days of post treatment. However, in the fumigation assay, none of the plant powders was suitable as a fumigant since A. indica and P. guineense powders could only cause 23.3% and 20% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid respectively after 7 days of application. Pirimiphos methyl powder was good as a fumigant causing 100% mortality of C. maculatus after 7 days of application at all tested concentrations.

K. D. Ileke

2012-02-01

43

The Effect of Cowpea Oligosaccharides on Gas Production in Adult Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of cowpea oligosaccharides and oligosaccharide free meal on gas production in adult female weanling rats was studied. The pattern of hydrogen produced in 24 h when some other rats were fed raw cowpea meal was also studied. In the study on the pattern of hydrogen produced in 24 h in rats fed raw cowpea meal, maximum rate of hydrogen production occurred between 2-8 h. There was considerable variability in the amount of hydrogen produced between rats. After 8 h, hydrogen production declined. When adult rats were fed a basal diet, a diet containing oligosaccharide free (OFR meal and OFR plus the alcoholic extract; the basal diet produced an average of 1.3 mL H2 over an 8 h period. Diets containing OFR resulted in a three-fold increase in gas production whereas the addition of cowpea alcoholic extract to the OFR resulted in a higher but variable hydrogen production. The oligosaccharides were responsible for approximately 50% of the total gas produced when whole cowpeas were ingested. The highest rate of hydrogen production was found to occur between 2-7 h after feeding.

Z.M. Ofuya

2006-01-01

44

Encapsulation and crystallization of Prussian blue nanoparticles by cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsids were used to encapsulate Prussian blue (PB) particles based on electrostatic interaction. A negatively-charged metal complex, hexacyanoferrate (III), was entrapped inside the capsids through the disassembly/reassembly process under a pH change from 7.5 to 5.2. The loaded capsids reacted with a second Fe(II) to fabricate PB particles. The synthesis of PB in CCMV capsids was confirmed by a unique colour transition at 710 nm and by size-exclusion FPLC. Transmission electron microscopy images of PB-CCMV biohybrids presented discrete spherical particles with a relatively homogeneous size. Dynamic light scattering of PB-CCMV showed two peaks of 29.2 ± 1.7 nm corresponding to triangulation number T = 3 particles, and 17.5 ± 1.2 nm of pseudo T = 2 particles. The encapsulation and crystallization of PB in CCMV provided an efficient method for the self-organization of bimetallic nanoparticles. PMID:24190479

Wu, Yuanzheng; Yang, Hetong; Shin, Hyun-Jae

2014-03-01

45

The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found in the atomic structures of the DNA tumor papovaviruses (SV40 and polyoma). The swollen structure is closely similar to the expanded form of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) previously determined at 8A resolution by X-ray crystallography.

Speir, Jeffrey Alan

46

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes / Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de [...] Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universid [...] ade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo, Ferreira; Elizita Maria, Teófilo.

47

Sequence of the 3'-terminal region of a Zimbabwe isolate of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV).  

Science.gov (United States)

The 3'-terminal 1221 nucleotides of a Zimbabwe isolate of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV) genome have been sequenced. The sequence comprises an open reading frame (ORF) of 990 nucleotides and a 3' non-coding-region of 231 nucleotides followed by a poly-A. The ORF has high similarity to NIb and coat proteins (CP) of potyviruses. A potential CP Q/S cleavage site was identified, yielding a CP of 30.5 kDa containing 275 amino acids. The CABMV sequence is closely related to that of South African passiflora virus (SAPV) which should therefore be regarded as a strain of CABMV. PMID:8678838

Sithole-Niang, I; Nyathi, T; Maxwell, D P; Candresse, T

1996-01-01

48

Production of polyclonal antiserum against Cowpea mild mottle virus coat protein and its application in virus detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV, the causal agent of stem necrosis disease, has drawn attention of soybean producers in recent years due to yield losses in the main producing regions of Brazil. Serological methods for viral detection require the use of an antiserum of good quality to achieve specificity and sensitivity. The entire coat protein gene of a Brazilian CpMMV isolate was cloned into a bacterial expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21::DE3 for in vitro expression. The coat protein, fused to a His-tag, was purified under denaturing conditions by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA resin. After renaturation, the integrity and identity of the purified recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-Page and MALDI-ToF/ToF mass spectrometer analyses. A rabbit was immunized with increasing amounts of the recombinant protein. The specificity and sensitivity of the antiserum was demonstrated by Western blot and indirect ELISA assays. The polyclonal antisera raised against recombinant coat protein proved to be a reliable tool for CpMMV detection.

Silvia L. de Carvalho

2013-02-01

49

Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

B. Darfour

2012-03-01

50

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

51

Molecular characterization of the complete genomes of two new field isolates of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, and their phylogenetic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV, family Bromoviridae) is found worldwide and has been used as a model virus for a long time, but no data is available about the genetic diversity of field isolates. Recently, two new field isolates (Car1 and Car2) of CCMV obtained from cowpea showed distinct phenotypic symptoms when inoculated to cowpea. CCMV-Car1 induced severe mosaic and interveinal chlorosis, while CCMV-Car2 produced mild mottling and leaf rolling. Both isolates produced asymptomatic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana. The complete genome of both isolates was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers against the CCMV sequences available in the GenBank database, cloned and sequenced. Both nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared between the newly sequenced CCMV isolates and the three previously characterized CCMV strains (T, M1, and R). Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA 1 sequence showed that CCMV-Car1 was in a separate branch from the rest of the CCMV isolates while CCMV-Car2 grouped together with CCMV-R. On the basis of RNA 2 and RNA 3 sequences, two major groupings were obtained. One group included CCMV-Car1 and CCMV-Car2 isolates while the other contained CCMV-T, CCMV-M1, and CCMV-R strains. Recombination programs detected a potential recombination event in the RNA 1 sequence of CCMV-Car2 isolate but not in RNA 2 and RNA 3 sequences. The results showed that both mutations and recombination have played an important role in the genetic diversity of these two new isolates of CCMV. PMID:21537997

Ali, Akhtar; Shafiekhani, Maryam; Olsen, Jolie

2011-08-01

52

The Effects of Dietary Raw and Heat-Treated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata on Growth and Intestinal Histomorphometry of Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the effect of raw and heat treated cowpea on the GIT and growth performance of pigs, 48 weanling piglets were divided into 4 groups and fed diets containing either 30% soymeal (T1 as controls, or 30% heat-treated cowpea (T2, or 15% heat-treated and 15% raw cowpea (T3, or 30% raw cowpea (T4. Phase 1 of the feeding trial started immediately after weaning and lasted for 18 weeks. From the 19th week, T4 group was subdivided into 4 groups and they were fed either T1, T2, T3 or T4 for 16 week. Average Daily Gain (ADG was lowest in T4 group both in phase 1 and phase 2 (p< 0.01. Marked hypertrophy of the villi and crypt hyperplasia were seen in the jejunum and duodenum (p< 0.01 of T4 group. The diminished growth and marked enteropathology in the T4 group was attributed to the heat sensitive ANFs in the raw cowpea. However, in phase 2 of the trial, when substitution feeding was implemented in the T4 group, they showed marked improvement in feed consumption and weight gain. The catch-up growth seen after the introduction of substitution feeding, indicates that the antinutritional effects induced by the raw cowpeas are reversible. Heat treated cowpeas could make a valuable contribution in substituting soyabeans in animal feed.

Ekambaram Umapathy

2008-01-01

53

Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI

2011-11-01

54

Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is widespread in passionfruit in Brazil and causes passionfruit woodiness disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf samples of yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) displaying fruit woodiness symptoms were collected in seven Brazilian states and the Federal District. Viral infection was confirmed by host range and ELISA, and fourteen viral isolates were obtained. All isolates were capable of infecting several leguminous host species, although differences in symptom severity were noticeable. Woodiness symptoms were reproduced in yellow passionfruit, and mosaic symptoms were induced in common bean. All isolates infected cowpea, reported as a non-host of passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV). Indirect ELISA demonstrated that all isolates were serologically related to each other and also to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). The complete sequence of the capsid protein was determined for all isolates. Comparison of these sequences with those of other potyviruses indicated the highest identity with CABMV isolates (85 to 94%). Identity with PWV isolates ranged from 54 to 70%. Phylogenetic analysis grouped all of the Brazilian isolates in a monophyletic cluster with the CABMV isolates, clearly distinct from the PWV isolates. Furthermore, this analysis demonstrated that a group of previously characterized isolates from Brazil that had been designated as PWV should be reclassified as CABMV. Together, these results provide unequivocal evidence that, in Brazil, passionfruit woodiness disease is primarily caused by CABMV. The presence of PWV in Brazil has yet to be confirmed. PMID:16596328

Nascimento, A V S; Santana, E N; Braz, A S K; Alfenas, P F; Pio-Ribeiro, G; Andrade, G P; de Carvalho, M G; Murilo Zerbini, F

2006-09-01

55

Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Fumigant Effect of Some Medicinal Plant and Pirimiphos Methyl Powders against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The contact toxicity and fumigant effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Anacardium occidentale (L), Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn seeds powders and Pirimiphos methyl (Actellic) dust were evaluated against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Contact toxicity assay show that A. indica and P. guineense powders have a comparative effect to syntheti...

Ileke, K. D.; Bulus, D. S.

2012-01-01

56

Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Products on Aphis craccivora and its Predator Harmonia axyridis on Cowpea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of two neem formulations in the control of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora and how these affect its predator Harmonia axyridis. Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design in which cowpea was planted on raised beds. Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted on an experimental farm of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana during...

2012-01-01

57

Effect of Phytase Supplementation on the Digestibility of Crude Protein, Amino Acids and Phosphorus of Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata) in Broilers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea contains phytate-P and other nutrients like amino acids which are poorly digested in broilers. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve digestibility of these nutrients. In 2 experiments the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein, amino acids and P of cowpea in broilers were investigated. Experiment One, had 6 diets in which 0, 150 or 300 g kg-1 cowpea replaced maize starch and 0 or 500 units of phytase enzy...

Iyayi, Eustace A.

2013-01-01

58

Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: ? In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ? Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. ? Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. ? Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. ? Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

2011-09-01

59

Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

2011-09-15

60

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi / Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupl [...] a difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp) infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea. Abstract in english Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) a [...] nd Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp) infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A., Lima; Aline Kelly Q., Nascimento; Gilson Soares, Silva; Rosa Felícia E. A., Camarço; M. Fátima B., Gonçalves.

 
 
 
 
61

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea.Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A. Lima

2005-08-01

62

Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

1992-01-01

63

Fungitoxic and Phytotoxic Effect of Vernonia amygdalina (L, Bryophyllum pinnantus Kurz Ocimum gratissimum (Closium L. and Eucalyptna globules (Caliptos Labill Water Extracts on Cowpea and Cowpea Seedling Pathogens in Ago-Iwoye, South Western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study to evaluate the fungitoxic and phytotoxic effects of extracts of V. amaygdalina, B. pinnatus, O. gratissimum and E. globules on the fungal pathogens inducing wilting on cowpea grown in Ago-Iwoye, South Western Nigeria. The extracts of all the botanicals used reduced Disease Infection Rate (DIR in treated plants. Sclerotium rolfsii sacc induced wilting of between 4 and 12% on cowpea seedlings treated with plant extract under field conditions while about 39.6% incidence of cowpea seedlings wilting was observed under control experiment on the same experimental plot. The extracts increased significantly the plant height, shelf life, relative water content and chlorophyll contents of the cowpea seedlings during both the wet and dry season. On the other hand, the extracts significantly (p = 0.05 reduced transpiration rate and stomata aperture of treated plant in both seasons. Furthermore, application of these extracts on the cowpea plants significantly enhanced the Leaf Area Index (LAI number of branches and ponds per plant, total dry matter per plant, weight per pod, 100 grains weight and grain yield in both season when compared with the values obtained from control plants. The extracts also inhibited the release of current photosynthethates from treated plants thus maintaining the water status of plant and also making photosynthethates which can be oxidized to release energy needed for growth available to treated plants.

D.A. Alabi

2005-11-01

64

Pre-exposure to gamma rays alleviates the harmful effect of salinity on cowpea plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the low concentrations of NaCl (25mM increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA, lipid peroxidation, non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol, number of legumes per plant, number of seeds per legume, number of seeds per plants, legume length, fresh and dry weight of legumes and weight of 1000 seeds and total soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents in harvested seeds as compared to control. On the other hand, the high concentrations of NaCl (50, 100 and 200 mM caused reduction in plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA, all yield attributes and harvested seeds components but increased lipid peroxidation and non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol. Electrophoretic studies of proteins showed three types of modifications are observed in the protein patterns of cowpea seeds, some protein bands were disappeared, other proteins were selectively increased and synthesis of new set of protein was induced. Some of these responses were observed under gamma rays and salinity treatments, while others were induced by either gamma rays or salinity. Seeds irradiation with gamma rays alleviates the adverse effect of salt stress compared to non irradiated seeds.

Mohammed A. H. M. A.

2012-11-01

65

Effects of Intercrop Population Density and Row Orientation on Growth and Yields of Sorghum - Cowpea Cropping Systems in Semi Arid Rongai, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorghum - cowpea intercropping is an important farming system for small scale farmers in Arid and Semi Arid Lands of sub-Sahara African. Information on the cowpea intercrop population and row orientation effects on growth and yields of sorghum-cowpea cropping systems is however scanty or unavailable for tropical Africa and East African region in particular.With this in mind, a factorial designed experiments was carried out at a farmer’s field at Kampi ya Moto, Rongi, Kenya in two seasons i.e. December 2011 - April 2012 Season I (SI and May-August 2012 Season II (SII. The treatments comprised of sorghum planted at a constant population of 55 555 plants/ha and intercropped with cowpea at varying populations of 55 555, 111 111, and 166 666 plants/hectare and rows oriented in East-West (E-W and North-South (N-S directions, respectively replicated three times. Results showed that increase of cowpea (intercrop population from 55 555 to 166 666 plants/ha significantly (P ? 0.05 influenced crops growth, grain and yields attributes of both crops. However, there was no significant effect on harvest indices. Intercrop population (cowpea of 111 111 plants/ha produced the highest cowpea grain yields of 214 and 632 kg/ha in season I and season II, respectively. The highest sorghum grain yields of 2 729 kg/ha and 3 011 kg/ha were recorded in sole sorghum. The lowest sorghum and cowpea grain yields of 1 994.3 and 147.8 kg/ha were produced by the highest intercrop cropping system population of 166 666 cowpea plants/ha. The E-W row oriented cropping systems produced significantly higher cowpea grain yields ranging from 408 to 973 kg/ha compared to 333 to 838 kg/ha recorded under N-S row orientation. The N-S row orientation however, produced significantly higher sorghum grain yields of 1 874 and 2 123kg/ha from the sole sorghum cropping system in seasons I & II, respectively. It is recommended that farmers in semi-arid Rongai should intercrop sorghum at 55 555 plants/ha with cowpea at 55 555 during the short rainy season of SI (Oct - Dec and at 111 111 plants/ha during the long rainy SII (May - Aug, season, with rows oriented in the E-W direction, in order to realize over 400 kg/ha cowpea and 2 000 kg/ha sorghum grains yields. The higher cowpea intercrop population of 111 111 plants/ha should be used in wetter seasons of semi arid climates.

S. M. S. M. Karanja

2014-04-01

66

Effect of Germination, Boiling and Co-fermentation on the Viscosity of Maize/cowpea Mixture as Complementary Infant Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally prepared cereal based complementary food are too dilute for adequate energy and nutrient density as infant complementary food. The consistency of complementary food is of particular importance for infants who cannot masticate and therefore, depend on liquid or semi solid foods. In Nigeria mothers regard cereal malting and supplementation with legume as extra-labor. Increase of gruel energy density is important to improve the energy intake of young children in developing countries. This study investigated the effect of malting and co-fermentation bi-component flour (co-fermented maize/cowpea70:30w/w on the consistency of the gruel product. Five processes in which either of the grain is germinated, un-germinated, un-germinated and boiled, un-germinated boiled, wet-milled and sieved before co-fermentation were explored. Consistency of the gruel of the products with concentration ranging from 4-18%; was measured using Bostwick Consistometer. The dry matter of the gruel was determined according to standard method. It was observed that boiling and milling of un-germinated maize and cowpea before co-fermentation was more effective in viscosity reduction at 12% flour concentration. At 12% flour concentration that boiling and milling of un-germinated maize and cowpea before co-fermentation can enhance the consistency and by implication reduce the viscosity of co-fermented maize/cowpea as infant complementary food.

Oyarekua Mojisola Adenike

2012-01-01

67

Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491 were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were determined. Nodulation in the polluted soils reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control while the stem girth, terminal leaf length and shoot dry mass increased significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control. The plant height of each variety significantly differed (p<0.005 from one another. This study has shown that soil pollution causes significant reduction in nodule numbers hence having immense negative impact on nodulation in cowpea varieties used in this study. Meanwhile soil pollution is shown in this study to increase the stem girth, plant height, leaf length and shoot dry mass of the cowpea plants compared to the control.

A.O. Awosanya

2012-06-01

68

Screening of Passiflora species for reaction to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus reveals an immune wild species Seleção de espécies de Passiflora inoculadas com o vírus do mosaico do caupi revela a imunidade de uma espécie selvagem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is a potyvirus that causes the most serious virus disease of passion fruit crops in Brazil. It is transmitted by several species of aphids in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner. The reaction of 16 species of Passiflora to infection by mechanical inoculation with four Brazilian isolates of CABMV was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Only P. suberosa, a wild species, was resistant to infection by all virus isolates, in two independent assays. P...

2009-01-01

69

Phosphorus Response Efficiency in Cowpea Genotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphorus is important for cowpea production and is inherently low in many tropical soils. Selection of cowpea genotypes that produce good yield under low soil P or those with high P response efficiency can be a low input approach in solving this problem. Therefore, the effect of root architecture and P application on the yield of cowpea and its P uptake were investigated. A screen house experiment was conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, N...

Oladiran Olaleye; Fagbola Olajire; Abaidoo Robert C.; Ikeorah Nnenna

2012-01-01

70

The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha-1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha-1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha-1. Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

1997-03-01

71

Antagonistic regulation, yet synergistic defense: effect of bergapten and protease inhibitor on development of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10(-6)) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917

Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-01-01

72

Effect of processing on flatus producing oligosaccharides in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and the tropical African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of dehulling, soaking and soaking/cooking on sucrose, raffinose and stachyose in mature dry seeds of nine varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and one variety of tropical African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were investigated. The results showed a progressive decrease in sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose contents. Soaking for 12 hours and cooking for 30 min eliminated most of the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose. The sugar contents in whole raw cowpea were sucrose 0.73-4.58%, raffinose 0.71-6.86% and stachyose 2.38-3.87%, and for tropical African yam bean sucrose 4.08%, raffinose 1.08% and stachyose 4.14% while the seeds soaked for 12 hours and cooked for 30 min had for cowpea sucrose 0.03-0.81%, raffinose 0.04-0.20% and stachyose 0.12-0.72%, and tropical African yam bean sucrose 0.70%, raffinose 0.40% and stachyose 0.41%. PMID:9629861

Nwinuka, N M; Abbey, B W; Ayalogu, E O

1997-01-01

73

Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) were cropped continuously for 3 years in plots with a natural infestation of 24-53 microsclerotia g(-1) soil at the onset of the experiment. Next, a susceptible cowpea variety was grown to...

2008-01-01

74

Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

2007-01-15

75

Persistence and effects of processing on reduction of chlorantraniliprole residues on cowpea fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field trial was conducted to study the dissipation kinetics of chlorantraniliprole 18.5 % SC on cowpea fruits. The fruit samples drawn periodically were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass detection (LC-MS/MS). The initial residues of chlorantraniliprole in cowpea fruits were found to be 0.55 mg kg(-1) which dissipated rapidly, with a half-life of 1.31 days and a waiting period of 0.62 days following first order kinetics. Processing of the fruits with solutions commonly used in households reduced the insecticide residues on cowpea fruits harvested 2 h after spraying by 47.19 %-91.70 % and 44.56 %-91.25 % on fruits plucked on the third day. PMID:23283535

Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Naseema Beevi, S; Mathew, Thomas Biju; Kumar, Vijayarahava; George, Thomas; Xavier, George

2013-04-01

76

Physiological and Biochemical Effects of ?-Irradiation on Cowpea Plants (Vigna sinensis under Salt Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the possible role of ?-irradiation in alleviating soil salinity stress during plant growth was investigated. Increasing salinity in the soil (25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl decreased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total carbohydrate content and mineral uptake compared to control, while increased total phenol content, proline, total free amino acids and lipid peroxidation. Seed irradiation with gamma rays significantly increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrate, total phenol, proline, total free amino acids and the contents of N, P, K +, Ca+2 and Mg+2 compared to non irradiated ones under salinity. On the other hand, irradiation with gamma rays decreased lipid peroxidation, Na+ and Cl- contents which may contribute in part to activate processes involved in the alleviation of the harmful effect of salt at all concentrations used (25, 50 and 100 mM except at the high concentration (200 mM. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities among all treatments.

Asmaa M. MOGAZY

2013-05-01

77

Preparation of nanoporous polyimide thin films via layer-by-layer self-assembly of cowpea mosaic virus and poly(amic acid)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low dielectric (low-?) materials are of key importance for the performance of microchips. In this study, we show that nanosized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles can be assembled with poly(amic acid) (PAA) in aqueous solutions via the layer-by-layer technique. Then, upon thermal treatment CPMV particles are removed and PAA is converted into polyimide in one step, resulting in a porous low-? polyimide film. The multilayer self-assembly process was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Imidization and the removal of the CPMV template was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The dielectric constant of the nanoporous polyimide film thus prepared was 2.32 compared to 3.40 for the corresponding neat polyimide. This work affords a facile approach to fabrication of low-? polyimide ultrathin films with tunable thickness and dielectric constant.

2011-09-01

78

EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L WALP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection, TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties, hand weeded and unweeded (controls were laid in randomised complete block design with three replications respectively. At maturity, dry samples of cowpea `Ife brown` seeds were ground to fine powder and the proximate composition and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in the two experiments were determined. Significant variations (p0.05 among the herbicide treatments. It was therefore recommended that CCWE could be used as a natural post-emergence herbicide in cowpea production without altering the nutritional quality and residue of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds.

Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

2013-01-01

79

Effect of Sowing Date and NPK on the Forage Yield and Quality in the Crop Combination of Maize and Cowpea in Newer Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growing of more than one crop simultaneously by intercropping on the same land with definite row arrangement is considered effective in achieving maximum production from unit area per unit time. A field experiment was conducted on maize-cowpea intercropping at Grass Land Research Station, State Fodder Production Cum Seed Multiplication Farm, Haringhata, Nadia, West Bengal (23°N Latitude, 89°E Longitudes with elevation of 9.75 m above MSL during rainy (kharif season of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Maize (AT and cowpea (E C 4216 were sown during 2008 and 2009 to estimate the effect of application of different NPK doses on forage yield with five treatment combinations including maize as a sole crop. The observation on the effect on quality of green forage yield and dry matter accumulation of different treatments indicated significant variability. Highest forage productions were observed in sole maize (62.1 ton and (73.9 ton during 2008 and 2009. Sole maize exhibited highest dry matter (551.08 and 558.65 g-2 production in 2008 and 2009, while, 2:1 with cowpea mixture produced (320.95 g-2 in 2008 and (322.88 g-2 in 2009. Moreover the digestible crude protein content in maize+cowpea (2:1 and cowpea+maize (2:1 exhibited 10.4 and 38.9% increase over control during 2008 while 10.3 and 38.4% in 2009 with N, P2O5, K2O (100:50:50 and (20:60:40, respectively. Therefore, it appears that forage quality and yield of maize with cowpea influenced the quality of forage production in maize based grass-legume intercropping system.

D.K. Khan

2013-01-01

80

CO2 enhances effects of hypoxia on mortality, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20 days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2. PMID:24001922

Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Wang, Yu; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effects of decreased O2 and elevated CO2 on survival, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of modified atmospheres with depleted O(2) and/or elevated CO(2) is an environmentally friendly alternative to currently used fumigants for control of stored grain insect pests. In the present study, we examined the impact of hypoxia and hypercapnia on cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Two O(2)/CO(2) combinations were used; (i) 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), (ii) 2% O(2)+18% CO(2). In both cases, N(2) was maintained at 80%, equivalent to normal atmospheric concentration. In ambient atmosphere, the rate of O(2) consumption and CO(2) output at different stages (from low to high) was: eggs?1st instar<2nd instar?pupae?adults<3rd instar<4th instar. When exposed to 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), eggs, larvae and pupae were able to complete development and successfully enter the next developmental stage, although developmental time and mortality varied at different stages. In contrast, more severe hypoxic/hypercapnic treatment, i.e. 2% O(2)+18% CO(2), led to cessation of development of all stages. Effects on eggs and adults were most dramatic as they could only withstand 2-3 days exposure. Further, eggs at early (4-6h old) and later stages (102-104 h old, black-headed) were more susceptible compared to those at intermediate stage (52-54 h old). The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were least sensitive and could survive up to 20 days treatment. To gain some insight into molecular mechanisms underpinning the hypoxic/hypercarpnic response, we performed qPCR reactions on selected metabolic genes involved in TCA cycle and in protein digestion, as well as genes encoding stress-responsive heat shock proteins. Patterns of gene expression and proteolysis suggest that cowpea bruchids suppress their metabolic activity and increase stress tolerance when challenged by O(2) deprivation. Transcript abundance as well as proteolytic activity recovered once normoxic conditions resumed. Taken together, cowpea bruchids were found able to cope with hypoxic and hypercapnic stress. This ability was particularly strong in the late larval stage. PMID:22387498

Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-06-01

82

Effects of gamma radiation on the reproductive organs of the southern cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pupae of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. exposed to the sterilizing dose (3000 rad) from 60Co gamma radiation gave rise to adults in which the first mature oocyte was retarded. The first mature oocyte began to appear after 31 hours. Exposure to the dose 10000 rad prevented egg formation in the resulting weevils. Soon after emergence normal weevils had a mature oocyte in each ovariole. Doses of gamma rays tested decreased the size of testes treated in the pupal stage

1976-01-01

83

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin we...

Rose, T. L.; Gomes, V. M.; Da Cunha, M.; Fernandes, K. V. S.; Xavier-filho, J.

2003-01-01

84

Pre-exposure to gamma rays alleviates the harmful effect of salinity on cowpea plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the low concentrations of NaCl (25mM) increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA), lipid peroxidation, non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol), number of legumes per plant, number of seeds per legume, number of seeds per plants, legume length, fresh and dry...

2012-01-01

85

Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp..  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %. Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral.In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%. The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

Z.M. Peña P.

2006-10-01

86

Screening of Passiflora species for reaction to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus reveals an immune wild species Seleção de espécies de Passiflora inoculadas com o vírus do mosaico do caupi revela a imunidade de uma espécie selvagem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV is a potyvirus that causes the most serious virus disease of passion fruit crops in Brazil. It is transmitted by several species of aphids in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner. The reaction of 16 species of Passiflora to infection by mechanical inoculation with four Brazilian isolates of CABMV was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Only P. suberosa, a wild species, was resistant to infection by all virus isolates, in two independent assays. P. suberosa grafted onto infected P. edulis f. flavicarpa did not develop symptoms; neither was the virus detected by RT-PCR in the upper leaves, suggesting that this species is immune to CABMV.O vírus do mosaico do caupi (Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus - CABMV é um potyvirus que causa uma das mais importantes doenças do maracujazeiro no Brasil. O vírus é transmitido por diversas espécies de afídeos de maneira não persistente, não circulativa. A reação de 16 espécies de Passiflora à infecção com quatro isolados brasileiros do CABMV, por meio de inoculação mecânica foi avaliada em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Somente a espécie selvagem P. suberosa foi resistente à infecção com todos os isolados do CABMV, em dois ensaios independentes. Plantas de P. suberosa enxertadas em plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa infectadas com o CABMV também não desenvolveram sintomas da doença. O vírus também não foi detectado por RT-PCR nas folhas superiores das plantas, sugerindo que essa espécie é imune ao CABMV.

Scheila da Conceição Maciel

2009-06-01

87

The effects of gamma radiation on the reproduction of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera - Bruchidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irradiation of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F. was carried out to study its effects on reproduction. Complete sterility of males and females is obtained when treated as adults with 10 krad. At lower doses the female is more susceptible than the male. The fecundity is affected and at doses above 100 krad death occurs before the female lays all her mature eggs. The sterility induced is observed in the reduction in percentage of egg hatch, but mortality after hatching is negligible. When females are exposed to substerilizing doses as pupae or adults, the fertility on the first day of oviposition is significantly reduced and those treated as adults are the most affected. On the second day there is improvement in fertility.

Ghogomu, TR.

1991-01-01

88

Effect of 6-BA on the Plant Regeneration via Organogenesis from Cotyledonary Node of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study compares effects of different concentrations of 6-BA on regeneration from cotyledonary node explants of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. The seeds were inoculated on MSB5 medium [Murashige and Skoog (1962 salts and Gamborg B5 vitamins (1968] containing different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg/L of 6-BA for 4 days. The cotyledonary node explants with one cotyledon excised from 4-day-old seedlings, placed in vitro on MSB5 medium containing 6-BA at different dose (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg/L for shoot induction and elongation. Best response in terms of shoot number and shoot length were obtained with explants derived from seedling preconditioning with 3mg/L 6-BA followed by the induction and elongation stage pretreated with 0.5mg/L 6-BA. The elongated shoots were rooted on MSB5 medium without hormone.

Manman Tie

2013-04-01

89

Effect of cerium on growth, dry matter production, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activities of cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of various concentrations of cerium provided as cerium nitrate (0.713, 3.568, 17.841, 89.206 and 446.030 ¼ M) on the growth performance, dry matter production, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activity of cowpea plants [Vigna unguicula [...] ta (L.) Walp.]. Low concentrations of cerium were observed to be beneficial for the test plants. A positive correlation was observed between a lower level of cerium (0.713-17.841 ¼ M) and foliar chlorophyll content, relative yield (dry matter) and nitrate reductase activity. Higher levels of cerium (89.206-446.030 ¼ M) significantly increased the proline content and polyphenol oxidase activity of the test plants. Root growth was more adversely affected than shoot growth.

Shyam, R; Aery, N.C.

90

Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays and cowpea (Vigna sinensis monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on forage dry weight, where dry matter yield was increased by intercropping as compared with maize and cowpea sole crops. It was related with a higher consumption consumption of environmental resources, such as photosynthetically active radiation and soil moisture, by intercropping. Maize forage quality in terms of crude protein was improved by intercropping. It was because of more nitrogen availability for maize in intercropping compared with its sole crop.

Ahmad GHANBARI

2009-11-01

91

Antagonistic Regulation, Yet Synergistic Defense: Effect of Bergapten and Protease Inhibitor on Development of Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient t...

Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-salzman, Keyan

2012-01-01

92

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to af...

Antônio Chagas Mota; Kátia Valevski Sales Fernandes; Maurício Pereira Sales; Victor Martin Quintana Flores; José Xavier-Filho

2002-01-01

93

Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L. in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L. Grains using Botanicals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L. was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted during September 2004-January 2005. The test materials consisted of two commercial cultivars of cowpea namely Fahari and Tumaini; 8 botanical protectants and their combinations and two controls viz., no protectant and standard actellic super dust, making a total of 13 treatments. A split plot experiment in which the two commercial cultivars were the main plots while the 13 protectant treatments comprised the subplots was used as a Randomized Complete Design with four replications. Cultured pest weevils were placed in vials containing cowpea seeds and the respective sub-plot treatments including the two controls; ashes of rice husks, kitchen and cow dung; powders of dried leaves of Tephrosia vogelii, neem, pyrethrum flowers, tobacco snuff, black pepper fruit and their various combinations. Data were recorded after 10 weeks of storage on number of bruchids after treatment, number of holes per seed, numbers of damaged and undamaged seeds. Protectants had varying degrees of effectiveness in controlling the cowpea weevil. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff, actellic super dust and combination of leaf powders of neem and Tephrosia vogelii significantly excelled the control of no protectant in controlling the cowpea weevil. Black pepper powder gave significantly better results than the control in suppressing bruchid survival, higher numbers of undamaged seeds and fewer holes per seed. The cowpea cultivars did not differ significantly on the studied traits. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff and combination of neem and Tephrosia are effective in controlling stored grain of cowpeas. Black pepper powder can as well be used for cowpea grain storage particularly where the aforementioned botanicals are not available.

Shazia O.W.M. Reuben

2006-01-01

94

Screening of Passiflora species for reaction to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus reveals an immune wild species / Seleção de espécies de Passiflora inoculadas com o vírus do mosaico do caupi revela a imunidade de uma espécie selvagem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O vírus do mosaico do caupi (Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus - CABMV) é um potyvirus que causa uma das mais importantes doenças do maracujazeiro no Brasil. O vírus é transmitido por diversas espécies de afídeos de maneira não persistente, não circulativa. A reação de 16 espécies de Passiflora à infe [...] cção com quatro isolados brasileiros do CABMV, por meio de inoculação mecânica foi avaliada em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Somente a espécie selvagem P. suberosa foi resistente à infecção com todos os isolados do CABMV, em dois ensaios independentes. Plantas de P. suberosa enxertadas em plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa infectadas com o CABMV também não desenvolveram sintomas da doença. O vírus também não foi detectado por RT-PCR nas folhas superiores das plantas, sugerindo que essa espécie é imune ao CABMV. Abstract in english Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is a potyvirus that causes the most serious virus disease of passion fruit crops in Brazil. It is transmitted by several species of aphids in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner. The reaction of 16 species of Passiflora to infection by mechanical inoculat [...] ion with four Brazilian isolates of CABMV was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Only P. suberosa, a wild species, was resistant to infection by all virus isolates, in two independent assays. P. suberosa grafted onto infected P. edulis f. flavicarpa did not develop symptoms; neither was the virus detected by RT-PCR in the upper leaves, suggesting that this species is immune to CABMV.

Scheila da Conceição, Maciel; Daniel Hiroshi, Nakano; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Maria Lúcia Carneiro, Vieira.

95

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea [...] (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L., Rose; V.M., Gomes; M., Da Cunha; K.V.S., Fernandes; J., Xavier-Filho.

2003-08-01

96

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins and fungal cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L. Rose

2003-01-01

97

Detection and Some Properties of Cowpea mild mottle virus Isolated from Soybean in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey were carried to identify a virus disease causing mosaic of soybean in the field in Southern region (Khozestan Province) of Iran. To detect the viral infection, diseased leaf samples showing mild mosaic and leaf malformation were collected from soybean fields in Dezful, located in Khozestan Province. Infected samples were carried to the lab in a proper condition on ice packages. TPIA and DAS-ELISA serological tests were applied to identify the viral age...

Tavassoli, M.; Shahraeen, N.; Ghorbani, S.

2008-01-01

98

Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Methods: The samples were cooked in both regular pans and pressure cookers with and without previous soaking. Mineral analyses were carried out by Spectrometry of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Results: The results showed high contents of iron and zinc in raw samples as well as in cooked ones, with the use of regular pan resulting in greater percentage of iron retention and the use of pressure cooker ensuring higher retention of zinc. Conclusions: The best retention of iron was found in the BRS Aracê cultivar prepared in a regular pan with previous soaking. This cultivar may be indicated for cultivation and human consumption. The best retention of zinc was found for the BRS Tumucumaque cultivar prepared in a pressure cooker without previous soaking.

Elenilda J. Pereira

2014-02-01

99

Identificación de virus que se transmiten a través de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) en áreas productoras de Venezuela / Identification of seed borne viruses in growing areas of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para conocer la incidencia de virus que se transmiten a través de la semilla en áreas productoras de caraota y fríjol, se evaluaron 53 materiales usados como semilla. Se seleccionaron aislamientos virales provenientes de las semillas sembradas en umbráculo protegido contra insectos; identificándose [...] los aislamientos virales de caraota como: "Colombiana 1", "Colombiana 2" y "Tucutunemo" y el de fríjol como "Ojo negro". Para este estudio se multiplicó el material, se realizaron las pruebas de estabilidad en savia, se estudió la transmisión a través de insectos, se estudió el rango de hospedantes, microscopía electrónica y se realizaron pruebas serológicas con los antisueros disponibles. En tres aislamientos virales de caraota se identificó, el virus del mosaico sureño de la caraota (BSMV) en muestra del Valle de Tucutunemo, estado Aragua, en un material procedente de Colombia colectado en Sanare, estado Lara, se detectó infección viral simple con el BSMV y doble el BSMV y el virus del mosaico común de la caraota (BCMV) . En fríjol se identificó el virus del mosaico severo del frijol (CpSMV) a partir de semilla de los estados Portuguesa y Falcón. Con este estudio se ratifica la necesidad del control fitosanitario para la exclusión de materiales nacionales o importados no aptos para la siembra y se corrobora la importancia de la certificación de semillas. Abstract in english With the purpose of knowing the incidence of seed borne viruses in production areas of beans and cowpea, 53 materials used as seed were evaluated. Viral isolations coming from seeds sowed in shelter protected against insects; being identified the beans isolations like: "Colombian 1", "Colombian 2" a [...] nd "Tucutunemo"; and those of cowpea like "Black Eye", were selected. Material was multiplied, stability test in sap were carried out, vector transmission was studied, the hosts range was determined, serological tests with the available antibody were carried out. In three viral isolations of beans, the bean southern mosaic virus (BSMV) was identified in a sample of Tucutunemo Valley, Aragua state. In the material coming from Colombia collected in Sanare, Lara state, it was detected simple viral infection BSMV and double infection BSMV and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). In cowpea, it was identified the cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV) from seed of Portuguese and Falcon states. Through this essay was corroborated the necessity of establishing a phytopathological control, for the exclusion of national or imported seed materials not suitable for sows, and also the importance of seed certification.

Z, Peña; G, Trujillo.

100

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Mota Antônio Chagas

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (PM. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

2001-04-01

102

Effect of De Cortication and Roasting on Trypsin Inhibitors and Tannin Contents of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9 , for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73, for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52 for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32 for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60 for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value.

Nasara Gumaa Balail

2014-01-01

103

Introduction of the anti-apoptotic baculovirus p35 gene in passion fruit induces herbicide tolerance, reduced bacterial lesions, but does not inhibits passion fruit woodiness disease progress induced by cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV).  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of anti-apoptotic genes into plants leads to resistance to environmental stress and broad-spectrum disease resistance. The anti-apoptotic gene (p35) from a baculovirus was introduced into the genome of passion fruit plants by biobalistics. Eleven regenerated plants showed the presence of the p35 gene by PCR and/or dot blot hybridization. Transcriptional analysis of regenerated plants showed the presence of specific p35 transcripts in 9 of them. Regenerated plants containing the p35 gene were inoculated with the cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae, and the herbicide, glufosinate, (Syngenta). None of the plants showed resistance to CABMV. Regenerated plants (p35+) showed less than half of local lesions showed by non-transgenic plants when inoculated with X. axonopodis and some p35+ plants showed increased tolerance to the glufosinate herbicide when compared to non-transgenic plants. PMID:17016672

de Freitas, Daniele Scandiucci; Coelho, Marly C Felipe; Souza, Manoel T; Marques, Abi; Ribeiro, E Bergmann Morais

2007-01-01

104

Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICM), genus Potyvirus, were detected from 25 common bean and 14 black gram seeds among 142 seed samples collected from different legume-growing regions of India. The samples were subjected to a growing-on test, an indicator plant test, an electron microscopic observations, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and an immunocapture RT-PCR. The incidence of the two tested viruses in common bean and black gram seed samples was 1â??6% and 0.5â??3.5%, respectively in growing-on test evaluations. Electron microscopic observations revealed filamentous virion particles from the leaves of plants showing characteristic virus disease symptoms in growing-on and host inoculation tests. The identity of the strains was confirmed by immunocapture RT-PCR, with a final amplification product of approximately 700 bp for BCMV and BCMVâ??BICM. The complete identity of the two viruses was further confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the partial coat protein and 3'-UTR regions. The sequences of the four BCMV and BCMVâ??BICM isolates each consisted of 583â??622 and 550â??577 nucleotides. The present report confirms the widespread nature of these two serious potyviruses in the two most important legume crops in India.

Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra

2012-01-01

105

Effect of Sowing Distances on Edible Pod Yields and Yield Components of Three Vegetable Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Sesquipedalis Subspecies, Grown in Northeast Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Northeast Thailand in the 2006 (August to October to investigate effect of sowing distances on edible pod yields and yield components of three vegetable cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Sesquipedalis subspecies. The experiment was laid in a split plot arranged in a Randomize Complete Block Design with four replications. Five sowing distances were used as main plots (50?10, 50?20, 50?30, 50?40 and 50?50 cm between rows and within rows, respectively and three cowpea cultivars were used as subplots (MSU 1, KKU 40 and SNU 1. The results showed that there were no statistical differences due to cultivars on total dry weight ha?1, number of branches plant?1, marketable pods ha?1, 100-seed weight and total fresh weight of pods ha?1 where in most cases genetic potential of the three cultivars were similar. Number of off standard pods was significantly highest with KKU 40 (6.13 pods plant?1, whilst MSU 1 and SNU 1 cultivars gave smaller values but both were similar (4.80 and 4.53 pods plant?1, respectively. The closest sowing distances (T1 gave significantly higher total dry weight ha?1 and number of off standard pods plant?1 than other treatments (T2-T5. An increase in sowing distances significantly increased number of branches plant?1 up to T2 but T2 was similar to other higher sowing distances (T3-T5. Total marketable pods (12,196.50 kg ha?1 and total fresh weight of edible pods (12,588.88 kg ha?1 were significantly highest with T3 where T3 was the most suitable sowing distances for either of the three cowpea cultivars (50?30 cm between rows and within rows, respectively.

Sinsiri Wantana

2007-01-01

106

Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated beans. The volatile oils of Cymbopogon nardus and C. schoenanthus caused the majority of the eggs not to develop...

Boeke, S. J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, J. J. A.; Kossou, D. K.; Huis, A.; Dicke, M.

2004-01-01

107

A new disease of cowpea caused by Alternaria cassiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is an indigenous food legume in Africa, which has great production potential, especially in areas with low agricultural resources. During surveys of cowpea fields in southern Africa, a new foliar disease was recorded. Alternaria cassiae Juriar&Khan was consistently isolated from diseased plant material. Pathogenicity was confirmed using Koch's Postulates. The effect of different culture media, temperature, light and wounding on the growth and sporulation of...

2001-01-01

108

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP) POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO / TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP) BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791), "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV). Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de [...] Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae), coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus. Visando fornecer subsídios a uma melhor compreensão do processo de transmissão do fitovírus isolado de V. luteola (CpSMV-SP), foram feitas tentativas de transmissão por diferentes artrópodos, incluindo sete espécies de insetos e uma de ácaro. Determinaram-se altas taxas de transmissão (46,6, 50,0 e 70,0%) do CpSMV-SP em plantas de feijão, por adultos de C. arcuata. O vírus foi transmitido ainda por larvas de 1° ínstar, com taxas de 10,0% (caupi) e 40,0% (feijoeiro). Ausência de transmissão foi constatada nos ensaios por artrópodos pertencentes a outras ordens (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) e outras espécies de coleópteros (Diabrotica bivittula, D. speciosa e Epicauta atomaria). Abstract in english The beetle Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791) is a vector of the cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus (CpSMV) and of several leguminous viruses in Brazil. In 1991, an isolate of CpSMV, later designed as CpSMV-SP, was found on plants of Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae) from the region of Praia Grande, in the S [...] outh coastal area of the São Paulo State, Brazil. In order to obtain a better understanding of the CpSMV-SP transmission, different arthropod species, including seven insects species and one mite, species were studied as vectors. The transmission rates by adults of C. arcuata were high (46.6, 50.0 and 70.0%) on bean and by 1st instar larvae were 40.0% on bean and 10.0% on cowpea. Transmission by other arthropod orders (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and by other Coleoptera species failed.

Fernando Javier Sanhueza, Salas; Maria Mércia, Barradas; José Roberto Postali, Parra.

109

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações i [...] soladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes. Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were inc [...] orporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Mota, Antônio Chagas; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales, Maurício Pereira; Flores, Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho, José.

110

Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length of seedling in vigna unguiculata . The chlorine water has inhibitory effect on root growth ( radical length and number of rootlets in Vigna unguiculata . The fresh weight and dry weight goes on decreasing in chlorine water treatment of Vigna unuiculata over control.Chlorine is essential micronutrient in plant vital processes. However, higher concentration of chlorine inhibits the plant vital process during seed germination of Vigna uguiculata. The higher concentration of chlorine affects the seed germination percentage, leaves number, seedling growth, radical length with rootlets, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling

Sharad Phulari

2013-08-01

111

Effect of Temperature, Air Relative Humidity and Water Presence on Some Biological Parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal (Hemiptera:Coreidae, the Pod Sucking Bug of Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted on the influence of temperature, air relative humidity and water presence on some biological parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal, a major pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walpers, in West Africa. The feeding of the first-instar larvae was also studied. The aim was to provide some indicators on the insect adaptation to hot and dry conditions in Sahelian zone. Results show that increased temperature reduced embryo and larvae development length and female fertility and lifespan. Temperature fluctuations had little effect on egg viability to the extent of hatching limit around 38 ° C. A full larval development and adult reproductive activity were possible at a constant temperature of 40 ° C. Increased air relative humidity (80% improved larval survival especially under high temperatures. The presence of water was necessary for first-instar larvae development. The insect showed good adaptation to Sahelian hot and dry environment, which enables it to go through the long dry season.

C. Dabir?

2005-01-01

112

Integrated Effects of Bio and Mineral Fertilizers and Humic Substances on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Contents of Fertigated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Grown on Sandy Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A bio-fertigation trial was conducted at the experimental farm of National Research Centre, Noubaria, Egypt during May to August of 2010 to study the relative efficacy of bio-fertigation of liquid formulation of N-fixer (Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. and P-solubilizer (Basillus megatheriumion with bio fertigation and humic substances gave rather equal yield. Injection of 50% recommended dose NPK as drip fertigation in combination with biofertigation of liquid formulation and humic substances was better and comparable way than the other treatments. Bio fertigation of microbial inoculums and humic substances could be used as a complementary for mineral fertilizers to improve yield and quality of cowpea under sandy soil conditions which protect the environment chemical pollution and its harmful effect on human and animal health.

E.M. Selim

2011-01-01

113

A mosaic of beach bean (Canavalia rosea) caused by an isolate of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beach bean (Canavalia rosea) plants showing mosaic symptoms were found at Massaguaçú beach, Caraguatatuba, Brazil. A potyvirus was found to be responsible for the symptoms, based on transmission assays and electron microscopy. A positive reaction in ELISA was obtained against cowpea aphid-borne mosaic (CABMV) antisera. Viral identity was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers to amplify part of the NIb and the entire CP coding region of the genome and the 3'NTR. Comparison of the amplified sequences with that of CABMV showed a nucleotide sequence identity of 97% for the CP coding region. Thus, the potyvirus from beach bean should be considered a CABMV isolate, referred to as CABMV-Cr. PMID:18273677

Kitajima, E W; de Alcântara, B K; Madureira, P M; Alfenas-Zerbini, P; Rezende, J A M; Zerbini, F M

2008-01-01

114

Laboratory Assessment of Some Plants Latex as Biopesticide Against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory evaluation of Calotropis procera, Alstonia boonei, Jatropha curcas and Argemone mexicana latex as biopesticide against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] were evaluated at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28±2oC and 75±5% respectively. The plants latex was tested at rates of 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insects were investigated. Results showed that at rates of 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml/ 20 g of cowpea seeds, A. boonei latex evoked 100% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid after 4 days of post treatment. This is followed by C. procera and J. curcas which caused 100% mortality of cowpea bruchid at rates of 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds while the least effective plant Argemone mexicana latex. There was no adult emergence in seeds treated with A. boonei latex at tested concentrations and C. procera and J. curcas at rates of 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds compared with untreated that had 87.75% adults emergence. The results obtained from this study revealed that Alstonia boonei, Calotropis procera and J. curcas latex were effective in controlling of C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for the protection of stored cowpeas against bruchids.

K. D. ILEKE

2013-12-01

115

Effects of weed control through cowpea intercropping on mayze morphology and yield Efeitos do controle de plantas daninhas, por meio da consorciação com feijão-caupi, na morfologia e no rendimento de cultivares de mil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intercropping combined with competitive maize cultivars can reduce the use of herbicides to control weeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping cowpea and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize morphology and yield. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks, with treatments arranged in split-plots and five replications. The plots consisted of four maize cultivars (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001, EX 6004) and the split-plots consisted of the follo...

Gomes, J. K. O.; Silva, P. S. L.; Silva, K. M. B.; Rodrigues Filho, F. F.; Santos, V. G.

2007-01-01

116

Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.

LIMA FILHO JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO

2000-01-01

117

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w concentration. The ability of the plant powders to protect cowpea seeds was assessed in terms of mortality rates after 24 - 96 hours post treatment, oviposition and adult emergence, percentage weight loss and damage after the first filial generation (F1. All the tested plant part powders significantly (P<0.05 reduce the longevity of adult C. maculatus on treated cowpea seeds. From the study, the plant powders could be ranked in order of effectiveness thus; stem bark > leaf > root. Alstonia boonei can be used as biopesticide against C. maculatus and its incorporation into traditional storage pest management is strongly recommended.

K. D. Ileke

2012-03-01

118

Efeito da adição de lodo de curtume na fertilidade do solo, nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do Caupi Effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield of Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do lodo de curtume sobre a fertilidade do solo, a nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do caupi. O estudo foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se lodo de curtume adicionado ao solo, sendo em seguida plantadas sementes de caupi inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium sp. Os dados foram coletados aos 35 e 49 dias após a emergência das plantas. O lodo de curtume elevou o pH e os teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio e sódio do solo. Além disso, houve aumento na salinidade do solo com a aplicação do resíduo. Por outro lado, houve um incremento no rendimento de matéria seca do caupi com a adição do lodo de curtume, embora, em altas doses, o resíduo tenha diminuído a nodulação do caupi pela estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp inoculada.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield by cowpea. The study was conducted in greenhouse using tannery sludge applied to soil, and cowpea seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Data were collected at 35 and 49 days after plant emergence. Tannery sludge increased soil pH and organic matter, calcium and sodium content. There was an increase in soil salinity with application of the residue. There was also an increase in the dry matter yield of cowpea with tannery sludge addition, however, in higher rates, the residue decreased the Bradyrhizobium sp nodulation.

Keyla Rafaelly Gramosa Teixeira

2006-12-01

119

Effect of cowpea intercropping on weed control and corn yieid / Efeito da consorciação do feijão-caupi no controle de plantas daninhas e no rendimento do milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os herbicidas têm simplificado o controle de plantas daninhas, mas, além de caros, têm causado o surgimento de biótipos de plantas daninhas a eles resistentes e se tornado fator de contaminação ambiental. A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos objetivos da agricultura moderna, e várias alternativas [...] estão sendo investigadas, incluindo a consorciação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da consorciação de cultivares de feijão-caupi com cultivares de milho sobre o controle de plantas daninhas e os rendimentos de espigas verdes (espigas imaturas com grãos com teor de umidade de 80%) e de grãos do milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os cultivares de milho AG 1051, AG 2060 e PL 6880 (atribuídos às parcelas) foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos: sem capina, duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura) e milho consorciado com feijão-caupi (cultivares BR 14 e IPA 206, com crescimento indeterminado). O feijão-caupi foi semeado (por ocasião da semeadura do milho) entre as fileiras do milho, em covas distanciadas de 1,0 m, com duas plantas/cova. Os cultivares de milho não diferiram entre si quanto à densidade e biomassa fresca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas, bem como quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e grãos. As médias mais elevadas da densidade e da biomassa de plantas daninhas foram encontradas em subparcelas sem controle de plantas daninhas (sem capinas); as menores médias, em subparcelas com controle de plantas daninhas (duas capinas); e as médias intermediárias, nas subparcelas consorciadas, indicando que os cultivares de feijão-caupi exerceram, em certa extensão, controle das plantas daninhas. As subparcelas sem controle de plantas daninhas e as subparcelas consorciadas apresentaram os menores rendimentos de espigas verdes e grãos. Embora os cultivares de feijão-caupi tenham tido certo controle sobre as plantas daninhas (reduções médias de 22,5 e de 18,3%, em termos de densidade e peso da matéria fresca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas, respectivamente), elas também competiram com o milho, causando redução nos rendimentos (reduções médias de 17,0 e 32%, nos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, respectivamente). Os cultivares de feijão-caupi não produziram grãos devido, certamente, à forte competição exercida pelo milho e plantas daninhas sobre as plantas do feijão-caupi. Abstract in english Herbicides have simplified weed control, but the use of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes and has become an environmental contamination factor. Herbicide use reduction is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several alternatives [...] being investigated, including intercropping. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cowpea and corn cultivar intercropping on weed control and corn green-ear (immature ears with 80% humidity grains) and grain yield. A completely randomized block design with split-plots and four replications was used. AG 1051, AG 2060 and PL 6880 corn cultivars (assigned to plots) were submitted to the four treatments: no weeding, two hoe-weeding (22 and 41 days after planting), and intercropping with cowpea (BR 14 and IPA 206 cultivars, with indeterminate growth). The cowpea was planted (with corn planting) between the corn rows, in pits 1.0 m apart, with two plants per pit. The corn cultivars did not differ from each other as to weed density (WD), fresh above-ground weed biomass (WB), green-ear yield and grain yields. Higher WD and WB mean values were found in no weeding subplots; lower mean values in two hoe-weeding subplots; and intermediate mean values in intercropped subplots, indicating that cowpea plants had, to a certain extent, control over weeds. The no-weeded plots and the intercropped plots had lower green-ear and grain yields. Although the cowpea cultivars had a certain control over w

Silva, P.S.L.; Oliveira, O.F.; Silva, P.I.B.; Silva, K.M.B.; Braga, J.D..

120

Dissipation kinetics and effect of different decontamination techniques on the residues of emamectin benzoate and spinosad in cowpea pods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissipation and decontamination of the semisynthetic macrolide emamectin benzoate and the natural insecticide spinosad on cowpea pods were studied following field application at single and double doses of 11.0 and 22 and 73 and 146 g ai ha(-1), respectively. Residues of these naturalytes were estimated using LC-MS/MS. The initial deposit of 0.073 and 0.153 mg kg(-1) of emamectin benzoate dissipated below quantitation level on the fifth and seventh day at single and double dosage, respectively. For spinosad, the initial deposits of 0.94 and 1.90 mg kg(-1) reached below quantitation level on the 7th day and 15th day at single and double dosage, respectively. The half-life of emamectin benzoate and spinosad was 1.13-1.49 and 1.05-1.39 days with the calculated safe waiting period of 2.99-6.12 and 1.09-3.25 days, respectively, for single and double dosage. Processing of the harvestable pods with different decontamination techniques resulted in 33.82 to 100 % removal 2 h after the application of emamectin benzoate and 100 % removal 3 days after spraying, while the removal was 42.05 to 87.46 % 2 h after the application of spinosad and 38.05 to 68.08 % 3 days after application. PMID:24682662

Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Xavier, George; Kumar, N Pratheesh; Visalkumar, S

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Phylogenetic analysis of two potyvirus pathogens of commercial cowpea lines: implications for obtaining pathogen-derived resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a prelude to developing engineered resistance to two important potyvirus pathogens of cowpea, a phylogenetic analysis of strains of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAbMV) and Bean common mosaic virus--blackeye cowpea strain (BCMV-B1C) was undertaken. Nucleotide sequences for the coat protein genes and 3'-untranslated regions of four CAbMV and one BCMV-B1C strains were determined and included in an analysis with published sequences. While all the newly sequenced viruses showed strong homology with the existing respective sequences in the database, the CAbMV group showed a divergence into two subgroups. These groups differed from each other by more than some CAbMV strains differed from the South African Passiflora virus (CAbMV-SAP), which has distinct biological characteristics. The implications of the sequence analyses are discussed with respect to a strategy for the generation of engineered resistance to both groups of viruses. PMID:10766309

van Boxtel, J; Thomas, C L; Maule, A J

2000-01-01

122

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

2006-01-01

123

Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto test arenas (filter paper discs treated with different dosages of each of the oil. Insecticidal oil were ranked in the order of decreasing toxicity as Syzgium aromaticum oil (LC50 = < 0.1 mg/10 g seed > Xylopia aethopica oil (LC50 = 0.485 mg/10 g seed > Piper guineese oil (LC50 = 0.510 mg/100 g seed > Ocimum shave oil (LC50 0.660 mg/10 g seed. Significantly higher proportion of C. maculates adults were repelled from filter paper discs treated with all plant oils with average means repellent order of 60.24, 77.87, 80.23 and 86.66% for Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineese, Syzguim aromaticum and Ocimum suare, respectively.

A. Olonisakin

2006-01-01

124

Flatulence and other discomforts associated with consumption of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abdominal discomfort after eating cowpeas is known to be a major constraint on their greater consumption. Problems associated with cowpea consumption were identified by questionnaire in 448 randomly selected families. Some (28%) of the respondents had never experienced flatulence. Those who did said it occurred when cowpeas were eaten at all (16.7%), as dinner (42%) or without other foods (15%). A subsample of 40 people who complained of serious abdominal discomfort were fed cowpeas cooked by eight different methods at three consecutive dinners for each method. The problems reported were indigestion, vomiting, diarrhoea, increased belching, bad breath, offensive stool, flatulence, constipation, mild abdominal discomfort and sleepiness. Many respondents complained of mild abdominal discomfort with undehulled cowpeas (72.5%) and dehulled cowpeas (42.5%) that had been cooked at atmospheric pressure. Only 12.5% of the respondents complained of discomfort with dehulled cowpeas cooked under extra pressure. Thus, dehulling resulted in substantial reduction in the frequency and incidence of reported discomforts but pressure cooking also had beneficial effects, probably because of the higher cooking temperature attained. PMID:2596840

Ndubuaku, V O; Uwaegbute, A C; Nnanyelugo, D O

1989-12-01

125

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to ...

Braga, Yussef F. B.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Freire, Eder A.; Lopes, Helano L.; Bezerra, Jose? N. S.; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Lima, Mary Anne S.

2007-01-01

126

Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined to form nine treatments which were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated three times to form twenty seven plots. The result showed that Phosphorus fertilizer had a significant (p<0.05 effect on the entire growth and yield parameter assessed in both years. 40 kg/ha of phosphorus gave a significantly higher number of nodulation count/plant (34.95 and 32.24, number of pod/plant (20.64 and 20.24, seed weight/plant (39.56 and 37.64, pods weight/plant (51.45 and 45.31 and seed weight/ha (1.56 and 1.52 t/ha in both years. The spacing also had a significant (p<0.05 response on almost the entire growth and yield parameter assessed except on the weight of 100 seeds. Spacing of 30×60 cm did not differ significantly with 45x80 cm which gave similar result in the no. of pod/plant, seed weight/plant, pods weight/plant and seed weight (t/ha in both years.

E. Ndor

2012-07-01

127

A new disease of cowpea caused by Alternaria cassiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is an indigenous food legume in Africa, which has great production potential, especially in areas with low agricultural resources. During surveys of cowpea fields in southern Africa, a new foliar disease was recorded. Alternaria cassiae Juriar & Khan was consistently isolated from diseased plant material. Pathogenicity was confirmed using Koch's Postulates. The effect of different culture media, temperature, light and wounding on the growth an...

2006-01-01

128

Productivity and Nodulation Cowpea Inoculated in Function of Phosphorus and Potassium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cowpea represents one of the most important agricultural species of the brazilian Northeast, and proper management of mineral fertilizer that culture becomes essential to their production. The present work aimed to study the effect of the interaction between potassium and phosphorus in the presence of the inoculant INPA 03-11B in the culture of cowpea for Production Pole of Bom Jesus, Piaui, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal University of Piaui, ...

Francisco Hélcio Canuto Amaral; Júlio César Azevedo Nóbrega; Raimundo Nonato Lopes Martins; Alessandro Franco Torres da Silva; Elaine Martins da Costa; Rafaela Simão Abrahão Nóbrega; José Ferreira Lustosa Filho; Larissa Castro Diógenes; Leandro Pereira Pacheco

2013-01-01

129

Toxicity Potentials of Leaf Powders of Wild Lemon (Afreagle paniculate) and African Rock Fig (Ficus congensis Engl.) Against the Cowpea Seed Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The toxicity potentials of the wild lemon (Afreagle paniculate) and the African rock fig (Ficcus congensis Engl.) leaf powder as an alternative source of control against the cowpea seed bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.) on stored cowpea was evaluated. The results obtained shows that, these plant material powdered leaves had remarkable effects on all the parameters measured. There were 76.34% and 77.20% undamaged seeds recorded respectively, when cowpea seeds were stored with these plant...

Oaya, C. S.; Samaila, A. E.

2013-01-01

130

Efeito da adição de lodo de curtume na fertilidade do solo, nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do Caupi / Effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield of Cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do lodo de curtume sobre a fertilidade do solo, a nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do caupi. O estudo foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se lodo de curtume adicionado ao solo, sendo em seguida plantadas sementes de caupi inoculadas com [...] Bradyrhizobium sp. Os dados foram coletados aos 35 e 49 dias após a emergência das plantas. O lodo de curtume elevou o pH e os teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio e sódio do solo. Além disso, houve aumento na salinidade do solo com a aplicação do resíduo. Por outro lado, houve um incremento no rendimento de matéria seca do caupi com a adição do lodo de curtume, embora, em altas doses, o resíduo tenha diminuído a nodulação do caupi pela estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp inoculada. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield by cowpea. The study was conducted in greenhouse using tannery sludge applied to soil, and cowpea seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Data were collected at 35 and 49 d [...] ays after plant emergence. Tannery sludge increased soil pH and organic matter, calcium and sodium content. There was an increase in soil salinity with application of the residue. There was also an increase in the dry matter yield of cowpea with tannery sludge addition, however, in higher rates, the residue decreased the Bradyrhizobium sp nodulation.

Keyla Rafaelly Gramosa, Teixeira; Luiz Alberto Ribeiro, Gonçalves Filho; Eulália Maria Sousa, Carvalho; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Valdinar Bezerra dos, Santos.

131

Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

1995-01-01

132

Yield Potential of Cowpea Germplasm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grain yield potential of 20 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) germplasm collected from FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) and neglected pockets of NWFP was tested at the Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during summer 1997. Based on the grain yield potential, the germplasm were divided into three groups in descending order. Germplasm SW.C.31 ranked first by producing maximum yield of 2028 kg/ha, while germplasm SW.C.8 with 1724 kg/ha ranked second. Minim...

Amanullah; Mir Hatam

2000-01-01

133

First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) i...

2012-01-01

134

The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enz [...] yme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

Xavier Filho, J..

135

The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J. Xavier Filho

1991-01-01

136

Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

A.O. Ogaraku

2008-01-01

137

Effects of Salinity Stress on Growth, Ions Partitioning and Yield of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, twenty one cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were tested for their salt tolerance at different degrees of salinity; 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM of NaCl, in both the laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, Na+, K+, K/Na ratio, plant height, roots dry weights, stems and leaves were investigated. In the field conditions, yield components (weight of 1000 seeds, number of pods per plant, total chlorophyll and grains yield) were determin...

Victor Desire Taffouo; Joseph Kemdem Kouamou; Louis Marie Tchiengue Ngalangue; Bop Alain Nandjou Ndjeudji; Amougou Akoa

2009-01-01

138

Host finding by Uscana lariophaga (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in stored cowpea : the effect of distance, time interval, host patch size and spatial orientation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Host finding and parasitization by Uscana lariophaga Steffan, a potential biocontrol agent of the storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), were investigated in stored cowpea. Host finding was shown to be a function of distance, time, host patch size and the spatial position of U. lariophaga relative to the host patch. Uscana lariophaga females were able to find hosts up to 75 cm horizontal distance from the host patch, which was the largest distance tested. The probability that a ho...

Stolk, C.; Ghimire, M. N.; Souquie?, S.; Werf, W.; Huis, A.

2005-01-01

139

Genotype Effects of Cowpea and Soybean on Nodulation, N2-fixation and N Balance in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate N2-fixation and N balance of improved cowpea and soybean genotypes in the NGS of Nigeria. Field experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to assess nodulation, N2 fixation and N contribution of two cowpea (IT96D-274 and SAMPEA-2 and soybean (SAMSOY-2 and TGx 1448-2E on a leached ferruginous tropical soil (Haplustalf. The legume genotypes and a reference maize crop (Oba Super 2 were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications. The N difference method was used in estimating symbiotic N2 fixation while the N contribution was estimated by the difference between N fixed and N exported in the grain during harvest. Although nodule number did not differ significantly among genotypes, the weight was significantly higher in soybean than cowpea. Significant difference in N2 fixation was only observed between cowpea genotypes and it was attributed to the differences in maturity period. TGx 1448-2E derived on average 49.8 kg N ha-1 or 37% of plant total N from fixation compared to IT96D-724 with 15.8 kg N ha-1 or 19%. In both years, N balance ranged from -30 to 9 kg N ha-1 depending on the genotype. With the exception of SAMPEA-7 in 2003, all genotypes led to a net negative contribution to soil N and a positive N balance was only obtained when the nitrogen harvest index was less than the proportion of Ndfa. The results show that reasonable maize yield may not be obtained following these grain legumes without supplementary N added to the soil.

A.A. Yusuf

2008-01-01

140

Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin ?1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin ?1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin ?1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin ?1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin ?1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin ?1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin ?1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Inheritance of resistance to the cowpea aphid in cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inheritance of resistance to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, in three resistant cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, was studied. The parents, F1 and F2 population were grown in an insect-proof screenhouse. Each 3-day-old seedling was infested with 10 apterous adult aphids. Seedling reaction was recorded when the susceptible check was killed. The segregation data revealed that the resistance of ICV11 and TVU310 is governed by single dominant genes. All the F2 seedlings of the cross ICV10xTVU310 were resistant, indicating that they have the same gene for resistance. However, the F2 populations from the crosses ICV10xICV11 and ICV11xTVU310 segregated in a ratio of 15?1, indicating that the dominant genes in ICV11 and TVU310 are non-allelic and independent of each other. The resistance gene of ICV10 and TVU310 is designated as Ac1 and that of ICV11 as Ac2. PMID:24240345

Ombakho, G A; Tyagi, A P; Pathak, R S

1987-10-01

142

Insecticidal effect of Jatropha curcas oil on the aphid Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on the main insect pests associated with cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in Niger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas has been evaluated on various crop pests. Oil concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15% were first tested on the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) as part of an efficacy test conducted in the laboratory. During a second stage, the insecticidal efficacy of 5 and 7.5% oil concentrations was evaluated on the main pests infesting cowpea crops (Vigna unguiculata L.) as part of a field test conducted at the University of Niamey (Niger)....

Abdoul Habou, Zakari; Haougui, A.; Mergeai, Guy; Haubruge, Eric; Toudou, Adam; Verheggen, Franc?ois

2011-01-01

143

Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 ?M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 ?M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

1997-07-01

144

Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

2000-10-09

145

Gibberellic Acid (GA3 Influence on Vegetative Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of GA3 on the growth and development of cowpea cultivars Blackeye and Tswana. Exogenous application of GA3, 7 days after emergence at 30, 60 or 90 mg L-1 significantly increased cowpea plant height, first node height, leaf area and leaf number/plant, nodulation, plant dry matter accumulation, pod length, pod number/plant, seed number/pod, 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield ha-1. Gibberellic acid had no significant effect on cowpea plant senescence. The results of this study suggests that exogenous application of GA3 can be used to modify growth and development of some cowpea varieties.

V. Emongor

2007-01-01

146

Efeito do inóculo, período de molhamento foliar e do estádio fenológico do feijão-caupi no desenvolvimento da mela Effect of inoculum, leaf wetness period and cowpea phenological states on web blight development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mela, causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani grupo de anastomose 1 IA é uma das principais doenças do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata na região norte. Não há estudos sobre o efeito de parâmetros epidemiológicos no desenvolvimento da doença em condições controladas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram definir efeito do tipo e da concentração de inóculo de R. solani, do(s estádio(s do feijão-caupi suscetível(is e do período de molhamento foliar na severidade da doença em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro experimento testou-se o efeito do tipo de inóculo [fragmentos de micélio (fgm ou microescleródios]; no segundo experimento testou-se as concentrações de 0,10³,10(4,10(5 e 10(6 fgm.mL-1; no terceiro experimento as plantas foram submetidas aos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de câmara úmida após a inoculação e no quarto experimento inoculou-se plantas nos estádios de folhas primárias, folhas trifoliadas, de floração e de enchimento de vagens. Observou-se que, para desenvolvimento de alta severidade da mela do feijão-caupi as plantas devem ser inoculadas no estádio de flores abertas na concentração de 10(6 fgm.mL-1 e submetidas a seis horas de molhamento foliar. Estes parâmetros podem ser utilizados para definição de uma metodologia de inoculação de R. solani em feijão-caupi em condições controladas.Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA is one of the most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in the north of Brazil. There is no information about the effect of epidemiological parameters on development of the disease under controlled conditions. The aims of this work were to identify the type and inoculum concentration of R. solani, the susceptible phenological states and the leaf wetness periods for disease development in greenhouse conditions. In the first study we tested the use of mycelia fragments (mf and sclerotia as source of inoculum; in the second experiment, the effect of different inoculum concentrations (0, 10³, 10(4,10(5 and 10(6 mf.mL-1; in the third experiment, the effect of leaf wetness period was tested by maintaining cowpea plants at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of leaf wetness after the inoculation, and in the last experiment the effect of phenological states was tested by inoculating cowpea plants at the stages of cotyledonal leaf, trifoliate leaves, flowering and pod filling. The highest severity values of disease were observed with the plants inoculated in the flowering phenological state with 10(6 mf.mL-1 and six hours of leaf wetness. These parameters can be utilized to establish an inoculation methodology for R. solani on cowpea plants under controlled conditions.

Kátia de Lima Nechet

2011-04-01

147

Efeito do inóculo, período de molhamento foliar e do estádio fenológico do feijão-caupi no desenvolvimento da mela / Effect of inoculum, leaf wetness period and cowpea phenological states on web blight development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mela, causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani grupo de anastomose 1 IA) é uma das principais doenças do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na região norte. Não há estudos sobre o efeito de parâmetros epidemiológicos no desenvolvimento da doença em condições controlada [...] s. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram definir efeito do tipo e da concentração de inóculo de R. solani, do(s) estádio(s) do feijão-caupi suscetível(is) e do período de molhamento foliar na severidade da doença em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro experimento testou-se o efeito do tipo de inóculo [fragmentos de micélio (fgm) ou microescleródios]; no segundo experimento testou-se as concentrações de 0,10³,10(4),10(5) e 10(6) fgm.mL-1; no terceiro experimento as plantas foram submetidas aos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de câmara úmida após a inoculação e no quarto experimento inoculou-se plantas nos estádios de folhas primárias, folhas trifoliadas, de floração e de enchimento de vagens. Observou-se que, para desenvolvimento de alta severidade da mela do feijão-caupi as plantas devem ser inoculadas no estádio de flores abertas na concentração de 10(6) fgm.mL-1 e submetidas a seis horas de molhamento foliar. Estes parâmetros podem ser utilizados para definição de uma metodologia de inoculação de R. solani em feijão-caupi em condições controladas. Abstract in english Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA ) is one of the most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the north of Brazil. There is no information about the effect of epidemiological parameters on development of the disease under [...] controlled conditions. The aims of this work were to identify the type and inoculum concentration of R. solani, the susceptible phenological states and the leaf wetness periods for disease development in greenhouse conditions. In the first study we tested the use of mycelia fragments (mf) and sclerotia as source of inoculum; in the second experiment, the effect of different inoculum concentrations (0, 10³, 10(4),10(5) and 10(6) mf.mL-1); in the third experiment, the effect of leaf wetness period was tested by maintaining cowpea plants at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of leaf wetness after the inoculation, and in the last experiment the effect of phenological states was tested by inoculating cowpea plants at the stages of cotyledonal leaf, trifoliate leaves, flowering and pod filling. The highest severity values of disease were observed with the plants inoculated in the flowering phenological state with 10(6) mf.mL-1 and six hours of leaf wetness. These parameters can be utilized to establish an inoculation methodology for R. solani on cowpea plants under controlled conditions.

Kátia de Lima, Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

148

Bioactivity of Anacardium occidentale (L and Allium sativum (L Powders and Oils Extracts against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The powders and oils extracts of Anacardium occidentale (L. seeds and Allium sativum (L. bulbs were tested as contact insecticides against the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. in cowpea seeds. The powders were incorporated at rates 1, 2.5 and 5/20g of cowpea seeds and acetone extracts of the plants were also applied at 0.5, 1 and 1.5ml per 20g of cowpea seeds to assess contact mortality of adult insect, oviposition, adult emergence and damage assessment. The results obtained showed that at 72 hours; 1, 2.5 and 5/20g of cowpea seeds evoked 63.3, 80 and 100% adult mortality of the cowpea bruchid while the corresponding results for A. sativum were 60.7, 73.3 and 100% mortality respectively. All concentration of acetone extracts that were used evoked 100% mortality of C. maculatus after 72 hours of post treatment. Complete protection of seeds and complete inhibition of adult emergence in both powders and extracts of A. occidentale and A. sativum were achieved. The results obtained from this research revealed that powders and extracts of A. occidentale seeds and A. sativum bulbs were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus in stored cowpea seeds.

K. D. Ileke

2011-01-01

149

Effect of trypsin inhibitor from Crotalaria pallida seeds on Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly).  

Science.gov (United States)

A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin-Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had M(r) of 32.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 degrees C and lost 40% of activity at 100 degrees C. CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 degrees C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality. CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodiainterpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Ceratitis capitata to CpaTI was evaluated. C. maculatus and C. capitata enzymes were strongly susceptible, 74.4+/-15.8% and 100.0+/-7.3%, respectively, to CpaTI. When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. maculatus was more susceptible to CpaTI with an LD(50) of 3.0 and ED(50) of 2.17%. C. capitata larvae were more resistant to CpaTI, in disagreement with the in vitro effects. The larvae were more affected at lower concentrations, causing 27% mortality and 44.4% mass decrease. The action was constant at 2-4% (w/w) with 15% mortality and 38% mass decrease. PMID:16426854

Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Pitanga, Joelma C M; Moura, Fabiano T; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Raniere M; Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Macedo, Francisco P; Andrade, Lúcia B S; Vidal, Márcia S; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-12-01

150

Effect of nitrous acid on polyoma virus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mutagenic effect of nitrous acid on variants of Polyoma virus was investigated. Experiments on the inactivation of polyoma virus strains treated with nitrous acid showed a decrease of infectivity of both strains. Data collected showed that a variant treated with nitrous acid yielded the parent-type virus only. Other experiments indicated that the small plaque variant becomes predominant whenever conditions for selection or mutation exist. Although these experiments indicate that mutations are induced by nitrous acid, no final conclusion was reached on whether selection or mutation was taking place. 12 references, 4 tables.

Leventon-Kriss, S.; Gotlieb-Stematsky, T.

1966-04-30

151

Genetic Analyses of Pigmentation in Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic control of pigmentation in different parts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. was studied in six F2 segregating populations and their corresponding F3 families derived from eight parents. Monogenic control for colour expression was found for leaf node pigmentation, flower (petal colour, immature pod colour, seed coat colour, seed eye colour and seed eye colour pattern. Presence of pigment was dominant over absence of pigment and the black seed eye was dominant over brown eye. For seed eye pattern however, partial dominance of the very small eye type over the Holstein eye type was observed. Different flower colour genes induce similar white flower colours in the parents and non-allelic interactions between these white flower colour loci produced novel flower colour variants in the F2 population. In the parental lines, flower and seed pigmentation are due to the same single locus effects, although flower colour may be influenced by epistatic gene interactions that have no effects on seed coat pigmentation. Pleiotropic effects of the recessive locus that causes loss of pigmentation of the leaf node include loss of pigment in petals and at least, in a genetic background of lines with a white seed coat, induces intense pigmentation around the hilum. By contrast, there are no apparent pleiotropic effects of the pod colour locus and the seed eye colour locus on pigmentation in other tissues.

Francis Kwame Padi

2003-01-01

152

Antinutrients and digestibility (in vitro) of soaked, dehulled and germinated cowpeas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytic acid, polyphenols, protein and starch digestibility (in vitro) in two varieties, namely CS-46 and CS-88, of soaked, dehulled and germinated cowpeas were determined. Soaking for 12 hours, dehulling of soaked seeds and germination for different time periods (24, 36 and 48 h) contributed significantly in reducing the phytic acid and polyphenol content of cowpeas. Removal of seed coat (dehulling) of soaked cowpeas reduced the polyphenols by 70-71%. Soaking (12 h) brought about an improvement in protein and starch digestibility which further increased after dehulling. Progressive increase in digestibility (protein and starch) was noticed, with an increase in germination period. Dehulling of soaked seeds was most effective in reducing the polyphenolic content, and germination in enhancing protein and starch digestibility. PMID:10904935

Preet, K; Punia, D

2000-01-01

153

Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

1983-03-01

154

Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in thi...

2000-01-01

155

Antinutrient Factors of Vegetable Cowpea (Sesquipedalis) Seeds During Thermal Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of boiling, roasting and autoclaving on the levels of some antinutrient factors present in the seeds of vegetable cowpea (sesquipedalis) were studied. The reduction of trypsin inhibitor was found to be highest (100%) with autoclaving at 60 min. Boiling was more effective in reducing phytic acid (68.34%) and haemagglutinin (75.98%) respectively at 60 min than the other processing treatments at the same time. The hydrogen cyanide was markedly reduced up to 81.25% at 15 min by autocla...

2007-01-01

156

First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

Edgloris Marys

2012-12-01

157

First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

2012-12-01

158

Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic cha...

Afv, Gonc?alves Manuel

2005-01-01

159

Purification of a lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata and its effect on the development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa when submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The native molecular mass of GOL determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column was 17.4 kDa and its carbohydrate content was estimated to be 2.9%. Therefore, GOL is a monomeric glycoprotein. The purified lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated erythrocytes from rabbit and chicken but not from human. Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- and disaccharides tested but by the complex glycoproteins porcine stomach mucin, lactotransferrin, asialofetuin and bovine and porcine thyroglobulins. Isoelectric focusing showed that GOL is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.4 with analysis of its amino acid composition revealing high contents of Asx, Glx, Ser, Glu, Ala and Cys. When incorporated in artificial seeds, GOL significantly affected the development of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, indicating the possibility of using this lectin in a biotechnological strategy for insect management of stored cowpea seeds. PMID:15869843

Leite, Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques; Silva, Luana Maria Castelo Melo; Amorim, Rodrigo César das Neves; Freire, Eder Almeida; de Melo Jorge, Daniel Macedo; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

2005-06-20

160

Functional and physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated cowpea flours and pastes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important potential source of protein in many parts of Africa. However, cowpea use is confined primarily to boiled whole seeds or traditional food preparations such as akara and moi-moi prepared from cowpea flours or pastes. By creating variety in the foods made from cowpeas, its utilization may be enhanced. The functional properties of cowpeas are mainly responsible for the quality of cowpea foods such as akara and moi-m...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

Abba M. Wakili

2013-01-01

162

[Effect of herpes simplex virus on spermatogenesis].  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the effect of Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) on spermatogenesis, HSV in ejaculate was detected by a rapid cultural method in 268 infertile males and 47 healthy ones. The number of mobile spermatozoa in HSV infected samples was less than in non-infected samples (21 mln/mlversus 40 mln/ml, p = 0.0001). The relative number of morphologically normal gametes was 13% versus 19% (p = 0.002), respectively. The quantitative karyological test discovered that males with HSV-infected ejaculate have more degenerating sex cells while in high virus contamination (more than 10 virus particles in 1 ml) the number of spermatides and spermatocytes of the 1 order at diploten stage is low. Organic testicular culture was used for more detailed study of pathogenetic mechanisms of HSV impact on spermatogenesis. Testicular explants infection was associated with reduction in the number of spermatogones, spermatocytes and spermatides on culturing week 2. The above findings reveal some pathogenetic mechanisms underling fertility disorders in males with HSV infection: a gametotoxic effect of the virus reducing populations of spermatogones, spermatocytes and spermatide; affected mobility and morphological characteristics of spermatozoa. Detection of the mechanisms of HSV action on spermatogenesis opens a perspective of antivirus drug administration in combined treatment of male infertility. PMID:22448478

Naumenko, V A; Tiulenev, Iu A; Pushkar', D Iu; Segal, A S; Kovalev, V A; Kurilo, L F; Shile?ko, L V; Klimova, R R; Al'khovski?, S V; Kushch, A A

2011-01-01

163

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C. Almeida

2005-12-01

164

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) / Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espéc [...] ies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable [...] species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C., Almeida; Silvana A. de, Almeida; Nilene R. dos, Santos; Josivanda P., Gomes; Maria E. R., Araújo.

165

Reproductive performance and population dynamics of cowpea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on leaf extracts of resistant and susceptible cowpeas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Membrane feeding studies were conducted to determine the effects of raw juices and chemical extracts of leaves of aphid-resistant (ICV-12) and aphid-susceptible (ICV-1) cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], on the survival, growth, and reproduction of cowpea aphidAphis craccivora Koch. Life table and demographic statistics of the cohort population and subsequent generations were estimated. Compared to ICV-1, the leaf juices and chemical extracts of ICV-12 exhibited significant (Paphid survival, growth, and reproduction. Raw leaf juice and ethyl acetate extract of ICV-12 in both water and sucrose significantly (Paphid performance. The adverse long-term effects were often more extreme than those resulting from a diet of distilled water alone. Methanol extract of ICV-12 showed an intermediate level of adverse effects on aphids, being generally less than that of ethyl acetate but greater than that of hexane. Compared to the other ICV-12 extracts, the hexane extracts in water or sucrose media did not significantly affect the aphid performance. Overall, it was determined that antibiosis was a governing modality of aphid-resistance in ICV-12. Postingestive intoxication was caused by foliage components of seedling plants of that cultivar. PMID:24226090

Annan, I B; Tingey, W M; Schaefers, G A; Saxena, K N

1996-07-01

166

Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp. development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206. The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6 individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC and mineral nitrogen control (NC, all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24 in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6 and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de Lima

2011-09-01

167

Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biologi [...] cal nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Terezinha Ferreira, Xavier; Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de, Lima; José de Paula, Oliveira; Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo, Mergulhão; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

168

Seed Size Influence On Germination And Seedling Development Of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of seed size on the germination and seedling development was carried out on four local varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp, oloyin,drum, ifebrown and local white. Each of the varieties were sorted into big and small seeds, 100 seeds each of both big and small seeds of the four Varieties were weighed and the average weights were calculated and recorded. Six seeds of each sort were planted in a plastic pot filled with sandy-loamy soil in three replicates. Results of the various parameters studied revealed that germination efficiency was similar in both big and small seeds of drum, oloyin and ifebrown but not in small seeds of local white, weights of 100 seeds from big seeds were much heavier than those of small seeds. Number of leaves, leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf area, stem height and dry weight, were consistently higher in cowpea plants from big seeds than the small seeds of all the varieties. Number of seeds per pod was higher in cowpea from big seeds in all the varieties except in drum where number of seeds was higher in plants from small seeds. In general, seedlings emerging from big seeds of all the cowpea varieties performed better in all the parameters studied than those emerging from smaller seeds.

Olayemi Ibukun Ehoniyotan

2013-09-01

169

Productivity and Nodulation Cowpea Inoculated in Function of Phosphorus and Potassium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cowpea represents one of the most important agricultural species of the brazilian Northeast, and proper management of mineral fertilizer that culture becomes essential to their production. The present work aimed to study the effect of the interaction between potassium and phosphorus in the presence of the inoculant INPA 03-11B in the culture of cowpea for Production Pole of Bom Jesus, Piaui, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal University of Piaui, Campus of Bom Jesus, PI, about a Quartzarenic Neosol. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. The treatments consisted of four levels of potassium (0, 35, 70 and 105 kg K2O ha-1 and four levels of phosphorus (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1. Nodule number, nodule dry and fresh biomass, shoot dry biomass and grain yields were evaluated. The potassium and phosphorus levels and their interaction affected nodulation and parameters indicators of production of cowpea. The interaction between the phosphorus and potassium levels favored the nodulation, shoot dry biomass and grain yield. The highest grain yield of cowpea was obtained with the fertilization of 67.73 kg of P2O5 ha-1 and 35 kg of K2O ha-1.

Francisco Hélcio Canuto Amaral

2013-10-01

170

Antimicrobial activity and fumonisins associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey involving 71 farmers from rural communities in Mpumalanga, South Africa was conducted to gather information regarding the importance and utilisation of cowpea. Cowpea was rated third most important in contributing to household security, preceded by maize and vegetable production. Cowpea was mainly produced for own consumption, as a source of income and as fodder for livestock to a lesser extent. The crop was used by 8.5% of the farmers for medicinal purposes. Results indicated that 2...

2004-01-01

171

Nomenclature and relationships of some Brazilian leguminous potyviruses related to bean common mosaic and/or passionfruit woodiness viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main Brazilian literature of the last 10 years on potyviruses of leguminous plants related to bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and/or to passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) is discussed and summarized. The viruses dealt with are canavalia acronecrosis, mosaico de canavalia, cassia yellow spot, cowpea green vein-banding, cowpea rugose mosaic and cowpea severe mottle. The viruses have similar biological properties, such as a host range restricted mainly to the Leguminosae, aphid transmission, seed transmission in leguminous plants, and various degrees of serological relationships with BCMV and PWV. PMID:1450754

Lovisolo, O; Kitajima, E W

1992-01-01

172

Chemotherapy pro-drug activation by biocatalytic virus-like nanoparticles containing cytochrome P450.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work shows, for the first time, the encapsulation of a highly relevant protein in the biomedical field into virus-like particles (VLPs). A bacterial CYP variant was effectively encapsulated in VLPs constituted of coat protein from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). The catalytic VLPs are able to transform the chemotherapeutic pro-drug, tamoxifen, and the emerging pro-drug resveratrol. The chemical nature of the products was identified, confirming similar active products than those obtained with human CYP. The enzymatic VLPs remain stable after the catalytic reaction. The potential use of these biocatalytic nanoparticles as targeted CYP carriers for the activation of chemotherapy drugs is discussed. PMID:24835096

Sánchez-Sánchez, Lorena; Cadena-Nava, Rubén D; Palomares, Laura A; Ruiz-Garcia, Jaime; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J M T; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

2014-06-10

173

Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Alternância de genótipos de caupi afeta a biologia de Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S) and resistant (R), on the biology of (C. maculatus) was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS) and five replications. Each repl...

Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima; José Vargas de Oliveira; Reginaldo Barros; Jorge Braz Torres

2004-01-01

174

Gibberellic Acid (GA3) Influence on Vegetative Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of GA3 on the growth and development of cowpea cultivars Blackeye and Tswana. Exogenous application of GA3, 7 days after emergence at 30, 60 or 90 mg L-1 significantly increased cowpea plant height, first node height, leaf area and leaf number/plant, nodulation, plant dry matter accumulation, pod length, pod number/plant, seed number/pod, 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield ha-1

Emongor, V.

2007-01-01

175

MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004) field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilatio...

Tenebe, Vincent A.; Petu-ibikunle, Abiona M.

2012-01-01

176

Influence of planting densities on the performance of intercropped bambara groundnut with cowpea in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken during the rainy seasons (August – December of 2010 and 2011 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi in Benue State, located in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. The objective was to investigate the suitability of some landraces of bambara groundnut for intercropping at varying planting densities with cowpea. The experiment was a 2 x 3 x 3 split-split plot set out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Intercropping decreased canopy width, number of pods per plant and grain yields of bambara groundnut component. Number of pods plant-1 and grain yields of bambara groundnuts increased with increased planting density. Landrace x planting density interaction effects was significant signifying that landraces have to be selected for specific densities. The landraces of bambara groundnuts used for this study are better suited for planting at high densities (>100,000 plants ha-1. Sole cowpea proved superior to intercropped cowpea with bambara groundnut in dry grain yield, total plant biomass and harvest index. Productivity indices indicated that bambara groundnut/ cowpea intercropping was productive, but cowpea was the dominant component of this intercropping system.

G.A. Alhassan

2012-12-01

177

Wild tomato leaf extracts for spider mite and cowpea aphid control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 ?mole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields. PMID:24813988

Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C

2014-01-01

178

Different effects of influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Sendai virus on human lymphocytes and macrophages.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Sendai virus depress human cell-mediated immune responses, such as mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation, but differ in their ability to induce other immune defense mechanisms, such as interferon production. Exposure to the different viruses resulted in depressed transformation responses to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin by affecting the function of lymphocytes, or macrophages, or both cell types.

Roberts, N. J.

1982-01-01

179

Multiple effects of silymarin on the hepatitis C virus lifecycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silymarin, an extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), and its purified flavonolignans have been recently shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we further characterized silymarin's antiviral actions. Silymarin had antiviral effects against hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) infection that included inhibition of virus entry, RNA and protein expression, and infectious virus production. Silymarin did not block HCVcc binding ...

Wagoner, Jessica; Negash, Amina; Kane, Olivia J.; Martinez, Laura E.; Nahmias, Yaakov; Bourne, Nigel; Owen, David M.; Grove, Joe; Brimacombe, Claire L.; Mckeating, Jane A.; Pe?cheur, Eve-isabelle; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Lohmann, Volker; Cao, Feng

2010-01-01

180

Óleo essencial de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. sobre o potencial fisiológico de sementes de feijão caupi The essential oil effects of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. on the physiological potential of cowpea bean seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito alelopático do óleo essencial de plantas de carqueja, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de B. trimera sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 ?L, 15 ?L, 10 ?L, 5 ?L e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. Não foi observado efeito inibidor do óleo essencial de B. trimera na germinação de sementes de feijão caupi, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, o óleo essencial de B. trimera revelou-se eficiente na manutenção da viabilidade dessas sementes.This research aimed to evaluate the allellopathic effect of essential oils of the Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. plants on the seeds germination of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The effect of B. trimera essential oil on V. unguiculata was evaluated at levels of 20 ?L, 15 ?L, 10 ?L, 5 ?L and control. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, the rate of speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. An inhibitory effect of B. trimera essential oil on bean seeds germination was not observed, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect. Based on the results, the B. trimera essential oil proved efficient in the viability maintenance of these seeds.

M.V.A. Xavier

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Growth and Yield Performance of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp as influenced by Row-Spacing and Period of Weed interference in South-West Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Weed problem appears to be the most deleterious factor causing between 25 and 60% reduction in potential yield of cowpea. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effect of inter-row spacing and period of weed interference on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (07° 15'; 03° 25' E in South Western Nigeria during the early and late wet seasons of 2009. The experiment consisted of eight main plots of weed interference which included initial weed removal for 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS and subsequently weed –infested until harvest as well as initial weed infestation for corresponding periods and thereafter kept weed free until harvest. There were also sub-plot treatments of three inter-row spacing of 60, 75, and 90 cm. All treatments in different combinations were laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. In both trials, the use of inter-row spacing of 60 cm resulted in significant reduction in weed growth as evident in lower weed dry matter production and subsequent higher cowpea pod and grain yields than those of 75 and 90 cm inter-row spacing. Initial weed infestation of up to 3 WAS did not have any adverse effect on crop growth and cowpea grain yields provided the weeds were subsequently removed. On the other hand, cowpea grain yield loss was not significantly averted by keeping the crop weed free for only 3 WAS without subsequent weed removal. In this study, initial weed-infestation for 6 WAS and beyond significantly depressed various crop growth parameter and cowpea grain yield compared with the crop kept weed free throughout its life cycle. In order to obtain optimum yields similar to that of the weed free cowpea field, it was required to keep the crop weed free for 6 WAS and beyond. However, frequent weeding beyond 9 weeks after sowing did not improve cowpea yield significantly and as a matter of fact it may even result in reduction of cowpea grain yield due to mechanical damage of hoe weeding. The practical implication of this finding is that early weeding starting from 3 WAS is very crucial for cowpea production while the critical period of weed removal for optimum yield in cowpea is between 3 and 9 WAS in the forest-savannah transitional zone of south Western Nigeria.

Joseph Adigun

2014-03-01

182

GREEN EAR YIELD IN CORN GROWN AFTER COWPEA INCORPORATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under irrigation, maize (Zea mays L. can be grown throughout the year in Northeastern Brazil, which in many areas results in soil degradation. The renewed interest in the study of crop rotations with legumes is targeted at reducing this degradation. The objective of our work was to evaluate the green ear yields of three maize cultivars (AG 8080, AG 9010 and DKB 333B, after growing the Sempre-verde cowpea cultivar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., incorporated at three different moments. Two sprinklerirrigated experiments (one involving cowpea and the other with maize were conducted. The following treatments were applied to the cowpea experiment, in a random block design with ten replicates: no cowpea cultivation; cowpea cultivation and incorporation into the soil at bloom time; or after four green bean harvests; or after three mature bean harvests (dry grains. The maize cultivars were grown in each of the four areas of each block in the cowpea experiment. Therefore, the maize experiment followed a split-plot design with treatments arranged as random blocks with ten replicates. In spite of the differences between the amounts of cowpea matter incorporated to the soil, there were no differences between the chemical characteristics of the soil at maize planting. The incorporation of cowpea at any time, or not, did not have an influence on the total number and weight of green ears and on the number and weight of marketable maize ears, both unhusked and husked. Cultivar AG 8080 presented the highest green ear yields.

PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

2005-08-01

183

Molecular effects: interactions with chemicals and viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research focused upon an understanding of the cellular responses to the molecular effects of ionizing radiation should be an essential program component in the Federal Strategy for Research into the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although we know that DNA is a principal target molecule for some highly significant biological effects of ionizing radiation, we need to learn which other target substances such as membrane components may also be important. Most of the emphasis should continue to be on DNA effects and highest priority should be assigned to the identification of the complete spectrum of products produced in DNA. Once the lesions are known we can proceed to determine how these behave as blocks to replication and transcription or as modulators on the fidelity of these crucial processes. Considerable work should be done on the repair of these lesions. High priority should be given to the search for mutants in mammalian cell systems with evident defects in the processing of specific lesions. Viruses should provide important tools for the research in this area, as probes for host cell repair responses and also for the isolation of mutants. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interaction of viruses and ionizing radiation with regard to possible modulating effects on repair processes and tumorigenesis. Finally we must consider the important problem of the modification of repair responses by environmental factors

1980-03-01

184

Existing antivirals are effective against influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1918 influenza pandemic caused more than 20 million deaths worldwide. Thus, the potential impact of a re-emergent 1918 or 1918-like influenza virus, whether through natural means or as a result of bioterrorism, is of significant concern. The genetic determinants of the virulence of the 1918 virus have not been defined yet, nor have specific clinical prophylaxis and/or treatment interventions that would be effective against a re-emergent 1918 or 1918-like virus been identified. Based on the reported nucleotide sequences, we have reconstructed the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) genes of the 1918 virus. Under biosafety level 3 (agricultural) conditions, we have generated recombinant influenza viruses bearing the 1918 HA, NA, or M segments. Strikingly, recombinant viruses possessing both the 1918 HA and 1918 NA were virulent in mice. In contrast, a control virus with the HA and NA from a more recent human isolate was unable to kill mice at any dose tested. The recombinant viruses were also tested for their sensitivity to U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved antiinfluenza virus drugs in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant viruses possessing the 1918 NA or both the 1918 HA and 1918 NA were inhibited effectively in both tissue culture and mice by the NA inhibitors, zanamivir and oseltamivir. A recombinant virus possessing the 1918 M segment was inhibited effectively both in tissue culture and in vivo by the M2 ion-channel inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine. These data suggest that current antiviral strategies would be effective in curbing the dangers of a re-emergent 1918 or 1918-like virus. PMID:12368467

Tumpey, Terrence M; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Mikulasova, Andrea; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Swayne, David E; Palese, Peter; Basler, Christopher F

2002-10-15

185

Intercropping Maize with Cowpeas and Mungbean under Rainfed Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research study was conducted at two locations i.e. Barani Agricultural Research station (Kohat and Barani Seed Farm (Hangu to ascertain the biological efficient and economic efficient intercropping system of maize with cowpeas and mungbean. The studies consisted of five intercropping systems (maize sole, cowpeas sole, mungbean sole, maize + cowpeas and maize + mungbean. The results regarding LER showed that maize + cowpeas intercrop average of two locations was 1.29 indicating 29 percent yield advantage which is also biological efficient system. The maize + mungbean indicating 4 percent yield advantage. However, the economic analysis gave a different results which showed that mungbean sole crop gain highest BCR value (return per rupee invested i.e. Rs. 4.82 followed by cowpeas sole crop (Rs. 4.13. It is concluded that apart from biological efficient different economic indices should be computed for comparison and final recommendation for wide spread adoption.

Naveed Akhtar

2000-01-01

186

Antinutrient Factors of Vegetable Cowpea (Sesquipedalis Seeds During Thermal Processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of boiling, roasting and autoclaving on the levels of some antinutrient factors present in the seeds of vegetable cowpea (sesquipedalis were studied. The reduction of trypsin inhibitor was found to be highest (100% with autoclaving at 60 min. Boiling was more effective in reducing phytic acid (68.34% and haemagglutinin (75.98% respectively at 60 min than the other processing treatments at the same time. The hydrogen cyanide was markedly reduced up to 81.25% at 15 min by autoclaving method while boiling at 60min resulted in (81.25% reduction. Tannin content was reduced by boiling and roasting up to 75.00% at 60 min and 75.00% at 120 min respectively. Boiling and autoclaving at 60 min significantly reduced stachyose (60.52% - 84.21% and raffinose (67.97 - 83.66%.

E.A. Udensi

2007-01-01

187

Effect of methisoprinol on virus replication in cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Methisoprinol (active substance: isoprinozine) on the replication of two animal viruses, the TK900 strain of Aujeszky's disease virus and the Roakin strain of the Newcastle disease virus was investigated. When the maximal tolerable doses of the drug were added to two cell cultures (CECC and GMK), its effect on the level of infectious titres of theviruses and their adsorption were assayed. Investigations were also performed to assess the direct effect of Methisoprinol on the viral strains used. The final stage of the experiment aimed at analysing of the replication dynamics of the viruses in the presence of Methisoprinol. Methisoprinol showed no direct effect on the viruses used in the study. Nor did it affect their adsorption. The preparation applied to the culture 24 hours before infection did not influence the replication of viruses, but administered simultaneously with the infection significantly lowered the final titres of viruses. The highest inhibitory effect of the drug was observed during the analysis of the replication dynamics of both viruses in CECC and of pseudorabies virus in GMK cell culture upon the application of the maximal tolerable doses of Methisoprinol and low infectious doses of the viruses. PMID:15230539

Ma?aczewska, J; Rotkiewicz, Z

2004-01-01

188

Indução de resistência a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Tracheiphilum em Caupi: eficiência de indutores abióticos e atividade enzimática elicitada / Induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum in cowpea plants: effectiveness of abiotic inducers and elicited enzymatic activity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos de indutores abióticos em cultivares de caupi inoculadas com Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum quanto à severidade, controle da doença e atividade enzimática. Para isso, plantas das cultivares IPA-206 e BR-17 Gurguéia com cinco dias de idade foram pulverizadas com so [...] luções aquosas de ASM (5,0 g do i.a./100 L de água), BABA (1,5 mM) e quitosana (2,0 mg/mL), no primeiro par de folhas e inoculadas, após sete dias da germinação, com 20 mL de uma suspensão de 1 x 10(6) conídios/mL do isolado ISO-PE. A avaliação da severidade da doença foi realizada aos 25 dias após a germinação, através de escala de notas e índice de doença. As atividades das enzimas beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL) foram determinadas em plantas submetidas aos tratamentos anteriores, coletadas aos cinco e 10 dias após a inoculação. Foi observada diferença significativa entre os indutores e a testemunha, nas duas cultivares testadas, aos cinco e 10 dias, destacando-se o indutor ASM, proporcionando um controle da doença de 68,90% e 71,59% nas cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, respectivamente. O indutor ASM apresentou melhores resultados nas atividades de beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e PAL, destacando-se na cultivar IPA-206 nos dois períodos analisados. Os indutores BABA e quitosana diferiram da testemunha, na atividade de PAL e beta-1,3-glucanase, nessa mesma cultivar, aos cinco dias após a inoculação. Abstract in english The effect of abiotic inducers in two cowpea cultivars inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (E. F. Smith) Snyder & Hansen was evaluated in relation to severity, disease control and enzyme activity. Aqueous solution of ASM (5.0 mg/mL), BABA (1.5 mM) or chitosan (2.0 mg/mL) was spray [...] ed on the first pair of leaves of five-day-old cowpea plants, cultivars BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206. After seven days of elicitor application, inoculation was carried out with 20 mL of a 1 x 10(6) conidia/mL suspension of the ISO-PE isolate. Plants were harvested at five and 10 days after inoculation, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), beta-1.3-glucanase and peroxidase was analyzed. Significant difference between treatment with inducers and control was verified, mainly for ASM which provided a disease control of 68.9% and 71.59% for BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206 cultivars, respectively. ASM showed the best results related to beta-1.3-glucanase, peroxidase and PAL and activities, especially for the cultivar IPA-206 five or 10 days. BABA and chitosan differed from the control for PAL and beta-1.3-glucanase activity on cultivar IPA-206, five days after inoculation.

Antonia Alice C., Rodrigues; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Rildo S.B., Coelho.

189

N2O Emission and Mineral N Release in a Tropical Acrisol Incorporated with Mixed Cowpea and Maize Residues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A laboratory microcosm incubation was conducted to study the influence of mixed cowpea-maize residues on N2O emission and N mineralization in a tropical acrisol. The soils were incorporated with different ratios of cowpea:maize mixtures on weight basis: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, and a control treatment in which there was no residue incorporation. The results show that N2O and CO2 emissions were higher in the sole cowpea treatment (100:0 than the sole maize treatment (0:100 and the control. However, cowpea-maize residue mixtures increased the proportion of N lost as N2O compared to the sole treatments. This interactive effect was highest in the 75:25 treatment. The 50:50 treatment showed moderate N2O emission compared to the 100:0, 75:25 and 25:75 treatments but with corresponding steady N mineralization and appreciable mineral N concentration. It is concluded that mixing cowpea-maize residues might increase the proportion of N lost as N2O in a tropical acrisol. However, compared to the other residue mixture treatments, mixing cowpea-maize residues in equal proportions on weight basis might offer a path to reducing N2O emissions while maintaining a steady N mineralization without risking good N supply in acrisols. The study therefore offers potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining soil fertility in tropical acrisols. However, further studies under both laboratory and field conditions will be required to verify and validate this claim.

Elizabeth M. Baggs

2012-07-01

190

Antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin on herpes simplex virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using tissue culture technique the present study for the first time indicated the antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin against type I herpes simplex virus (HSV-I). 4 methods were used for evaluating drug effectiveness (i.e., in vitro drug-on-virus direct action, simultaneous addition of drug-virus-inoculum to cell bottle, virus inoculation preceding drug addition, and drug addition followed by virus inoculation), it was readily found by log determination of HSV-I inhibition that isomangiferin somewhat exceeded such control drugs as acyclovir, idoxuridine, and cyclocytidine in log by 0.27-0.50, and that mangiferin was lower than isomangiferin in log by 0.53. The average plaque reduction rates of mangiferin and isomangiferin were 56.8% and 69.5% respectively. The antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin was presumably due to their capability of inhibiting virus replication within cells. PMID:2167819

Zheng, M S; Lu, Z Y

1990-02-01

191

Physical properties of virus causing cotton mosaic disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physical properties were found to be thermal inactivation point (TIP 55–600C, dilution end point (DEP 10-2 -10-3, dilutions and longevity in vitro (LIV 5 hrs. In ELISA test it was found that the virus showing positive test only with anti serum of TSV of cowpea and cotton but negative reaction with PBNV of cowpea and cotton which clearly denied possibility of presence of PBNV in cotton producing these kinds of symptoms. ELISA report clearly showed that TSV antiserum of cowpea was showing positive results with clear chlorotic types of symptoms.

G.P. Jagtap

2012-08-01

192

Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of two different habitats, stored cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] pods and seeds, on the dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) was investigated, with Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) eggs as hosts. In the presence of directional light from the top, parasitoids moved faster through columns filled with pods than through columns (either filled with pods or seeds) in darkness. The different habitats, s...

Alebeek, F. A. N.; Antwi, K. K.; Huis, A.; Lenteren, J. C.

2007-01-01

193

Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Co-Fermented Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea Ogi as Infant Complementary Food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study involved formulating nutritionally suitable complementary food mixtures with locally available raw materials. Maize or sorghum was mixed with cowpea, soaked at 25 °C for 72 h, wet-milled and sieved. The sediment was sun dried, milled for analyses. Proximate, functional properties and amino acid were determined in co-fermented maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea. Sorghum/cowpea had higher water absorption capacity, (235%) than maize/cowpea (103%) sorghum/cowpea and a lower valu...

2009-01-01

194

Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

Biswas, P.K.

1985-01-01

195

Induced mutations for insect resistance in cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy losses in grain yield are caused by pests in cowpea. Aphids, flower thrips, pod sucking bugs and pod borers are major constraints. Genetic resistance against these pests is scanty in the germplasm screened so far, therefore, a mutation breeding programme was initiated. Seeds of two locally adapted cultivars Katuli-107 and Emma-60 will be irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR of gamma rays. Screening of M1, M2 and further generations for resistance to aphids and Maruca pod borer will be carried out both under field and screenhouse conditions. An outline of the proposed programme is given. (author)

1983-12-01

196

Impacts of Certain Biofertilizers on Cowpea Plants in Sludge Amended Sandy Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sludge from El-Gabal El-Asfer treatment plant was taken to minimize the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the treatments of gamma radiation and lime. Ten kGy dose level of gamma radiation and 20 per cent lime were the optimum treatments to reduce the microbial load of sludge namely, total bacterial counts, total sporeformers, Enterococcus faecalis, total coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila and total fungi. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological agent in controlling certain soil borne diseases and reducing the toxicity of heavy metals comparing with 20 per cent lime and 10 kGy gamma radiation using 4 per cent sludge application and its effect on yield of cowpea components. treatments with gamma radiation, liming and biofertilizers reduced certain soil borne diseases, moreover liming and biofertilizers reduced the concentration of heavy metals in shoots and grains of cowpea plants. However, the application of lime at the rate of 20 per cent with sludge exerted negative effect in all studied parameters as compared to control (NPK or sludge alone. The greatest values of number and fresh weight of nodules were observed under biofertilizers and gamma radiation treatments. Results revealed that significant effects on dry weight of roots and shoots as well as grain yield production of cowpea plants treated biofertilizers and gamma radiation at dose level 10 kGy under sludge application.

H. Abdel Karem

2000-01-01

197

Does a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge hold promise for contributing to alleviating oxidative stress?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of compositing red non-tannin sorghum with cream-coloured cowpea and porridge preparation on phenolic profile and radical scavenging activity was studied. A maize-soybean composite porridge representing a similar product on the South African market was used as reference sample. UPLC-QToF-MS-ESI was used to determine phenolic composition of the grain flours, their composites and porridges. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging activity was determined using the ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging assays. Four benzoic acid derivatives and five cinnamic acid derivatives were identified in the samples. The predominant flavonoid subclasses identified in sorghum were flavan-3-ols, flavanones and flavones while cowpea had mainly flavan-3-ols and flavonols with soybean having mainly isoflavones. Compositing the cereals with legumes significantly (pstress than maize-soybean composite porridge. PMID:24679765

Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Minnaar, Amanda; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

2014-08-15

198

Effect of UV irradiation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus on virus-specific intracellular syntheses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of UV irradiation of virions on subsequent virus-specific intracellular protein synthesis was studied. The order of three genes (N, M_1 and G) was determined, but L and M_2 could not be mapped

1985-01-01

199

Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to Water Stress and Phosphorus Fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in the experimental college of agriculture and forestry, in Maputo-Mozambique, in order to evaluate the response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to irrigation and phosphorus and test the hypothesis that high levels of phosphorus improves the tolerance of plants to water stress. We used a variety IT 18 of cowpea, short cycle and ended. The experiment was subdivided into building plots complete block design with five repetitions, the irrigation factor was fixed at the main plot with two levels (with irrigation and without irrigation and phosphorus factor in sub-plots with 3 levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of phosphorus. The fertilization strongly influenced the yield and the number of pods per plant in both irrigation conditions. The effect of fertilizing phosphorus was higher under irrigation. The interaction was significant only for grain yield and number of pods, which means that the effect of phosphorus in these two variables has not been the same for the two levels of irrigation, high levels of phosphate fertilizer (P2O5 have improved the tolerance of cowpea when not irrigated.

V.G. Uarrota

2010-01-01

200

Effects of Clinacanthus siamensis leaf extract on influenza virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants were screened for influenza virus NA inhibition and in vitro antiviral activities using MDCK cells in an MTT assay. The vaccine proteins of influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), mouse-adapted influenza virus A/Guizhou/54/89 (A/G)(H3N2) and mouse-adapted influenza virus B/Ibaraki/2/85 (B/I) were used in the NA inhibition assay, and mouse-adapted influenza viruses A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/G and B/I were used in the in vitro antiviral assay. The results of the in vitro antiviral assay indicated that the A/G virus was the most susceptible and an extract of the leaf of CS possessed the highest in vitro anti-A/G virus activity (41.98%). Therefore, the A/G virus and the CS extract were selected for studying in vivo anti-influenza virus activity. BALB/c mice were treated with CS extract (100 mg/kg per day, 5 times) orally from 4 hr before to 4 days after infection. CS extract elicited significant production of anti-influenza virus IgG(1) antibody in BAW and increased mouse weight compared to oseltamivir (0.1 mg/kg per day) on day 19 or water on days 17-19 of infection. Moreover, CS extract produced a higher anti-influenza virus IgA antibody level in BAW compared to oseltamivir, and a tendency towards an increase in anti-influenza virus IgA compared to water was shown. The results suggest that CS extract has a protective effect against influenza virus infection. PMID:19291089

Wirotesangthong, Mali; Nagai, Takayuki; Yamada, Haruki; Amnuoypol, Surattana; Mungmee, Chutichot

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Effect of silver compounds on viruses in water].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two commercial substances, Certisil and Micropur, containing microbicidal silver compounds and destinated for decontamination as well as preservation of water were examined for virus inactivating activity against ECBO-, influenza A, Newcastle Disease, pseudorabies and vaccinia viruses in drinking water. In the recommended concentration as well as higher concentrated the lability of the viruses was increased by the silver compounds. This activity which cannot be designated as a true virucidal effect was clearly evident in the case of ECBO and vaccinia viruses, moderate on influenza and pseudorabies viruses but insignificant on Newcastle disease virus. Two combined silver compounds, Certisil-Combina and Sanosil, each containing an immediate microbicidal part besides silver differed in their antiviral activity. The chlorine separating part of Certisil-Combina didn't cause an improvement or acceleration of the destabilizing effect on viruses compared to the pure silver compound, while the hydrogen peroxide part of Sanosil led to a better and continuing inactivating influence on the viruses which were merely reduced in infectivity by 99,9% within one day. Only in the case of evident or suspected contamination of water reservoirs by viruses the addition of a combined silver drug with oxygen separating part seems to be useful. PMID:3022501

Mahnel, H; Schmidt, M

1986-07-01

202

Effects of virus on plant fecundity and population dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms are ubiquitous and thought to regulate host populations. Although microorganisms can be pathogenic and affect components of fitness, few studies have examined their effects on wild plant populations. As individual traits might not contribute equally to changes in population growth rate, it is essential to examine the entire life cycle to determine how microorganisms affect host population dynamics. In this study, we used data from common garden experiments with plants from three Cucurbita pepo populations exposed to three virus treatments. These data were used to parameterize a deterministic matrix model, which allowed us to estimate the effect of virus on components of fitness and population growth rate. Virus did not reduce fruit number, but population growth rates varied among virus treatments and wild C. pepo populations. The effect of virus on population growth rate depended on virus species and wild C. pepo population. Contributions of life-history transitions and life-history traits to population growth rates varied among populations and virus treatments. However, this population-virus interaction was not evident when examining individual components of fitness. Thus, caution must be used when interpreting the effects of changes in individual traits, as single traits do not always predict population-level change accurately. PMID:24571200

Prendeville, Holly R; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Pilson, Diana

2014-06-01

203

Generation Means Analysis of Seed Sucrose Content in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sucrose concentration of seeds is an important component of the taste in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. The objective of this research was to estimate the heritability, to investigate the mode of genetic control and to evaluate the potential for genetic improvement of sucrose content in cowpea using generation’s means analysis. F1 and F2 generations as well as backcross populations (BCP1 and BCP2 were produced in three hybrid combinations by crosses of four selected cultivars. The sucrose level was measured via a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC system. The range of variation in sucrose content among tested varieties was from 1.88 mg/g (Lori to 5.32 mg/g (C93W-24-125. Broad-sense heritability (h2 was of a moderate 58.50% to high 68.12% value and no transgressive segregation was observed. Narrow-sense heritability (39.47 to 47.83% and heterosis (-20.00 to - 5.94% values and gene effects analysis suggested that the sucrose content is controlled by additive and non-additive genes. At 10% level of selection, an increase of 19.60 to 33.64% was predicted after one cycle. Epistasis was significant in most of crosses and at least five genes affected the sucrose accumulation in cowpea seeds. These results suggested that breeding for increased sucrose content in the seeds of cowpea can be quite successful through recurrent selection in later generations.

J.B. Noubissie Tchiagam

2011-11-01

204

Farmers Resource – Use and Technical Efficiency in Cowpea Production in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Nigeria, the use of stochastic frontier to estimate farm level efficiency effects is still at the rudimentary level and is beginning to build up. Few studies have been undertaken but there is dearth need for more empirical studies on this important issue. This paper presents the analysis of technical efficiency of cowpea production in Osun state southwest Nigeria, using the stochastic production frontier, budgetary and resource-use efficiency analyses. The marginal value products of all the resources used are less than their prices (MVPcowpea production, 17 kobo was realized as profit. The farmers’ average technical efficiency is 87%, which suggest an appreciable use of inputs in productivity. Analysis efficiency using stochastic production frontier shows that farm size, seed, hired labour, family labour, fertilizer and pesticides are significant at 1% and some socio-economic variables using tobit regression model is found to be significantly different from zero at 1% for cooperative membership and farming experience. It is recommended that farmers should be encouraged to join cooperative society and extension services agents should intensify their efforts in training and mobilizing farmers for improved production of cowpea. Also, farmers should cut down the use of resources (quantity for optimum production and economic benefit.

Omononona B.T.

2010-03-01

205

The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) r...

Xavier Filho, J.

1991-01-01

206

Existing antivirals are effective against influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 1918 influenza pandemic caused more than 20 million deaths worldwide. Thus, the potential impact of a re-emergent 1918 or 1918-like influenza virus, whether through natural means or as a result of bioterrorism, is of significant concern. The genetic determinants of the virulence of the 1918 virus have not been defined yet, nor have specific clinical prophylaxis and/or treatment interventions that would be effective against a re-emergent 1918 or 1918-like virus been identified. Based on th...

2002-01-01

207

Serological and biological relationships among viruses in the bean common mosaic virus subgroup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (B1CMV), cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), azuki bean mosaic virus (AzMV), and peanut stripe virus (PStV) are five species of the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae which are seed-transmitted in beans or cowpeas. Eighteen isolates of BCMV, five isolates of B1CMV, four isolates of CABMV, and one isolate each of AzMV, and PStV were compared serologically using a panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against BCMV, B1CMV, CABMV, or PStV in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four MAbs detected all virus isolates; one detected all isolates except those of CABMV. Three MAbs were specific only for serotype A isolates of BCMV. Four MAbs detected all serotype B isolates of BCMV plus all isolates of B1CMV, AzMV, and PStV. None of the antibodies distinguished among these four viruses. However, in biological tests with 11 bean cultivars selected for differentiating BCMV pathotypes, all isolates of B1CMV, AzMV, and PStV could be differentiated from the BCMV serotype B isolates by their reactions on a few bean cultivars in host group I and the cowpea cultivar California Blackeye #5. Potential problems that can arise from the use of nonauthenticated isolates are also discussed. PMID:1450766

Mink, G I; Silbernagel, M J

1992-01-01

208

MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004 field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilation rate (NAR and grain yield. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using LSD (P ? 0.05. NAR were enhanced (P?0.05 by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding × spatial arrangements reduced (P ? 0.05 striga incidence on cowpea during 2003 and 2004. Weeding thrice × sowing 1:2 and weeding twice × sowing on the same hill gave a statistically similar result. Nodulation was enhanced by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding frequency × planting arrangement significantly increased (P ? 0.05 cowpeas grain yield during 2004. The highest grain yields (1344 and1347 Kg/ha were recorded from weeding twice × sowing 1:2 and weeding thrice × sowing on the same hill. Based on these field data the frequency of weeding enhanced physical removal of weeds, minimized competetion for growth resources, improved soil conditioning for optimum aeration, increased soil air-water ratio for optimum mycorraler and other beneficial soil microbial activities; While intercropping possibly provided canopy coverage for moisture conservation and pest control.

Abiona M. Petu-Ibikunle

2012-12-01

209

The Use of Vegetable Oils in the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in Three Cowpea Varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of some of vegetable oils (rubber seed oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil was evaluated against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus in three cowpea varieties (Ife white, Ife brown and Kano white. The trial involved exposing adult weevils to various levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mL kg-1 of the oil admixed with cowpea seeds. All studies were undertaken under laboratory temperature of 28?3?C and 70?3% r.h. The results showed that all the plant oils tested have toxic effect on weevils in all cowpea varieties. The oil treatments showed significantly high (p<0.001 mortality of adult weevils (72-100% at 10 Days after Treatment (DAT. Mean percentage adult weevils mortality in the treated grain (82.5% was significantly higher than in the untreated control (0%. The treated grains gave adequate protection by recording lower oviposition (10.3% than the untreated control (96.3%. Lower adult weevils` emergence (6.3% was also associated with the treated grains as against untreated grains (88.2%. The plant oil treatments also significantly (p<0.001 reduced weight loss (2.1% and grain damaged (9.1% as compared with untreated control of (48.2% and (93.2% in weight loss and grain damaged, respectively. There was no adverse effect of the oils on grains quality. Of the three plant oils used, rubber seed oil was the most effective. Among the varieties used in this study, Ife brown was more resistant to cowpea weevil infestation than Ife white and Kano white in that order.

K.E. Law-Ogbomo

2006-01-01

210

[Antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin on herpes simplex virus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using tissue culture techniques the present study assured us of the merits of mangiferin and isomangiferin in the antiviral action against HSV-1. Utilizing 4 main patterns for evaluating drug effectiveness (ie intratube drug-on-virus direct action, simultaneous addition of drug-virus-inoculum to cell bottle, virus inoculation preceding drug addition, and drug addition followed by virus inoculation), it was readily found by logarithm determination of HSV-I inhibition that isomangiferin was superior to such control drugs as acyclovir, idoxuridine, and cyclocytidine in logarithm by 0.27-0.50, and that mangiferin was lower than isomangiferin in logarithm by 0.53. The average plaque reduction rates of mangiferin and isomangiferin were 69.5% and 56.8%, respectively. All in all, the antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin was attributed presumably to their capability to inhibit virus replication within cells. PMID:2554669

Zheng, M S; Lu, Z Y

1989-01-01

211

In vivo effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing a mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early after infection, the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) expresses a superantigen (SAg) at the surface of B lymphocytes. Interaction with the T-cell receptor Vbeta domain induces a polyclonal proliferative response of the SAg-reactive T cells. Stimulated T cells become anergic and are deleted from the T-cell repertoire. We have used a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the MMTV(GR) SAg to dissect the effects of the retroviral SAg during an unrelated viral infection. Subcutaneous infection...

Krummenacher, C.; Diggelmann, H.; Acha-orbea, H.

1996-01-01

212

Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p?cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage. PMID:24322505

Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

2014-07-01

213

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70

Ileke, K. D.; Odeyemi, O. O.; Ashamo, M. O.

2012-01-01

214

Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets fo...

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega; Ofelia Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe Salazar-García; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto Civera-Cerecedo

2009-01-01

215

Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com ci [...] nco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem de insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, duri [...] ng seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

Costa, Nivânia P. da; Boiça Júnior, Arlindo L..

216

Evaluation of native and collected Germplasm for earliness Seed traits and resistance to rust, CMV and leaf spot in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp].  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, 225 germplasm collections of cowpea including local types were evaluated in augmented design alongwith C152 (check for high test weight, desirable seed and pod features, earliness and resistance to Cowpea rust (Uromycesvignae, Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CMV and Cercospora leaf spot for two years ( kharif 2008 and kharif 2009 at Dharwad. Theresults of the investigation revealed that fifteen of the accessions showed bold seeds (test weight > 10g. Accession numberIC202932 and IC247435 showed extra bold seeds (test weight >14g and also bold pods. About 15 germplasm accessions werefound to be highly resistant to rust; 10 accessions displayed HR reaction to CMV and about 5 accessions showed highlyresistant reaction against leafspot. With respect to Multiple Disease Resistance, accession numbers IC201095, IC257406,IC257435 showed highly resistant reaction against leaf spot and CMV and accessions IC257410 and IC214753 showedresistance against rust and leaf spot. Some of the accessions identified against earliness are IC201087, IC201099,IC202707and IC202709 (68-75 days maturity. Such of the superior germplasm lines identified for earliness, multiple diseaseresistance, bold seed (100 seed weight > 12g and desirable seed features would be further useful in Cowpea breeding programas parents.

K Sanjeev. Deshpand, B.R.Patil, P. M. Salimath , J.M. Nidagundi and S. Karthigeyan

2010-07-01

217

Economics of Insecticides Usage among Cowpea Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study carried out an economics of insecticides usage among cowpea farmers in Kaduna State. Specifically, the study estimated insecticides marginal productivity; the degree of response of demand for insecticides to changes in its prices and the return to cowpea production due to insecticides usage. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 150 cowpea farmers who used insecticides in controlling pest in cowpea production in the study area. Information collected includes those ...

2011-01-01

218

A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the development of tailor-made varieties. Forty-seven cowpea accessions were collected from traders interviewed for morphological characterization to ascertain the degree of diversity. Data was subjected to H...

Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E. S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J. P.; Ruivenkamp, G. T. P.

2011-01-01

219

Performance Characteristics and Heamatological Studies of Broiler Chickens Fed Cowpea Based Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to look at the utilization of cowpea - based diets on performance characteristics and haematology of broiler chickens. Raw cowpea ( Vigna unguigulata L.Walp, dehulled - cowpea, dehulled - cooked cowpea and dehulled - roasted cowpea grains were fed to broiler chickens in a five week feeding trial. A total of seventy five day old broiler chicks of Marshall Strain were allotted into five dietary treatments. Marginal reductions in the crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and ash were obtained in the dehulled cowpea and dehulled - cooked cowpea grains respectively. The dehulled - roasted cowpea grains however gave slight increases in the proximate composition. Feed intake and growth was significantly reduced in birds fed raw cowpea and dehulled - cowpea respectively. The feed conversion efficiency (FCE and protein efficiency ratio (PER also followed a similar pattern. Non-significant differences were however obtained in weight gain, FCE and PER of birds fed the control diet and those fed dehulled - cooked cowpea in this study. Birds fed dehulled - roasted cowpea also had marginal reductions in weight gain, FCE and PER when compared to those fed dehulled - cooked cowpea based diet. Mortality was higher in birds fed raw cowpea - based diet.The haematological studies showed lower values of haemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume and white blood cells of birds fed raw cowpea and dehulled cowpea respectively. However, despite the better response indices, the combination of dehulling and cooking led to leaching of some water-soluble food nutrients. Hence, more studies still need to be carried out especially at other processing methods that can drastically reduce the anti-nutritional factors without necessarily leaching the food nutrients.

Akanji, A. M.

2012-04-01

220

The Sucrose Starvation Signal Mediates Induction of Autophagy- and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Cowpea Seedling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In higher plants, autophagy is bulk degradation process in vacuole necessary for survival under nutrient-limited conditions and plays important roles in senescence, development and pathogenic response, etc. Cowpea is one of the most important legume crops in semi-aride region, which is highly tolerant to drought stress. Changes of photoassimilate status by drought stress and/or sink-source balance appeared to affect autophagy and senescence of leaf in cowpea. Accordingly, we focused on roles of sucrose signal in autophagy and amino acid recycling in cowpea. Effects of starvation stress on the expression of autophagy-related genes (ATGs and amino acid catabolism-related genes in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] were examined by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and anti-ATG8i specific antibody. Sucrose starvation stress enhanced the expression levels of VuATG8i, VuATG8c and VuATG4 incowpea seedlings. The expressions of amino acid catabolism related genes, such as asparagine synthase (VuASN1, proline dehydrogenase1 (VuProDH and branched chain amino acid transaminase (VuBCAT2, are also up-regulated under the sucrose starvation. In contrast, high sucrose condition suppressed autophagy and the expressions of ATGs. These results indicate that sucrose starvation stress stimulates both autophagy and amino acid catabolism by regulation of ATGs and VuBCAT2. It is conceivable that sucrose starvation stress enhances autophagy in cowpea, possibly via branched chain amino acid level regulated by the starvation-induced BCAT.

Mari Iwaya-Inoue

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of Six Common Plant Seed Oils on Survival, Eggs Lying and Development of the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research reported the effects of 6 common plants extracts including neem and some others which have been never tested on the longevity of adults, the number of eggs laid and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus. Six seed oils extracted by methylene chloride were tested: Azadirachta indica, Ricinus communis, Thevetia nerifolia, Balanites eagyptiaca, Moringa oleifera and Kaya senegalensis. All these oils reduce significantly survival of adults, oviposition and total emergence of adults. The most efficient is that of Thevetia nerifolia. At higher concentrations the treatment affects slightly the germination of seeds which remains over 50%. Seed oil of Thevetia nerifolia can be used as a good alternative to pesticides against Callosobruchus maculatus in addition with that of Azadirachta indica which effects are well established by many former works.

Mbailao Mbaiguinam

2006-01-01

222

Effects of Six Common Plant Seed Oils on Survival, Eggs Lying and Development of the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera:Bruchidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research reported the effects of 6 common plants extracts including neem and some others which have been never tested on the longevity of adults, the number of eggs laid and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus. Six seed oils extracted by methylene chloride were tested: Azadirachta indica, Ricinus communis, Thevetia nerifolia, Balanites eagyptiaca, Moringa oleifera and Kaya senegalensis. All these oils reduce significantly survival of adults, oviposition...

Mbailao Mbaiguinam; Nanadoum Maoura; Automne Bianpambe; Gabra Bono; Emmanuel Alladoumbaye

2006-01-01

223

Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

2013-01-01

224

How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

2006-12-01

225

Multiple Effects of Silymarin on the Hepatitis C Virus Lifecycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silymarin, an extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), and its purified flavonolignans have been recently shown to inhibit HCV infection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we further characterized silymarin's antiviral actions. Silymarin had antiviral effects against HCVcc infection that included inhibition of virus entry, RNA and protein expression, and infectious virus production. Silymarin did not block HCVcc binding to cells, but inhibited the entry of several viral ps...

Wagoner, Jessica; Negash, Amina; Kane, Olivia J.; Martinez, Laura E.; Nahmias, Yaakov; Bourne, Nigel; Owen, David M.; Grove, Joe; Brimacombe, Claire; Mckeating, Jane A.; Pe?cheur, Eve-isabelle; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Lohmann, Volker; Cao, Feng

2010-01-01

226

[Anti-influenza virus effect of dunhuang air cleaning agent].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dunhuang air cleaning agent is an emulsion made from the efficacious ingredients of traditional Chinese drugs, antivirotic test in vitro and virus destroying test with atomization were made in our department. It was proved that the agent possesses anti-influenza virus effect. Being an ideal agent for air cleaning, it may be used in the prevention of (common) cold and influenza epidemic. PMID:2275779

Yang, J; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Sheng, W

1990-05-01

227

WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES Resposta ao estresse hídrico na atividade enzimática dos nódulos de caupi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1), -70.0 (S2) and <-85.0 KPa (S3). The experimental design was randomized blocks with sub-divided plots, each plot containing a different degree of water stress, divided in sub-plots for the four different dev...

Figueiredo, Ma?rcia Do Vale B.; Egídio Bezerra-Neto; Burity, He?lio A.

2001-01-01

228

Floral Biology and Pollination Ecology of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on the floral biology and pollination ecology of three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were carried out. The varieties studied were Var. Oloyin, Var. Sokoto, and Var. Drum. Cowpea is a self pollinated crop which is encouraged by the arrangements of the floral parts. However, Insects visiting cowpea flowers have been implicated in the movement of pollen from one cowpea plant to another. Flower opening of cowpea begins between 6:00am and 6:3...

2011-01-01

229

In Vitro Antiviral Effect of "Nanosilver" on Influenza Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered by world health authorities. Small particles of silver have a long history as general antiseptic and disinfectant. Silver does not induce resistance in microorganisms and this ability in Nano-size is stronger. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to determine antiviral effects of Nanosilver against influenza virus. TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose of the virus as well as CC50 (50% Cytotoxic Concentration of Nanosilver was obtained by MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Sigma method. This compound was non-toxic to MDCK (Madin-Darbey Canin Kidney cells at concentration up to 1 µg/ml.  Effective minimal cytotoxic concentration and 100 TCID50 of the virus were added to the confluent cells.  Inhibitory effects of Nanosilver on the virus and its cytotoxicity were assessed at different temperatures using Hemagglutination (HA assay, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, and DIF (Direct Immunofluorescent. RT-PCR and free band densitometry software were used to compare the volume of the PCR product bands on the gel. Results and Discussion:  In this study it was found that Nanosilver has destructive effect on the virus membrane glycoprotein knobs as well as the cells.

P Mehrbod

2009-08-01

230

RNA viruses and their silencing suppressors boost Abutilon mosaic virus, but not the Old World Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed viral infections can induce different changes in symptom development, genome accumulation and tissue tropism. These issues were investigated for two phloem-limited begomoviruses, Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants doubly infected by either the potyvirus Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) or the tombusvirus Artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV). Both RNA viruses induced an increase of the amount of AbMV, led to its occasional egress from the phloem and induced symptom aggravation, while the amount and tissue tropism of TYLCSV were almost unaffected. In transgenic plants expressing the silencing suppressors of CABMV (HC-Pro) or AMCV (P19), AbMV was supported to a much lesser extent than in the mixed infections, with the effect of CABMV HC-Pro being superior to that of AMCV P19. Neither of the silencing suppressors influenced TYLCSV accumulation. These results demonstrate that begomoviruses differentially respond to the invasion of other viruses and to silencing suppression. PMID:21843560

Sardo, Luca; Wege, Christina; Kober, Sigrid; Kocher, Conny; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Noris, Emanuela

2011-11-01

231

Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

Márquez, R; Córdova, T; Castejón, L; Higuera, A.

232

Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6, en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor, tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1, el mejor control de malezas (72,1% y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%. Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela using cowpea mutant ON-30(6 and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor, weeds control every 15 days (three times using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1. A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1, the best weed control (72,1% and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22% were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

R Márquez

2003-10-01

233

Effect of brefelidin A and monensin on Japanese encephalitis virus maturation and virus release from cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV replicates in a variety of cells, the exact intracellular site of virus assembly is somewhat obscure. The aims of this study were to investigate the role Golgi apparatus in JEV maturation by utilizing two Golgi-disrupting agents- brefeldin A (BFA and monensin (MN that inhibit virus assembly at specific cellular sites. JEV-infected porcine kidney stable (PS cells were treated with BFA (2 ug/ mL or MN (10 uM/ mL at different h post-infection (p. i. and the virus contents were assayed after 48 h p. i. The treated cells were further subjected to immuno-fluorescence (IF using antibodies directed against JEV envelope glycoprotein (gpE for localization of intracellular viral antigen as well as the antigen expression on the cell surface. Addition of BFA or MN to cells immediately after virus adsorption or at 4 h and 12 h postinfection (p. i., resulted in 4- or 8- fold reduction in infectious virus contents along with inhibition of its transport to the cell surface, indicating an essential role of the Golgi-associated membranes in JEV replication. Interestingly, the antigenicity of the virus, in contrast, remained unaffected as no difference in epitope presentation/ expression was observed in BFA/MN-treated and control (untreated infected cells even though in the former cells a loss of hemagglutinating (HA activity was observed. Further, BFA addition at 18 h or 24 h p. i. showed only a negligible effect on virus suggesting that once the viral-associated membranes are formed, these membranes appear to be stable. In contrast, the inhibition with MN persisted even after its addition to cells at 18 h and 24 h p. i., indicating its sustained effect on JEV. Although BFA inhibits protein transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi complex while MN inhibits transport from medial to trans cisternae of the Golgi complex, none of the two agents however affected the gpE synthesis and folding essentially required for the epitope presentation/expression within the cells. As flaviviruses are known to encode three glycoproteins (gps within their genomes i. e., prM, E, and NS, it will be worthwhile in future to determine whether vesicular transport occurs within or between the virus-induced membranes and how the individual JEV-encoded proteins are transported to discrete compartments further remain to be seen.

Ashok Kumar Gupta

2011-06-01

234

Effect of glucosamine on phenotype mixing of vesicular stomatitis virus with avian sarcoma virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of glucosamine on phenotypic mixing between vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and avian sarcoma virus (ASV) was studied. Phenotypic mixing decreased with increase in glucosamine concentration, and, in the presence of 20 mM glucosamine, was no longer detectable. In the presence of 20 mM glucosamine, cells still produced 10(2)--10(3) focus forming units (FFU) of ASV and 10(6) plaque forming units (PFU) of VSV per milliliter. These results suggest that cells producing a relatively l...

Ogura, Hajime; Fujiwara, Tazuko

1980-01-01

235

Inhibitory effect of Bergenia ligulata on influenza virus A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanol water extract from rhizomes of Bergenia ligulata, a plant used in Nepalese ethnomedicine, inhibited in vitro the replication of influenza virus in a dose dependent manner and did not show virucidal activity at effective concentration. Pretreatment of cells with B. ligulata extract was shown to be most effective to prevent cell destruction. The extract inhibited viral RNA synthesis and reduced viral peptide synthesis at 10 microg/ml. The virus inhibitory effect is related to the presence of condensed tannins in the extract. PMID:12749411

Rajbhandari, M; Wegner, U; Schöpke, T; Lindequist, U; Mentel, R

2003-04-01

236

Insecticidal Activity of Three Plants Extracts on the Cowpea Pod Sucking Bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis, STÄL (Hemiptera: Coreidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Burkina Faso, farmers commonly use insecticidal plants for crop protection. To understand how insecticidal plant works (their mode of action, we carried out a bioassay on Clavigralla tomentosicollis, the cowpea pod sucking bugs with three insecticidal plants, Cassia nigricans V., Cymbopogon schoenanthus S. and Cleome viscosa L. Three modes of exposures (1 direct contact application, (2 stomach poisoning activity (3 and inhalation toxicity activity, were tested. The results showed a potent contact and stomach toxicity on 1st instars larvae regardless of the three crude extracts. But the plant extracts was less effective with older stages of the insects. A highest effectiveness was recorded with inhalation of vapours of crude extracts regardless of insect stages and type of plants. Implications of these findings are discussed regarding the use of plant extract for controlling pod sucking bugs in cowpea fields.

N.M. BA

2009-01-01

237

Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth t [...] ests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

Odeigah, P.G.C.; Osanyinpeju, A.O.; Myers, G.O..

238

Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic differences in nodulation under conditions of P stress. There were large genotypic variations for P uptake under high P levels but not under low P levels. The study showed that there was significant genotypic variation for root traits during early growth and genotypic differences for soybean and cowpea growth under low P. (author)

2013-11-01

239

Seed Size Influence On Germination And Seedling Development Of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) walp)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of seed size on the germination and seedling development was carried out on four local varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) walp), oloyin,drum, ifebrown and local white. Each of the varieties were sorted into big and small seeds, 100 seeds each of both big and small seeds of the four Varieties were weighed and the average weights were calculated and recorded. Six seeds of each sort were planted in a plastic pot filled with sandy-loamy soil in three replicates. Results of the ...

Olayemi Ibukun Ehoniyotan; Kehinde Stephen Olorunmaiye

2013-01-01

240

Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than 10 ppb. The results showed the biomass of ozone-fumigated plants was significantly lower and leaf injury of ozone fumigated plants was significantly greater compared to the control group. The major visible-injury symptom appeared as chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves. Antioxidant levels in the charcoal filtered (CF plants and ozoned plants had significant differences because of their detoxification role in removing ozone and its derivatives. The ozone treatment of 7-day-old plants showed superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX levels significantly higher than in 21-day-old plants and total ascorbate concentrations significantly lower than 21-day-old plants. These results showed that different ozone concentrations exhibit different effects on antioxidant production. Analysis of antioxidants daily for 7 days found that antioxidant levels rapidly changed. Notably, SOD and total ascorbate could be selected as indicators for ozone-effect monitoring in plants. This indicates that cowpea is sensitive to ozone and may be usable as an ozone bioindicator. In conclusion, plant age, ozone concentration and the duration to exposure to ozone were the main physiological or biochemical responses of cowpea. An efficient defense system was generated from a combination of antioxidants.

Warin Pimpa

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Protective effect of fluvastatin on influenza virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statins are 3?hydroxy?3?methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors and have pleiotropic effects. It has been suggested that statins may be a potential treatment during the next influenza pandemic. In a previous study we found that a statin/caffeine combination protects BALB/c mice against Influenza A, subtypes haemagglutinin type 5 and neuraminidase type 1 (H5N1), H3N2 and H1N1 infection. The effect of statins alone on influenza virus infection, however, is not known. In this study, it was investigated whether fluvastatin is capable of inhibiting influenza A virus replication in vitro. The results demonstrated that the synthesis of viral RNA and protein was affected by fluvastatin treatment. Virus production was markedly reduced when fluvastatin was administered simultaneously with the virus; however, a greater inhibition was observed when fluvastatin was added following viral adsorption. The selectivity index [SI; 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50)/50% inhibition concentration (IC50)], however, was only 21. It was further demonstrated that fluvastatin protects host cells against influenza?induced inflammation by reducing the production of tumour necrosis factor??, interleukin 8 and interferon ?. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that fluvastatin exerted a minor inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection, which involved anti?inflammatory activities. PMID:24676773

Peng, Jing; Zhang, Dingmei; Ma, Yu; Wang, Guoling; Guo, Zhongmin; Lu, Jiahai

2014-06-01

242

Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to ...

Moravvej, G.; Abbar, S.

2008-01-01

243

Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a no-choice situation. Powders of Nicotiana tabacum, Tephrosia vogelii and Securidaca longepedunculata significantly reduced the number of progeny. Repellence was evaluated by observing the behaviour ...

2004-01-01

244

Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea) from Northern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12) in the laboratory ...

Wada, B. Y.; Abubakar, B. Y.

2013-01-01

245

Identification of novel resistance gene sources to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p Aphis craccivora endemic to Zaria environs, or that of the ability of insects to overcome hindrances to their survival including various forms of resistance. PMID:24506004

Aliyu, H; Ishiyaku, M F

2013-08-01

246

Field Occurrence of Bruchid Pests of Cowpea and Associated Parasitoids in a Sub Humid Zone of Burkina Faso: Importance on the Infestation of Two Cowpea Varieties at Harvest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cowpea is a very important legume for peasant farmers in West Africa but this crop is very sensitive to bruchid attacks during storage. A study was carried out in a sub humid zone of Burkina Faso to determine the relation between the dynamic of bruchid and parasitoid populations in the fields and cowpea infestation at harvest. The variations in insect numbers were weekly estimated by net captures during the growth of an early and a late cowpea variety. Adults of two bruchid species, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.. and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic appeared early in the fields before cowpea flowering and their population regularly increased over time and from early to late cowpea variety. The Pteromalid Dinarmus basalis Rond was the only larval parasitoid encountered. Its adults appeared later than bruchids and their parasitism activity increased over time. At harvest, 35% of the early cowpea pods and 74.5% of the late cowpea pods were infested by bruchid eggs. 58.5 and 72% of the bruchid eggs laid respectively on the early and the late cowpea variety were parasitized by Uscana sp. The level of cowpea seed infestation by bruchids at the beginning of storage was estimated to be 1 and 2.7% for the early and late cowpea variety respectively. The parasitism rate of bruchid larvae by D. basalis was estimated at this period to be 7.8% for early cowpea variety and 18.2% for the late variety. These results are discussed in view of developing an integrated control method based on the enhancement of the pest natural enemies in the fields and/or into storage systems in combination with beneficial farming practices.

Sanon Antoine

2005-01-01

247

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

Yussef F.B. Braga

2007-03-01

248

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus) foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasi [...] l. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v). Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P Abstract in english The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil [...] . The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P

Yussef F.B., Braga; Thalles B., Grangeiro; Eder A., Freire; Helano L., Lopes; José N. S., Bezerra; Manoel, Andrade-Neto; Mary Anne S., Lima.

249

Performance and Digestibility of Corncob and Cowpea Husk Diets by West African Dwarf Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the tropics, dry season is characterized by shortage of feeds and staggered growth pattern of ruminants. Corncob (CC and Cowpea Husk (CH, the by-products of maize and cowpea production respectively may be used as alternative feed resources for ruminants especially during dry season. Therefore, a ten week study was conducted to determine the effects of CC and CH based diets on performance of WAD sheep. In a randomized complete block design, sixteen WAD sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: A (100% CC, B (66.7% CC + 33.3% CH, C (33.3% CC + 66.7% CH and D (100% CH. The sheep were allotted to any of the four diets with four animals per treatment. Parameters measured include: dry matter intake, live weight changes, feed conversion ratio and nutrient digestibility. Results showed significant (p<0.05 differences in dry matter intake (22.04 kg in diet A to 41.07 kg in diet C and LWG (4.14 g/day in diet A to 41.71 g/day in diet C of sheep across the diets. Also, there were significant (p<0.05 differences in FCR across the diets. The FCR ranged from 14.06 in diet C to 45.68 in diet A. Nutrients digestibility increased with increasing level of cowpea husk in the diets. The DM digestibility value ranged from 65.24% in diet B to 85.04% in diet D. The CP digestibility was also highest in diet D (88.01% and lowest in diet A (72.06% while ADF, NDF and ADL were highest in diet C and lowest in diet B. Optimum weight gain and efficient utilization was achieved at 66.7% CH and 33.3% CC inclusion levels.

B.O. Alabi

2013-01-01

250

Threshold virus dynamics with impulsive antiretroviral drug effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this paper are twofold: to develop a rigorous approach to analyze the threshold behaviors of nonlinear virus dynamics models with impulsive drug effects and to examine the feasibility of virus clearance following the Manuals of National AIDS Free Antiviral Treatment in China. An impulsive system of differential equations is developed to describe the within-host virus dynamics of both wild-type and drug-resistant strains when a combination of antiretroviral drugs is used to induce instantaneous drug effects at a sequence of dosing times equally spaced while drug concentrations decay exponentially after the dosing time. Threshold parameters are derived using the basic reproduction number of periodic epidemic models, and are used to depict virus clearance/persistence scenarios using the theory of asymptotic periodic systems and the persistence theory of discrete dynamical systems. Numerical simulations using model systems parametrized in terms of the antiretroviral therapy recommended in the aforementioned Manuals illustrate the theoretical threshold virus dynamics, and examine conditions under which the impulsive antiretroviral therapy leads to treatment success. In particular, our results show that only the drug-resistant strain can dominate (the first-line treatment program guided by the Manuals) or both strains may be rapidly eliminated (the second-line treatment program), thus the work indicates the importance of implementing the second-line treatment program as soon as possible. PMID:21987085

Lou, Jie; Lou, Yijun; Wu, Jianhong

2012-10-01

251

Proximate, Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Whole and Dehulled Cowpea Seed Flour (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study was conducted to analyze the production, proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic properties of whole and dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds. Flour samples were produced from whole and dehulled cowpea seeds which was purchased from Obada market Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. The flour samples were subjected to proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses. The results of proximate analysis showed that dehulled cowpea was higher in crude protein (23.12% and carbohydrate content (62.86% than whole cowpea flour, which was recorded as 22.85% and 61.67% respectively. The fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture content were 1.6%, 1.03%, 0.48%, 10.89% for dehulled cowpea flour and 1.83%, 1.12%, 0.65%, 11.88% for whole cowpea flour respectively. The results obtained for physicochemical analysis showed that the pH, TSS and TS of whole cowpea flour were 6.84%, 16.47% and 88.12% while dehulled cowpea were recorded as 6.80%, 12.85%, 89.11% respectively. The results of organoleptic analysis revealed that beans ball produced from dehulled cowpea flour was more acceptable than that from whole cowpea flour.

W.A. Oyeleke

2011-01-01

252

Supplemental Ca2+ does not improve growth but it affects nutrient uptake in NaCl-stressed cowpea plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The growth and nutrient assimilation was evaluated in CaCl2- and CaSO4-supplemented cowpea plants subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). The salinity significantly reduced the cowpea vegetative growth. The addition of CaCl2 in the growth medium did not significantly affect plant growth, while for th [...] e CaSO4, the beneficial effects of Ca2+ were moderate. Salinity increased the Na+, K+, Cl-, N and P content in the plants, however it decreased the content of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Increases in Ca2+ concentration in the nutrient solution caused decreases in the Na+ and Mg2+ contents and increases in Ca2+, K+, P, and Cl- contents. The supplemental Ca2+ may alleviate the Na+ toxicity and may improve nutritional and ionic balance in cowpea, but it cannot overcome the osmotic effects associated with the increased total salt concentration.

Guimarães, Francisco Valderez Augusto; Lacerda, Claudivan Feitosa de; Marques, Elton Camelo; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Braga de; Aquino, Boanerges Freire de; Prisco, José Tarquinio; Gomes-Filho, Enéas.

253

Effect of monensin on Mayaro virus replication in monkey kidney and Aedes albopictus cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a cationic ionophore, monensin, on the replication of Mayaro virus in monkey kidney TC7 and Aedes albopictus cells has been studied. Treatment of these cells with 1 micromol/l monensin during infection did not affect the virus protein synthesis but inhibited severely the virus replication. Electron microscopy of the cells infected with Mayaro virus and treated with monensin revealed that the morphogenesis of Mayaro virus was impaired in TC7 but not in A. albopictus cells. PMID:14524478

De Campos, R M; Ferreira, D F; Da Veiga, V F; Rebello, M A; Rebello, M C S

2003-01-01

254

Effect of steroid hormones on virus-induced diabetes mellitus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Female ICR Swiss mice, generally resistant to the diabetogenic effects of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus, develop diabetes to the same extent as males if they are pretreated with testosterone. The data suggest that testosterone is one of the factors involved in the development of diabetes in certain strains of mice.

Giron, D. J.; Patterson, R. R.

1982-01-01

255

STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

PHIL DOBIE

1991-01-01

256

Effect of temperature on plum pox virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the key factors of progress of an epidemic is the duration of virus availability for a vector in plants, which could be influenced by temperature. Using five epidemiologically different isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV) we studied the effect of temperature on the virus infectivity, intensity of disease symptoms and virus accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana plants as determined by a double-antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). No differences in infectivity and intensity of disease symptoms between the five isolates were observed at 17 degrees C. However, they differed in their capacity to infect and multiply in the plant at higher temperatures. The temperature of 32 degrees C was inhibitory to the multiplication of all the five PPV isolates studied. Fewer plants were infected and a significantly decreased amount of virus antigen was detected at 30 degrees C. The natural PPV recombinant BOR-3 isolate showed a greater temperature tolerance compared to other PPV isolates tested. We conclude that adaptation to higher temperatures may favour the epidemiological impact of PPV. PMID:12828345

Glasa, M; Labonne, G; Quiot, J B

2003-01-01

257

Priming for local and systemic antibody memory responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus: effect of amount of virus, virus replication, route of administration and maternal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the conditions under which calves can be primed for mucosal and serum antibody memory responses against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and the relationship between such responses and protection against the virus. Calves were primed via the respiratory tract with a low or high amount of live virus, with killed virus, or intramuscularly with live virus. Calves were challenged via the respiratory tract. Priming with live virus via the respiratory tract induced primary antibody responses in serum and on the mucosae, which were identical after the low and the high amount of virus. These responses were suppressed by maternal antibodies. Intramuscular priming of seronegative calves induced serum IgG1 and sometimes serum IgM and IgG2 responses, but no responses were detected on the mucosae. Sera of calves primed by the intramuscular or the respiratory route recognized the same viral proteins. No responses were observed after priming with killed virus, or after intramuscular priming of calves with maternal antibodies. After challenge, mucosal and serum antibody memory responses developed in calves that had been primed via the respiratory tract with live virus, whether they had maternal antibodies or not. One colostrum-fed calf showed a mucosal memory response, although serum responses were still suppressed by maternal antibodies. None of the calves thus primed shed virus after challenge. Intramuscular priming also primed for mucosal and serum memory responses after challenge, which however started perhaps slightly later and were not associated with protection against virus shedding. Priming with killed virus, or with live virus intramuscularly in the presence of maternal antibodies proved least effective in inducing memory and protection against virus shedding. Thus, protection against virus shedding was afforded by priming with live virus via the respiratory tract, both in calves with an without maternal antibodies. Protection was associated with a strong and rapid mucosal antibody memory response, but the reverse was not necessarily true. Protection against virus excretion had no relationship to titers of serum neutralizing or serum IgG1 or nasal IgA antibodies at the time of challenge. PMID:2530685

Kimman, T G; Westenbrink, F; Straver, P J

1989-09-01

258

Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

2014-01-01

259

Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui / Autoclaved cowpea in the nutrition of juvenile tambaqui  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g), alo [...] cados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in diets on the performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates of 20 juvenile tambaqui (10 g), allocat [...] ed in 310-L water tanks. The fish were fed for 60 days with isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, with six inclusion levels of cowpea: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Body and productive performance relations were determined. There was no significant difference between treatments. Juvenile tambaqui can be fed with the inclusion of up to 25% cowpea in the diet.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Rafaella Barbosa, Correa; Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki, Inoue; Irani da Silva de, Morais.

260

Toxicity Potentials of Leaf Powders of Wild Lemon (Afreagle paniculate and African Rock Fig (Ficus congensis Engl. Against the Cowpea Seed Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The toxicity potentials of the wild lemon (Afreagle paniculate and the African rock fig (Ficcus congensis Engl. leaf powder as an alternative source of control against the cowpea seed bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. on stored cowpea was evaluated. The results obtained shows that, these plant material powdered leaves had remarkable effects on all the parameters measured. There were 76.34% and 77.20% undamaged seeds recorded respectively, when cowpea seeds were stored with these plant material powdered leaves compared to the control, 7.50%. High mortality of 84.61% and 85.51% respectively, was obtained in these plant material powdered leaves and the least was in the control, 16.84%. Likewise, there was only 7.67 and 6.01 number of adults that emerged while the control had 23.85. High number of eggs laid was recorded in the control. It was also found out that, these plant material powdered leaves are promising candidates for developing botanical, biodegradable and ecologically friendly insecticides which can be integrated with other pest management procedures and could replace the use of synthetic insecticides on small farmers holding. Therefore, the leaf powders are recommended for storing cowpea seeds for at least 12 weeks giving the grains perfect state of wholesomeness.

C. S. Oaya

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Antimicrobial activity and fumonisins associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey involving 71 farmers from rural communities in Mpumalanga, South Africa was conducted to gather information regarding the importance and utilisation of cowpea. Cowpea was rated third most important in contributing to household security, preceded by maize and vegetable production. Cowpea was mainly produced for own consumption, as a source of income and as fodder for livestock to a lesser extent. The crop was used by 8.5% of the farmers for medicinal purposes. Results indicated that 2...

2006-01-01

262

Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Characterization of genetic diversity among cultivated cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties is important to optimize the use of available genetic resources by farmers, local communities, researchers and breeders. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in 70 cowpea accessions collected throughout Benin. Nine random primers were screened on 24 accessions to assess their ability to reveal polymorphisms in cowpea and four of them wer...

2008-01-01

263

Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their galactose-oligosaccharide content, the amount of gas produced by Clostridium perfringens using in-vitro cowpea digests as main carbohydrate substrate (in-vitro fermentability index) and the alveolar hydro...

Madode, Y. E.; Nout, M. J. R.; Bakker, E. J.; Linnemann, A. R.; Hounhouigan, D. J.; Boekel, M. A. J. S.

2013-01-01

264

Effect of Radiation on the Functions of Carcinogenic Viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When carcinogenic viruses are irradiated under suitable experimental conditions with ultra-violet rays or ionizing radiation, the various viral functions can be dissociated and virions defective in certain functions can be obtained. These defects are real mutations; they are passed on to subsequent generations provided the virions affected remain capable of reproduction. It has been possible to obtain various types of mutant, e.g. hyper producers of virions, non-productive transformers, non-transforming producers. The production of these mutants opens up certain experimental possibilities with regard to the transformation mechanism and the possible consequences of irradiation in vivo. Attention will be devoted in particular to the increased oncogenic capability in vivo which is sometimes observed in pre-irradiated viruses, and also to the consequences of this effect in the radiotherapy of certain malignant infections. These studies are also of interest for analysing the structure of the viral genome and throwing light on that fraction of the genome which is responsible for the transforming capacity. In the case of small viruses with a single DNA molecule (polyoma, SV-40) it has been possible to measure the fraction of the molecule responsible for the transforming capacity. In the case of the Rous virus the experiments suggest that the viral RNA is made up of sub-units capable of independent replication, the transforming capacity being possessed by only one of these sub-units. The induced defect may reveal the presence of transforming capacity in a virus considered as non- oncogenic because the transformed cells are usually eliminated by the infective process. In this way irradiation could render carcinogenic a virus which is not carcinogenic under normal conditions. The paper covers work done at the various viral radiobiology laboratories of the Radium Institute during the last two years. (author)

1969-11-01

265

Effect of Zinc Salts on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zinc supplementation decreases the morbidity of lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients in the developing world. We sought to determine if zinc mediates a specific inhibitory effect against the major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We determined the in vitro inhibitory effect of three zinc salts (zinc acetate, lactate, and sulfate) on the replication of RSV at various concentrations of 10 and 1 mM and 100 and 10 ?M. The d...

Suara, Rahaman O.; Crowe, James E.

2004-01-01

266

Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

2004-01-01

267

Primary structural comparison of RNA-dependent polymerases from plant, animal and bacterial viruses.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Possible alignments for portions of the genomic codons in eight different plant and animal viruses are presented: tobacco mosaic, brome mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, sindbis, foot-and-mouth disease, polio, encephalomyocarditis, and cowpea mosaic viruses. Since in one of the viruses (polio) the aligned sequence has been identified as an RNA-dependent polymerase, this would imply the identification of the polymerases in the other viruses. A conserved fourteen-residue segment consisting of an Asp-Asp ...

1984-01-01

268

Soil respiration, labile carbon pools, and enzyme activities as affected by tillage practices in a tropical rice-maize-cowpea cropping system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to identify the viable option of tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system that could cut down soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, sustain grain yield, and maintain better soil quality in tropical low land rice ecology soil respiration in terms of CO2 emission, labile carbon (C) pools, water-stable aggregate C fractions, and enzymatic activities were investigated in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil respiration is the major pathway of gaseous C efflux from terrestrial systems and acts as an important index of ecosystem functioning. The CO2-C emissions were quantified in between plants and rows throughout the year in rice-maize-cowpea cropping sequence both under conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices along with soil moisture and temperature. The CO2-C emissions, as a whole, were 24 % higher in between plants than in rows, and were in the range of 23.4-78.1, 37.1-128.1, and 28.6-101.2 mg m(-2) h(-1) under CT and 10.7-60.3, 17.3-99.1, and 17.2-79.1 mg m(-2) h(-1) under MT in rice, maize, and cowpea, respectively. The CO2-C emission was found highest under maize (44 %) followed by rice (33 %) and cowpea (23 %) irrespective of CT and MT practices. In CT system, the CO2-C emission increased significantly by 37.1 % with respect to MT on cumulative annual basis including fallow. The CO2-C emission per unit yield was at par in rice and cowpea signifying the beneficial effect of MT in maintaining soil quality and reduction of CO2 emission. The microbial biomass C (MBC), readily mineralizable C (RMC), water-soluble C (WSC), and permanganate-oxidizable C (PMOC) were 19.4, 20.4, 39.5, and 15.1 % higher under MT than CT. The C contents in soil aggregate fraction were significantly higher in MT than CT. Soil enzymatic activities like, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and ?-glucosidase were significantly higher by 13.8, 15.4, and 27.4 % under MT compared to CT. The soil labile C pools, enzymatic activities, and heterotrophic microbial populations were in the order of maize?>?cowpea?>?rice, irrespective of the tillage treatments. Environmental sustainability point of view, minimum tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system in tropical low land soil could be adopted to minimize CO2-C emission, sustain yield, and maintain soil health. PMID:24609455

Neogi, S; Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Panda, B B; Nayak, A K; Rao, K S; Manna, M C

2014-07-01

269

Efeito da variação de níveis de água disponível no solo sobre o crescimento e produção de feijão caupi, vagens e grãos verdes / Effect of different levels of available water in the soil on the growth and production of cowpea bean pods and green grains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se o efeito da variação de níveis de água disponível no solo, sobre o crescimento e produção de vagens e grãos verdes de feijão caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], cv. IPA 206. A produção de vagens e de grãos verdes desta espécie é uma excelente alternativa de comercialização para os agricu [...] ltores do Nordeste do Brasil, visto que o seu consumo é bastante significativo na região. Instalou-se o experimento em vasos de 13 kg, em casa de vegetação na UFPB em Areia (PB), de agosto a dezembro de 2000. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 4 tratamentos correspondentes aos níveis de água disponível do solo (40; 60; 80 e 100%), logo após as irrigações, com 6 repetições. Os resultados observados mostraram que o nível crescente de déficit hídrico afetou drasticamente o desempenho desta cultivar em estudo em comparação à testemunha. As maiores reduções estimadas foram constatadas no comprimento da haste principal, 26 e 48%, no número de folha por planta, 23 e 35%, no número de vagens por planta, 32 e 49%, e na massa de vagens por planta, 23 e 30%, respectivamente para os níveis de 60 e 40% de água disponível do solo. Nas condições do experimento a cultivar de feijão caupi IPA 206 não tolera déficit hídrico acentuado. Abstract in english The effect of different levels of available water in the soil was evaluated on the growth and production of green pod and green beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) of cowpea, cv. IPA 206. Both forms of commercialization are excellent alternatives for farmers from the Northeast of Brazil. Plants were [...] cultivated in 13 kg soil pots under green house conditions in Areia, Paraiba State, from August to December/2000. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with six replications and four treatments corresponding to 40; 60; 80 and 100% of available water in the soil, just after irrigations. The production was significantly affected by the deficit of water. Great reduction was observed in the length of the main stem (26 and 48%), in the number of leaves per plant (23 and 35%), in the number of pods per plant (32 and 49%) and in the mass of pods per plant (23 and 30%), respectively, for the levels of 60 and 40% of available water in the soil. The production of green pod and green beans of cowpea cv. IPA 206 is greatly affected by deficit of water of 40 and 60%.

Nascimento, João Tavares; Pedrosa, Murilo Barros; Tavares Sobrinho, José.

270

Subgroups of the Cowpea Miscellany: Symbiotic Specificity within Bradyrhizobium spp. for Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus lunatus, Arachis hypogaea, and Macroptilium atropurpureum†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizobia classified as Bradyrhizobium spp. comprise a highly heterogeneous group of bacteria that exhibit differential symbiotic characteristics on hosts in the cowpea miscellany cross-inoculation group. To delineate the degree of specificity exhibited by four legumes in the cowpea miscellany, we tested the symbiotic characteristics of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and peanut (Arachis hypogae...

Thies, Janice E.; Bohlool, B. Ben; Singleton, Paul W.

1991-01-01

271

Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The virucidal effect of _6_0Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

1983-03-01

272

Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

1983-03-01

273

Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or pol...

2005-01-01

274

Effects of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the direct effect of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 (dmPGA1) on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). dmPGA1 significantly inhibited viral replication in both HSV and HIV infection systems at concentrations of dmPGA1 that did not adversely alter cellular DNA synthesis. The 50% inhibitory concentration (ID50) for several HSV type 1 (HSV-1) strains ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 micrograms/ml for Vero cells and from 4.6 to 7.3 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. The ID50s for two HSV-2 strains varied from 3.8 to 4.5 micrograms/ml for Vero cells; the ID50 was 5.7 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. We found that closely related prostaglandins did not have the same effect on the replication of HSV; dmPGE2 and dmPGA2 caused up to a 60% increase in HSV replication compared with that in untreated virus-infected cells. HIV-1 replication in acutely infected T cells (VB line) and chronically infected macrophages was assessed by quantitative decreases in p24 concentration. The effective ID50s were 2.5 micrograms/ml for VB cells acutely infected with HIV-1 and 5.2 micrograms/m for chronically infected macrophages. dmPGA1 has an unusual broad-spectrum antiviral activity against both HSV and HIV-1 in vitro and offers a new class of potential therapeutic agents for in vivo use.

Hughes-Fulford, M.; McGrath, M. S.; Hanks, D.; Erickson, S.; Pulliam, L.

1992-01-01

275

An evaluation of the effect of Bacillus cells and Bacillus spores in association with cowpea granules as starter cultures for the fermentation of African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Bentham) to 'ugba'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the improvement of the traditional production of 'ugba', a protein-rich fermented African oil bean seed product, were undertaken, by developing starter cultures of Bacillus subtilis cells and spores in association with cowpea granules. The viability of the cells in association remained stable at 94.5% for 6 months at 30 degrees C and for up to 10 months at 4 degrees C while the viability of the spores in association remained stable at ca. 96% for up to 10 months at both 4 and 30 degrees C. The starter cultures resulted in high increases in protease activity from ca 2.8 mg N/min to about 51.6 +/- 0.4 mg N/min in 48 h and a corresponding increase in amino-nitrogen content of ca 2.0 +/- 0.2 mg N 100 g dry matter (DM) to ca 18.5 +/- 0.3 mg N/100 g (DM) during the same period. Changes in the protease activity of the natural process were gradual and increased from 3.0 mg N/min to 38.0 +/- 0.8 mg N/min after 5 days of fermentation. The maximum amino nitrogen content of 'ugba' produced by the starter cultures (18.5 +/- 0.3 mg N/100 g DM) after 2 days was significantly (p <0.05) higher than the maximum amino nitrogen content (12.5 +/- 0.8 mg N/100 g DM), of 'ugba' obtained by the natural process. 'Ugba' produced by the starter cultures were well accepted and compared favorably with the natural product. PMID:10898482

Isu, N R; Abu, G O

2000-01-01

276

EFFECT OF p-FLUOROPHENYLALANINE ON PSITTACOSIS VIRUS IN TISSUE CULTURES  

Science.gov (United States)

Tanami, Yoh (University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston) and Morris Pollard. Effect of p-fluorophenylalanine on psittacosis virus in tissue cultures. J. Bacteriol. 83:437–442. 1962.—The inhibitory effect of p-fluorophenylalanine (FPA) on maturation of psittacosis virus was investigated, with attention to the time sequence of viral protein synthesis. Extracellular virus particles were not inactivated by FPA at a concentration of 100 ?g per ml, at which level it interfered with maturation of intracellular virus. When FPA was added to infected tissue cultures earlier than 15 hr after infection, intracellular virus maturation was suppressed. However, when FPA was added after 15 hr, infective virus was produced, which indicates that the synthesis of a FPA-sensitive virus precursor (presumably viral protein) had already occurred. A latent (“dormant”) infection of psittacosis virus, established in a medium deficient in phenylalanine and tyrosine, was also investigated.

Tanami, Yoh; Pollard, Morris

1962-01-01

277

Effect of p-fluorophenylalanine of psittacosis virus in tissue cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tanami, Yoh (University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston) and Morris Pollard. Effect of p-fluorophenylalanine on psittacosis virus in tissue cultures. J. Bacteriol. 83:437-442. 1962.-The inhibitory effect of p-fluorophenylalanine (FPA) on maturation of psittacosis virus was investigated, with attention to the time sequence of viral protein synthesis. Extracellular virus particles were not inactivated by FPA at a concentration of 100 mug per ml, at which level it interfered with maturation of intracellular virus. When FPA was added to infected tissue cultures earlier than 15 hr after infection, intracellular virus maturation was suppressed. However, when FPA was added after 15 hr, infective virus was produced, which indicates that the synthesis of a FPA-sensitive virus precursor (presumably viral protein) had already occurred. A latent ("dormant") infection of psittacosis virus, established in a medium deficient in phenylalanine and tyrosine, was also investigated. PMID:13919507

TANAMI, Y; POLLARD, M

1962-03-01

278

Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Some Nigerian Cowpea Varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physicochemical and functional properties of four local varieties of cowpea seeds (Achishiru, Akidi, Jokada and Odudu in Nigeria were studied. Length, major and minor diameter of seeds were in the range 6.70-12.90 mm, 3.33-5.58 mm, 3.18-4.65 mm while grain weight of seeds varied between 8.40 to 34.90 g. Cooking time ranged from 28.00 to 40.00 min. Cooking yield were in the range of 55.43 to 59.77% and the dissolved solid ranged from 0.27 to 0.93%. Cowpea seeds contain high value of crude protein in the range of 25.79 to 29.25%. Moisture, dry matter, fat, ash and crude fibre value were in the range of 8.57 to 10.07%, 89.93 to 91.44%, 0.79 to 3.18%, 2.72 to 3.73% and 1.92 to 3.37% respectively. Carbohydrate content varied between 53.56 to 57.36%, while energy value ranged from 337.57 to 360.67 Kcal / 100g. Cowpea seed flours were good sources of calcium (424.00-582.00 mg / 100g, iron (4.00-4.82 mg /100g, magnesium (128.54-145.12 mg /100g and copper 5.55-6.13 mg /100g water absorption capacity varied between 1.60 and 1.94 g/g while oil absorption capacity ranged from 0.35 to 0.54 g/g. Bulk density and foam capacity were in the range 0.29 to 0.40 g /mL and 100.52 to 126.50 mL. Foam stability and Nitrogen solubility showed high value. The cowpea seed flours are functional foods for nutrition and utilization.

C.E. Chinma

2008-01-01

279

Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

1996-07-01

280

Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a 60 Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

2002-08-11

 
 
 
 
281

Genetic divergence among African cowpea lines based on morphoagronomic traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence between African cowpea lines from the Cowpea Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte, Brazil. The morphoagronomic diversity of 57 cowpea lines was assessed using multivariate analysis. The germplasm was evaluated in August 2009 using a randomized block design with three replications based on the following traits: number of pods per peduncle, pod length (PL), number of grains per pod (NGP), grain length (GRL), grain width, 100-grain weight (W100G), and yield. The heritability values of the traits PL, NGP, GRL, and W100G were all higher than 70%, indicating the possibility of genetic progress with selection. The crosses between the lines IT82D-889 and IT89KD-245, IT85F-1380 and IT89KD-245, and IT89KD-245 and IT98K-1092-1 could result in promising genetic combinations. The characteristics that contributed most to genetic divergence were W100G (49.7%), PL (16.7%), GRL (12.0%), and NGP (9.7%). PMID:24391025

Costa, E M R; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Medeiros, A M; Anunciação Filho, C J

2013-01-01

282

Early events in living epidermal cells of cowpea and broad bean during infection with basidiospores of the cowpea rust fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The infection process of basidiospores of the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae) was studied on living host (Vigna sinensis) and nonhost (Vicia faba) leaves using light microscopy with differential interference contrast optics. During the first 8 h, fungal development was similar on host and on nonhost leaves.Penetration and production of intraepidermal vesicles occurred in nonhost cells 4 h earlier than in host cells. Penetration frequency was also higher in nonhost leaves. These results s...

Xu, Haixin; Mendgen, Kurt

1991-01-01

283

Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed enhanced symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and also after infection with a heterologous potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY) and a comovirus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). On the other hand, transgenic lines expressing nontranslatable HC-Pro or translatable HC-Pro with a deletion of the central domain showed wild type symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and heterologous viruses. These results showed that CABMV HC-Pro is a pathogenicity determinant that conditions enhanced sensitivity to virus infection in plants, and that the central domain of the protein is essential for this. The severe symptoms in CABMV-infected HC-Pro expressing lines were remarkably followed by brief recovery and subsequent re-establishment of infection, possibly indicating counteracting effects of HC-Pro expression and a host defense response. One of the HC-Pro expressing lines (h48) was found to contain low levels of transgenic HC-Pro RNA and to be resistant to CABMV and to recombinant CPMV expressing HC-Pro. This indicated that h48 was (partially) posttranscriptionally silenced for the HC-Pro transgene inspite of the established role of HC-Pro as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Line h48 was not resistant to PVY, but instead showed enhanced symptoms compared to nontransgenic plants. This may be due to relief of silencing of the HC-Pro transgene by HC-Pro expressed by PVY. PMID:12206307

Mlotshwa, Sizolwenkosi; Verver, Jan; Sithole-Niang, Idah; Prins, Marcel; Van Kammen, A B; Wellink, Joan

2002-01-01

284

Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge Crescimento, nodulação e fixação de nitrogênio pelo feijão-caupi em solo com composto de lodo de curtume  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC) rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emerg...

Joseany Andrade Santos; Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José de Melo; Marcia Barreto do Vale Figueiredo; Rajeev Pratap Singh; Antônio Aécio Carvalho Bezerra; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

2011-01-01

285

Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability. PMID:16887156

Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Smagghe, Guy

2006-09-01

286

The Effect of Precipitation on the Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus in Nature: A Complex Effect on Antibody-Positive Rate to JE Virus in Sentinel Pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in Asia. Pigs are a natural host and the amplifier of JE virus. The sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs reflects the activity of JE virus in the region. We analyzed whether precipitation has any effect on the sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlations between the levels of precipitation and sero-conversion rates to J...

Kurane, Ichiro; Shibasaki, Ken-ichi; Kotaki, Akira; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Takasaki, Tomohiko

2013-01-01

287

Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-?. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

Lin Na-Sheng

2007-09-01

288

Interaction between rifabutin and human immunodeficiency virus type 1: inhibition of replication, cytopathic effect, and reverse transcriptase in vitro.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rifabutin (ansamycin; LM427), a semisynthetic rifamycin derivative, inhibits the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, the virus etiologically linked to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The inhibition of virus production was observed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells both by reverse transcriptase assay and virus-antigen assay. In addition, rifabutin effectively reduced human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated cytopathic e...

Anand, R.; Moore, J. L.; Curran, J. W.; Srinivasan, A.

1988-01-01

289

Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal ?-hexamer structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a ?-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the ?-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having ?-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

2011-10-10

290

Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal ?-hexamer structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a ?-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the ?-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having ?-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry. PMID:21864876

de Wispelaere, Melissanne; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan; Rao, A L N

2011-10-10

291

Molecular Characterization of Viruses from Clinical Respiratory Samples Producing Unidentified Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600-1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses. Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation was present in the viral surface EF and CD loops. These results demonstrate the usefulness of SISPA for identifying emerging viruses and also known viruses not easily identified by standard virological methods.

Guy Boivin

2009-07-01

292

Toxicity Studies of Some Inert Dusts with the Cowpea Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study has been undertaken to find out the effectiveness of DE and some other inert dusts like, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and a dust formulation insecticide carbaryl on the cowpea beetles Callosobruchus maculates (F. ). The bioassay of the dusts was done on adult beetles by applying them with normal food. The LD50 of C. maculatus after 24 h was 737.15, 73305.15, 1479.29, 11449.60, 117371.50, 5171.79 and 21.49 p...

Shah Hussain Ahmad Mahdi; Khalequzzaman, M.

2006-01-01

293

Physiological, biochemical and agromorphological responses of five cowpea genotypes (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to water deficit under glasshouse conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambey 21, Gorom local, KVX61-1, Mouride and TN88-63, grown in pots under glasshouse conditions, were submitted to water deficit by withholding irrigation at vegetative stage (T1) for 14 days, and at flowering stage (T2) for 12 days. Effect of this stress on leaf water potential, gas exchanges, foliar proline, total protein and starch contents, maximal quantum yield of photochemistry (fp0), root volume and yield components was determined. Leaf wat...

2007-01-01

294

Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity to chirality, ROA is an incisive probe of their aqueous solution structures at the molecular level. Protein ROA bands are especially prominent from which, as we have shown by comparison with the ROA spectra of proteins with known structures and by using a pattern recognition program, the folds of the major coat protein subunits may be deduced. Information about amino acid side-chain conformations, exemplified here by the determination of the sign and magnitude of the torsion angle chi(2,1) for tryptophan in fd, may also sometimes be obtained. By subtracting the ROA spectrum of the empty protein capsid (top component) of cowpea mosaic virus from those of the intact middle and bottom-upper components separated by means of a caesium chloride density gradient, the ROA spectrum of the viral RNA was obtained, which revealed that the RNA takes up an A-type single-stranded helical conformation and that the RNA conformations in the middle and bottom-upper components are very similar. This information is not available from the X-ray crystal structure of cowpea mosaic virus since no nucleic acid is visible.

Blanch, Ewan W.; Hecht, Lutz

2002-01-01

295

Natrum mur 200c promotes seed germination and increases total protein, chlorophyll, rubisco and sugar in early seedlings of cowpea under salt stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: High level of salinity deteriorates seed germination, growth and yield of crops in cultivated lands all over the world. There is no effective remedy to mitigate this global problem. Homeopathy offers a remedy like Natrum mur which at ultra high dilution ameliorates diseases of patients having strong desire for salt consumption. The purpose of the present study is to see whether potentized Natrum mur could alleviate salt stress in germinating seeds of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) W...

2012-01-01

296

Morpho-physiological responses of cowpea leaves to salt stress Respostas morfofisiológicas de folhas de feijão-de-corda ao estresse salino  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of salt stress of known intensity and duration on morpho-physiological changes in leaves of different ages from cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] plants was studied, aiming for a better understanding of the acclimation process of the whole-plant. Seeds were sown in vermiculite and seedlings were transferred to plastic trays containing aerated nutrient solution, and kept in a greenhouse. When the first trifoliate leaf emerged the seedlings were transplanted into 3 L plastic pots...

Lacerda, Claudivan F.; Assis Ju?nior, Jose? O.; Lemos Filho, Luiz C. A.; Oliveira, Teo?genes S.; Guimara?es, Francisco V. A.; Enéas Gomes-Filho; Prisco, Jose? T.; Bezerra, Marlos A.

2006-01-01

297

Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas / Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación). Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica [...] y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante alto Abstract in english In the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment) were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nu [...] trients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

Drago, Silvina R; González, Rolando J; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Valencia, Mirta E.

298

Eficiência de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi / Efficiency of herbicides for cowpea crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e eficácia de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), conduziu-se um experimento no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados nove herbicidas/misturas (S-metolachlor, bentazo [...] n + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl) e uma testemunha sem herbicidas, e nas subparcelas foram avaliados dois tratamentos: com capinas e sem capinas, para determinar a seletividade e a eficácia dos herbicidas, respectivamente. Os herbicidas S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl foram seletivos para a cultura. A mistura lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl causou severa intoxicação no feijão-caupi, com posterior recuperação e produtividade igual ou superior à dos demais tratamentos. As principais espécies de plantas infestantes foram: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Digitaria bicornis, sendo todas controladas com eficiência pelos herbicidas S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência + bentazon + imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência e lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl aplicados em pós-emergência. Conclui-se que a eficiência de herbicidas para o feijão-caupi depende da seletividade para a cultura, bem como de sua eficácia no controle de plantas daninhas, a qual pode variar de acordo com a comunidade infestante. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of herbicides for the crop of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block design. The plots consisted of nine herbicides/mixtures (S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazo [...] n + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p- butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl, fluazifop-p-butyl) and a control without herbicides , while the subplots consisted of the evaluation of two treatments : with weeding and without weeding, to determine the selectivity and effectiveness of the herbicides , respectively. The herbicides S-metolachlor, imazamox + bentazon, bentazon + S-metolachlor + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazamox + bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the cowpea crop. The mixture lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl caused severe intoxication in the cowpea crop with subsequent recovery and yield equal to or higher than the other treatments. The main weed species were: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria bicornis, all being efficiently controlled by the herbicide S-metolachlor applied at pre-emergence + imazamox + bentazon applied at post-emergence and lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl applied at post-emergence. It was concluded that the efficiency of the herbicides for cowpea depends on the selectivity for the crop, as well as on their effectiveness in controlling weeds, which may vary according to the weed community.

K.S., Silva; F.C.L., Freitas; L.M., Silveira; C.S., Linhares; D.R., Carvalho; M.F.P., Lima.

299

Ornamental Potential of Cowpea Using Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Mutant Traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mutant traits possess aesthetic forms which could serve in the production of ornamental plants. Thorough understanding of these mutant traits in crop improvement is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ornamental potential of cytoplasmic and nuclear leaf and floral mutants of cowpea. Plants with aesthetic traits such foliage colour stem type and flower colour under cytoplasmic and nuclear control were crossed. Backcrosses were also made to parents with desired character(s between 2007 and 2009. Selected plants with ornamental potential were evaluated in 25 cm diameter plastic pots filled with garden soil on the rooftop garden of the Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan. Nigeria. Qualitative data like; terminal leaf shape, plant growth habit, flower colour and form, while quantitative traits like; plant height at flowering, number of days from sowing to first flower and ripe pod, pod length, number of seeds per pod, total number of pods per plant were recorded and analyzed using means separation, standard error, standard deviations and coefficient of variation. Results obtained showed cowpea plants with combination of variegated leaf colour and fasciated stem, Rosa flower and green foliage with purple flower. Mean number of days from sowing to first flower, plant height at first flower, pod length, total number of pods per plant were 82.60, 19.10, 09.50 and 03.40 cm, respectively. It was found that fewer pods produced the by a plant increases its life span. This experiment was able to show cowpea as an ornamental crop.

Justina Boloebi Porbeni

2013-01-01

300

Effects of humic materials on virus recovery from water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Humic and fulvic acids were tested for their ability to interfere with virus recovery by microporous filters. Two electropositively charged types of filter (Seitz S and Zeta Plus 60S) were used to concentrate poliovirus in the presence of humic materials. Humic acid inhibited virus adsorption, but even at the highest humic acid concentrations tested (200 mg/liter), 30 to 40% of the virus was recovered by the filters. Fulvic acid, tested with Zeta Plus filters, did not affect virus recovery. F...

Guttman-bass, N.; Catalano-sherman, J.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality of seeds acquired from the informal SS, and compared this with the quality of seeds obtained from the formal SS. Cowpea seed production in northern Nigeria was used as a case study to evaluate the ...

Biemond, P. C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T. J.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; Struik, P. C.

2013-01-01

302

Insecticidal Activity of the Aqueous Extracts of Four Under-utilized Tropical Plants as Protectant of Cowpea Seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids.

J. Kayode

2013-01-01

303

Effects of varying virus-spiking conditions on a virus-removal filter Planova™ 20N in a virus validation study of antibody solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We aimed to investigate the effect of virus-spiking conditions on the filter performance (flux, flux decay, and parvovirus reduction) of the small virus filter Planova™ 20N. We used three kinds of porcine parvovirus (PPV) stocks: serum, serum-free, and purified. The flux profile with PPV spiking was similar to that without spiking for normal load filtration of about 250-300 L/m(2) . High volume (3 vol %) of serum-free PPV and 1 vol % serum PPV reduced the flux to some extent for high-load filtration (over 10 h, ca., 500 L/m(2) , 5 mg/mL IgG solution). Log reduction value (LRV) of PPV was maintained at a high level (>5) over the filtration volume. Flux for Planova™ 20N was only minimally affected by the use of different virus stocks for spiking. Transmission electron microphotography showed that the distribution of PPV particles captured inside the membrane wall was reached until the -60% thickness of the membrane, showing that the membrane of Planova™ 20N has a thick effective layer for virus removal. These results provided evidence for the robustness of the filter performance of Planova™ 20N, showing that it was not easily affected by virus spiking conditions and that it has a large capacity for high-load conditions. PMID:21312364

Hongo-Hirasaki, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Kazuhito; Yanagida, Kouichirou; Hayashida, Hirohisa; Ide, Shoichi

2011-01-01

304

Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch in Medicago truncatula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis using a F2 population (n?=?150 from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. Conclusions The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

Kamphuis Lars G

2012-07-01

305

Moisture and Planting Density Interactions Affect Productivity in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of planting density and inter-row spacing on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. productivity at two contrasting moisture regimes. A field experiment was conducted under controlled moisture conditions during the 2007 off-season, at Hawassa University, College of Agriculture, Southern Ethiopia. Treatments were made from a factorial combination of four densities (71428, 95238, 133333 and 200000 plants ha-1, two inter-row spacings (50 and 70 cm and two levels of water regimes (well watered and dry. The experiment was laid out in a split- split plot design and had three replications with watering regime, inter-row spacing and planting density as main plot, sub-plot and sub-sub-plot factors, respectively. Grain yield and all yield attributes, total biomass and harvest index were decreased by water limitation while none of those traits were significantly affected by inter-row spacing. Moisture x planting density interaction was significant for grain yield ha-1, number of pods m-2 and total biomass ha-1. The interaction indicated that an increase in both grain and total biomass yield ha-1 was observed with increasing planting density under the wet regime. Grain yield plateau was reached at a density of 160000 plants ha-1 under the wet regime. On the other hand, an increase in planting density decreased grain yield and total biomass ha-1 under the water-limited condition with the highest yield at the lowest density of 71428 plants ha-1. Thus, farmers could get more out of cowpea by matching their planting density with available moisture. The two inter-row spacings can be used interchangeably by choosing whichever is convenient for management.

G. Lemma

2009-01-01

306

Alternativas Microbiológicas para Mejorar el Crecimiento del Caupí / Microbiological Alternatives for the Improvement of Cowpea Growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P) en el suelo, la ineficiencia que presenta su absorción y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo, capaces de m [...] ejorar la disponibilidad y la absorción de P y la eficiencia de la fertilización con fertilizantes más económicos como la Roca Fosfórica (RP). En este trabajo se evaluó bajo condiciones de casa de malla, el efecto de un hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA) (Glomus fasciculatum) y un microorganismo solubilizador de P (MSP) (Mortierella sp.) sobre la toma de P y el crecimiento de plantas de caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), con adición de tres niveles de RP (0, 100 y 300 mg de P kg-1 suelo). Los resultados mostraron un incremento significativo (P Abstract in english The low phosphorus (P) availability in soil, absorption inefficiency and high costs of phosphate fertilization are limiting factors for agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative is the use of soil microorganisms, capable of improving P disponibility, absorption and the use of fertili [...] zer cheaper as rock phosphate fertilization (PR). This experiment was performed under screen house conditions aiming to evaluate the effect of an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (HMA) (Glomus fasciculatum) and a P solubilizing fungus (MSP) (Mortierella sp.) on P uptake and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) growth, planted with three concentrations (0, 100 and 300 mg of P per each kg of soil) of PR. A significant increase (P-?0.05) in dry mass, plant height, mean stem diameter and foliar phosphorus, was observed in the HMA-inoculated plants compared with the HMA-non inoculated plants. No significant differences were identified when PR was added or MSP was inoculated. The results suggest that the use of HMA may improve P absorption and cowpea growth under the evaluated conditions.

Ramírez Gil, Joaquín Guillermo; Osorno Bedoya, Laura; Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter; Morales Osorio, Juan Gonzalo.

307

In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of NAA-Pulse Treated Plumular Leaf Explants of Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an economically important grain legume crop and is an important source of dietary protein in many of the developing countries. The present study reports the effect of pulse treatment duration, concentration of NAA and presence of NAA in the culture medium on shoot regeneration from plumular leaf explant of Turkish cowpea cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz?. Pulse treatment of mature embryos with 20 mg l-1 NAA for 1 and 3 weeks followed by culturing of plumular leaf explant on MS medium containing 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 BAP with 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 NAA promoted somatic embryogenesis in both cultivars. Longer duration of pulse treatment was deleterious resulting in browning and consequently death of the embryos on explants. Pulse treatment with 20 mg l-1 NAA for one week was less deleterious and developed two plantlets after the explants were transferred to MS0 medium after 6 weeks through somatic embryogenesis in cv. ?Akkiz?. Pulse treatment with 10 mg l-1 NAA for 1 week showed 33.33-50.00 % and 25.00-50.00% shoot regeneration frequency in cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz? respectively on MS medium containing 0.25-1.00 mg l-1 BAP. Maximum number of 2.50 shoots each per explant were recorded in cv. ?Akkiz? and ?Karagoz? on MS medium containing 1.00 and 0.50 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Contrarily, maximum shoot length of 8.98 cm of cv. ?Akkiz? and 9.42 cm of cv. ?Karagoz? was recorded on MS medium containing 0.50 mg l-1 BAP and 1.00 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.5 mg l-1 IBA and and acclimatized in growth room at room temprature where they produced viable seeds.

Muhammad AASIM

2010-06-01

308

DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL / Efeitos da deficiência hídrica e recuperação sobre a assimilação de nitrato e atividade de nódulos de plantas de caupi inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium spp. sob um nível moderado de nitrato  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi feito com a finalidade de estabelecer efeitos comparativos da seca e da reidratação na assimilação do nitrato e atividade do nódulo relacionado com a fixação de N2 em planta de caupi [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] previamente inoculada com Bradyrhizobium spp., estirpe BR-3256 (CB-756 [...] ), na presença de NO-3 (5 mol m-3). Aos 28 dias após a emergência, as plantas noduladas foram submetidas à seca, durante 4 dias sucessivos e, depois, reidratadas com solução nutritiva durante 2 dias. A seca causou um aumento rápido no conteúdo de nitrato da raiz e uma acentuada redução na atividade da redutase do nitrato de folhas (NR). Em contraste, no nódulo esta atividade foi aumentada ligeiramente pelo déficit de água. Concomitantemente, nos nódulos das plantas estressadas, observou-se uma redução progressiva na concentração de leghemoglobina, atividade de glutamina sintetase (GS) e na concentração de ureídeos na seiva do xilema. A atividade da NR nas folhas aumentou rapidamente após a reidratação enquanto que o conteúdo de nitrato da mesma decresceu. Em contraste, a atividade de GS e a concentração de proteínas solúveis nos nódulos continuaram diminuindo nas plantas reidratadas. A concentração de leghemoglobina apresentou uma boa recuperação, enquanto que o conteúdo de ureídeos sofreu um leve aumento após a reidratação. Apesar da assimilação de nitrato em folhas e a atividade do nódulo terem sido severamente afetados pelo déficit de água, a rápida recuperação da atividade de redutase do nitrato nas folhas sugere que o primeiro processo seja menos susceptível ao ciclo de seca/reidratação quando plantas de caupi são noduladas em presença de nível moderado de nitrato. Abstract in english This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756) strain in the presence of 5 mol m [...] -3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da, Silveira; Roberto Cezar Lobo da, Costa; José Tadeu Abreu, Oliveira.

309

The effects of viral load on pseudorabies virus gene expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpesvirus genes are classified into distinct kinetic groups on the basis of their expression dynamics during lytic growth of the virus in cultured cells at a high, typically 10 plaque-forming units/cell multiplicity of infection (MOI. It has been shown that both the host response and the success of a pathogen are dependent on the quantity of particles infecting an organism. This work is a continuation of an earlier study 1, in which we characterized the overall expression of PRV genes following low-MOI infection. In the present study, we have addressed the question of whether viral gene expressions are dependent on the multiplicity of infection by comparing gene expressions under low and high-MOI conditions. Results In the present study, using a real-time RT-PCR assay, we address the question of whether the expression properties of the pseudorabies virus (PRV genes are dependent on the number of virion particles infecting a single cell in a culture. Our analysis revealed a significant dependence of the gene expression on the MOI in most of these genes. Specifically, we found that most of the examined viral genes were expressed at a lower level at a low MOI (0.1 than at a high MOI (10 experiment in the early stage of infection; however, this trend reversed by six hour post-infection in more than half of the genes. Furthermore, in the high-MOI infection, several PRV genes substantially declined within the 4 to 6-h infection period, which was not the case in the low-MOI infection. In the low-MOI infection, the level of antisense transcript (AST, transcribed from the antiparallel DNA strand of the immediate-early 180 (ie180 gene, was comparable to that of ie180 mRNA, while in the high-MOI experiment (despite the 10 times higher copy number of the viral genome in the infected cells the amount of AST dropped by more than two log values at the early phase of infection. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that adjacent PRV genes are under a common regulation. This is the first report on the effect of the multiplicity of infection on genome-wide gene expression of large DNA viruses, including herpesviruses. Conclusion Our results show a strong dependence of the global expression of PRV genes on the MOI. Furthermore, our data indicate a strong interrelation between the expressions of ie180 mRNA and AST, which determines the expression properties of the herpesvirus genome and possibly the replication strategy (lytic or latent infection of the virus in certain cell types.

Takács Irma F

2010-12-01

310

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpure...

2012-01-01

311

The effect of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's) virus infection on young mature boars and boar fertility.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to determine the effects of experimental inoculation with pseudorabies virus on the reproductive tracts of young adult boars. Pseudorabies virus was inoculated intranasally into 12 boars and intrapreputially into four boars. All animals seroconverted after nasal or preputial inoculation. Semen abnormalities were observed 21 days postinoculation with partial recovery by 50 days postinoculation. Virus was isolated from the preputial sheath of two intrapreputially inocula...

Hall, L. B.; Kluge, J. P.; Evans, L. E.; Hill, H. T.

1984-01-01

312

Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clinical specimens from patients infected with Lassa, Ebola, or Marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. We have examined the effects of heat, alteration of pH, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. Heating serum at 60 degrees C for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without alterin...

1984-01-01

313

Effect of temperature on the in vitro transcriptase reaction of bluetongue virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and African horsesickness virus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Virions of bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and African horsesickness virus (AHSV) can be converted to core particles by treatment with chymotrypsin and magnesium. The conversion is characterized by the removal of the 2 outer capsid polypeptides of the virion. The loss of these 2 proteins results in an increase in density from 1,36 g/ml to 1,40 g/ml on CsCl gradients. The BTV, EHDV and AHSV core particles have an associated double-stranded RNA dependent RNA transcriptase that appears to transcribe mRNA optimally at 28 degrees Celsius. It was found, at least in the case of BTV, that this low temperature preference is not an intrinsic characteristic of the transcriptase, but is due to a temperature-dependent inhibition of transcription at high core concentrations.

Van Dijk, A.A.; Huismans, H. (Veterinary Research Inst., Onderstepoort (South Africa))

1982-12-01

314

EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus and Achyranthus aspera were used against the post harvest fungal mycoflora. All the plants used were found to be antifungal. In particular Eucalyptus globulus, Argemone mexicana, Tridax procumbens and Parthenium hysterophorus were highly inhibitory. These plant extracts can be used for controlling fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes during post harvest as these are eco-friendly and do not cause environmental hazard.

Umesh P. Mogle

2013-01-01

315

Inheritance Characteristics of F1 and F2 Offsprings Obtained from Full Diallele Crosses of Five Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Against Pseudocercospora Leaf Spot Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm, Department of Agricultural Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham Province in the 2005 (February to April for F1 offsprings and also at the Experimental Farm, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand for F2 offsprings (July to October, i.e., four experiments were carried out, each location had two experiments. The research aimed to investigate inheritance characteristics of F1 and F2 offsprings derived from full diallele crosses of five cowpea cultivars (20 pairs of crosses against a pathogenic disease of Pseudocercospora cruenta (Sacc, Deighton. The first two experiments were carried out under field and glasshouse conditions at Mahasarakham University for F1 offsprings and the other two experiments were carried out at Khon Kaen University for F2 offsprings. A Chi square test method was used to justify dominant genes on the infection of the disease. The results showed that the cowpea plants of F1 and F2 offsprings gave only one pair of dominant gene that had its complete dominant effect over recessive gene of the cowpea offsprings.

N. Sinsiri

2008-01-01

316

Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

F.A.Ajayi

2006-01-01

317

Effect of host age on experimental K virus infection in mice.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mice were inoculated by the oral route with K virus at 4, 8, 12, and 23 days and at 4 months of age. The effect of host age on the pathogenesis of infection was studied by immunofluorescence, virus assay, and histopathology. K virus produced a systemic infection in all animals, although the infection because progressively more limited as animals matured. In mice inoculated at 4 days of age, K virus infection resulted in a fatal interstitial pneumonia identical to that seen in newborn animals ...

Greenlee, J. E.

1981-01-01

318

Effect of tunicamycin on herpes simplex virus glycoproteins and infectious virus production.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antibiotic tunicamycin, which blocks the synthesis of glycoproteins, inhibited the production of infectious herpes simplex virus. In the presence of this drug, [14C]glucosamine and [3H]mannose incorporation was reduced in infected cells, whereas total protein synthesis was not affected. Gel electrophoresis of [2-3H]mannose-labeled polypeptides failed to detect glycoprotein D or any of the other herpes simplex virus glycoproteins. By use of specific antisera we demonstrated that in the pre...

Pizer, L. I.; Cohen, G. H.; Eisenberg, R. J.

1980-01-01

319

Are investments in an informal seed system for cowpea a worthwhile endeavour?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High seed quality is a critical component for realising yield potential. For smallholder cowpea farmers in northern Nigeria the informal seed system is a major supplier of genetically high-quality seed, but the physiological quality of farmers’ produced seed remains unknown. The project “Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno State” (PROSAB) trained and supported farmers in seed production in Borno State, Nigeria. We analysed the quality of farmers’ produced cowpea seed based on s...

Biemond, P. C.; Stomph, T. J.; Kamara, A.; Abdoulaye, T.; Hearne, S.; Struik, P. C.

2012-01-01

320

Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

Ezezika Obidimma C

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

1983-01-01

322

Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference for processed cowpea-based products, such as, boiled cowpea with cereals, fried cowpea paste, and cowpea fortified maize dough in selected communities of the coastal regions of Ghana. Using descriptive statistics, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance, and Logit Model, it was found that there was high preference for processed cowpea-based products in all the communities studied; and that processing cowpea into various food types was relatively profitable. Key socio-economic factors and consumer characteristics that influence preference include gender, marital status, income, education, product taste, sustainability of products (satisfying and product availability. The production of gas (flatulence after consumption of the products was the most pressing factor that influences preference. Unavailability of the products was identified as the least pressing factor. The researchers recommend that the production and utilization of cowpea in the study area and in other parts of Ghana should be encouraged as it would help to both improve the nutritional status of consumers and also help generate income to producers and processors. There should also be further research into the disliking intrinsic characteristics of the products considered.

Nimoh, F.

2012-06-01

323

Fumonisin production by and biological control of Fusarium species associated with cowpea seed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. is an important edible legume crop gaining recognition in the world generally and in Africa particular. The seed is a very good source of vegetable protein for millions of people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Cowpea seed are susceptible to global post-harvest losses caused by insect damage, microbial deterioration and other factors especially when stored at high ambient temperatures and relative humidities. The detection of Fusarium species and fumonisins ...

2011-01-01

324

Evaluation of Sorghum-Cowpea Intercrop Productivity in Savanna Agro-ecology using Competition Indices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The competitive behaviour of sorghum-cowpea intercrops at different planting patterns were studied at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching and Research farm, Bauchi in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The treatments comprised of three row arrangements of sorghum/cowpea mixtures; one ...

Tajudeen Olusegun Oseni

2010-01-01

325

Characterization of a new defensin from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Using Phaseoleae defensins available in databases, a putative defensin gene was isolated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and cloned from genomic cowpea DNA. The putative mature defensin sequence displays the characteristic defensins residues arrangement, secondary and tertiary structures were predicted and splicing analysis was performed. Using RT-PCR, defensin expression and differences in response to biotic stimuli between infected and non infected plants were tested. PMID:20236084

Padovan, Lara; Segat, Ludovica; Tossi, Alessandro; Calsa, Tercilio; Ederson, Akio Kido; Brandao, Lucas; Guimarães, Rafael L; Pandolfi, Valesca; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Belarmino, Luís Carlos; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Crovella, Sergio

2010-03-01

326

Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf powders of two plant species and stored in traditional palm-leaf huts. Beetle damage was evaluated before and after storage. The treatments did not prevent damage, but after treatment with oils, few...

2004-01-01

327

Effect of Estrogen and Other Steroids on mm Virus Infection in Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of several steroid hormones on the susceptibility of mice to infection with MM virus was studied. Estrone, cortisone, and hydrocortis increased mortality, whereas progresterone, prednisolone, and testosterone had no effect. The viral infection-...

D. J. Giron P. T. Allen

1970-01-01

328

Minimising Insecticide Application in the Control of Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L) WALP) in Delta State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many commercial cowpea farmers control insect pests on cowpea with synthetic chemicals and may sometimes spray their farms during the growing season as many as 8 to 10 times. This leads to health hazards and environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to reduce the number of times, cypermethrin (conventional chemical) is applied before harvest and still, produce the expected cowpea grains. The experiments were carried out in two agro-ecological zones - Asaba and Abraka of Delta S...

Egho, E. O.; Enujeke, E. C.

2012-01-01

329

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas / Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testem [...] unha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; [...] d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Romero Francisco Vieira, Carneiro; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Fábio Fernando de, Araújo.

330

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

2010-02-01

331

Temperature effects on vaccine induced immunity to viruses in fish  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract In poikilothemic vertebrates such as teleost fishes, temperature affects all physiological processes including host-pathogen interactions like immune response and propagation of infection. Whether an infection with a pathogenic virus in fish results in development of clinical disease often depends on the balance between virus multiplication and anti viral immune reactions in the host. Water temperature is one of the most important factors influencing the balance between the fish and its environment. Usually, an optimal immune response of a particular fish species is obtained at its normal summer temperature whereas low temperatures may be immunosuppressive. Although innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms should be considered as integrated parts of the immunedefence, low temperatures appears to affect (inhibit) adaptive mechanisms more than innate mechanisms. This might represent a problem in terms of inducing a protective immune response by vaccination in aquaculture, since it is often desirable to vaccinate fish during autumn, winter, or spring. In experimental vaccination trials with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a DNA-vaccine encoding the viral glycoprotein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), non-specific as well as specific immune mechanisms seemed to be delayed at low temperature. At five weeks post vaccination fish kept at 5ï?°C had no detectable response of neutralising antibodies while two thirds of the fish kept at 15ï?°C had sero-converted. While protective immunity was still established at both temperatures, specificity analysis suggested that protection at the lower temperature was mainly due to non-specific innate antiviral mechanisms, which appeared to last longer at low temperature. This was presumably related to a prolonged persistence of the vaccine. In DNA vaccination trials with spring viremia of carp (SVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), protection at low temperature (10ï?°C) appeared to require considerable longer time to develop compared to at 19ï?°C, stressing that determination of optimal vaccination strategies in terms of temperature related effects need to be based on experimental evidence with the actual host and pathogen species rather on general principles.

Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen

332

Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by nitric oxide: antiviral effect of nitric oxide on RNA virus replication.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antiviral effects of nitric oxide (NO) on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, were investigated in this study. In vitro, inhibition of replication of JEV in gamma interferon-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was correlated to cellular NO production. When cocultured with infected murine neuroblastoma N18 cells, gamma interferon-activated RAW 264.7 cells also efficiently hindered JEV replication in contiguous bystanders, and this anti-JEV effect coul...

Lin, Y. L.; Huang, Y. L.; Ma, S. H.; Yeh, C. T.; Chiou, S. Y.; Chen, L. K.; Liao, C. L.

1997-01-01

333

Quality of Garabia (A Nigerian Traditional Snack From Four Varieties of Rice As Affected By the Addition of Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and sensory attributes of garabia a traditional cereal-based snack of Nigeria manufactured from flour obtained from broken fractions of milled four popular rice varieties in Nigeria as a strategy for the improvement of rice postharvest system for improved income and livelihood. The mean moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of rice-cowpea blend garabia were 2.25, 11.87, 34.83, 2.04, and 49.00%, respectively and ranged between 1.88 to 2.47% for moisture, 10.72 to 12.86% for protein with FARO 52 blend having the highest and NERICA-L34 recording the lowest value. Calcium was found to be the most abundant mineral in rice garabia. The calculated metabolizable energy values of the blended rice garabia showed that the products are concentrated energy sources and compares favorably snacks from other sources. Consumer overall acceptability (liking rating was higher than 6 (like slightly based on hedonic ratings based on 9-point hedonic scales indicating that the product are well-liked by the consumers. It can then be concluded that addition of cowpea to rice flour for the production of garabia significantly improves nutritive value of the products with little or no pronounced effect on consumer acceptability.

M.H. Badau

2013-03-01

334

The Effect of Precipitation on the Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis (JE Virus in Nature: A Complex Effect on Antibody-Positive Rate to JE Virus in Sentinel Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in Asia. Pigs are a natural host and the amplifier of JE virus. The sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs reflects the activity of JE virus in the region. We analyzed whether precipitation has any effect on the sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlations between the levels of precipitation and sero-conversion rates to JE virus, in the entire year and during summertime over the period of 32 years from 1969 to 2000. The levels of the annual and summertime precipitation demonstrated statistically significant positive correlations with sero-conversion rates for the whole of the country and for some regions in Japan. The levels of the summertime precipitation, on the other hand, demonstrated statistically significant inverse correlations with the sero-conversion rates in other regions. Further, the levels of precipitation during preceding 10-day periods from days 1–40 before blood collection showed inverse correlation with antibody-positive rates in some regions. The results indicate that the relationship between the annual and summertime precipitation, and the sero-conversion rate to JE virus is complex; both positive and inverse effects are demonstrated depending on the regions.

Tomohiko Takasaki

2013-05-01

335

Identification of Novel Resistance Gene Sources to Cowpea Aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p<0.01) were observed with respect to fertility, larval development, adult longevity, life span, multiplication rate and intrinsic rate of increase. KANANNADO an...

2013-01-01

336

Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H. D.; Kaeberle, M. L.

1999-01-01

337

Comparative transmission of two cucumber mosaic virus isolates by two color morphs of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris).  

Science.gov (United States)

 Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important legume-infecting viruses, which is transmitted effectively by pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hem: Aphididae). Transmission efficiency of two CMV isolates (As and Kh from cowpea and bean hosts, resp.) by red and green color morphs of pea aphid were evaluated on bean plants. Triple-antibody sandwich ELISA (TAS-ELISA) using CMV-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that both CMV isolates belonged to the serotype II. Bean plants inoculated by viruliferous aphids were assayed by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) at 16 days post inoculation (dpi). The results showed that the transmission rate of CMV-As by the red morph was significantly higher than by the green morph, resulting in significantly higher transmission rate of the virus (As + Kh) by the red morph than by the green morph, with p? 0.1. Similarly, the efficiency of CMV transmission by the red morph of A. pisum was higher than the efficiency of transmission by the green morph. The higher transmission rate and efficiency of CMV by red pea aphid would be important in the epidemiology. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the transmission efficiency of CMV is affected more by the difference in transmission determinants of A. pisum color morphs than by the sequence of virus coat protein determinants. Keywords: Aphididae; Bromoviridae; color polymorphism; transmission efficiency. PMID:22720705

Tahmasebi, A; Dizadji, A; Farhoudi, F; Allahyari, H; Koohi-Habibi, M

2012-01-01

338

Effects of Stress on the Immune Response to Theiler's Virus – Implications for Virus-Induced Autoimmunity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Psychological stress is an important factor in susceptibility to many diseases. Our laboratory has been investigating the impact of stress on the susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination (TVID), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Using immunodominant viral peptides specific for identification of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, stress reduced IFN-?-producing virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen and CD8+ T cells in the CNS. Expression of mRNA for the Th1 transcripti...

Welsh, C. Jane; Steelman, Andrew J.; Mi, Wentao; Young, Colin R.; Dean, Dana D.; Storts, Ralph; Welsh, Jr; Meagher, Mary W.

2010-01-01

339

Effect of centrifugation on herpes simplex virus isolation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of high-speed centrifugation on the isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were studied. Aliquots of laboratory or clinical specimens were inoculated into test tubes and flat-bottomed tubes containing HEp2 monolayers. Test tubes were incubated at 35 degrees C on roller drums (standard method), and flat-bottomed tubes were centrifuged at 15,000g at 35 degrees C for 1 hr, before being incubated at 35 degrees C without rolling (centrifuged method). Centrifugation of clinical and laboratory specimens of HSV type 1 and HSV type 2 produced significantly increased isolation rates compared with the standard method. When clinical and laboratory specimens were diluted, the centrifuged method was more sensitive at all dilutions. When 20 specimens were used for end-point titrations, the centrifuged method was 10 times more sensitive for 15 specimens and 100 times more sensitive for five specimens. There was no difference in the time taken for the appearance of cytopathic effect (CPE) between the standard and centrifuged methods. PMID:6278068

Darougar, S; Gibson, J A; Thaker, U

1981-01-01

340

Effects of Temperature and pH on Survival of Free Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Autographa californica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of temperature and low pH on replication and survival of nonoccluded Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus were investigated. No virus replication or formation of polynuclear inclusion bodies occurred at 37°C. The virus was immediately inactivated upon exposure to pH 2.0 and was inactivated within 1 h at pH 4.0. The virus titer slowly declined, a 3-orders of magnitude reduction in virus titer, at pH 5.0 during a 4-h exposure. Virus survival at pH 6.0 was equal to that...

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Effect of respiratory syncytial virus and virus-antibody complexes on the oxidative metabolism of human neutrophils.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or mixtures of RSV and its specific antibody on the oxidative metabolic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied by the technique of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Peripheral blood neutrophils obtained from normal healthy donors were used. RSV alone failed to induce any chemiluminescent response by the neutrophils. However, mixtures of RSV and RSV antibody-positive serum regularly elicited significant neutrophil chemilumi...

Kaul, T. N.; Faden, H.; Ogra, P. L.

1981-01-01

342

Effect of brefeldin A on Mayaro virus replication in Aedes albopictus and Vero cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that blocks transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, was found to inhibit Mayaro virus replication. At the concentration of 0.05 microgram/ml, the yield of the virus was inhibited by 94% in Aedes albopictus cells and by 99.5% in Vero cells. Treatment of A. albopictus cells with BFA did not inhibit the virus protein synthesis. However, this compound drastically reduced viral protein synthesis in Vero cells. The inhibitory effect progressively declined when BFA was added at late times post infection (p.i.). The effect of BFA on protein glycosylation is discussed. PMID:10825924

Da Costa, L J; Rebello, M A

1999-12-01

343

Isolation of protoplast from soybean, cowpea, and tobacco and their fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protoplast were isolated from leaf and callus. Young leaf of 3-4 weeks old plant of soybean T219 and A24, A27, C4, E1, and H6 of cowpeas strains (strains named by Prof. S. Sakamoto, University of Kyoto) were suspended in digestive medium containing cellulase 'Onuzuka' R-10, macerozyme R-10, mannitol, CaCl, and 2 (N-morpholilno) echane sulfonic acid (MES). For soybean leaf, the medium was enriched with driselase and pectolyase Y-23. They were incibated in full darkness at 27 Celcius centigrade by constant shaking at 50 rpm orbitor shaker. Callus wich has been two times resubcultured was suspended in the digestive medium without driselase, CaCl2, and MES and incubated in lowlight intensity by constant shaking at 100 rpm in reciprocal water shaker at 30 celcius centigrade. Leaf protoplast were releasaed in 10-14 h, soybean and tobacco callus protoplast in 3-4 h, and cowpeas callus protoplast in 4-6 h of incubation. Protoplast were collected by centrifugation of 400 g and a thin layer of the suspension was irradiated with ultraviolet light. Fusion was induced with PEG 6000 solution according to Uchimia and fused protoplasts were collected by centrifugation of 200 g. Protoplast were cultured on the medium of Ikeda and Uchimia. On both medium leaf protoplast, irradiated protoplasts and their fused do not regenerate cell wall and all cultured died out within four weeks incubation. Cell wall generation was observed. Regeneration of cell wall observed progessively in mother protoplast from tobacco, cowpea (A27, E1, and H6) and fused protoplast of soybean with tobacco, tobacco with cowpea (C4, E1, and H6), soybean with cowpea (C4) and between cowpea (C4) and cowpea (E1). (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

1986-12-16

344

In-Vitro Experiments on the Radiosensitivity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus and other Animal Viruses to the Direct Effect of X-Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various in-vitro techniques have been used to observe the direct X-ray inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and the virus of Teschen disease. All these methods were intended to eliminate the indirect effects of the irradiation, and for each virus an upper limit to the radioresistance was observed, which was assumed to correspond to inactivation by the direct effect. Further confirmation of the absence of indirect effects was obtained by observing the dose-rate and the concentration-independent survival curves, and by direct observation of the inactivated virus in the electron microscope. Virus suffering only direct inactivation retained its morphological integrity at a much higher radiation dose level (relative to loss of infectivity) than virus which was exposed to some residual indirect effects. These results are of value since the radio resistances observed represent the upper limits which may have to be taken into account in, for example, the elimination of foot-and-mouth disease virus from frozen meat. (author)

1968-07-01

345

Inhibitory Effect of Resveratrol against Duck Enteritis Virus In Vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Duck viral enteritis (DVE) is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans of all ages and species. This disease has been responsible for significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl as a result of mortality, and decreased egg production. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin in specific plants and exhibits inhibitory activity against many kinds of virus. In this paper, resveratrol was found to inhibit duck enteritis virus (DEV) replication in...

Xu, Jiao; Yin, Zhongqiong; Li, Li; Cheng, Anchun; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Lu, Hongke; Dai, Shujun; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Zhao, Ling; Su, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

2013-01-01

346

Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

Cheung Foo

2008-02-01

347

Symbiotic functioning and bradyrhizobial biodiversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to strain IGS types at the continent level. In this study, 9 cowpea genotypes were planted in field experiments in Botswana, South Africa and Ghana with the aim of i trapping indigenous cowpea root-nodule bacteria (cowpea "rhizobia" in the 3 countries for isolation, molecular characterisation using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing of the 16S - 23S rDNA IGS gene, ii quantifying N-fixed in the cowpea genotypes using the 15N natural abundance technique, and iii relating the levels of nodule functioning (i.e. N-fixed to the IGS types found inside nodules. Results Field measurements of N2 fixation revealed significant differences in plant growth, ?15N values, %Ndfa and amounts of N-fixed between and among the 9 cowpea genotypes in Ghana and South Africa. Following DNA analysis of 270 nodules from the 9 genotypes, 18 strain IGS types were found. Relating nodule function to the 18 IGS types revealed significant differences in IGS type N2-fixing efficiencies. Sequencing the 16S - 23S rDNA gene also revealed 4 clusters, with cluster 2 forming a distinct group that may be a new Bradyrhizobium species. Taken together, our data indicated greater biodiversity of cowpea bradyrhizobia in South Africa relative to Botswana and Ghana. Conclusions We have shown that cowpea is strongly dependant on N2 fixation for its N nutrition in both South Africa and Ghana. Strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency was assessed for the first time in this study, and a positive correlation was discernible where there was sole nodule occupancy. The differences in IGS type diversity and symbiotic efficiency probably accounts for the genotype × environment interaction that makes it difficult to select superior genotypes for use across Africa. The root-nodule bacteria nodulating cowpea in this study all belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Some strains from Southern Africa were phylogenetically very distinct, suggesting a new Bradyrhizobium species.

Dakora Felix D

2010-03-01

348

Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 ?mol plant-1 week-1. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N2-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N2-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW showing large variation among lines. Most of the tolerance to P deficiency was due to increase in the nodule function rather than conservation of nodule mass. In conclusion, the screening in glasshouse hydroaeroponics made it possible to sort cowpea lines in SNF potential to fix N2, and in tolerance to P deficiency. (author)

2013-11-01

349

Therapeutic effect of arctiin and arctigenin in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice infected with influenza A virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arctiin and its aglucone, arctigenin from the fruits of Arctium lappa L. showed potent in vitro antiviral activities against influenza A virus (A/NWS/33, H1N1) (IFV). Based on the data from time-of-addition experiments and on release tests of progeny viruses, arctigenin was assumed to interfere with early event(s) of viral replication after viral penetration into cells, and to suppress the release of progeny viruses from the host cells. Arctiin was orally effective against either IFV-inoculated normal or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-treated mice, being less effective as compared with oseltamivir. Noticeably, arctiin produced a larger amount of virus-specific antibody than those of control and oseltamivir in sera collected from 5-FU-treated mice. Furthermore, oral treatment of 5-FU-treated mice with arctiin did not induce any resistant viruses, although the same treatment with oseltamivir induced resistant viruses at a 50% frequency. When the combination of arctiin and oseltamivir was administered to normal mice infected with IFV, the virus yields in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and lungs were significantly reduced relative to those in the mice treated with arctiin or oseltamivir alone. Thus, monotherapy of arctiin or combined therapy of arctiin with oseltamivir would be another treatment option for influenza. PMID:20606313

Hayashi, Kyoko; Narutaki, Kazuto; Nagaoka, Yasuo; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Uesato, Shinichi

2010-01-01

350

Genetic structure and mating system of wild cowpea populations in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea populations from West Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, 9 of them showing polymorphism. Results Outcrossing rates ranged from 1% to 9.5% (mean 3.4%, which classifies the wild cowpea breeding system as primarily selfing, though rare outcrossing events were detected in each population studied. Furthermore, the analyses of both the genetic structure of populations and the relationships between the wild and domesticated groups suggest possibilities of gene flow that are corroborated by field observations. Conclusions As expected in a predominantly inbred breeding system, wild cowpea shows high levels of genetic differentiation and low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Gene flow from domesticated to wild cowpea does occur, although the lack of strong genetic swamping and modified seed morphology in the wild populations suggest that these introgressions should be rare.

Kouam Eric B

2012-07-01

351

Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

2014-01-01

352

Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses  

Science.gov (United States)

Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In most circumstances, the efficacy of a wastewater disinfection process is regulated and monitored based on measurements of the responses of indicator bacteria. However, inactivation of indicator bacteria does not guarantee an acceptable degree of inactivation among other waterborne microorganisms (e.g., microbial pathogens). Undisinfected effluent samples from several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale chlorination and dechlorination and UV irradiation under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. In general, (viable) bacterial populations showed an immediate decline as a result of disinfectant exposure; however, incubation of disinfected samples under conditions that were designed to mimic the conditions in a receiving stream resulted in substantial recovery of the total bacterial community. The bacterial groups that are commonly used as indicators do not provide an accurate representation of the response of the bacterial community to disinfectant exposure and subsequent recovery in the environment. UV irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination both accomplished measurable inactivation of indigenous phage; however, the extent of inactivation was fairly modest under the conditions of disinfection used in this study. UV irradiation was consistently more effective as a virucide than chlorination/dechlorination under the conditions of application, based on measurements of virus (phage) diversity and concentration. Taken together, and when considered in conjunction with previously published research, the results of these experiments illustrate several important limitations of common disinfection processes as applied in the treatment of municipal wastewaters. In general, it is not clear that conventional disinfection processes, as commonly implemented, are effective for control of the risks of disease transmission, particularly those associated with viral pathogens. Microbial quality in receiving streams may not be substantially improved by the application of these disinfection processes; under some circumstances, an argument can be made that disinfection may actually yield a decrease in effluent and receiving water quality. Decisions regarding the need for effluent disinfection must account for site-specific characteristics, but it is not clear that disinfection of municipal wastewater effluents is necessary or beneficial for all facilities. When direct human contact or ingestion of municipal wastewater effluents is likely, disinfection may be necessary. Under these circumstances, UV irradiation appears to be superior to chlorination in terms of microbial quality and chemistry and toxicology. This advantage is particularly evident in effluents that contain appreciable quantities of ammonia-nitrogen or organic nitrogen.

Blatchley, III, E. R.; Gong, W. -L.; Alleman, J. E.; Rose, J. B.; Huffman, D. E.; Otaki, M.; Lisle, J. T.

2007-01-01

353

Using epidemiological information to develop effective integrated virus disease management strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virus diseases cause serious losses in yield and quality of cultivated plants worldwide. These losses and the resulting financial damage can be limited by controlling epidemics using measures that minimise virus infection sources or suppress virus spread. For each combination of virus, cultivated plant and production system, there is an 'economic threshold' above which the financial damage is sufficient to justify using such measures. However, individual measures used alone may bring only small benefits and they may become ineffective, especially over the long term. When diverse control measures that act in different ways are combined and used together, their effects are complementary resulting in far more effective overall control. Such experiences have led to the development of integrated management concepts for virus diseases that combine available host resistance, cultural, chemical and biological control measures. Selecting the ideal mix of measures for each pathosystem and production situation requires detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of the causal virus and the mode of action of each individual control measure so that diverse responses can be devised to meet the unique features of each of the different scenarios considered. The strategies developed must be robust and necessitate minimal extra expense, labour demands and disruption to standard practices. Examples of how epidemiological information can be used to develop effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies for diverse situations are described. They involve circumstances where virus transmission from plant-to-plant occurs in four different ways: by contact, non-persistently or persistently by insect vectors, and by root-infecting fungi. The examples are: Subterranean clover mottle virus (SCMoV) (contact-transmitted) and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) (non-persistently aphid-transmitted) in annually self-regenerating clover pasture; three seed-borne viruses (all non-persistently aphid-transmitted) plots of pasture legume improvement programmes; Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (persistently thrips-transmitted) in vegetables in seedling nurseries, protected cropping or field systems; and lettuce big-vein disease (fungus-transmitted) in lettuce in seedling nursery, hydroponic, infested field or uninfested field situations. By describing the kinds of approaches required, this article is intended to help future research and extension programmes devise integrated disease management strategies that not only function effectively to diminish the losses caused by economically important plant virus diseases but also fulfill the requirement of being environmentally and socially responsible. PMID:15036832

Jones, Roger A C

2004-03-01

354

Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection

1985-01-01

355

Effect of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus on the Life History and Feeding Preference of Thrips palmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus-Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors. PMID:25010157

Chen, Wei-Te; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Wei

2014-01-01

356

Sepia 200cH at 1:1000 dilution ameliorates salt stress in cowpea seedlings but its medium 90% ethanol proves ineffective at the same dilution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1 control in sterile water, (2 in 50mM NaCl solution, (3 seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4 seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect.

Sandhimita Mondal

2012-12-01

357

[Use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in mixtures with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for the development of new food products].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to evaluate cowpeas (V. unguiculata) as a partial substitute of common beans (P. vulgaris) as a paste or as cooked dry flour. The degree of substitution would be that in which the flavor of cowpeas is not detected in the mixture with common beans. The study was developed utilizing the Black Peruchin variety of cowpea and the ICTA Ligero for common beans, the latter with 18.7% protein and cowpeas with of 24.4%. Other nutrients in the samples were similar. It was believed that the characteristic earth flavor of the cowpea was due to its content of polyphenolic compounds. To eliminate such compounds, the samples were soaked in water for various periods of time and cooked. Reduction was also achieved by dehulling. It was found that the polyphenolic levels obtained with 9 hrs. of soaking and 30 min. of cooking in water were equal to those measure with mechanical dehulling. Applying these process to cowpeas, two fried beans pastes were prepared with cowpeas (with and with out hulls) in a mixture of 70 common beans and 30 cowpeas. Likewise a precooked flour of the two legume grains in the same proportion was also tested. These samples were subjected to sensory trials using a triangular method, and by a descriptive profile. In these the following were evaluated: color, texture, salt level, and flavor, using a 10 point scale. The sensory evaluation of the two beans mixtures showed no significant differences with respect to common bean flavor. The protein content of the mixtures was high due to the high protein content of cowpeas. Even though the mixtures of common beans and cowpeas with and with out seed coat gave higher protein quality values as compared to common beans alone, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:18589575

López Guerra, Claudia Maritza; Bressani, Ricardo

2008-03-01

358

Divergência genética em feijão-caupi Genetic divergence among cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a divergência genética entre genótipos de feijão-caupi, visando à seleção dos mais divergentes e de maior potencial produtivo para indicar como genitores em cruzamentos genéticos para futura recomendação de cultivares aos agricultores do Recôncavo Baiano. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas (BA, utilizando-se 22 genótipos do tipo prostrado e 20 do tipo semi-ereto, dispostos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram analisados os caracteres altura da planta, comprimento de vagem, massa de vagens, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos, índice de grãos, produtividade de vagem e de grãos. A divergência genética foi obtida através da distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Novas combinações gênicas promissoras podem surgir nos cruzamentos entre os genótipos TE97-309G-1, TE97-367G-3, TE97-367G-11 e TE97-430G-12 do tipo prostrado e TE97-321G-4 e TE97-404-1E-1 do tipo semi-ereto. A seleção dos genótipos TE93-244-23F-1, TE97-299G-10 e BR 17-Gurguéia tipo prostrado e os genótipos TE97-321G-4, TE97-406-2E, TE96-282-22G e EV x 91-2E-1 tipo semi-ereto demonstram superioridade para a produtividade de grãos. Os caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem e produtividade de vagens são os que mais contribuem para a divergência genética.This work aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence among cowpea genotypes, for selection of most divergent genotypes and of highest yield potential as parents in crossings as well as for future recommendation of cultivars in the reconcave region in Bahia, Brazil. The experiment was carried out Agronomy School of Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, using twenty two erect cowpea and twenty semi-erect cowpea genotypes, in a randomized design, with four replications. The following characters were analyzed: plant height, pod length, pod weight, grain weight for pod, number of grains for pod, weight of hundred grains, grain index, pod yield and grain yield. The genetic divergence was obtained by means of the Mahalanobis generalized distance. New genetic combinations can appear in the crossings among the TE97-309G-1, TE97-367G-3, TE97-367G-11 climbing genotype and TE97-430G-12 and TE97-321G-4 and TE97-404-1E-1 semi-erect genotypes. The selection of the climbing genotypes TE93-244-23F-1, TE97-299G-10 and BR 17-Gurguéia and the TE97-321G-4, TE97-406-2E, TE96-282-22G and EV x 91-2E-1 semi-erect genotypes demonstrated superiority for grain yield. Pod length, weight and yield characters are ones that contribute most to the genetic divergence.

Adriana Rodrigues Passos

2007-01-01

359

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) purified polyphenol extract inhibits influenza virus and has a synergistic effect with oseltamivir.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza epidemics cause numerous deaths and millions of hospitalizations each year. Because of the alarming emergence of resistance to anti-influenza drugs, there is a need to identify new naturally occurring antiviral molecules. We tested the hypothesis that pomegranate polyphenol extract (PPE) has anti-influenza properties. Using real time PCR, plaque assay, and TCID 50% hemagglutination assay, we have shown that PPE suppresses replication of influenza A virus in MDCK cells. PPE inhibits agglutination of chicken red blood cells (cRBC) by influenza virus and is virucidal. The single-cycle growth conditions indicated that independent of the virucidal effect PPE also inhibits viral RNA replication. PPE did not alter virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) entry into nucleus or translocation of virus RNP from nucleus to cytoplasm in MDCK cells. We evaluated four major Polyphenols in PPE (ellagic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, and punicalagin) and demonstrated that punicalagin is the effective, anti-influenza component of PPE. Punicalagin blocked replication of the virus RNA, inhibited agglutination of chicken RBC's by the virus and had virucidal effects. Furthermore, the combination of PPE and oseltamivir synergistically increased the anti-influenza effect of oseltamivir. In conclusion, PPE inhibited the replication of human influenza A/Hong Kong (H3N2) in vitro. Pomegranate extracts should be further studied for therapeutic and prophylactic potential especially for influenza epidemics and pandemics. PMID:19586764

Haidari, Mehran; Ali, Muzammil; Ward Casscells, Samuel; Madjid, Mohammad

2009-12-01

360

Effect of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation and liver monooxigenase activity in experimental influenza virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza virus infection was associated with development of oxidative stress in liver of mice, viz. increase in amount of lipid peroxidation products, decrease in cytochrome P-450 and NADP. H-cytochrome c-reductase activity, and inhibition of liver monooxygenases (aniline hydroxylase, ethylmorphine-N-demethylase, amidopyrine-N-demethylase and analgin-N-demethylase). These effects were most pronounced on the 7th day after virus inoculation as compared to the 5th one. Supplementation of mice with vitamin E before virus inoculation leads to liver protection against oxidative stress and toxicosis. A marked decrease of lipid peroxidation products and an increase of cytochrome P-450 and activities of monooxygenases was established. The stabilizing effect of vitamin E was dose-dependent and was most pronounced on the 5th day after virus inoculation as compared to the 7th one. PMID:10713467

Mileva, M; Tancheva, L; Bakalova, R; Galabov, A; Savov, V; Ribarov, S

2000-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The virucidal effect of "6"0Co ?-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P < 0.01), by 7.0 log_1_0 TCID _5_0, both in cell culture medium a