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Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

OpenAIRE

greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

2008-01-01

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Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.

2008-01-01

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Cowpea mosaic virus-based chimaeras Effects of inserted peptides on the phenotype, host range, and transmissibility of the modified viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expression of foreign peptides on the surface of cowpea mosaic virus particles leads to the creation of chimaeras with a variety of phenotypes and yields. Two factors were shown to be particularly significant in determining the properties of a given chimaera: the length of the inserted sequence and its isoelectric point. The deleterious effect of high isoelectric point on the ability of chimeras to produce a systemic infection occurs irrespective of the site of insertion of the peptide. Ultrastructural analysis of tissue infected with chimaeras with different phenotypes showed that all produced particles with a tendency to aggregate, irrespective of the size or isoelectric point of the insert. Host range and transmission studies revealed that the expression of a foreign peptide did not (1) alter the virus host range, (2) increase the rate of transmission by beetles or through seed, or (3) change the insect vector specificity. These findings have implications for both the utility and the biosafety of Cowpea mosaic virus-based chimaeras

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Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of C...

José Albersio de Araujo Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do Nascimento; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão

2012-01-01

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Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente [...] estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushroom [...] s significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.

Robson Marcelo, Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de, Novaes; Sérgio Florentino, Pascholati.

2010-04-01

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Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor.

Robson Marcelo Di Piero

2010-04-01

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Cowpea Germplasm Evaluation for Virus Resistance under Greenhouse Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to identify sources of resistance in cowpea against blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BLCMV, two hundred cowpea germplasm accessions were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Ten to 15 plants of each accession were artificially inoculated by sap prepared from virus-infected plants. Disease severity on each line was recorded at 15 days interval. The symptomless plants were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to separate the resistant plants from susceptible ones. Only two accessions (27168 and 27192 out of 134 of local origin were found resistant to BlCMV, whereas 23 (34.8% were resistant out of 66 exotic lines. Twenty genotypes expressed segregation pattern towards disease reaction and the others were susceptible. In this study some new sources of resistance have identified which can be used to breed to breed virus-resistant cowpea cultivars.

Muhammad Bashir

2002-01-01

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Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus / Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Bean golden mosaic vir [...] us (BGMV). Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento. Abstract in english Many factors can affect the yield of cowpea, especially viruses. The main species of viruses infecting cowpea in Brazil are Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV). This study aimed to evaluate th [...] e reaction of cowpea genotypes for resistance to CMV in single or in co-infections (CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I and CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I), which was accomplished in two steps. Firstly, 57 genotypes were evaluated in four evaluations: three in aphid proof cages with infection under controlled conditions, and one in field-grown plants under natural infection. To perform the second step, we selected 18 genotypes to be conducted in nine trials, with eight under aphid proof cages control infection, and one under natural infection. The qualitative and quantitative effects resulting from infections were evaluated. In the field trial, we assessed the number of asymptomatic plants, pod length, number of grains per pod, 100-grain mass and yield. Mixed infections reduced the plant height and dry weight, and premature death of some genotypes was observed in infections involving the three viruses. The genotypes BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 and Patativa showed the best behavior in relation to the mixed viral infections, presenting seeds with appropriate commercial standard and with potential for using in breeding programs.

Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Gislanne Brito, Barros; Marcelo, Eiras; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Ângela Celis de Almeida, Lopes.

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Expression and silencing of cowpea mosaic virus transgenes.  

OpenAIRE

Plant viruses are interesting pathogens because they can not exist without their hosts and exploit the plant machinery for their multiplication. Fundamental knowledge on viral processes is of great importance to understand, prevent and control virus infections which can cause drastic losses in crops. In this thesis, cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) was studied. This virus consists of two, icosahedral particles that each carry a distinct single stranded RNA molecule of positive polarity. Several yea...

Sijen, T.

1997-01-01

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Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus / Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijã [...] o-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants show [...] ing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

Gislanne Brito, Barros; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Carlos Frederico de Menezes, Veiga; Paulo Sérgio Torres, Brioso; Marcelo, Eiras.

2013-06-01

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Attempts to Improve the Method for Screening Cowpea Germplasm for Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of visual symptom screening of cowpea plants in field plots improved screening for Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus (BlCMV-resistance. However, the method failed to improve the speed or accuracy of screening for Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV-resistance. Plants that displayed few visual virus symptoms were selected for screening by a previously published method. This method involved screening by mechanical virus inoculation in the greenhouse. Plants having a low infection percentage in the greenhouse as judged by Direct-Antigen Coating Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAC-ELISA were then screened in the field by randomized virus spread tests from inoculated spreader rows. Infection rates in these tests were also determined by DAC-ELISA. The test resulted in the detection of eleven newly discovered sources of resistance to BlCMV, but no significant new sources of CMV-resistance were found.

A.G. Gillaspie Jr.

2007-01-01

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Cowpea virus disease occurrence: implication for food security and sustainable development in Kwara State – Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A virus disease survey was carried out between the months of October and November 2011, in thirty locations of the guinea savanna and rain forest agroecologies of Kwara State – Nigeria with the objective of evaluating the incidence and severity of cowpea viruses. The virus incidence (VI, on cowpea were estimated based on fifty plant observations per field and virus severity (VS, was scored on a scale of 1-5 based on the percentage number of leaves per plant showing virus symptoms. The results indicated that virus incidence were higher in the rain forest agroecology (79% - 90% compared with the guinea savannah agroecology (43% - 73%. The severity index value were however similar irrespective of the agroecology. The findings indicate the need for the sustainable management of virus diseases which in this study has been found to be rampant and therefore could cause crop yield reductions. It is important to curb the menace of these viruses since cowpea is an important food source for the rural poor. It is therefore expedient to imbibe eco-friendly, cost effective and sustainable management practices to control the viral pathogens. This would enhance food security and cause the reduction in poverty levels among rural dwellers in a developing country like Nigeria.

Taiye Hussein Aliyu

2013-12-01

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Endothelial Targeting of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) via Surface Vimentin  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via in...

Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Plummer, Emily M.; Trauger, Sunia A.; Siuzdak, Gary; Manchester, Marianne

2009-01-01

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Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

OpenAIRE

O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido re...

Assunc?a?o, Iraildes P.; -filho, Liliane R. M.; Resende, Luciane V.; Barros, Ma?rcia C. S.; Lima, Gaus S. A.; Coelho, Rildo Sartori B.; Lima, J. Albe?rsio A.

2005-01-01

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Cowpea mosaic virus RNA-1 acts as an amplicon whose effects can be counteracted by a RNA-2-encoded suppressor of silencing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lines of Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic for full-length copies of both Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) genomic RNAs, either singly or together, have been produced. Plants transgenic for both RNAs developed symptoms characteristic of a CPMV infection. When plants transgenic for RNA-1 were agro-inoculated with RNA-2, no infection developed and the plants were also resistant to challenge with CPMV. By contrast, plants transgenic for RNA-2 became infected when agro-inoculated with RNA-1 and were fully susceptible to CPMV infection. The resistance of RNA-1 transgenic plants was shown to be related to the ability of RNA-1 to self-replicate and act as an amplicon. The ability of transgenically expressed RNA-2 to counteract the amplicon effect suggested that it encodes a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). By examining the ability of portions of RNA-2 to reverse PTGS in N. benthamiana, we have identified the small (S) coat protein as the CPMV RNA-2-encoded suppressor of PTGS

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Molecular studies on bromovirus capsid protein. IV. Coat protein exchanges between brome mosaic and cowpea chlorotic mottle viruses exhibit neutral effects in heterologous hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two members of the bromovirus group, brome mosaic virus (BMV) and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), selectively infect barley and cowpea, respectively, and also differ in their ability to systemically infect a common permissive host, Chenopodium quinoa. CCMV is confined to inoculated leaves of C. quinoa, whereas BMV causes rapid systemic mottling. To examine whether host-specific determinants for systemic movement of BMV and CCMV in each of these hosts are localized in the coat protein (CP), sequences encoding this gene were exchanged between biologically active clones of BMV RNA3 (B3) and CCMV RNA3 (C3) to create chimera expressing heterologous CP genes (B3/CCP and C3/BCP). Inoculation of each chimera with its respective wild-type (wt) RNAs 1 and 2 to barley or cowpea or C. quinoa plants resulted in symptom phenotype and long distance movement characteristics similar to those of the parental virus donating RNAs 1 and 2. These observations suggest that neither BMV CP nor CCMV CP has host-specific determinants for long distance movement. Inoculation of additional recombinant viruses, constructed by reassorting wt genomic RNAs 1 and 2 of BMV and CCMV with either heterologous wt RNA3 (i.e., B1 + B2 + C3 and C1 + C2 + B3) or heterologous chimeric RNA3 (i.e., B1 + B2 + C3/BCP and C1 + C2 + B3/CCP), to susceptible hosts resulted only in localized infections. The significance of these observations in relation to bromovirus movement is discussed. PMID:9400617

Osman, F; Grantham, G L; Rao, A L

1997-11-24

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Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus....

Robson Marcelo Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de Novaes; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2010-01-01

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Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV, família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV, family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Iraildes P. Assunção

2005-06-01

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Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi / Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe m [...] osaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSM [...] V), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Iraildes P., Assunção; Liliane R., M.-Filho; Luciane V., Resende; Márcia C. S., Barros; Gaus S. A., Lima; Rildo Sartori B., Coelho; J. Albérsio A., Lima.

2005-06-01

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Mechanisms underlying Cowpea mosaic virus systemic infection  

OpenAIRE

Systemic virus infection of plants involves; intracellularreplication, cell-to-cell movement within the inoculated leaf, and subsequently, long-distance spread to other plant parts via the vasculature (vascular movement).Cell-to-cell movement occurs through the plasmodesma (PD), which are regulated channels in the cell wall connecting adjacent cells. These PD are modified by plant viral movement proteins (MPs) to allow passage of a vir...

Santos Silva, M.

2004-01-01

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The Cowpea mosaic virus movement protein  

OpenAIRE

For systemic infection of a host plant, viruses multiply in the initially infected cell and spread to the neighbouring cells through plasmodesmata (cell-to-cell movement), to eventually reach the vascular system and use the phloem to spread to other plant parts (long-distance movement). To achieve cell-to-cell transport through plasmodesmata, these complex pores in the plant cell wall must be modulated to allow viral passage. Two major types of cell-to-cell transport have been described, move...

Carvalho, C. M.

2003-01-01

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Cowpea mosaic virus-encoded protease does not recognize primary translation products of M RNAs from other comoviruses  

OpenAIRE

The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

Goldbach, R. W.; Krijt, J.

1982-01-01

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Cowpea virus disease occurrence: implication for food security and sustainable development in Kwara State – Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

A virus disease survey was carried out between the months of October and November 2011, in thirty locations of the guinea savanna and rain forest agroecologies of Kwara State – Nigeria with the objective of evaluating the incidence and severity of cowpea viruses. The virus incidence (VI), on cowpea were estimated based on fifty plant observations per field and virus severity (VS), was scored on a scale of 1-5 based on the percentage number of leaves per plant showing virus symptoms. The res...

Taiye Hussein Aliyu; Olusegun Samuel Balogun; Ii, Robert Omotayo Uddin

2013-01-01

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Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years / Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma cultura do sistema tradicional do Nordeste do Brasil, que pode ser infetada por mais de 20 espécies de vírus, sendo o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CPSMV) um dos mais importantes patógenos que infeta naturalmente essa leguminos [...] a no Brasil. Vários isolados do CPSMV foram obtidos e caracterizados no Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC: CPSMV-CE - o primeiro isolado do vírus obtido no Ceará; isolados obtidos de feijão-caupi: CPSMV-AL (Alagoas) and CPSMV-PE (Pernambuco); CPSMV-PR - isolado de soja (Glycine max) no Paraná e CPSMV-CROT - isolado de Crotalaria paulinea no Maranhão. Um isolado de CPSMV capaz de infetar o cv. Macaibo, cultivar de ffeijão-caupi imune a todos os demais isolados de CPSMV foi biológica e sorologicamente caracterizado e designado de CPSMV-MC. O CPSMV-MC obtido em janeiro de 1990 vem sendo avaliado através de estudos de gama de hospedeiro e mantido in vivo através de inoculações periódicas em feijão-caupi. Os resultados dessas avaliações revelaram que a integridade biológica e as propriedades sorológicas do CPSMV-MC foram preservadas ao longo dos anos, indicando que a preservação das propriedades genéticas de uma estirpe viral pode acontecer através dos anos. Estudos moleculares adicionais revelaram que a seqüência de nucleotídeos correspondente a parte do gene da capa protéica de cinco isolados de CPSMV, incluindo o CPSMV-MC, possui elevado grau de conservação, com 92-100% da seqüência de nucleotídeos idêntica entre os isolados. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isola [...] tes were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of Ceará; CPSMV-AL - isolated from cowpea in Alagoas; CPSMV-PE - isolated from cowpea in Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - obtained from soybean (Glycine max) in Paraná and CPSMV-CROT - isolated from Crotalaria paulinea, in Maranhão. An isolate of CPSMV with the property to infect the cv. Macaibo, a cowpea cultivar immune to most of CPSMV isolates was also biologically and serologically characterized as a new strain of the virus (CPSMV-MC). The CPSMV-MC was isolated in January 1990 and has been evaluated over 20 years by host range studies and maintenance in vivo by periodical mechanical inoculations in cowpea. The results of this periodical evaluation revealed that the biological integrity and the serological properties of CPSMV-MC were preserved over 20 years, indicating that the genetic preservation of a virus strain could occur over the years. Molecular studies involving part of the coat protein (CP) gene of CPSMV-MC and five other Brazilian CPSMV isolates indicated a high degree of conservation, with 92-100% nucleotide sequence identity among the isolates.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do, Nascimento; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão.

2012-03-01

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Proteolytic processing of the primary translation products of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is the type member of a group of plant viruses, the comoviruses, with a genome consisting of two single stranded RNA molecules separately encapsidated in icosahedral particles. A characteristic feature of the two genome RNAs is that they are both polyadenylated at their 3'-terminus and supplied with a small protein at their 5'end. The genetic information encoded in the virus RNAs is expressed by translation of each RNA into large-sized proteins referred to as polypr...

Franssen, H.

1984-01-01

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Influence of Seedling Age at Inoculation and Cultivar on the Pathogenicity of a Virus Causing Yellow Mosaic Disease of Commelina Benghalensis L. on Cowpea  

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Full Text Available A screenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of seedling age at inoculation and cultivar onpathogenicity of the virus causing yellow mosaic disease of Commelina benghalensis L, a broad leaf weed, on cowpea.Three cowpea varieties namely Vita 5, IT84S2246D and Ife Brown were grown in pots and inoculated with sapextracted from leaves of C. benghalensis infected with yellow mosaic disease at 7, 14, and 21 days after germination(DAG. It was found that inoculation of cowpea seedlings at 7 DAG subsequently led to the most severe symptoms,which were manifested by mosaic and yellowing of leaves and eventual poor growth and yield attributes. On the otherhand, plant growth and yield attributes that were comparable to those of the healthy control plants were recorded forplants inoculated at 21 DAG. Specifically, in regards to the interaction effects, cv. Vita 5 that were sap-inoculated at 7DAG had the lowest yield attributes, while cv. IT84S2246D inoculated at 21 DAG had the highest yield attributes. Theresults put together showed that although the yellow mosaic virus of C. benghalensis was sap-transmissible andpathogenic to cowpea causing characteristic yellow mosaic disease symptoms and reduction in yield attributes, severityof the disease is less if infection occurs at older stage of cowpea growth.

Taiye Hussein ALIYU

2010-02-01

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Effect of Rhizobium Inoculants on Cowpea under Rainfed Condition  

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Full Text Available A 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted under rainfed condition to study the effect of Rhizobium inoculation (with or without chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer ( 0 and 50-30-20 Kg ha -1 P2O5, K2O and S on cowpea. Two sources of biofertilizer were used. Biofertilizer showed significantly higher yield attributes and seed yield of cowpea as compared to control. Biofertilizer of BARI source gave the highest cowpea seed yield (880 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (658 Kg ha -1 was obtained without biofertilizer. No significant difference was found between the two sources of bio-fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer showed better performance than control in case of seed yield and all yield contributing characters of cowpea. Interaction of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer also showed statistically significant difference. PKS with biofertilizer of both BAU and BARI sources gave the highest seed yield (987 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (525 Kg ha -1 was obtained from control treatment. Though the highest average rate of return (4556% was found using biofertilizer of BARI source but on consideration of net return and also soil health, PKS with biofertilizer of BARI source where ARR was the second highest may be suggested for growing cowpea under rainfed condition.

Sarker P. C.

2001-01-01

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Cowpea mosaic virus 32- and 60-kilodalton replication proteins target and change the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum membranes  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) replicates in close association with small membranous vesicles that are formed by rearrangements of intracellular membranes. To determine which of the viral proteins are responsible for the rearrangements of membranes and the attachment of the replication complex, we have expressed individual CPMV proteins encoded by RNA1 in cowpea protoplasts by transient expression and in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expression vector. The 3...

Carette, J. E.; Lent, J.; Macfarlance, S. A.; Wellink, J. E.; Kammen, A.

2002-01-01

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The molecular basis of the antigenic cross-reactivity between measles and cowpea mosaic viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two nonrelated viruses, cowpea mosaic virus (wtCPMV) and measles virus (MV), were found to induce cross-reactive antibodies. The nature of this cross-reactivity was studied and results are presented here demonstrating that antiserum raised against wtCPMV reacted with peptide from the fusion (F) protein of MV. Furthermore, the F protein of MV was shown to share an identical conformational B cell epitope with the small subunit of CPMV coat protein. Passive transfer of anti-wtCPMV antibodies into BALB/c mice conferred partial protection against measles virus induced encephalitis. The results are discussed in the context of cross-protection

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Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

Ocaya, Cp; Adipala, E.; Osiru, Dso

2001-01-01

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Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid  

Science.gov (United States)

Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors.Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Alternative conjugation strategies, agarose gel electrophoresis of CPMV and CPMV-HRP conjugates, UV-vis spectrum of HRP-ADHCPMV, agarose gel electrophoresis of GOX-ADHCPMV particles and corresponding TEM image, calibration curves for HRP-ADHCPMV and GOX-ADHCPMV, DLS data for GOX-ADHCPMV are made available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31485a

Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

2012-08-01

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Inactivation and purification of cowpea mosaic virus-like particles displaying peptide antigens from Bacillus anthracis  

OpenAIRE

Chimeric cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles displaying foreign peptide antigens on the particle surface are suitable for development of peptide-based vaccines. However, commonly used PEG precipitation-based purification methods are not sufficient for production of high quality vaccine candidates because they do not allow for separation of chimeric particles from cleaved contaminating species. Moreover, the purified particles remain infectious to plants. To advance the CPMV technology furthe...

Phelps, Jamie P.; Dang, Nghiep; Rasochova, Lada

2007-01-01

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Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F.) and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

OpenAIRE

Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infeste...

Darfour, B.; Ocloo, F. C. K.; Wilson, D. D.

2012-01-01

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Effect of Spatial Arrangement on the Performance of Cowpea /Maize Intercrop in Derived Savannah of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Promising varieties of cowpea were found to be adaptable in the derived savannah; however, their performances in intercropping systems have not been investigated. Therefore, there is the need to investigate the effect of spatial arrangement of maize/cowpea on the performance of maize and cowpea. The experiment was a 2 x 5 factorial in randomized complete block design. A field experiment was conducted at Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Nigeria during the late cropping season...

Adigbo, S. O.; Iyasere, E.; Fabunmi, T. O.; Olowe, V. I. O.; Adejuyigbe, C. O.

2013-01-01

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Purification of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replication complex: identification of a virus-encoded 110,000-dalton polypeptide responsible for RNA chain elongation  

OpenAIRE

An endogenous cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) RNA-protein complex (CPMV replication complex) capable of elongating in vitro preexisting nascent chains to full-length viral RNAs has been solubilized from the membrane fraction of CPMV-infected cowpea leaves using Triton X-100 and purified by Sepharose 2B chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of Triton X-100. Analysis of the polypeptide composition of the complex by NaDod-SO4/PAGE and silver staining revealed major polyp...

Dorssers, L. C. J.; Krols, S.; Meer, J.; Kammen, A.; Zabel, P.

1984-01-01

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Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus-infected protoplasts  

OpenAIRE

In contrast to the situation concerning bacterial and, to a lesser extent, animal RNA viruses, little is known about the biochemical processes occurring in plant cells due to plant RNA virus infection. Such processes are difficult to study using intact plants or leaves. Great effort has therefore been spent in developing in vitro cultures of plant protoplasts, but the use of these protoplasts has been seriously hampered by various technical problems.It is clear that plant RNA virus infections...

Rottier, P. J. M.

1980-01-01

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Two viral proteins involved in the proteolytic processing of the cowpea mosaic virus polyproteins.  

OpenAIRE

A series of specific deletion mutants derived from a full-length cDNA clone of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) B RNA was constructed with the aim to study the role of viral proteins in the proteolytic processing of the primary translation products. For the same purpose cDNA clones were constructed having sequences derived from both M and B RNA of CPMV. In vitro transcripts prepared from these clones with T7 RNA polymerase, were efficiently translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. The translation...

Vos, P.; Verver, J.; Jaegle, M.; Wellink, J.; Kammen, A.; Goldbach, R.

1988-01-01

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Reaction of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Cultivars to Yellow Mosaic Virus Disease  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at three different locations of Punjab with twenty-four genotypes of cowpea under natural field conditions where yellow mosaic virus disease is a serious problem. Yellow mosaic virus infestation was rated after 4-5 weeks of sowing. Results indicated that genotypes 1T-95k-1156-3, 1T-94k-137-6, 1T-97k-9042-8,1T-97k-499-4, 1T-97k-497-2, 1T-93k-452,1T-97-k-350-4, SA Dandy, p-518, Elite, No.44 and 1T-84-552 showed highly resistant to resistant reaction, 1T-94k-440-3, 1T-95k-627-34, 1TK-238-3 gave tolerant to moderately tolerant reaction and 11-97k-461-4, 1T-97k-1021-15 showed moderately tolerant to susceptible reaction.

Yousaf Ali

2002-01-01

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Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

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Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 A. The structures and sequences of three Carmoviruses, CPMoV, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) have been compared to TBSV from the Tombusvirus genus. CPMoV, TCV, and CarMV all have a deletion in ?C strand in the S domain relative to TBSV that may be distinctive to the genus. Although CPMoV has an elongated C-terminus like TBSV, it does not interact with the icosahedrally related P domain as observed in TBSV. In CPMoV, the termini of A and B interact with the icosahedrally related shell domains of A and C, respectively, to form a chain of interactions around the 5-fold axes. The C subunit terminus does not, however, interact with the B subunit because of quasi-equivalent differences in the P domain orientations

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Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: ? We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. ? Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ? Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. ? .05) affected by the radiation. ? Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

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Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

2012-01-15

43

Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

2012-01-01

44

Sequence variability in the coat protein gene of Cowpea severe mosaic virus isolates from northeastern Brazil / Variabilidade de sequências do gene da proteína do capsídeo de isolados do Cowpea severe mosaic virus do Nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O comovírus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causa a doença em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) conhecida como mosaico severo, mas, apesar de sua importância, não há estudos de diversidade genética de populações virais. Foram determinadas as sequências nucleotídicas de parte do gene da proteína do [...] capsídeo (CP) de seis isolados brasileiros de CPSMV. Os fragmentos genômicos (521 nucleotídeos) foram amplificados por RT-PCR, clonados e suas sequências foram comparadas entre si e com as sequências de outros comovírus. As comparações de sequências indicaram um elevado grau de conservação para o gene CP, com identidade de 92-100% (nucleotídeos) e 97-100% (aminoácidos) entre os isolados. Não houve correlação entre origem geográfica e identidade de sequência ou filogenia entre os isolados. Abstract in english The comovirus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes a disease in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) but, despite its importance, there are no studies on the genetic diversity of viral populations. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of six Brazilian isolates [...] of CPSMV. Genomic fragments (521 nucleotides) were RT-PCR amplified, cloned, and their sequences were compared with each other and with other comoviruses. Sequence comparisons indicated a high degree of conservation for the CP gene, with 92-100% nucleotide and 97-100% amino acid sequence identity among the isolates. There was no correlation between geographical origin and sequence identity or phylogeny among the isolates.

José Evando A., Beserra Jr.; Eduardo C., Andrade; Rosa F.R. Araújo, Camarço; Aline K.Q., Nascimento; José Albérsio A., Lima.

2011-04-01

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Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Fumigant Effect of Some Medicinal Plant and Pirimiphos Methyl Powders against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contact toxicity and fumigant effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Anacardium occidentale (L, Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn seeds powders and Pirimiphos methyl (Actellic dust were evaluated against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.. Contact toxicity assay show that A. indica and P. guineense powders have a comparative effect to synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl. Both were able to cause 100% mortality of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8g/20g of cowpea seeds within 7 days of post treatment. However, in the fumigation assay, none of the plant powders was suitable as a fumigant since A. indica and P. guineense powders could only cause 23.3% and 20% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid respectively after 7 days of application. Pirimiphos methyl powder was good as a fumigant causing 100% mortality of C. maculatus after 7 days of application at all tested concentrations.

K. D. Ileke

2012-02-01

46

Fungitoxic and Phytotoxic Effect of Vernonia amygdalina (L), Bryophyllum pinnantus Kurz Ocimum gratissimum (Closium) L. and Eucalyptna globules (Caliptos) Labill Water Extracts on Cowpea and Cowpea Seedling Pathogens in Ago-Iwoye, South Western Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

A study to evaluate the fungitoxic and phytotoxic effects of extracts of V. amaygdalina, B. pinnatus, O. gratissimum and E. globules on the fungal pathogens inducing wilting on cowpea grown in Ago-Iwoye, South Western Nigeria. The extracts of all the botanicals used reduced Disease Infection Rate (DIR) in treated plants. Sclerotium rolfsii sacc induced wilting of between 4 and 12% on cowpea seedlings treated with plant extract under field conditions while about 39.6% incidence of cowpea seedl...

Alabi, D. A.; Oyero, I. A.; Jimoh; Amusa, N. A.

2005-01-01

47

Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid show that the capsid’s physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which change with the depth of indentation and depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Under large deformations, the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state ?Hind = 11.5–12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending; the entropy change T?Sind = 5.1–5.8 MJ/mol is due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which mediate the capsid stiffening. Direct coupling of these modes defines the extent of (ir)reversibility of capsid indentation dynamics correlated with its (in)elastic mechanical response to the compressive force. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses’ biological function. PMID:24138865

Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J.L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

2013-01-01

48

Influence of Cowpea Mottle Virus and Cucumber Mosaic Virus on the Growth and Yield of Six Lines of Soybean (Glycine Max L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea mottle virus is of localised importance on cowpea in Nigeria infecting several leguminous species andCucumber mosaic virus is of worldwide distribution infecting several horticultural crops.A study was carried out in the screen house of the crop production pavilion, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin,Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria to determine the pathogenic response of six lines of soybean (TGx 1844-18E, TGx 1448-2E,TGx- 1910-8F, TGx 1019-2EN, TGx 1844-4E and TGx 1876-4E to single and mixed infection with cowpea mottlevirus (CMeV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV.The Lines obtained from National Cereal Research Institute, Badeggiwere used for the experiment.Two viable Seeds were sown per 4litre plastic pots filled with sterilized soil; inoculation of viral isolates was carried outmechanically on the soybean at two weeks after planting.The results revealed that all Soybean lines tested were susceptible to single and mixed infection of the two viruses.However the tolerance level of the legumes, as shown by the percentage loss in selected growth and yield attributesindicated that line TGx 1910-8F is the most tolerant while TGx 1844-18E is the most susceptible to single and mixedinfection.Hence, TGx 1910-8F is most suitable in areas where there is an outbreak of disease caused by CMeV and CMV.

Olawale Arogundade

2010-02-01

49

Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Fumigant Effect of Some Medicinal Plant and Pirimiphos Methyl Powders against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in Stored Cowpea Seeds  

OpenAIRE

The contact toxicity and fumigant effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Anacardium occidentale (L), Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn seeds powders and Pirimiphos methyl (Actellic) dust were evaluated against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Contact toxicity assay show that A. indica and P. guineense powders have a comparative effect to synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl. Both were able to cause 100% mortality of

Ileke, K. D.; Bulus, D. S.

2012-01-01

50

The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found in the atomic structures of the DNA tumor papovaviruses (SV40 and polyoma). The swollen structure is closely similar to the expanded form of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) previously determined at 8A resolution by X-ray crystallography.

Speir, Jeffrey Alan

51

Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)  

OpenAIRE

Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration) and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl) on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming sig...

Eskandari, Hamdollah; Kazemi, Kamyar

2011-01-01

52

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes / Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de [...] Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universid [...] ade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

José Albersio Araujo, Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo, Ferreira; Elizita Maria, Teófilo.

1432-14-01

53

Production of polyclonal antiserum against Cowpea mild mottle virus coat protein and its application in virus detection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV), the causal agent of stem necrosis disease, has drawn attention of soybean producers in recent years due to yield losses in the main producing regions of Brazil. Serological methods for viral detection require the use of an antiserum of good quality to achieve specif [...] icity and sensitivity. The entire coat protein gene of a Brazilian CpMMV isolate was cloned into a bacterial expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21::DE3 for in vitro expression. The coat protein, fused to a His-tag, was purified under denaturing conditions by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA resin. After renaturation, the integrity and identity of the purified recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-Page and MALDI-ToF/ToF mass spectrometer analyses. A rabbit was immunized with increasing amounts of the recombinant protein. The specificity and sensitivity of the antiserum was demonstrated by Western blot and indirect ELISA assays. The polyclonal antisera raised against recombinant coat protein proved to be a reliable tool for CpMMV detection.

Silvia L. de, Carvalho; Fábio N. da, Silva; Larissa G., Zanardo; Álvaro M.R., Almeida; F. Murilo, Zerbini; Claudine M., Carvalho.

2013-02-01

54

Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

B. Darfour

2012-03-01

55

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

56

Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI

2011-11-01

57

Infection of cowpea protoplasts with Sonchus yellow net virus and Festuca leaf streak virus.  

OpenAIRE

The advantages of protoplast systems for plant virus research have been frequently reviewed (Zaitlin & Beachy, 1974; Takebe, 1975; Muhlbach, 1982; Sander & Mertens, 1984). Relatively little attention has been given to the limitations of such a system.Protoplasts do not exist under natural conditions. They lack a rigid cell wall and cell-to-cell connections are absent. Protoplasts are maintained in media that differ from the milieu in plant tissue with respect to nutrient composition, hormone ...

Beek, N. A. M.

1986-01-01

58

Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Products on Aphis craccivora and its Predator Harmonia axyridis on Cowpea  

OpenAIRE

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of two neem formulations in the control of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora and how these affect its predator Harmonia axyridis. Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design in which cowpea was planted on raised beds. Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted on an experimental farm of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana during...

Baidoo, P. K.; Baidoe-ansah, D.; Agbonu, I.

2012-01-01

59

Effect of pesticides applied in cowpea production on rumen microbial fermentation of cowpea haulms as reflected in in vitro gas production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The present study assessed the effect of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and dimethoate residues in cowpea haulm on microbial fermentation using gas syringes as incubators. The lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and dimethoate were applied at the vegetative, flowering and podding stages of the cowpea [...] at the rate of 2.66 mg/L, 5.14 mg/L and 6.68 mg/L of water, respectively. Dimethoate was detected in the cowpea haulm at the highest concentration of 1.38 mg/kg. The haulm with no pesticide treatment was incubated with media containing rumen fluid, and pesticides were added at concentrations of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg. In vitro gas production was measured at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h to estimate the rate of gas evolution. Gas production in general was influenced by pesticide application. In general, gas evolution was reduced by increasing levels of lambda cyhalothrin up to 80 mg/kg. However, an increase in gas accumulation was observed with increasing levels of dimethoate, while the application of cypermethrin yielded no noticeable change in gas production. The study indicates that pesticide residues may function as toxins at concentrations greater than those encountered in the field or lethal dose (LD50) and may inhibit the growth of rumen microbes.

C, Antwi; E.L.K, Osafo; D.S, Fisher; H.M, Yacout; A, Donkoh; A.A, Hassan; S.M.M, Sobhy; H, Adu-Dapaah; A.Z.M, Salem.

2014-03-01

60

Effect of Phytase Supplementation on the Digestibility of Crude Protein, Amino Acids and Phosphorus of Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata) in Broilers  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea contains phytate-P and other nutrients like amino acids which are poorly digested in broilers. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve digestibility of these nutrients. In 2 experiments the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein, amino acids and P of cowpea in broilers were investigated. Experiment One, had 6 diets in which 0, 150 or 300 g kg-1 cowpea replaced maize starch and 0 or 500 units of phytase enzy...

Iyayi, Eustace A.

2013-01-01

61

Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico  

CERN Document Server

Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

2015-01-01

62

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba / Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. A [...] mostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados. Abstract in english Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms [...] of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de, Freitas; Márcia Aparecida, Cezar; Márcia Michelle de Queiróz, Ambrósio; Ana Kelly Firmino da, Silva; Maria do Livramento, Aragão; José Albérsio de Araújo, Lima.

2012-08-01

63

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de Freitas

2012-08-01

64

Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

2011-09-15

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Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: ? In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ? Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. ? Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. ? Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. ? Irradiatioutritional content. ? Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

66

Crotalaria paulinea, novo hospedeiro natural do vírus do mosaico severo do caupi Crotalaria paulinea, a new natural host of Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available Amostras foliares de Crotalaria paulinea apresentando mosaico foram coletadas em São Luiz, MA, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC. As amostras foram testadas por Elisa indireto, contra anti-soros para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em àgar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. As amostras reagiram somente com o anti-soro para CPSMV, indicando ser C. paulinea mais um hospedeiro natural do vírus. Extratos das folhas de C. paulinea foram inoculados em plantas de caupi (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata mantidas em casa de vegetação. Dez dias após a inoculação, as plantas passaram a exibir sintomas de mosaico e a presença do CPSMV foi confirmada por sorologia. Nos estudos de gama de hospedeiros, envolvendo oito espécies botânicas, o isolado de CPSMV obtido de C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infetou sistemicamente somente cultivares de caupi. Estudos de reações de RT-PCR revelaram a presença de uma banda no gel de agarose de 594 pb para o CPSNV-Cp semelhante às de outros isolados de CPSMV. O CPSMV-Cp foi multiplicado em caupi cv. Pitiúba e purificado por clarificação com n-butanol, precipitação viral com PEG e ultracentrifugação. A preparação purificada apresentou um espectro de absorção ultravioleta típico de núcleoproteína com uma razão A260/A280 de 1,7. Coelho da raça Nova Zelândia Branca imunizado com a preparação viral purificada, produziu anti-soro policlonal reativo com CPSMV em dupla difusão em àgar. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a infecção natural de CPSMV em C. paulinea.Leaf samples from Crotalaria paulinea showing mosaic were collected in the city of São Luiz, MA and sent to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the UFC. The leaf samples were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and by gel double-diffusion against antiserum to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. The samples reacted only with the antiserum to CPSMV indicating that C. paulinea is one more natural host of the virus. Leaf extracts from infected C. paulinea were mechanically inoculated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata plants maintained in greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, the plants started to exhibit mosaic and the presence of CPSMV was confirmed by serology. In a host range study involving eight plant species, the CPSMV isolate obtained from C. paulinea (CPSMV-Cp infected only cowpea cultivars. The results of RT-PCR revealed a band in the agarose gel of 594 pb for CPSMV-Cp similar to those of other CPSMV isolates. The CPSMV-Cp was increased in cowpea cv. Pitiuba and purified by clarification using n-butanol, virus particle precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG and ultra centrifugation. The purified virus preparation presented an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum typical of nucleoprotein, with a ratio A260/A280 equal to 1.7. A White New Zealand rabbit immunized with the purified virus preparation produced polyclonal antiserum reactive to CPSMV in agar double-diffusion. This is the first report about natural infection of C. paulinea by CPSMV.

J. Albersio A. Lima

2005-08-01

67

Effect of Phytase Supplementation on the Digestibility of Crude Protein, Amino Acids and Phosphorus of Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata in Broilers  

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Full Text Available Cowpea contains phytate-P and other nutrients like amino acids which are poorly digested in broilers. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve digestibility of these nutrients. In 2 experiments the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein, amino acids and P of cowpea in broilers were investigated. Experiment One, had 6 diets in which 0, 150 or 300 g kg-1 cowpea replaced maize starch and 0 or 500 units of phytase enzyme (Natuphos, in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement to determine P digestibility and performance of the birds. Experiment Two, had similar diets as in experiment 1 with the objective to determine digestibility of CP and AAs. TiO2 was added as an indigestible marker in the diets and in each of the experiments a total of 288 1-day-old broiler chicks (Ross strain were used. Phytase supplementation increased (p<0.05 digestibility of P from 55-67% and improved performance of the birds. Cowpea and its interaction with phytase had no significant effect on P digestibility, CP and AAs, except for arginine, glutamic acid and phenylalanine which were reduced (p<0.05. Phytase increased (p<0.05 digestibility of CP and cystine and reduced CP and AA losses on the basal level at zero intakes of CP and AAs. Results suggest that supplementation of cowpea based diets with microbial phytase improved the precaecal digestibility of P, CP and amino acids in broilers.

Eustace A. Iyayi

2013-01-01

68

Effects of Intercropping Pattern and Planting Date on the Performance of Two Cowpea Varieties in Dalwa, Maiduguri, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out in Dalwa, Maiduguri to investigate the effects of intercropping pattern and planting date on the performance of two cowpea varieties with sorghum. The experiment was laid in split-plot design each replicated three times including control. The factorial experiment consisted of two varieties of cowpea (Borno brown and Banjiram, two planting dates (early and late planting and three intercrop patterns (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The results showed that cowpea flower count per plant were significantly higher (p<0.05 in Borno brown cowpea variety, late planting and 1:1 intercrop pattern. It further showed that cowpea pods count per plant was significantly higher in varieties, early planting date and 1:1 intercrop pattern. Grain yields were significantly higher in both varieties and not significantly different from one another, but higher in early planting date and higher in 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns. Farmers in the Maiduguri Northern eastern region of Nigeria could therefore adopt early planting of the two varieties at 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns.

Degri, M. M.

2012-12-01

69

Alternative hosts of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in sesame (Sesamum indicum) crops grown in Paraguay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production in Paraguay has been severely affected by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), which causes a disease known locally as ka'are. Because very little is known about the epidemiology of this disease, a survey was performed in fields surrounding a [...] ffected sesame plantations to identify CABMV-infected plants that may be acting as sources of inoculum. Samples from 48 plant species (symptomatic or asymptomatic, mostly spontaneous and a few cultivated) belonging to 17 families were evaluated by biological and serological assays. In a few select cases, confirmation of the infection was achieved by RT-PCR. The following species were found to be naturally infected by CABMV: Amaranthus hybridus, Arachis hypogaea, Crotalaria incana, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata. The absence of resistant/tolerant sesame cultivars along with the ineffectiveness of disease control through the chemical control of aphid vectors indicates that the only alternative available for disease management at present is the elimination and/or reduction of the sources of inoculum immediately before starting new plantations.

Luis R., González-Segnana; Arnaldo, Esquivel Fariña; Diego D., González; Ana Paula O. A., Mello; Jorge A. M., Rezende; Elliot W., Kitajima.

2013-12-01

70

Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 renefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

71

Fungitoxic and Phytotoxic Effect of Vernonia amygdalina (L, Bryophyllum pinnantus Kurz Ocimum gratissimum (Closium L. and Eucalyptna globules (Caliptos Labill Water Extracts on Cowpea and Cowpea Seedling Pathogens in Ago-Iwoye, South Western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study to evaluate the fungitoxic and phytotoxic effects of extracts of V. amaygdalina, B. pinnatus, O. gratissimum and E. globules on the fungal pathogens inducing wilting on cowpea grown in Ago-Iwoye, South Western Nigeria. The extracts of all the botanicals used reduced Disease Infection Rate (DIR in treated plants. Sclerotium rolfsii sacc induced wilting of between 4 and 12% on cowpea seedlings treated with plant extract under field conditions while about 39.6% incidence of cowpea seedlings wilting was observed under control experiment on the same experimental plot. The extracts increased significantly the plant height, shelf life, relative water content and chlorophyll contents of the cowpea seedlings during both the wet and dry season. On the other hand, the extracts significantly (p = 0.05 reduced transpiration rate and stomata aperture of treated plant in both seasons. Furthermore, application of these extracts on the cowpea plants significantly enhanced the Leaf Area Index (LAI number of branches and ponds per plant, total dry matter per plant, weight per pod, 100 grains weight and grain yield in both season when compared with the values obtained from control plants. The extracts also inhibited the release of current photosynthethates from treated plants thus maintaining the water status of plant and also making photosynthethates which can be oxidized to release energy needed for growth available to treated plants.

D.A. Alabi

2005-11-01

72

Effects of Intercrop Population Density and Row Orientation on Growth and Yields of Sorghum - Cowpea Cropping Systems in Semi Arid Rongai, Kenya  

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Full Text Available Sorghum - cowpea intercropping is an important farming system for small scale farmers in Arid and Semi Arid Lands of sub-Sahara African. Information on the cowpea intercrop population and row orientation effects on growth and yields of sorghum-cowpea cropping systems is however scanty or unavailable for tropical Africa and East African region in particular.With this in mind, a factorial designed experiments was carried out at a farmer’s field at Kampi ya Moto, Rongi, Kenya in two seasons i.e. December 2011 - April 2012 Season I (SI and May-August 2012 Season II (SII. The treatments comprised of sorghum planted at a constant population of 55 555 plants/ha and intercropped with cowpea at varying populations of 55 555, 111 111, and 166 666 plants/hectare and rows oriented in East-West (E-W and North-South (N-S directions, respectively replicated three times. Results showed that increase of cowpea (intercrop population from 55 555 to 166 666 plants/ha significantly (P ? 0.05 influenced crops growth, grain and yields attributes of both crops. However, there was no significant effect on harvest indices. Intercrop population (cowpea of 111 111 plants/ha produced the highest cowpea grain yields of 214 and 632 kg/ha in season I and season II, respectively. The highest sorghum grain yields of 2 729 kg/ha and 3 011 kg/ha were recorded in sole sorghum. The lowest sorghum and cowpea grain yields of 1 994.3 and 147.8 kg/ha were produced by the highest intercrop cropping system population of 166 666 cowpea plants/ha. The E-W row oriented cropping systems produced significantly higher cowpea grain yields ranging from 408 to 973 kg/ha compared to 333 to 838 kg/ha recorded under N-S row orientation. The N-S row orientation however, produced significantly higher sorghum grain yields of 1 874 and 2 123kg/ha from the sole sorghum cropping system in seasons I & II, respectively. It is recommended that farmers in semi-arid Rongai should intercrop sorghum at 55 555 plants/ha with cowpea at 55 555 during the short rainy season of SI (Oct - Dec and at 111 111 plants/ha during the long rainy SII (May - Aug, season, with rows oriented in the E-W direction, in order to realize over 400 kg/ha cowpea and 2 000 kg/ha sorghum grains yields. The higher cowpea intercrop population of 111 111 plants/ha should be used in wetter seasons of semi arid climates.

S. M. S. M. Karanja

2014-04-01

73

Pre-exposure to gamma rays alleviates the harmful effect of salinity on cowpea plants  

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Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the low concentrations of NaCl (25mM increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA, lipid peroxidation, non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol, number of legumes per plant, number of seeds per legume, number of seeds per plants, legume length, fresh and dry weight of legumes and weight of 1000 seeds and total soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents in harvested seeds as compared to control. On the other hand, the high concentrations of NaCl (50, 100 and 200 mM caused reduction in plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA, all yield attributes and harvested seeds components but increased lipid peroxidation and non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol. Electrophoretic studies of proteins showed three types of modifications are observed in the protein patterns of cowpea seeds, some protein bands were disappeared, other proteins were selectively increased and synthesis of new set of protein was induced. Some of these responses were observed under gamma rays and salinity treatments, while others were induced by either gamma rays or salinity. Seeds irradiation with gamma rays alleviates the adverse effect of salt stress compared to non irradiated seeds.

Mohammed A. H. M. A.

2012-11-01

74

Effect of Germination, Boiling and Co-fermentation on the Viscosity of Maize/cowpea Mixture as Complementary Infant Food  

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Full Text Available Traditionally prepared cereal based complementary food are too dilute for adequate energy and nutrient density as infant complementary food. The consistency of complementary food is of particular importance for infants who cannot masticate and therefore, depend on liquid or semi solid foods. In Nigeria mothers regard cereal malting and supplementation with legume as extra-labor. Increase of gruel energy density is important to improve the energy intake of young children in developing countries. This study investigated the effect of malting and co-fermentation bi-component flour (co-fermented maize/cowpea70:30w/w on the consistency of the gruel product. Five processes in which either of the grain is germinated, un-germinated, un-germinated and boiled, un-germinated boiled, wet-milled and sieved before co-fermentation were explored. Consistency of the gruel of the products with concentration ranging from 4-18%; was measured using Bostwick Consistometer. The dry matter of the gruel was determined according to standard method. It was observed that boiling and milling of un-germinated maize and cowpea before co-fermentation was more effective in viscosity reduction at 12% flour concentration. At 12% flour concentration that boiling and milling of un-germinated maize and cowpea before co-fermentation can enhance the consistency and by implication reduce the viscosity of co-fermented maize/cowpea as infant complementary food.

Oyarekua Mojisola Adenike

2012-01-01

75

Conformation of the RNA-binding N-terminus of the coat protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus: a nuclear magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy study.  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the study described in this thesis was to obtain information about protein-RNA interactions in cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). CCMV consists of RNA and a protective protein coat, composed of 180 identical coat proteins. The positively charged N-terminal arm of the coat protein is essential for binding the encapsidated RNA. Previously, the so-called 'snatch-pull' model has been suggested for the assembly of coat protein and RNA. According to this model the N-terminal reg...

Graaf, M.

1992-01-01

76

Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491 were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were determined. Nodulation in the polluted soils reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control while the stem girth, terminal leaf length and shoot dry mass increased significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control. The plant height of each variety significantly differed (p<0.005 from one another. This study has shown that soil pollution causes significant reduction in nodule numbers hence having immense negative impact on nodulation in cowpea varieties used in this study. Meanwhile soil pollution is shown in this study to increase the stem girth, plant height, leaf length and shoot dry mass of the cowpea plants compared to the control.

A.O. Awosanya

2012-06-01

77

Effect of Chinese traditional cooking on eight pesticides residue during cowpea processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal processing can concentrate residues or convert residues to more toxic metabolites in food. Chinese traditional cooking pays more attention to thermal processing and more vegetables were eaten after thermal processing. In this study, the effect of Chinese traditional cooking (washing, blanching, stir-frying, frying and combined operations) on eight pesticides residues (pyridaben, procymidone, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, ?-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, S-fenvalerate and ?-cyhalothrin) in cowpea which was one of the most important legume crops in China was examined. Result showed washing and blanching could reduce residues with low Kow while stir-frying and frying were more effective to residues with high Kow; stir-frying and frying could concentrate residues with low Kow; the residue levels in oil increased following increasing frying time and frequency especially the residues with high Kow; one metabolite studied in this paper was not detected. Blanching (5 min) followed by stir-frying (3 min) was the most effective combined operation. PMID:25306325

Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Jiang, Wayne; Chen, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinhui

2015-03-01

78

Detection and Some Properties of Cowpea mild mottle virus Isolated from Soybean in Iran  

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Full Text Available During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey were carried to identify a virus disease causing mosaic of soybean in the field in Southern region (Khozestan Province of Iran. To detect the viral infection, diseased leaf samples showing mild mosaic and leaf malformation were collected from soybean fields in Dezful, located in Khozestan Province. Infected samples were carried to the lab in a proper condition on ice packages. TPIA and DAS-ELISA serological tests were applied to identify the viral agent. To investigate the host-range, several indicator plants were mechanically inoculated under green-house condition. Seed transmission of CPMMV was examined using the seeds obtained from infected plants. The virus isolate was not found to be seed-borne in Clark variety of soybean. Different steps of ultracentrifugation including sucrose density gradient (10-40% were carried out in order to obtain partial purified virus. On the basis of biological, serological and EM results, CPMMV-Carla virus was identified in the infected soybean samples. This is the first report of CPMMV infection of soybean in Iran.

M. Tavassoli

2008-01-01

79

Detection and some properties of cowpea mild mottle virus isolated from soybean in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey were carried to identify a virus disease causing mosaic of soybean in the field in Southern region (Khozestan Province) of Iran. To detect the viral infection, diseased leaf samples showing mild mosaic and leaf malformation were collected from soybean fields in Dezful, located in Khozestan Province. Infected samples were carried to the lab in a proper condition on ice packages. TPIA and DAS-ELISA serological tests were applied to identify the viral agent. To investigate the host-range, several indicator plants were mechanically inoculated under green-house condition. Seed transmission of CPMMV was examined using the seeds obtained from infected plants. The virus isolate was not found to be seed-borne in Clark variety of soybean. Different steps of ultracentrifugation including sucrose density gradient (10-40%) were carried out in order to obtain partial purified virus. On the basis of biological, serological and EM results, CPMMV-Carla virus was identified in the infected soybean samples. This is the first report of CPMMV infection of soybean in Iran. PMID:19630214

Tavassoli, M; Shahraeen, N; Ghorbani, S

2008-12-01

80

Infusion of imaging and therapeutic molecules into the plant virus-based carrier cowpea mosaic virus: cargo-loading and delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is focused on the development of a plant virus-based carrier system for cargo delivery, specifically 30nm-sized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Whereas previous reports described the engineering of CPMV through genetic or chemical modification, we report a non-covalent infusion technique that facilitates efficient cargo loading. Infusion and retention of 130-155 fluorescent dye molecules per CPMV using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride), propidium iodide (3,8-diamino-5-[3-(diethylmethylammonio)propyl]-6-phenylphenanthridinium diiodide), and acridine orange (3,6-bis(dimethylamino)acridinium chloride), as well as 140 copies of therapeutic payload proflavine (PF, acridine-3,6-diamine hydrochloride), is reported. Loading is achieved through interaction of the cargo with the CPMV's encapsidated RNA molecules. The loading mechanism is specific; empty RNA-free eCPMV nanoparticles could not be loaded. Cargo-infused CPMV nanoparticles remain chemically active, and surface lysine residues were covalent modified with dyes leading to the development of dual-functional CPMV carrier systems. We demonstrate cargo-delivery to a panel of cancer cells (cervical, breast, and colon): CPMV nanoparticles enter cells via the surface marker vimentin, the nanoparticles target the endolysosome, where the carrier is degraded and the cargo is released allowing imaging and/or cell killing. In conclusion, we demonstrate cargo-infusion and delivery to cells; the methods discussed provide a useful means for functionalization of CPMV toward its application as drug and/or contrast agent delivery vehicle. PMID:23665254

Yildiz, Ibrahim; Lee, Karin L; Chen, Kevin; Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

2013-12-10

81

Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Background: Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Meth...

Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Fla?vio S. N.; Carvalho, Jose? L. V.; Viana, Daniela S.; Freitas, Sidinea C.; Rocha, Maurisrael M.

2014-01-01

82

The effects of gamma radiation on the reproduction of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera - Bruchidae)  

OpenAIRE

Irradiation of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F. was carried out to study its effects on reproduction. Complete sterility of males and females is obtained when treated as adults with 10 krad. At lower doses the female is more susceptible than the male. The fecundity is affected and at doses above 100 krad death occurs before the female lays all her mature eggs. The sterility induced is observed in the reduction in percentage of egg hatch, but mortality after hatching is negligible...

Ghogomu, Tr

1991-01-01

83

The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha-1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha-1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha-1. Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

84

Antagonistic regulation, yet synergistic defense: effect of bergapten and protease inhibitor on development of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10(-6)) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917

Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-01-01

85

Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield  

OpenAIRE

Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) were cropped continuously for 3 years in plots with a natural infestation of 24-53 microsclerotia g(-1) soil at the onset of the experiment. Next, a susceptible cowpea variety was grown to...

Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; Bruggen, A. H. C.

2008-01-01

86

Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

Science.gov (United States)

Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

2011-09-01

87

Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, Using Natural Plant Products  

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Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

2014-12-01

88

Effect of Sowing Date and NPK on the Forage Yield and Quality in the Crop Combination of Maize and Cowpea in Newer Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, India  

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Full Text Available Growing of more than one crop simultaneously by intercropping on the same land with definite row arrangement is considered effective in achieving maximum production from unit area per unit time. A field experiment was conducted on maize-cowpea intercropping at Grass Land Research Station, State Fodder Production Cum Seed Multiplication Farm, Haringhata, Nadia, West Bengal (23°N Latitude, 89°E Longitudes with elevation of 9.75 m above MSL during rainy (kharif season of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Maize (AT and cowpea (E C 4216 were sown during 2008 and 2009 to estimate the effect of application of different NPK doses on forage yield with five treatment combinations including maize as a sole crop. The observation on the effect on quality of green forage yield and dry matter accumulation of different treatments indicated significant variability. Highest forage productions were observed in sole maize (62.1 ton and (73.9 ton during 2008 and 2009. Sole maize exhibited highest dry matter (551.08 and 558.65 g-2 production in 2008 and 2009, while, 2:1 with cowpea mixture produced (320.95 g-2 in 2008 and (322.88 g-2 in 2009. Moreover the digestible crude protein content in maize+cowpea (2:1 and cowpea+maize (2:1 exhibited 10.4 and 38.9% increase over control during 2008 while 10.3 and 38.4% in 2009 with N, P2O5, K2O (100:50:50 and (20:60:40, respectively. Therefore, it appears that forage quality and yield of maize with cowpea influenced the quality of forage production in maize based grass-legume intercropping system.

D.K. Khan

2013-01-01

89

CO2 enhances effects of hypoxia on mortality, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20 days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2. PMID:24001922

Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Wang, Yu; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2013-11-01

90

Effects of decreased O2 and elevated CO2 on survival, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of modified atmospheres with depleted O(2) and/or elevated CO(2) is an environmentally friendly alternative to currently used fumigants for control of stored grain insect pests. In the present study, we examined the impact of hypoxia and hypercapnia on cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Two O(2)/CO(2) combinations were used; (i) 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), (ii) 2% O(2)+18% CO(2). In both cases, N(2) was maintained at 80%, equivalent to normal atmospheric concentration. In ambient atmosphere, the rate of O(2) consumption and CO(2) output at different stages (from low to high) was: eggs?1st instar<2nd instar?pupae?adults<3rd instar<4th instar. When exposed to 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), eggs, larvae and pupae were able to complete development and successfully enter the next developmental stage, although developmental time and mortality varied at different stages. In contrast, more severe hypoxic/hypercapnic treatment, i.e. 2% O(2)+18% CO(2), led to cessation of development of all stages. Effects on eggs and adults were most dramatic as they could only withstand 2-3 days exposure. Further, eggs at early (4-6h old) and later stages (102-104 h old, black-headed) were more susceptible compared to those at intermediate stage (52-54 h old). The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were least sensitive and could survive up to 20 days treatment. To gain some insight into molecular mechanisms underpinning the hypoxic/hypercarpnic response, we performed qPCR reactions on selected metabolic genes involved in TCA cycle and in protein digestion, as well as genes encoding stress-responsive heat shock proteins. Patterns of gene expression and proteolysis suggest that cowpea bruchids suppress their metabolic activity and increase stress tolerance when challenged by O(2) deprivation. Transcript abundance as well as proteolytic activity recovered once normoxic conditions resumed. Taken together, cowpea bruchids were found able to cope with hypoxic and hypercapnic stress. This ability was particularly strong in the late larval stage. PMID:22387498

Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-06-01

91

Consumers’ Preference for Cowpea in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study investigates consumers’ preference for cowpea reflected in the Nigerian markets through price discounts and premiums that consumers pay for different cowpea characteristics. The price data used for this study were obtained through a market survey. A common data collection protocol was employed. Every month, between October 2009 to December 2010, five cowpea samples per seller were bought from randomly selected sellers in six markets and the prices noted. In the laboratory, the non-price data, such as, 100 grain weight, number of bruchid holes per 100 grains, eye colour and texture of the testa were obtained. A hedonic pricing regression model was used to analyze data collected. Hedonic pricing methods provide a statistical estimate of premiums and discounts. Results indicate that eye colour is the most important determinant of cowpea market prices. Cowpeas with brown colour commands a clear premium in all but one market. The consumers discount prices for insect damage in most markets. In general, this study signals the need for cowpea breeders to identify cost effective ways of breeding for brown coloured cowpea (Ife-brown specie which was noted to attract price premium.

Kalu Ukpai Ifegwu

2014-03-01

92

Phosphorus Response Efficiency in Cowpea Genotypes  

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Full Text Available Phosphorus is important for cowpea production and is inherently low in many tropical soils. Selection of cowpea genotypes that produce good yield under low soil P or those with high P response efficiency can be a low input approach in solving this problem. Therefore, the effect of root architecture and P application on the yield of cowpea and its P uptake were investigated. A screen house experiment was conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA Ibadan, Nigeria. Three hundred cowpea genotypes obtained from the germplasm collection Unit of IITA were screened for number of root whorls and total number of roots using a completely randomized design with 12 replicates. Ten cowpea genotypes were further selected from the initial screening to determine the effect of three levels of P (0, 20 and 40 mg P kg-1 soil application on their growth and nutrient uptake. The experiment was replicated three times. Phosphorus application significantly (p<0.05 enhanced shoot and root dry weight, total biomass, number of nodules, nodules dry weight, N and P uptake of the cowpea genotypes investigated. Six cowpea genotypes exhibited increases in nodules dry weight with P application. There was no significant relationship between root architecture and P uptake (r = -0.13. The N and P uptake were enhanced by the application of P in the cowpea genotypes studied. In low P soil, IT97K-414-5 was efficient in P uptake and IT92KD-267-2 was efficient in N uptake. The two genotypes may produce cowpea lines suitable in low P soils when used as breeder lines.

Oladiran Olaleye

2012-01-01

93

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

OpenAIRE

Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin we...

Rose, T. L.; Gomes, V. M.; Da Cunha, M.; Fernandes, K. V. S.; Xavier-filho, J.

2003-01-01

94

Pre-exposure to gamma rays alleviates the harmful effect of salinity on cowpea plants  

OpenAIRE

Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the low concentrations of NaCl (25mM) increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA), lipid peroxidation, non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol), number of legumes per plant, number of seeds per legume, number of seeds per plants, legume length, fresh and dry...

Mohammed A. H. M. A.; Mohamed H. I.; Zaki L. M.; Mogazy A. M.

2012-01-01

95

Effects of gamma radiation on the reproductive organs of the southern cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pupae of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. exposed to the sterilizing dose (3000 rad) from 60Co gamma radiation gave rise to adults in which the first mature oocyte was retarded. The first mature oocyte began to appear after 31 hours. Exposure to the dose 10000 rad prevented egg formation in the resulting weevils. Soon after emergence normal weevils had a mature oocyte in each ovariole. Doses of gamma rays tested decreased the size of testes treated in the pupal stage

96

Allelopathic Effects of Some Selected Tree Species on the Germination and Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)  

OpenAIRE

The allelopathic effect of three tree species (Azardiracta indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, and Parkia bi-globosa) on germination and growth of cowpea was investigated in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro ecological zone of Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three (3) replicates. Data were collected on germination, plant height, stem ...

Aleem, M. O.; Alamu, L. O.; Olabode, O. S.

2014-01-01

97

Growth Responses of External Hyphae of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Acidic Soil Conditions and their Effects on Cowpea Growth  

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Full Text Available The effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi has often been attributed to growth of their external hyphae, whilst the hyphae themselves may be subjected to the effects of severe soil conditions. The growth of external hyphae of Gigaspora margarita and Glomus etunicatum and their functions in cowpea growth have been studied at low soil pH using a pot system making is possible for the hyphae to grow separately from their host’s roots. Pots had two compartments, one for roots (RC and one for hyphae (HC. The RC was a cylindrical bag made of 30 ìm nylon mesh that retains the roots but allows the hyphae to pass through, placed centrally and surrounded by the HC. Initially, the RC was filled with 120 g of a soil/sand mixture (pH 5.3, inoculated with G. margarita, G. etunicatum or free fungal inoculants. A pre-germinated cowpea seed was grown in the compartment for two weeks before the HC was filled with 580 g of the mix in which the pH had been adjusted to 4.6, 4.9 or 5.2. Growth of the plants and of the fungal hyphae in the HC was assessed 6 weeks later. The two fungi differed in their responses to soil pH levels in their growth of external hyphae although they colonized plant roots in the same way. At pH 4.6, the hyphae of G. etunicatum grew more weakly than those of G. margarita. Increasing the pH enhanced the growth of G. etunicatum’s hyphae but reduced G. margarita’s. In relation to their external hyphal functions, G. margarita was able to improve its shoot dry weight and P uptake of cowpea plants higher than G. etunicatum. These findings highlight the ability of developing an extensive external hyphal network under adverse conditions of excessive H+ ions as an important characteristic for the effectiveness of AM fungi in acidic soils.

AGUS ROHYADI

2008-04-01

98

Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

1988-06-01

99

The effects of gamma radiation on the reproduction of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera - Bruchidae  

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Full Text Available Irradiation of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F. was carried out to study its effects on reproduction. Complete sterility of males and females is obtained when treated as adults with 10 krad. At lower doses the female is more susceptible than the male. The fecundity is affected and at doses above 100 krad death occurs before the female lays all her mature eggs. The sterility induced is observed in the reduction in percentage of egg hatch, but mortality after hatching is negligible. When females are exposed to substerilizing doses as pupae or adults, the fertility on the first day of oviposition is significantly reduced and those treated as adults are the most affected. On the second day there is improvement in fertility.

Ghogomu, TR.

1991-01-01

100

Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality  

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Full Text Available Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays and cowpea (Vigna sinensis monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on forage dry weight, where dry matter yield was increased by intercropping as compared with maize and cowpea sole crops. It was related with a higher consumption consumption of environmental resources, such as photosynthetically active radiation and soil moisture, by intercropping. Maize forage quality in terms of crude protein was improved by intercropping. It was because of more nitrogen availability for maize in intercropping compared with its sole crop.

Ahmad GHANBARI

2009-11-01

101

Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays) and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality  

OpenAIRE

Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop) were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping...

Ghanbari, Ahmad; Eskandari, Hamdollah

2009-01-01

102

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

OpenAIRE

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to af...

Mota Antônio Chagas; Fernandes Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales Maurício Pereira; Flores Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho José

2002-01-01

103

Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested cowpeas commonly consumed in Nigeria. The result revealed that infestation brings about an increase in the evaluated anti-nutrients (phytate, oxalate and alkaloids and a marked reduction in protein, carbohydrate content, whereas a marked increase was recorded for the fibre content. The result of the antioxidant activities revealed a significant reduction for total phenol, total flavonoids and reducing power and a slight reduction was recorded for the inhibitory action against lipid oxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging, 2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and 1, 1-diphenyly-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities after infestation. The present investigations revealed that Callosobruchus maculatus infestation do not only affect the nutrient composition of the studied cowpeas by reducing the nutritional value, but would also have an adverse effect on their potential to prevent free radical mediated diseases.

Sule Ola Salawu

2014-03-01

104

Efectividad de cepas rizobianas de frijol bajo diferentes regímenes de fósforo / Effectiveness of cowpea rhizobial strains under different phosphorus regimes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela, el frijol representa una alternativa a la proteína animal, debido a su alto consumo y valor nutritivo, por ello se ha estimulado la implementación de programas para reactivar la economía de los pequeños y medianos productores, a fin de incrementar su producción y así tener mayor dispon [...] ibilidad de proteína de alta calidad a bajo costo; de manera que, los estudios encaminados a mejorar su cultivo, son acertados. Se evaluó la efectividad de cepas rizobianas de crecimiento lento (cl) y rápido (cr) en frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cultivar TC9-6 en varios regímenes de fósforo (0, 20, 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial. Las plantas se cultivaron en 4 kg de suelo de sabana 45 días y las cepas en caldo de levadura y manitol: 5 (cr: JV91) y 10 (cl: JV94) días. La inoculación (2 ml cada vez) fue aplicada a la siembra y 6 días más tarde. La utilización de fósforo (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) incrementó la nodulación (número, peso seco total e individual de nódulos) y favoreció la aparición de nódulos rojos; así mismo, acrecentó el peso de la materia seca, la altura, el número de hojas y la concentración de nitrógeno del vástago. Los valores fueron similares con ambos tipos de cepas (efectividad similar) y para las dos concentraciones (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con las menores estimaciones para 0 y 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . De acuerdo con los resultados las concentraciones de 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 fueron las más favorables para el crecimiento y la nodulación de frijol. Abstract in english In Venezuela, cowpea is an alternative to animal protein due to its high consumption and nutritious value, so it has stimulated the implementation of programs to reactivate the small and medium producers economy, in order to increase its production and to have major high quality protein availability [...] at low cost; so that, the studies carry on to improve its cultivation, are well-aimed. The effectiveness of slow (sg) and fast (fg) growing rhizobial strains was evaluated in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) cultivar TC9-6 at various phosphorus regimes (0, 20, 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ): randomized block design with factorial arrangement. Plants were cultivated in 4 kg savannah soil: 45 days, and the strains in yeast and mannitol broth: 5 (fg: JV91) and 10 (sg: JV94) days. The inoculation (2 ml each time) was applied at sowing time and 6 days later. Phosphorus utilization (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) increa- sed nodulation (nodule number, total and individual dry weight) and favoured nodule red colour appearance; also, incremented shoot dry matter weight, height, leaves number and nitrogen concentration. Values were similar with both strain types (similar effectiveness) and to the two doses (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), with lower estimations to 0 and 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . Accordingly with the results, the doses of 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 were the most favourable to cowpea growth and nodulation.

Juliana, Mayz Figueroa.

2011-12-01

105

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea [...] (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L., Rose; V.M., Gomes; M., Da Cunha; K.V.S., Fernandes; J., Xavier-Filho.

2003-08-01

106

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins and fungal cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L. Rose

2003-01-01

107

Cowpea Crude Protein as Affected by Cropping System, Site and Nitrogen Fertilization  

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Full Text Available High protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. is considered as major advantage for its use in nutritional components. In this way, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cropping system, site, and nitrogen fertilization on cowpea crude protein. The study comprised of three cropping systems (Maize-cowpea rotation, monocropping cowpea and intercropped cowpea, three sites (Potchefstroom, Taung, and Rustenburg, South Africa and two rates of nitrogen fertilizers applied in kg ha-1 at each site (0 and 20 at Potchefstroom, 0 and 17 at Rustenburg, 0 and 23 at Taung. Moreover, a factorial experiment randomized in complete block design with three replications was conducted during 2011/12 and 2012/13 planting seasons. The protein content was determined from green leaves harvested before flowering, immature green pods and seeds during reproductive stage and maturity. Results showed that cropping system had significant effect on cowpea leaf protein content (P < 0.05. Intercropped cowpea significantly gave higher leaf protein (26.7% more content than rotational cowpea. Cowpea planted at Taung had significantly higher leaf protein (30.1% more content as compared to cowpea planted at other sites. Application of nitrogen fertilizer contributed to higher protein content of immature pods. Moreover, cowpea protein content differs among the different locations due to different soil types and climatic conditions.

E. T. Sebetha

2014-12-01

108

Identificación de virus que se transmiten a través de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) en áreas productoras de Venezuela / Identification of seed borne viruses in growing areas of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para conocer la incidencia de virus que se transmiten a través de la semilla en áreas productoras de caraota y fríjol, se evaluaron 53 materiales usados como semilla. Se seleccionaron aislamientos virales provenientes de las semillas sembradas en umbráculo protegido contra insectos; identificándose [...] los aislamientos virales de caraota como: "Colombiana 1", "Colombiana 2" y "Tucutunemo" y el de fríjol como "Ojo negro". Para este estudio se multiplicó el material, se realizaron las pruebas de estabilidad en savia, se estudió la transmisión a través de insectos, se estudió el rango de hospedantes, microscopía electrónica y se realizaron pruebas serológicas con los antisueros disponibles. En tres aislamientos virales de caraota se identificó, el virus del mosaico sureño de la caraota (BSMV) en muestra del Valle de Tucutunemo, estado Aragua, en un material procedente de Colombia colectado en Sanare, estado Lara, se detectó infección viral simple con el BSMV y doble el BSMV y el virus del mosaico común de la caraota (BCMV) . En fríjol se identificó el virus del mosaico severo del frijol (CpSMV) a partir de semilla de los estados Portuguesa y Falcón. Con este estudio se ratifica la necesidad del control fitosanitario para la exclusión de materiales nacionales o importados no aptos para la siembra y se corrobora la importancia de la certificación de semillas. Abstract in english With the purpose of knowing the incidence of seed borne viruses in production areas of beans and cowpea, 53 materials used as seed were evaluated. Viral isolations coming from seeds sowed in shelter protected against insects; being identified the beans isolations like: "Colombian 1", "Colombian 2" a [...] nd "Tucutunemo"; and those of cowpea like "Black Eye", were selected. Material was multiplied, stability test in sap were carried out, vector transmission was studied, the hosts range was determined, serological tests with the available antibody were carried out. In three viral isolations of beans, the bean southern mosaic virus (BSMV) was identified in a sample of Tucutunemo Valley, Aragua state. In the material coming from Colombia collected in Sanare, Lara state, it was detected simple viral infection BSMV and double infection BSMV and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). In cowpea, it was identified the cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV) from seed of Portuguese and Falcon states. Through this essay was corroborated the necessity of establishing a phytopathological control, for the exclusion of national or imported seed materials not suitable for sows, and also the importance of seed certification.

Z, Peña; G, Trujillo.

2007-01-01

109

Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

2013-12-01

110

Transgenic passionfruit expressing RNA derived from Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus is resistant to passionfruit woodiness disease / Plantas transgênicas de maracujá-amarelo expressando um RNA derivado do genoma do Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus são resistentes ao endurecimento dos frutos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dezesseis plantas transgênicas (R0) de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora spp.) foram obtidas expressando um RNA não-traduzível correspondente à região 3' do gene NIb e 5' do gene CP de um isolado brasileiro do CABMV. As plantas R0 foram propagadas vegetativamente por estaquia e inoculadas com os isolados [...] CABMV-MG1 e CABMV-PE1. Uma das plantas (TE5-10) foi resistente ao isolado CABMV-MG1, porém suscetível ao isolado CABMV-PE1. As demais plantas transgênicas foram suscetíveis a ambos os isolados, apresentando sintomas sistêmicos semelhantes ao de plantas não-transformadas. A ausência de replicação viral nas plantas TE5-10 foi confirmada por ELISA indireto. A análise da transcrição do transgene nas plantas TE5-10 demonstrou que estas não acumulam o mRNA transgênico, mesmo antes da inoculação com o vírus. Após a inoculação, o RNA viral foi detectado apenas em plantas inoculadas com o isolado CABMV-PE1. Esses resultados confirmam que a planta TE5-10 é resistente ao isolado CABMV-MG1, e sugerem que o mecanismo da resistência é baseado em silenciamento gênico pós-transcricional, o qual já se encontra ativado nas plantas antes da inoculação com o vírus. Abstract in english Sixteen transgenic yellow passionfruit (Passiflora spp.) plants (R0) were obtained which express a non-translatable transgenic RNA corresponding to the 3' region of the NIb gene and the 5' region of the CP gene, derived from the genome of a Brazilian isolate of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV [...] ). The transgenic plants were propagated by stem cuttings and challenged by sap inoculation with isolates CABMV-MG1 and CABMV-PE1. One transgenic plant (TE5-10) was resistant to the isolate CABMV-MG1, but susceptible to CABMV-PE1. The remaining transgenic plants developed systemic symptoms, equal to non-transformed plants, when inoculated with either isolate. The absence of virus in TE5-10 plants was confirmed by indirect ELISA. Transcription analysis of the transgene demonstrated that the TE5-10 plant did not accumulate transgenic mRNA, even before inoculation. After inoculation, viral RNA was only detected in plants inoculated with CABMV-PE1. These results confirm that the transgenic plant TE5-10 is resistant to isolate CABMV-MG1, and suggest that the resistance mechanism is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which is already activated in the transgenic plants before virus inoculation.

Poliane F., Alfenas; Antonio Sérgio K., Braz; Leonardo B., Torres; Enilton N., Santana; Ana Verônica S. do, Nascimento; Murilo G. de, Carvalho; Wagner C., Otoni; F. Murilo, Zerbini.

2005-02-01

111

Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

112

Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICM), genus Potyvirus, were detected from 25 common bean and 14 black gram seeds among 142 seed samples collected from different legume-growing regions of India. The samples were subjected to a growing-on test, an indicator plant test, an electron microscopic observations, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and an immunocapture RT-PCR. The incidence of the two tested viruses in common bean and black gram seed samples was 1–6% and 0.5–3.5%, respectively in growing-on test evaluations. Electron microscopic observations revealed filamentous virion particles from the leaves of plants showing characteristic virus disease symptoms in growing-on and host inoculation tests. The identity of the strains was confirmed by immunocapture RT-PCR, with a final amplification product of approximately 700 bp for BCMV and BCMV–BICM. The complete identity of the two viruses was further confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the partial coat protein and 3'-UTR regions. The sequences of the four BCMV and BCMV–BICM isolates each consisted of 583–622 and 550–577 nucleotides. The present report confirms the widespread nature of these two serious potyviruses in the two most important legume crops in India.

Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra

2012-01-01

113

Effect of Sowing Distances on Edible Pod Yields and Yield Components of Three Vegetable Cowpea Cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Sesquipedalis Subspecies, Grown in Northeast Thailand  

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Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Northeast Thailand in the 2006 (August to October to investigate effect of sowing distances on edible pod yields and yield components of three vegetable cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Sesquipedalis subspecies. The experiment was laid in a split plot arranged in a Randomize Complete Block Design with four replications. Five sowing distances were used as main plots (50?10, 50?20, 50?30, 50?40 and 50?50 cm between rows and within rows, respectively and three cowpea cultivars were used as subplots (MSU 1, KKU 40 and SNU 1. The results showed that there were no statistical differences due to cultivars on total dry weight ha?1, number of branches plant?1, marketable pods ha?1, 100-seed weight and total fresh weight of pods ha?1 where in most cases genetic potential of the three cultivars were similar. Number of off standard pods was significantly highest with KKU 40 (6.13 pods plant?1, whilst MSU 1 and SNU 1 cultivars gave smaller values but both were similar (4.80 and 4.53 pods plant?1, respectively. The closest sowing distances (T1 gave significantly higher total dry weight ha?1 and number of off standard pods plant?1 than other treatments (T2-T5. An increase in sowing distances significantly increased number of branches plant?1 up to T2 but T2 was similar to other higher sowing distances (T3-T5. Total marketable pods (12,196.50 kg ha?1 and total fresh weight of edible pods (12,588.88 kg ha?1 were significantly highest with T3 where T3 was the most suitable sowing distances for either of the three cowpea cultivars (50?30 cm between rows and within rows, respectively.

Sinsiri Wantana

2007-01-01

114

Effects of Different Rates of Indole-3-Acitic Acid on Root Formation of Detached Leaves of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp  

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Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the dry season (February-April, 2004 at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand to investigate the effect of different rates of indole-3-acitic acid (IAA growth regulator in inducing root formation of detached leaves of MSU1, KVC#7 and IT84E-1-108 cowpea cultivars under tunnel conditions. The experiment was laid in a strip plot design with four replications and each replication was duplicated four times for four sampling periods. IAA levels used were 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg L-1 of distilled water, thus the experiment consisted of 21 treatments. The results showed that root length, number of both roots and root hairs were highly affected by IAA treatments and the best IAA level was found with level 3 (500 mg L-1. The effects due to IAA levels and cultivars were highly significant and the effects due to an interaction between factors A (cultivars and B (IAA levels, in most cases, were highly significant. Detached leaf technique with the use of IAA growth regulator could be considered as one of the most appropriate techniques for the preparation of plant samples for the test on disease resistance of cowpea cultivars.

N. Sinsiri

2007-01-01

115

Effects of different rates of indole-3-acitic acid on root formation of detached leaves of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp).  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment was carried out in the dry season (February-April, 2004) at the Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand to investigate the effect of different rates of indole-3-acitic acid (IAA) growth regulator in inducing root formation of detached leaves of MSU1, KVC#7 and IT84E-1-108 cowpea cultivars under tunnel conditions. The experiment was laid in a strip plot design with four replications and each replication was duplicated four times for four sampling periods. IAA levels used were 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg L(-1) of distilled water, thus the experiment consisted of 21 treatments. The results showed that root length, number of both roots and root hairs were highly affected by IAA treatments and the best IAA level was found with level 3 (500 mg L(-1)). The effects due to IAA levels and cultivars were highly significant and the effects due to an interaction between factors A (cultivars) and B (IAA levels), in most cases, were highly significant. Detached leaf technique with the use of IAA growth regulator could be considered as one of the most appropriate techniques for the preparation of plant samples for the test on disease resistance of cowpea cultivars. PMID:19069987

Sinsiri, N; Laohasiriwong, S

2007-01-01

116

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP) POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO / TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP) BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791), "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV). Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de [...] Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae), coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus. Visando fornecer subsídios a uma melhor compreensão do processo de transmissão do fitovírus isolado de V. luteola (CpSMV-SP), foram feitas tentativas de transmissão por diferentes artrópodos, incluindo sete espécies de insetos e uma de ácaro. Determinaram-se altas taxas de transmissão (46,6, 50,0 e 70,0%) do CpSMV-SP em plantas de feijão, por adultos de C. arcuata. O vírus foi transmitido ainda por larvas de 1° ínstar, com taxas de 10,0% (caupi) e 40,0% (feijoeiro). Ausência de transmissão foi constatada nos ensaios por artrópodos pertencentes a outras ordens (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) e outras espécies de coleópteros (Diabrotica bivittula, D. speciosa e Epicauta atomaria). Abstract in english The beetle Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791) is a vector of the cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus (CpSMV) and of several leguminous viruses in Brazil. In 1991, an isolate of CpSMV, later designed as CpSMV-SP, was found on plants of Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae) from the region of Praia Grande, in the S [...] outh coastal area of the São Paulo State, Brazil. In order to obtain a better understanding of the CpSMV-SP transmission, different arthropod species, including seven insects species and one mite, species were studied as vectors. The transmission rates by adults of C. arcuata were high (46.6, 50.0 and 70.0%) on bean and by 1st instar larvae were 40.0% on bean and 10.0% on cowpea. Transmission by other arthropod orders (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and by other Coleoptera species failed.

Fernando Javier Sanhueza, Salas; Maria Mércia, Barradas; José Roberto Postali, Parra.

117

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

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Full Text Available O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791, "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV. Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae, coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus. Visando fornecer subsídios a uma melhor compreensão do processo de transmissão do fitovírus isolado de V. luteola (CpSMV-SP, foram feitas tentativas de transmissão por diferentes artrópodos, incluindo sete espécies de insetos e uma de ácaro. Determinaram-se altas taxas de transmissão (46,6, 50,0 e 70,0% do CpSMV-SP em plantas de feijão, por adultos de C. arcuata. O vírus foi transmitido ainda por larvas de 1° ínstar, com taxas de 10,0% (caupi e 40,0% (feijoeiro. Ausência de transmissão foi constatada nos ensaios por artrópodos pertencentes a outras ordens (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae e outras espécies de coleópteros (Diabrotica bivittula, D. speciosa e Epicauta atomaria.The beetle Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791 is a vector of the cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus (CpSMV and of several leguminous viruses in Brazil. In 1991, an isolate of CpSMV, later designed as CpSMV-SP, was found on plants of Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae from the region of Praia Grande, in the South coastal area of the São Paulo State, Brazil. In order to obtain a better understanding of the CpSMV-SP transmission, different arthropod species, including seven insects species and one mite, species were studied as vectors. The transmission rates by adults of C. arcuata were high (46.6, 50.0 and 70.0% on bean and by 1st instar larvae were 40.0% on bean and 10.0% on cowpea. Transmission by other arthropod orders (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae and by other Coleoptera species failed.

Fernando Javier Sanhueza Salas

1999-01-01

118

Gene-for-gene resistance in Striga-cowpea associations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven races of Striga gesnerioides parasitic on cowpea, a major food and forage legume in sub-Saharan Africa, have been identified. Race-specific resistance of cowpea to Striga involves a coiled-coil nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat domain resistance protein encoded by the RSG3-301 gene. Knockdown of RSG3-301 expression by virus-induced gene silencing in the multirace-resistant cowpea cultivar B301 results in the failure of RSG3-301-silenced plants to mount a hypersensitive response and promotes parasite necrosis when challenged with Striga race SG3, whereas the resistance response to races SG2 and SG5 is unaltered. Our findings indicate that a gene-for-gene resistance mechanism is operating in these unique plant-plant associations. PMID:19713520

Li, Jianxiong; Timko, Michael P

2009-08-28

119

Effect of Native Soap on Insect Pests and Grain Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Asaba and Abraka during the Late Cropping Season in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Studies were conducted to test the effectiveness of native soap against cowpea insect pests during the late cowpea cropping season in two agro-ecological zones-Asaba and Abraka, Delta State. Four major insect pests, namely the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, the legume flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Tryb, the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fab and pod sucking bugs were studied. The experiment was made up of five treatments-1, 2 and 3 percent concentrations of native soap, cypermethrin (as conventional chemical and check and a control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment was arranged into a randomised complete block design (RCBD. The results showed that all the major insect pests occurred in the study areas but were more at Asaba compared to Abraka. Native soap was effective against A. craccivora and flower bud thrips population at Asaba. Maruca vitrata was not affected by soap application. Grain yield was high at Abraka and significantly (P<0.05 higher than Asaba. The use of native soap as non-conventional insecticide in cowpea insect pests management appears promising, more so as it is not expensive and safe to handle. Farmers may prefer it to synthetic chemical pesticides with their associated dangers.

E. O. Egho

2012-06-01

120

Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

121

Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea)  

OpenAIRE

Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v) chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length ...

Sharad Phulari

2013-01-01

122

Molecular studies on bromovirus capsid protein. III. Analysis of cell-to-cell movement competence of coat protein defective variants of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether the role of coat protein (CP) in cell-to-cell movement of dicot-adapted cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus (CCMV) is distinct from that of monocot-adapted brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV), two reporter genes, beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), were substituted for the CP in a biologically active clone of CCMV RNA3 (C3). Primary leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa, and cowpea were co-inoculated with wild-type (wt) CCMV RNA 1 and -2 and either C3/delta CP-GUS or C3/delta CP-EGFP and analyzed for GUS activity or the presence of green fluorescence. The visual appearance of infections caused by GUS or EGFP variants indicated that, in CCMV, epidermal cell-to-cell movement can occur without a functional CP. By contrast, inoculation of MP defective variants of C3/delta CP-GUS or C3/delta CP-EGFP resulted in subliminal infections. Additional experiments examining the infectivity of wt BMV RNA 1 and -2 and a BMV RNA3 variant bearing the EGFP in the place of CP (B3/delta CP-EGFP) confirmed previous observations that, unlike CCMV, epidermal cell-to-cell movement of BMV is dependent on the expression of a functional CP. Taken together, the results demonstrate that BMV and CCMV use different mechanisms for initial epidermal cell-to-cell spread, and the individual role played by the respective CP genes in this active process is discussed. PMID:9191853

Rao, A L

1997-06-01

123

Integrated Effects of Bio and Mineral Fertilizers and Humic Substances on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Contents of Fertigated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Grown on Sandy Soils  

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Full Text Available A bio-fertigation trial was conducted at the experimental farm of National Research Centre, Noubaria, Egypt during May to August of 2010 to study the relative efficacy of bio-fertigation of liquid formulation of N-fixer (Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. and P-solubilizer (Basillus megatheriumion with bio fertigation and humic substances gave rather equal yield. Injection of 50% recommended dose NPK as drip fertigation in combination with biofertigation of liquid formulation and humic substances was better and comparable way than the other treatments. Bio fertigation of microbial inoculums and humic substances could be used as a complementary for mineral fertilizers to improve yield and quality of cowpea under sandy soil conditions which protect the environment chemical pollution and its harmful effect on human and animal health.

E.M. Selim

2011-01-01

124

The Effect of Animal Manures on Susceptibility of Cowpea VAR. Moussa Local to Infection by Root-knot Nematode; Meloidogyne javanica Treub  

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Full Text Available The effect of three different types of animal manures namely; poultry, goat and cow dung on the susceptibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Var moussa local to root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne javanica was tested in a replicated pot experiment. Manured plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs of M. javanica while uninoculated manured plants served as control for each manure type and unmanured but inoculated plants as general control. The result showed that unmanured and inoculated plants were susceptible to M. javanica to varying degrees. Plants applied with poultry manure were more resistant to root-knot nematode infection followed by those applied with cow dung and goat dropping in that order. The most susceptible plants were those inoculated but not applied with manure. Gall index and resistance rating showed that plants fertilized with poultry manure, cow dung and goat droppings were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible, respectively.

A.O. Ogaraku

2007-01-01

125

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações i [...] soladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes. Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were inc [...] orporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Antônio Chagas, Mota; Kátia Valevski Sales, Fernandes; Maurício Pereira, Sales; Victor Martin Quintana, Flores; José, Xavier-Filho.

2002-03-01

126

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development  

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Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

Antônio Chagas Mota

2002-03-01

127

Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea  

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Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length of seedling in vigna unguiculata . The chlorine water has inhibitory effect on root growth ( radical length and number of rootlets in Vigna unguiculata . The fresh weight and dry weight goes on decreasing in chlorine water treatment of Vigna unuiculata over control.Chlorine is essential micronutrient in plant vital processes. However, higher concentration of chlorine inhibits the plant vital process during seed germination of Vigna uguiculata. The higher concentration of chlorine affects the seed germination percentage, leaves number, seedling growth, radical length with rootlets, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling

Sharad Phulari

2013-08-01

128

Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

129

Laboratory Assessment of Some Plants Latex as Biopesticide Against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae  

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Full Text Available Laboratory evaluation of Calotropis procera, Alstonia boonei, Jatropha curcas and Argemone mexicana latex as biopesticide against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] were evaluated at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28±2oC and 75±5% respectively. The plants latex was tested at rates of 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insects were investigated. Results showed that at rates of 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml/ 20 g of cowpea seeds, A. boonei latex evoked 100% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid after 4 days of post treatment. This is followed by C. procera and J. curcas which caused 100% mortality of cowpea bruchid at rates of 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds while the least effective plant Argemone mexicana latex. There was no adult emergence in seeds treated with A. boonei latex at tested concentrations and C. procera and J. curcas at rates of 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds compared with untreated that had 87.75% adults emergence. The results obtained from this study revealed that Alstonia boonei, Calotropis procera and J. curcas latex were effective in controlling of C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for the protection of stored cowpeas against bruchids.

K. D. ILEKE

2013-12-01

130

Study of Site Specific Nutrients Management of Cowpea Seed Production and Their Effect on Soil Nutrient Status  

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Full Text Available To produce anticipated output of any crop, the site specific nutrients management (SSNM is essential for balance and adequate nutrients supply without impairing the inherent fertility status of soil. For cowpea seed production and to maintain soil nutrient status, a field experiment was conducted with nine treatments (nutrients combinations to find out appropriate SSNM practice. Nutrients especially N, P, K, S, Zn and Bo requirement for cowpea seed production was estimated to 30, 60, 50, 30, 15 and 2.0 kg per hectare respectively and treated as 100% of SSNM. Growth and development parameters were significantly influenced with the treatments. Maximum plant height (61.9 cm was recorded when crop was fed with 125 per cent of SSNM. However minimum plant height (54.8 cm was recorded in case of SSNM-N. Leaf Area Index (LAI at 60 DAS ranged from 3.37 to 3.91. Nodules dry weight was significantly influenced by boron treatments apart from nitrogen and other as well. Maximum seed yield was obtained (2237.2 kg /ha in the plot fertilized with 125 per cent of SSNM and minimum (1343.5 kg/ha was recorded in the plot fertilized with state recommendation. Highest and lowest gross ( 40270/- and  24183/- was recorded with 125 per cent of SSNM and with state recommendation respectively. Application of 125 per cent of SSNM recorded maximum uptake of nitrogen (205.3 kg / ha which is at par with 100 % of SSNM. None of the treatment influences significantly soil fertility and physico-chemical properties of the soil rather slight improvement were recorded in all the observed parameters though considerable build-up of available P and exchangeable K was noticed in plots fertilized with SSNM.

Anil Kumar Singh

2012-08-01

131

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

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Full Text Available The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w concentration. The ability of the plant powders to protect cowpea seeds was assessed in terms of mortality rates after 24 - 96 hours post treatment, oviposition and adult emergence, percentage weight loss and damage after the first filial generation (F1. All the tested plant part powders significantly (P<0.05 reduce the longevity of adult C. maculatus on treated cowpea seeds. From the study, the plant powders could be ranked in order of effectiveness thus; stem bark > leaf > root. Alstonia boonei can be used as biopesticide against C. maculatus and its incorporation into traditional storage pest management is strongly recommended.

K. D. Ileke

2012-03-01

132

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

133

Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].  

Science.gov (United States)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse. PMID:25300846

Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

2015-01-01

134

Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips  

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Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

Ampong-Nyarko, K.

1994-01-01

135

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

OpenAIRE

The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to ...

Braga, Yussef F. B.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Freire, Eder A.; Lopes, Helano L.; Bezerra, Jose? N. S.; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Lima, Mary Anne S.

2007-01-01

136

Toxicity Potentials of Leaf Powders of Wild Lemon (Afreagle paniculate) and African Rock Fig (Ficus congensis Engl.) Against the Cowpea Seed Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.)  

OpenAIRE

The toxicity potentials of the wild lemon (Afreagle paniculate) and the African rock fig (Ficcus congensis Engl.) leaf powder as an alternative source of control against the cowpea seed bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.) on stored cowpea was evaluated. The results obtained shows that, these plant material powdered leaves had remarkable effects on all the parameters measured. There were 76.34% and 77.20% undamaged seeds recorded respectively, when cowpea seeds were stored with these plant...

Oaya, C. S.; Samaila, A. E.

2013-01-01

137

A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments conducted in Maroua, Cameroon, demonstrated that a large 50-kg-capacity solar heater can be used to successfully eradicate infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus from cowpea seeds kept in small, transparent Minigrip zip lock plastic bags. Temperatures produced inside the heater were sufficient to kill all developing insects living within infested cowpea seeds. Small, transparent ziplock plastic bags are useful seed storage containers for short-term cowpea germplasm collections and are easily inspected during storage following solar disinfestation. Published reports indicate that temperatures of up to 85{sup o}C do not adversely affect seed germination, germination rates, or seeding viability. These temperature and biological experiments provide evidence that the solar heater technique can serve as an effective and practical means to improve the short-term storage of cowpea seeds in developing country national agricultural research programs. (author)

Ntoukam, G.; Kitch, L.W.; Shade, R.E.; Murdock, L.L. [Purdue Univ., Entomology Dept., Lafayette, IN (United States)

1997-10-01

138

The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enz [...] yme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J., Xavier Filho.

139

The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus  

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Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J. Xavier Filho

1991-01-01

140

Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

A.O. Ogaraku

2008-01-01

141

Structural insights into magnetic clusters grown inside virus capsids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic nanoparticles have multiple applications in materials science. In particular, virus capsids have been suggested as promising templates for building up nanometric-sized magnetic clusters by taking advantage of their inner cavity as a nanoreactor. In this study we investigate the magnetization of individual cobalt-filled cowpea mosaic virus empty virus-like particles using atomic force microscopy. We also combine the analysis of the effects of dehydration on the structure of virus particles with a comparison of their magnetic signal to that provided by commercially available magnetic nanoparticles of similar size. These two approaches allow the evaluation of the structure of the metallic cluster grown inside the virus capsid. We conclude that, rather than forming solid clusters, cobalt inside viruses forms a discontinuous structure that does not completely fill the virus cavity and reaches about 10% of its volume. PMID:25405995

Jaafar, M; Aljabali, A A A; Berlanga, I; Mas-Ballesté, R; Saxena, P; Warren, S; Lomonossoff, G P; Evans, D J; de Pablo, P J

2014-12-10

142

Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested c...

Sule Ola Salawu; Emmanuel Oluwafemi Ibukun; Oladipupo David; Bukola Bunmi Ola-Salawu

2014-01-01

143

Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips  

OpenAIRE

The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercro...

Ampong-nyarko, K.; Nyang Or, Ra; Saxena, Kn; Seshu Reddy, Kv

1994-01-01

144

Effects of supplementing cassava peels with cassava leaves and cowpea haulms on the performance, intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization of West African Dwarf goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the utilization of ratios of cassava leaf meal, cassava peel and cowpea haulms by West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Thirty WAD bucks aged 8?±?1.3 months with body weights of 6-6.5?±?0.12 kg were divided into five groups of six animals and each group randomly assigned to one of the treatments in a completely randomized design. The five dietary treatments were formulated to contain cassava peels, leaves and cowpea haulms at different proportions of 700:100:175 (T1), 500:200:275 (T2), 300:300:375 (T3) and 100:400:475 (T4) g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. A standard diet formulated to meet the nutrient requirement of the animals with no cassava and cowpea haulms was used as the control diet (T5). DM intake ranged from 316.16 to 458.73 g/day and significantly increased (linear (L), quadratic (Q), cubic (C): P?total mixed ration. PMID:25286907

Abatan, Oluwayemisi; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Adebayo, Kolawole; Iposu, Shamusideen; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma

2014-10-01

145

Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed c [...] oats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively) than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1). These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

Walison Fabio, Rogério; Ralf, Greiner; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Sabrina, Feitosa; Dalva Maria da Nóbrega, Furtunato; Deusdélia Teixeira de, Almeida.

2014-06-01

146

Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin ?1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin ?1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin ?1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin ?1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin ?1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin ?1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin ?1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea

147

The carboxy-terminal two-thirds of the cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus capsid protein is incapable of virion formation yet supports systemic movement.  

OpenAIRE

Previous investigations into recombination in cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus (CCMV) resulted in the recovery of an unusual recombinant virus, 3-57, which caused a symptomless infection of cowpeas but formed no detectable virions. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones derived from 3-57 determined that mutations near the 5' terminus of the capsid protein gene introduced an early translational termination codon. Further mutations introduced a new in-frame start codon that allowed translation of t...

Schneider, W. L.; Greene, A. E.; Allison, R. F.

1997-01-01

148

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP) POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP) BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

OpenAIRE

O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791), "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV). Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae), coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus...

Fernando Javier Sanhueza Salas; Maria Mércia Barradas; José Roberto Postali Parra

1999-01-01

149

Effects of weed control through cowpea intercropping on mayze morphology and yield Efeitos do controle de plantas daninhas, por meio da consorciação com feijão-caupi, na morfologia e no rendimento de cultivares de mil  

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Full Text Available Intercropping combined with competitive maize cultivars can reduce the use of herbicides to control weeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping cowpea and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize morphology and yield. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks, with treatments arranged in split-plots and five replications. The plots consisted of four maize cultivars (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001, EX 6004 and the split-plots consisted of the following treatments: no-weeding; twice hand-weeding (20 and 40 days after sowing; and intercropping with cowpea ('Sempre Verde' cultivar, both maize and cowpea sown at the same time. The variables evaluated were: maize fresh green ears and grain yield; characteristics of internodes, leaves, tassels, ears, grains; plant height and ear insertion height; number of weed plants and species; fresh and dry biomass of weed species and cowpea. Ten weed species were outstanding during the experiment, many of them from the Poaceae family. No interactions were found between weed control method and maize cultivars for most variables evaluated; and plants from hand-weeded split-plots showed superior mean values compared to plants from non-weeded and intercropped split-plots, both not differing from each other. The cowpea was inefficient in controlling weed, reducing the maize yields and not producing any grain. The maize cultivars 'BA 8512' and 'BA 9012 showed the highest mean green ear yield, and the highest grain yield in hand-weeded, no-weeded and intercropped split-plots. On the other hand, the maize cultivar 'EX 6004' showed such high means only in no-weeded and intercropped split-plots. 'EX 4001 presented the worst means in these variables for hand-weeded, no-weeded ant intercropped split-plots.A consorciação aliada ao uso de cultivares de milho mais competitivos é um método que permite reduzir o uso de herbicidas para controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso do caupi, em consorciação, e de capinas sobre a morfologia e o rendimento de cultivares de milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas e cinco repetições. Quatro cultivares de milho (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001 e EX 6004 foram aplicados às parcelas e submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capinas; duas capinas (aos 20 e 40 dias após o plantio; e consorciação com o caupi (cultivar Sempre Verde, plantado por ocasião do plantio do milho, entre as fileiras da gramínea. Foram avaliados os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos; as características de entrenós, folhas, pendões, espigas e grãos; as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga; o número de espécies e de plantas por unidade de área das plantas daninhas; e a biomassa fresca e seca das plantas daninhas e do feijão-caupi. Dez espécies de plantas daninhas predominaram no experimento, com destaque para a família Poaceae. Na maioria das características, não se verificou interação entre métodos de controle de plantas daninhas e cultivares, e as plantas das parcelas capinadas foram superiores (mais produtivas e com maiores médias nas outras características avaliadas àquelas das parcelas não-capinadas e das parcelas consorciadas, as quais não diferiram entre si. Portanto, o feijão-caupi foi ineficiente no controle das plantas daninhas, não produziu grãos e reduziu os rendimentos do milho. Os cultivares de milho BA 8512 e BA 9012 apresentaram os maiores rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos nas subparcelas capinadas, não-capinadas e consorciadas. Por sua vez, o cultivar EX 6004 apresentou as maiores médias nessas características apenas nas parcelas não-capinadas e consorciadas. O cultivar EX 4001 foi o pior nas referidas características, nos três tipos de subparcelas.

J.K.O. Gomes

2007-09-01

150

Effects of weed control through cowpea intercropping on mayze morphology and yield / Efeitos do controle de plantas daninhas, por meio da consorciação com feijão-caupi, na morfologia e no rendimento de cultivares de mil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A consorciação aliada ao uso de cultivares de milho mais competitivos é um método que permite reduzir o uso de herbicidas para controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso do caupi, em consorciação, e de capinas sobre a morfologia e o rendimento de cultivares [...] de milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas e cinco repetições. Quatro cultivares de milho (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001 e EX 6004) foram aplicados às parcelas e submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capinas; duas capinas (aos 20 e 40 dias após o plantio); e consorciação com o caupi (cultivar Sempre Verde), plantado por ocasião do plantio do milho, entre as fileiras da gramínea. Foram avaliados os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos; as características de entrenós, folhas, pendões, espigas e grãos; as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga; o número de espécies e de plantas por unidade de área das plantas daninhas; e a biomassa fresca e seca das plantas daninhas e do feijão-caupi. Dez espécies de plantas daninhas predominaram no experimento, com destaque para a família Poaceae. Na maioria das características, não se verificou interação entre métodos de controle de plantas daninhas e cultivares, e as plantas das parcelas capinadas foram superiores (mais produtivas e com maiores médias nas outras características avaliadas) àquelas das parcelas não-capinadas e das parcelas consorciadas, as quais não diferiram entre si. Portanto, o feijão-caupi foi ineficiente no controle das plantas daninhas, não produziu grãos e reduziu os rendimentos do milho. Os cultivares de milho BA 8512 e BA 9012 apresentaram os maiores rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos nas subparcelas capinadas, não-capinadas e consorciadas. Por sua vez, o cultivar EX 6004 apresentou as maiores médias nessas características apenas nas parcelas não-capinadas e consorciadas. O cultivar EX 4001 foi o pior nas referidas características, nos três tipos de subparcelas. Abstract in english Intercropping combined with competitive maize cultivars can reduce the use of herbicides to control weeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping cowpea and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize morphology and yield. The experimental design was in randomized comple [...] te blocks, with treatments arranged in split-plots and five replications. The plots consisted of four maize cultivars (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001, EX 6004) and the split-plots consisted of the following treatments: no-weeding; twice hand-weeding (20 and 40 days after sowing); and intercropping with cowpea ('Sempre Verde' cultivar), both maize and cowpea sown at the same time. The variables evaluated were: maize fresh green ears and grain yield; characteristics of internodes, leaves, tassels, ears, grains; plant height and ear insertion height; number of weed plants and species; fresh and dry biomass of weed species and cowpea. Ten weed species were outstanding during the experiment, many of them from the Poaceae family. No interactions were found between weed control method and maize cultivars for most variables evaluated; and plants from hand-weeded split-plots showed superior mean values compared to plants from non-weeded and intercropped split-plots, both not differing from each other. The cowpea was inefficient in controlling weed, reducing the maize yields and not producing any grain. The maize cultivars 'BA 8512' and 'BA 9012 showed the highest mean green ear yield, and the highest grain yield in hand-weeded, no-weeded and intercropped split-plots. On the other hand, the maize cultivar 'EX 6004' showed such high means only in no-weeded and intercropped split-plots. 'EX 4001 presented the worst means in these variables for hand-weeded, no-weeded ant intercropped split-plots.

J.K.O., Gomes; P.S.L., Silva; K.M.B., Silva; F.F., Rodrigues Filho; V.G., Santos.

2007-09-01

151

Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility, corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), chemical scores, essential amino acid indexes, and calculated biological values of controlcowpea flour (CCF), germinated cowpea flour (GCF) prepared from cowpeas germinated at 25 degrees C for either 24 h or 48 h and weaning foods prepared from cowpea flours were determined. Locally available rice, cowpea flour, banana-pumpkin slurry, and skim milk powder and sucrose in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5 were used to formulate weaning food containing not less than 15% protein. The ingredients were cooked into a slurry and oven-dried to produce flakes. The nutritional and sensory qualities of the weaning products were evaluated. Germination had little effect on the amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein quality and starch digestibility were improved in germinated cowpea flour. The PDCAAS of 24 h germinated cowpea flour (GCF) weaning food was higher (55.49%) than CCF-weaning food (46.74%). Vitamin A activity in 24 h GCF weaning food was higher than in CCF-weaning food. In vitro starch digestibilities of 24 h GCF and 48 h GCF-weaning foods were higher than that of CCF weaning food. The 24 h GCF-weaning food which had a higher overall acceptability score by sensory panelist than 48 h GCF and CCF-weaning food is recommended for household consumption. PMID:11442221

Jirapa, P; Normah, H; Zamaliah, M M; Asmah, R; Mohamad, K

2001-01-01

152

Insecticidal Effect of Jatropha curcas Oil on the Aphid Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on the Main Insect Pests Associated with Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in Niger  

OpenAIRE

The insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas has been evaluated on various crop pests. Oil concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15% were first tested on the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) as part of an efficacy test conducted in the laboratory. During a second stage, the insecticidal efficacy of 5 and 7.5% oil concentrations was evaluated on the main pests infesting cowpea crops (Vigna unguiculata L.) as part of a field test conducted at the University of Niamey (Niger)....

Abdoul Habou, Z.; Haougui, A.; Mergeai, G.; Haubruge, E.; Toudou, A.; Verheggen, Fj

2011-01-01

153

Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

154

Gibberellic Acid (GA3 Influence on Vegetative Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of GA3 on the growth and development of cowpea cultivars Blackeye and Tswana. Exogenous application of GA3, 7 days after emergence at 30, 60 or 90 mg L-1 significantly increased cowpea plant height, first node height, leaf area and leaf number/plant, nodulation, plant dry matter accumulation, pod length, pod number/plant, seed number/pod, 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield ha-1. Gibberellic acid had no significant effect on cowpea plant senescence. The results of this study suggests that exogenous application of GA3 can be used to modify growth and development of some cowpea varieties.

V. Emongor

2007-01-01

155

Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation - modulation of microRNA 126.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-?, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-?B and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component. PMID:25300227

Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

2015-01-24

156

Bioactivity of Anacardium occidentale (L and Allium sativum (L Powders and Oils Extracts against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae  

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Full Text Available The powders and oils extracts of Anacardium occidentale (L. seeds and Allium sativum (L. bulbs were tested as contact insecticides against the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. in cowpea seeds. The powders were incorporated at rates 1, 2.5 and 5/20g of cowpea seeds and acetone extracts of the plants were also applied at 0.5, 1 and 1.5ml per 20g of cowpea seeds to assess contact mortality of adult insect, oviposition, adult emergence and damage assessment. The results obtained showed that at 72 hours; 1, 2.5 and 5/20g of cowpea seeds evoked 63.3, 80 and 100% adult mortality of the cowpea bruchid while the corresponding results for A. sativum were 60.7, 73.3 and 100% mortality respectively. All concentration of acetone extracts that were used evoked 100% mortality of C. maculatus after 72 hours of post treatment. Complete protection of seeds and complete inhibition of adult emergence in both powders and extracts of A. occidentale and A. sativum were achieved. The results obtained from this research revealed that powders and extracts of A. occidentale seeds and A. sativum bulbs were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus in stored cowpea seeds.

K. D. Ileke

2011-01-01

157

Effect of trypsin inhibitor from Crotalaria pallida seeds on Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly).  

Science.gov (United States)

A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin-Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had M(r) of 32.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 degrees C and lost 40% of activity at 100 degrees C. CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 degrees C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality. CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodiainterpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Ceratitis capitata to CpaTI was evaluated. C. maculatus and C. capitata enzymes were strongly susceptible, 74.4+/-15.8% and 100.0+/-7.3%, respectively, to CpaTI. When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. maculatus was more susceptible to CpaTI with an LD(50) of 3.0 and ED(50) of 2.17%. C. capitata larvae were more resistant to CpaTI, in disagreement with the in vitro effects. The larvae were more affected at lower concentrations, causing 27% mortality and 44.4% mass decrease. The action was constant at 2-4% (w/w) with 15% mortality and 38% mass decrease. PMID:16426854

Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Pitanga, Joelma C M; Moura, Fabiano T; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Raniere M; Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Macedo, Francisco P; Andrade, Lúcia B S; Vidal, Márcia S; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-12-01

158

Alpha-amylase inhibitor, not phytohemagglutinin, explains resistance of common bean seeds to cowpea weevil.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are claims that phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the lectin of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is toxic when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, and that PHA serves as the chemical defense against this seed-feeding bruchid beetle (DH Janzen, HB Juster, IE Liener [1976] Science 192: 795-796; AMR Gatehouse, FM Dewey, J Dove, KA Fenton, A Pusztai [1984] J Sci Food Agric 35: 373-380). However, our studies indicate that neither PHA nor its isolectins have detrimental effects when fed to the cowpea weevil. To explain these contradictory results we characterized the commercial lectin source used by A. M. R. Gatehouse, F. M. Dewey, J. Dove, K. A. Fenton, A. Pusztai (1984, J Sci Food Agric 35: 373-380). We demonstrate here that the toxic effects of PHA to cowpea weevil are due to an alpha-amylase inhibitor contaminant in the commercial preparation. PMID:16668287

Huesing, J E; Shade, R E; Chrispeels, M J; Murdock, L L

1991-07-01

159

?-Amylase Inhibitor, Not Phytohemagglutinin, Explains Resistance of Common Bean Seeds to Cowpea Weevil 1  

Science.gov (United States)

There are claims that phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the lectin of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is toxic when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, and that PHA serves as the chemical defense against this seed-feeding bruchid beetle (DH Janzen, HB Juster, IE Liener [1976] Science 192: 795-796; AMR Gatehouse, FM Dewey, J Dove, KA Fenton, A Pusztai [1984] J Sci Food Agric 35: 373-380). However, our studies indicate that neither PHA nor its isolectins have detrimental effects when fed to the cowpea weevil. To explain these contradictory results we characterized the commercial lectin source used by A. M. R. Gatehouse, F. M. Dewey, J. Dove, K. A. Fenton, A. Pusztai (1984, J Sci Food Agric 35: 373-380). We demonstrate here that the toxic effects of PHA to cowpea weevil are due to an ?-amylase inhibitor contaminant in the commercial preparation. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16668287

Huesing, Joseph E.; Shade, Richard E.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Murdock, Larry L.

1991-01-01

160

Evaluation of the efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have necessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dosages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus. (au)

161

Production of policlonal antisera specific to plant viruses by rabbit oral immunization  

OpenAIRE

Serological techniques are of great importance for plant virus identification and characterization. The major limiting factor for using these techniques for plant virus identification is the requirement of a good virus purified preparation to be used in immunizing animals for antiserum production. In the present study, two New Zealand rabbits were orally immunized with extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants systemically infected with Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and with extrac...

Lima Albe?rsio, J. A.; Lima Roberto, C. A.; Gonc?alves Fa?tima, M. B.

2001-01-01

162

Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

163

Correlations and path analysis of yield components in cowpea  

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Full Text Available Obtaining correlations and direct and indirect effects of yield components is important for the selection of promising parental and segregating populations. The objective of this research was to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and to analyze the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield in 20 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 20 treatments and 4 replications. The character showed low to moderate possibility of gain from indirect selection, with greater possibility for success when joining multiple character and a genotype of better performance.

Adriano dos Santos

2014-07-01

164

Control of insect pests of cowpea in the savanna of Roraima, Brazil. = Controle de insetos-praga do feijão-caupi na savana de Roraima.  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the insecticides acephate, imidacloprid and neem oil to control major insect pests of cowpea in cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR. The planting of cowpea (c.v. BRS Guariba) was carried out between the double rows of cassava (2.0 x 0.8 x 0.8 m). The rows of cowpea were spaced 0.5 m apart and 0.75 m double rows of cassava. We adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks wit...

Deyse Cristina Oliveira da Silva; José Maria Arcanjo Alves; José Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima; Maria Edite da Silva Veloso; Luana dos Santos Silva

2011-01-01

165

Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida químico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL. As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas.Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L, compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

Jandiê Araújo da Silva

2009-04-01

166

Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi / Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, av [...] aliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida químico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL). As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas. Abstract in english Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to com [...] pare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L), compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter) made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL) was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

Jandiê Araújo da, Silva; Claúdia Maria Alves, Pegado; Valéria Veras, Ribeiro; Noelma Miranda de, Brito; Luciana Cordeiro do, Nascimento.

2009-04-01

167

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from non-rhizospheric soil and their effect on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seedling growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of four potential phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter isolated from non-rhizospheric soil in Western ghat forest in India. Plant growth promoting ability of these isolates was evaluated in cowpea. All are gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8-1.6 mm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature, grow from 5 to 40°C (optimum temp. 28 ± 2°C). All isolates exhibits growth at a wide range of pH 6-12, optimum at pH 7.0 and tolerates up to 7% (w/v) salt concentration. 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals the confirmation of isolates to Enterobacter aerogenes sp. (NII-0907 and NII-0929), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae sp. (NII-0931) and Enterobacter asburiae sp. (NII-0934) with which they share >99% sequence similarity. Under in vitro conditions, all the four isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid, P-solubilization and hydrogen cyanide. The P-solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium (pH 7.0-<3.0). The plant growth promotion properties were demonstrated through a cow pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp) based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in root, shoot and biomass and it stimulated bacterial counts in the rhizosphere. Hence, these isolates can further formulated and used for field application. PMID:24026928

Deepa, C K; Dastager, Syed G; Pandey, Ashok

2010-07-01

168

Purification of a lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata and its effect on the development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa when submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The native molecular mass of GOL determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column was 17.4 kDa and its carbohydrate content was estimated to be 2.9%. Therefore, GOL is a monomeric glycoprotein. The purified lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated erythrocytes from rabbit and chicken but not from human. Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- and disaccharides tested but by the complex glycoproteins porcine stomach mucin, lactotransferrin, asialofetuin and bovine and porcine thyroglobulins. Isoelectric focusing showed that GOL is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.4 with analysis of its amino acid composition revealing high contents of Asx, Glx, Ser, Glu, Ala and Cys. When incorporated in artificial seeds, GOL significantly affected the development of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, indicating the possibility of using this lectin in a biotechnological strategy for insect management of stored cowpea seeds. PMID:15869843

Leite, Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques; Silva, Luana Maria Castelo Melo; Amorim, Rodrigo César das Neves; Freire, Eder Almeida; de Melo Jorge, Daniel Macedo; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

2005-06-20

169

Differential effects of defective interfering Semliki Forest virus on cellular and virus polypeptide synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defective interfering Semliki Forest virus (DI SFV) inhibited virus RNA and virus polypeptide synthesis in cells coinfected with standard virus but did not delay or alter kinetics of RNA synthesis. Inhibition of polypeptide synthesis was 20-fold greater than that of RNA synthesis which presumably reflected the amplification resulting from cumulative translation of mRNAs. At high concentration, DI virus p12e inhibited the shutoff of host protein synthesis and allowed no synthesis of structural or nonstructural polypeptides. Dilution of DI virus restored the inhibition of host protein synthesis but further dilution was necessary before virus-specified polypeptide synthesis could be demonstrated. Another DI virus (p20a) with the same interference titre as p12e also inhibited shutoff of host protein synthesis but synthesis of virus-induced polypeptides was inhibited differentially: significant amounts of polypeptides comigrating with the structural precursor polypeptide p62 and the nonstructural polypeptide nsp63 were present and the synthesis of nsp90 was little affected at any concentration of DI virus p20a tested. None of the DI viruses tested induced the synthesis of any viral or novel polypeptide. It was concluded that DI SFV preparations have qualitatively different interfering activities in relation to their effects on virus and host cell polypeptide synthesis. PMID:4060572

Barrett, A D; Dimmock, N J

1985-04-15

170

Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (Genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae and cause some of the most economically important diseases of legume crops worldwide. Both viruses occur essentially wherever bean and cowpea (including Phaseolus...

171

Multiple Effects of Silymarin on the Hepatitis C Virus Lifecycle  

OpenAIRE

Silymarin, an extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), and its purified flavonolignans have been recently shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we further characterized silymarin's antiviral actions. Silymarin had antiviral effects against hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) infection that included inhibition of virus entry, RNA and protein expression, and infectious virus production. Silymarin did not block HCVcc binding ...

Wagoner, Jessica; Negash, Amina; Kane, Olivia J.; Martinez, Laura E.; Nahmias, Yaakov; Bourne, Nigel; Owen, David M.; Grove, Joe; Brimacombe, Claire L.; Mckeating, Jane A.; Pe?cheur, Eve-isabelle; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Lohmann, Volker; Cao, Feng

2010-01-01

172

Novel in situ evaluation of the role minerals play in the development of the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect of cowpeas and its effect on the in vitro mineral bioaccessibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea is a nutritionally important drought-resistant legume in sub-Saharan Africa. It is, however, underutilised, in part due to the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect caused by adverse storage conditions resulting in seeds not softening during cooking. This study introduced a novel evaluation of the potential role that minerals play in the development of the HTC defect. The mineral distribution in the cotyledons of normal and HTC cowpeas were analysed by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry. The phytate, tannin and total phenolic contents were analysed together with in vitro mineral bioaccessibility. In HTC cowpeas, Ca and Mg were more concentrated in the cell wall-middle lamella area of the parenchyma cells. This, together with the reduction in phytate content, confirmed the 'phytase-phytate-mineral' hypothesis as a mechanism for development of the HTC defect. Despite the phytate reduction in stored cowpeas, the HTC defect decreased the bioaccessibility of Ca, Fe and Zn in cowpeas. PMID:25529693

Kruger, Johanita; Minnis-Ndimba, Roya; Mtshali, Christopher; Minnaar, Amanda

2015-05-01

173

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Inoculated with New Recombinant Isolates of Bradyrhizobium  

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Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legume roots is characterized by a high degree of specificity. Two varieties of cowpea were gamma irradiated as a one method to create genetic variation resulting in new varieties with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes. Conjugation is the second method used in this study, a cell contact-dependent DNA transfer mechanism, which has served as elegant tool in the development of genetic engineering technology. The possibility of horizontal gene transfer to other rhizobia, revealed that it is necessary, in view of possibility of deliberate release of a variety of recombinant rhizobia into the environment for such agricultural purposes as improving nitrogen fixation. New recombinants revealed higher amounts of indole compounds from tryptophan above the mid-parents in two out of six transconjugants resulted from the cross between P1 x P3. Significant number of nodules were developed on the root system of V2-variety in M4 generation treated with 20 krad in response to inoculation with the parental strains (P2 and P3 and also in response to inoculation with triparental transconjugants (Tr4 and Tr5, above that developed on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. The results revealed the success of rhizobial strains and their recombinants to colonize and infect roots of cowpea, because of significant dry weight of nodules per plant which can be obtained in V1-variety treated with 20 krad in M4 generation inoculated with the parental strain (P3, above that on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. Total chlorophyll formation in V1-variety inoculated with di-parental transconjugants (DPM-Tr2 and DPM-Tr3 at all doses of gamma irradiation was significantly increase above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose and the mid-parents, with the exception at 30 krad if compared with the mid-parents. Significant increase was resulted in fresh weight of pods developed per plant above the mid-parents in M3 generation of V1-variety at doses zero and 10 krad, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugant, DPM-Tr2. While, the same trend was also achieved above the full dose in M3 generation at 10 krad in response to inoculation with DPM-Tr2, DPM-Tr3, TPM-Tr4 and TPM-Tr5. The highest nitrogen content was appeared in the shoots of V1-variety at all doses of gamma irradiation in response to inoculation with diparental transconjugant (DPM-Tr2. However, V2-variety had the lowest nitrogen content in relation to the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen and to the mid-parents of rhizobial transconjugants. The genetic variability of grain-protein content appeared that V2-variety treated with 10 krad had significant increase in protein content above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N among M3 and M4 generations, in response to inoculation with parental strains and most of their transconjugants. The same trend was also shown in M4 generation of V1-variety treated with 20 and 30 krad above the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugants. All biochemical traits studied were more affected by biofertilization than the doses of gamma rays and the interaction between biofertilization x doses. This indicated that the significance of treatments was mainly due to inoculation and particularly to gamma irradiation and the interaction between both of them.

Zaied K.A.

2005-01-01

174

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) / Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espéc [...] ies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable [...] species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C., Almeida; Silvana A. de, Almeida; Nilene R. dos, Santos; Josivanda P., Gomes; Maria E. R., Araújo.

2005-12-01

175

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C. Almeida

2005-12-01

176

Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biologi [...] cal nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de, Lima; Terezinha Ferreira, Xavier; Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de, Lima; José de Paula, Oliveira; Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo, Mergulhão; Márcia do Vale Barreto, Figueiredo.

2011-09-01

177

Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp. development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206. The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6 individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC and mineral nitrogen control (NC, all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24 in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6 and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de Lima

2011-09-01

178

Germination studies in some varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. walp. (cowpea) from northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12) in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%), seedling weight change (1.52 g), shoot length (25.81 cm), root length (23.12 cm) was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties. PMID:24506028

Wada, B Y; Abubakar, B Y

2013-10-15

179

Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea from Northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%, seedling weight change (1.52 g, shoot length (25.81 cm, root length (23.12 cm was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties.

B.Y. Abubakar

2013-01-01

180

Molecular modeling and inhibitory activity of cowpea cystatin against bean bruchid pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cystatins show great potential as tools to genetically engineer resistance of crop plants against pests. Two important potential targets are the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, which display major activities of digestive cysteine proteinases in midguts. In this study a cowpea cystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor found in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with a Ni-NTA agarose column. It strongly inhibited papain and proteinases from midguts of both A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus bruchids, as seen by in vitro assays. When the protein was incorporated into artificial seeds at concentrations as low as 0.025%, and seeds were consumed by the bruchids larva, dramatic reductions in larval weight, and increases in insect mortality were observed. Molecular modeling studies of cowpea cystatin in complex with papain revealed that five N-terminal residues responsible for a large proportion of the hydrophobic interactions involved in the stabilization of the enzyme-inhibitor complex are absent in the partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing of soybean cystatin. We suggest that this structural difference could be the reason for the much higher effectiveness of cowpea cystatin when compared to that previously tested phytocystatin. The application of this knowledge in plant protein mutation programs aiming at enhancement of plant defenses to pests is discussed. PMID:16470583

Aguiar, Juliana M; Franco, Octávio L; Rigden, Daniel J; Bloch, Carlos; Monteiro, Ana C S; Flores, Victor M Q; Jacinto, Tânia; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antonia E A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Fernandes, Kátia V S

2006-05-15

181

Molecular effects: interactions with chemicals and viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research focused upon an understanding of the cellular responses to the molecular effects of ionizing radiation should be an essential program component in the Federal Strategy for Research into the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although we know that DNA is a principal target molecule for some highly significant biological effects of ionizing radiation, we need to learn which other target substances such as membrane components may also be important. Most of the emphasis should continue to be on DNA effects and highest priority should be assigned to the identification of the complete spectrum of products produced in DNA. Once the lesions are known we can proceed to determine how these behave as blocks to replication and transcription or as modulators on the fidelity of these crucial processes. Considerable work should be done on the repair of these lesions. High priority should be given to the search for mutants in mammalian cell systems with evident defects in the processing of specific lesions. Viruses should provide important tools for the research in this area, as probes for host cell repair responses and also for the isolation of mutants. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interaction of viruses and ionizing radiation with regard to possible modulating effects on repair processes and tumorigenesis. Finally we must consider the important problem of the modification of repair responses by environmental factorsfactors

182

Characterization and mapping of Striga resistance in cowpea  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp., is an important grain legume grown for its protein in the tropical and subtropical regions, primarily Africa. Although, it is an extremely resilient crop, cowpea faces severe biotic and abiotic production constraints including insect pests, diseases, nematodes, low soil fertility, heat, drought and parasitic weeds. The parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides [Wild.] Vatke is one of the most important limitations to cowpea production. Host plant resistance is ...

Boukar, Ousmane

2002-01-01

183

Antimicrobial activity and fumonisins associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

OpenAIRE

A survey involving 71 farmers from rural communities in Mpumalanga, South Africa was conducted to gather information regarding the importance and utilisation of cowpea. Cowpea was rated third most important in contributing to household security, preceded by maize and vegetable production. Cowpea was mainly produced for own consumption, as a source of income and as fodder for livestock to a lesser extent. The crop was used by 8.5% of the farmers for medicinal purposes. Results indicated that 2...

Kritzinger, Quenton

2004-01-01

184

Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Co-Fermented Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea Ogi as Infant Complementary Food  

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Full Text Available This study involved formulating nutritionally suitable complementary food mixtures with locally available raw materials. Maize or sorghum was mixed with cowpea, soaked at 25 °C for 72 h, wet-milled and sieved. The sediment was sun dried, milled for analyses. Proximate, functional properties and amino acid were determined in co-fermented maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea. Sorghum/cowpea had higher water absorption capacity, (235% than maize/cowpea (103% sorghum/cowpea and a lower value of oil absorption capacity (47.9% than, maize/cowpea of (67.6%. Oil absorption capacity of (14.7% in sorghum/cowpea was higher than (9.6% in maize/cowpea. The higher foaming capacity of maize/cowpea (40.0% than that of sorghum/cowpea of 20.0% might be due to soluble proteins and higher emulsion capacity of maize/cowpea might make it a better flavour retainer and enhanced mouth-feel. Values of foaming stability, least gelation capacity and bulk density (loose and packed were comparable. Sorghum/cowpea had higher contents of lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, cystine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, total amino acids, total sulphur amino acid, ratio of total essential amino acids/aromatic amino acids but lower values of methionine and total essential amino acids. Thus co-fermented sorghum/cowpea is of better protein quality than maize/cowpea.

M.A. Oyarekua

2009-01-01

185

Genetic architecture of delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress in cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34< r <0.87) and allele effects (0.07< r <0.86) for delayed senescence and grain yield across three African environments. Three of the five putative stay-green QTLs, Dro-1, 3, and 7 were identified in both RILs and diverse germplasm with resolutions of 3.2 cM or less for each of the three loci, suggesting that these may be valuable targets for marker-assisted breeding in cowpea. Also, the co-location of early vegetative delayed senescence with biomass and grain yield QTLs suggests the possibility of using delayed senescence at the seedling stage as a rapid screening tool for post-flowering drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes. PMID:23936140

Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye N; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D

2013-01-01

186

Effect of methisoprinol on virus replication in cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Methisoprinol (active substance: isoprinozine) on the replication of two animal viruses, the TK900 strain of Aujeszky's disease virus and the Roakin strain of the Newcastle disease virus was investigated. When the maximal tolerable doses of the drug were added to two cell cultures (CECC and GMK), its effect on the level of infectious titres of theviruses and their adsorption were assayed. Investigations were also performed to assess the direct effect of Methisoprinol on the viral strains used. The final stage of the experiment aimed at analysing of the replication dynamics of the viruses in the presence of Methisoprinol. Methisoprinol showed no direct effect on the viruses used in the study. Nor did it affect their adsorption. The preparation applied to the culture 24 hours before infection did not influence the replication of viruses, but administered simultaneously with the infection significantly lowered the final titres of viruses. The highest inhibitory effect of the drug was observed during the analysis of the replication dynamics of both viruses in CECC and of pseudorabies virus in GMK cell culture upon the application of the maximal tolerable doses of Methisoprinol and low infectious doses of the viruses. PMID:15230539

Ma?aczewska, J; Rotkiewicz, Z

2004-01-01

187

Supplemental Ca2+ does not improve growth but it affects nutrient uptake in NaCl-stressed cowpea plants  

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Full Text Available The growth and nutrient assimilation was evaluated in CaCl2- and CaSO4-supplemented cowpea plants subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl. The salinity significantly reduced the cowpea vegetative growth. The addition of CaCl2 in the growth medium did not significantly affect plant growth, while for the CaSO4, the beneficial effects of Ca2+ were moderate. Salinity increased the Na+, K+, Cl-, N and P content in the plants, however it decreased the content of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Increases in Ca2+ concentration in the nutrient solution caused decreases in the Na+ and Mg2+ contents and increases in Ca2+, K+, P, and Cl- contents. The supplemental Ca2+ may alleviate the Na+ toxicity and may improve nutritional and ionic balance in cowpea, but it cannot overcome the osmotic effects associated with the increased total salt concentration.

Francisco Valderez Augusto Guimarães

2012-01-01

188

Óleo essencial de Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. sobre o potencial fisiológico de sementes de feijão caupi / The essential oil effects of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. on the physiological potential of cowpea bean seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito alelopático do óleo essencial de plantas de carqueja, Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de B. trimera sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 2 [...] 0 ?L, 15 ?L, 10 ?L, 5 ?L e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. Não foi observado efeito inibidor do óleo essencial de B. trimera na germinação de sementes de feijão caupi, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, o óleo essencial de B. trimera revelou-se eficiente na manutenção da viabilidade dessas sementes. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate the allellopathic effect of essential oils of the Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. plants on the seeds germination of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. The effect of B. trimera essential oil on V. unguiculata was evaluated at levels of 20 ?L, 15 ?L, 10 ?L, 5 ?L and con [...] trol. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, the rate of speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. An inhibitory effect of B. trimera essential oil on bean seeds germination was not observed, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect. Based on the results, the B. trimera essential oil proved efficient in the viability maintenance of these seeds.

M.V.A., Xavier; S.S.S., Brito; C.R.F., Oliveira; C.H.C., Matos; M.A.D.S.C., Pinto.

189

Wild tomato leaf extracts for spider mite and cowpea aphid control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 ?mole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields. PMID:24813988

Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C

2014-01-01

190

Growth and Yield Performance of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp as influenced by Row-Spacing and Period of Weed interference in South-West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Weed problem appears to be the most deleterious factor causing between 25 and 60% reduction in potential yield of cowpea. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effect of inter-row spacing and period of weed interference on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (07° 15'; 03° 25' E in South Western Nigeria during the early and late wet seasons of 2009. The experiment consisted of eight main plots of weed interference which included initial weed removal for 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS and subsequently weed –infested until harvest as well as initial weed infestation for corresponding periods and thereafter kept weed free until harvest. There were also sub-plot treatments of three inter-row spacing of 60, 75, and 90 cm. All treatments in different combinations were laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. In both trials, the use of inter-row spacing of 60 cm resulted in significant reduction in weed growth as evident in lower weed dry matter production and subsequent higher cowpea pod and grain yields than those of 75 and 90 cm inter-row spacing. Initial weed infestation of up to 3 WAS did not have any adverse effect on crop growth and cowpea grain yields provided the weeds were subsequently removed. On the other hand, cowpea grain yield loss was not significantly averted by keeping the crop weed free for only 3 WAS without subsequent weed removal. In this study, initial weed-infestation for 6 WAS and beyond significantly depressed various crop growth parameter and cowpea grain yield compared with the crop kept weed free throughout its life cycle. In order to obtain optimum yields similar to that of the weed free cowpea field, it was required to keep the crop weed free for 6 WAS and beyond. However, frequent weeding beyond 9 weeks after sowing did not improve cowpea yield significantly and as a matter of fact it may even result in reduction of cowpea grain yield due to mechanical damage of hoe weeding. The practical implication of this finding is that early weeding starting from 3 WAS is very crucial for cowpea production while the critical period of weed removal for optimum yield in cowpea is between 3 and 9 WAS in the forest-savannah transitional zone of south Western Nigeria.

Joseph Adigun

2014-03-01

191

THE EFFECT OF CATAPHORESIS ON POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Under ordinary conditions of hydrogen ion concentration the virus of poliomyelitis, as such, or associated with particles in fine suspension, migrates in an electrical field to the anode. It follows that the virus bears an electronegative charge. 2. By means of cataphoresis, the virus can be recovered from a non-infective mixture of virus and specific immune serum. 3. By the same means it is possible to reveal the presence of virus in the central nervous system of a monkey which has recovered from the active stage of experimental poliomyelitis. PMID:19869621

Olitsky, P K; Rhoads, C P; Long, P H

1929-08-31

192

The effect of carvacrol on enteric viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is said to have extensive antimicrobial activity in a wide range of food spoilage or pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess its antiviral activity on norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as its potential in food applications. Initially, different concentrations of carvacrol (0.25, 0.5, 1%) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log TCID50/ml and incubated 2h at 37°C. Carvacrol at 0.5% completely inactivated the two norovirus surrogates, whereas 1% concentration was required to achieve ca. 1 log reduction of HAV. In lettuce wash water, carvacrol efficacy on MNV was dependent on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), with no effect over 300 ppm. A 4 log reduction in FCV infectivity was observed when 0.5% carvacrol was used to sanitize lettuce wash water, regardless of COD. Carvacrol was also evaluated as a natural disinfectant of produce, showing 1% carvacrol reduced inoculated NoV surrogates titers in lettuce by 1 log after 30 min contact. These results represent a step forward in improving food safety by using carvacrol as an alternative natural additive to reduce viral contamination in the fresh vegetable industry. PMID:25310265

Sánchez, C; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

2015-01-01

193

Antinutrient Factors of Vegetable Cowpea (Sesquipedalis Seeds During Thermal Processing  

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Full Text Available The effect of boiling, roasting and autoclaving on the levels of some antinutrient factors present in the seeds of vegetable cowpea (sesquipedalis were studied. The reduction of trypsin inhibitor was found to be highest (100% with autoclaving at 60 min. Boiling was more effective in reducing phytic acid (68.34% and haemagglutinin (75.98% respectively at 60 min than the other processing treatments at the same time. The hydrogen cyanide was markedly reduced up to 81.25% at 15 min by autoclaving method while boiling at 60min resulted in (81.25% reduction. Tannin content was reduced by boiling and roasting up to 75.00% at 60 min and 75.00% at 120 min respectively. Boiling and autoclaving at 60 min significantly reduced stachyose (60.52% - 84.21% and raffinose (67.97 - 83.66%.

E.A. Udensi

2007-01-01

194

Indução de resistência a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Tracheiphilum em Caupi: eficiência de indutores abióticos e atividade enzimática elicitada Induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum in cowpea plants: effectiveness of abiotic inducers and elicited enzymatic activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de indutores abióticos em cultivares de caupi inoculadas com Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum quanto à severidade, controle da doença e atividade enzimática. Para isso, plantas das cultivares IPA-206 e BR-17 Gurguéia com cinco dias de idade foram pulverizadas com soluções aquosas de ASM (5,0 g do i.a./100 L de água, BABA (1,5 mM e quitosana (2,0 mg/mL, no primeiro par de folhas e inoculadas, após sete dias da germinação, com 20 mL de uma suspensão de 1 x 10(6 conídios/mL do isolado ISO-PE. A avaliação da severidade da doença foi realizada aos 25 dias após a germinação, através de escala de notas e índice de doença. As atividades das enzimas beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL foram determinadas em plantas submetidas aos tratamentos anteriores, coletadas aos cinco e 10 dias após a inoculação. Foi observada diferença significativa entre os indutores e a testemunha, nas duas cultivares testadas, aos cinco e 10 dias, destacando-se o indutor ASM, proporcionando um controle da doença de 68,90% e 71,59% nas cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, respectivamente. O indutor ASM apresentou melhores resultados nas atividades de beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e PAL, destacando-se na cultivar IPA-206 nos dois períodos analisados. Os indutores BABA e quitosana diferiram da testemunha, na atividade de PAL e beta-1,3-glucanase, nessa mesma cultivar, aos cinco dias após a inoculação.The effect of abiotic inducers in two cowpea cultivars inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (E. F. Smith Snyder & Hansen was evaluated in relation to severity, disease control and enzyme activity. Aqueous solution of ASM (5.0 mg/mL, BABA (1.5 mM or chitosan (2.0 mg/mL was sprayed on the first pair of leaves of five-day-old cowpea plants, cultivars BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206. After seven days of elicitor application, inoculation was carried out with 20 mL of a 1 x 10(6 conidia/mL suspension of the ISO-PE isolate. Plants were harvested at five and 10 days after inoculation, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, beta-1.3-glucanase and peroxidase was analyzed. Significant difference between treatment with inducers and control was verified, mainly for ASM which provided a disease control of 68.9% and 71.59% for BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206 cultivars, respectively. ASM showed the best results related to beta-1.3-glucanase, peroxidase and PAL and activities, especially for the cultivar IPA-206 five or 10 days. BABA and chitosan differed from the control for PAL and beta-1.3-glucanase activity on cultivar IPA-206, five days after inoculation.

Antonia Alice C. Rodrigues

2006-10-01

195

Indução de resistência a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Tracheiphilum em Caupi: eficiência de indutores abióticos e atividade enzimática elicitada / Induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum in cowpea plants: effectiveness of abiotic inducers and elicited enzymatic activity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos de indutores abióticos em cultivares de caupi inoculadas com Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum quanto à severidade, controle da doença e atividade enzimática. Para isso, plantas das cultivares IPA-206 e BR-17 Gurguéia com cinco dias de idade foram pulverizadas com so [...] luções aquosas de ASM (5,0 g do i.a./100 L de água), BABA (1,5 mM) e quitosana (2,0 mg/mL), no primeiro par de folhas e inoculadas, após sete dias da germinação, com 20 mL de uma suspensão de 1 x 10(6) conídios/mL do isolado ISO-PE. A avaliação da severidade da doença foi realizada aos 25 dias após a germinação, através de escala de notas e índice de doença. As atividades das enzimas beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL) foram determinadas em plantas submetidas aos tratamentos anteriores, coletadas aos cinco e 10 dias após a inoculação. Foi observada diferença significativa entre os indutores e a testemunha, nas duas cultivares testadas, aos cinco e 10 dias, destacando-se o indutor ASM, proporcionando um controle da doença de 68,90% e 71,59% nas cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, respectivamente. O indutor ASM apresentou melhores resultados nas atividades de beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e PAL, destacando-se na cultivar IPA-206 nos dois períodos analisados. Os indutores BABA e quitosana diferiram da testemunha, na atividade de PAL e beta-1,3-glucanase, nessa mesma cultivar, aos cinco dias após a inoculação. Abstract in english The effect of abiotic inducers in two cowpea cultivars inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (E. F. Smith) Snyder & Hansen was evaluated in relation to severity, disease control and enzyme activity. Aqueous solution of ASM (5.0 mg/mL), BABA (1.5 mM) or chitosan (2.0 mg/mL) was spray [...] ed on the first pair of leaves of five-day-old cowpea plants, cultivars BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206. After seven days of elicitor application, inoculation was carried out with 20 mL of a 1 x 10(6) conidia/mL suspension of the ISO-PE isolate. Plants were harvested at five and 10 days after inoculation, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), beta-1.3-glucanase and peroxidase was analyzed. Significant difference between treatment with inducers and control was verified, mainly for ASM which provided a disease control of 68.9% and 71.59% for BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206 cultivars, respectively. ASM showed the best results related to beta-1.3-glucanase, peroxidase and PAL and activities, especially for the cultivar IPA-206 five or 10 days. BABA and chitosan differed from the control for PAL and beta-1.3-glucanase activity on cultivar IPA-206, five days after inoculation.

Antonia Alice C., Rodrigues; Egídio, Bezerra Neto; Rildo S.B., Coelho.

2006-10-01

196

Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds  

OpenAIRE

The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated ...

Ileke, K. D.; Odeyemi, O. O.; Ashamo, M. O.

2012-01-01

197

[Effect of silver compounds on viruses in water].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two commercial substances, Certisil and Micropur, containing microbicidal silver compounds and destinated for decontamination as well as preservation of water were examined for virus inactivating activity against ECBO-, influenza A, Newcastle Disease, pseudorabies and vaccinia viruses in drinking water. In the recommended concentration as well as higher concentrated the lability of the viruses was increased by the silver compounds. This activity which cannot be designated as a true virucidal effect was clearly evident in the case of ECBO and vaccinia viruses, moderate on influenza and pseudorabies viruses but insignificant on Newcastle disease virus. Two combined silver compounds, Certisil-Combina and Sanosil, each containing an immediate microbicidal part besides silver differed in their antiviral activity. The chlorine separating part of Certisil-Combina didn't cause an improvement or acceleration of the destabilizing effect on viruses compared to the pure silver compound, while the hydrogen peroxide part of Sanosil led to a better and continuing inactivating influence on the viruses which were merely reduced in infectivity by 99,9% within one day. Only in the case of evident or suspected contamination of water reservoirs by viruses the addition of a combined silver drug with oxygen separating part seems to be useful. PMID:3022501

Mahnel, H; Schmidt, M

1986-07-01

198

Inactivation of Pathogenic Viruses by Plant-Derived Tannins: Strong Effects of Extracts from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a Broad Range of Viruses  

OpenAIRE

Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivi...

Ueda, Kyoko; Kawabata, Ryoko; Irie, Takashi; Nakai, Yoshiaki; Tohya, Yukinobu; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

2013-01-01

199

Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae  

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Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 ±1 L-1 at 24 h exposure, respectively. The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 ±1 L-1. The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles.

G. Moravvej

2008-01-01

200

Contact sex pheromone components of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a major pest of stored pulses. Females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulation behavior in males. Pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from cages that housed females. Crude ether extract stimulated copulation in male C. maculatus. Initial fractionation showed behavioral activity in acidic and neutral fractions. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of active fractions revealed that the active components of the acidic fraction were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid and nonanedioic acid. These components along with the hydrocarbon fraction, a mixture of C(27)-C(35) straight chain and methyl branched hydrocarbons, had a synergistic effect on the behavior of males. Glass dummies treated with an authentic pheromone blend induced copulation behavior in males. The potential roles of the contact sex pheromone of C. maculatus are discussed. PMID:17394050

Nojima, Satoshi; Shimomura, Kenji; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Izuru; Ohsawa, Kanju

2007-05-01

201

EFFECT OF NATURAL VIRUS INFECTION ON QUALITY AND YIELD OF GARLIC ELITE LINES  

OpenAIRE

Garlic crops are naturally infested by virus complexes of genus Potyvirus and Carlavirus. Infection of these virus reduced garlic production, especially at Guanajuato state, Mexico. In present study, the effect of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV) complex virus on garlic (Taiwan type) quality and yield lose was evaluated. This assessment was carried out during the Fall-Winter 2007...

Pérez-Moreno L; Santibañez-Jaramillo L I; Mendoza-Celedón B; Ramírez-Malagón R

2014-01-01

202

Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food bean and cowpea in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress is being reported on a project aiming at genetic improvement of cowpea and Phaseolus bean for better disease resistance using induced mutations. The diseases of concern are anthracnose, angular leaf spot, halo blight and bean rust. Selection was effective in M3 and M4 generations and provided some lines with different resistance and yield levels, which will have to be examined further. (author)

203

Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds  

OpenAIRE

The effect of two different habitats, stored cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] pods and seeds, on the dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) was investigated, with Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) eggs as hosts. In the presence of directional light from the top, parasitoids moved faster through columns filled with pods than through columns (either filled with pods or seeds) in darkness. The different habitats, s...

Alebeek, F. A. N.; Antwi, K. K.; Huis, A.; Lenteren, J. C.

2007-01-01

204

Improvement in the protein quality of African sorghum foods through compositing with cowpea  

OpenAIRE

Lysine deficiency is a major nutritional problem faced by poor people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics who depend on sorghum as their staple food. This is because of poor lysine content and digestibility of sorghum proteins, which aggravates when sorghum is cooked in food. To address this nutritional problem, compositing with locally available lysine-rich legumes has been proposed. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of compositing with the African grain legume, cowpea, ...

Anyango, Joseph Ochieng

2010-01-01

205

Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Co-Fermented Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea Ogi as Infant Complementary Food  

OpenAIRE

This study involved formulating nutritionally suitable complementary food mixtures with locally available raw materials. Maize or sorghum was mixed with cowpea, soaked at 25 °C for 72 h, wet-milled and sieved. The sediment was sun dried, milled for analyses. Proximate, functional properties and amino acid were determined in co-fermented maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea. Sorghum/cowpea had higher water absorption capacity, (235%) than maize/cowpea (103%) sorghum/cowpea and a lower valu...

Oyarekua, M. A.; Adeyeye, E. I.

2009-01-01

206

Key factors necessary for the development of a value-added cowpea subsector in West Africa: The case of cowpea flour  

OpenAIRE

The development of new subsector markets in agricultural commodity chains such as cowpea flour markets is of paramount importance for poverty alleviation and economic development in West Africa. While the technical expertise exists, industrial processing of cowpeas remains largely nonexistent in West Africa with newly developed cowpea-based products such as cowpea flour confined to laboratories and rarely reaching the point of commercialization where they might alleviate poverty. ^ Thus, ...

Otoo, Miriam

2011-01-01

207

Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

208

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

2007-03-01

209

Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to Water Stress and Phosphorus Fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in the experimental college of agriculture and forestry, in Maputo-Mozambique, in order to evaluate the response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. to irrigation and phosphorus and test the hypothesis that high levels of phosphorus improves the tolerance of plants to water stress. We used a variety IT 18 of cowpea, short cycle and ended. The experiment was subdivided into building plots complete block design with five repetitions, the irrigation factor was fixed at the main plot with two levels (with irrigation and without irrigation and phosphorus factor in sub-plots with 3 levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of phosphorus. The fertilization strongly influenced the yield and the number of pods per plant in both irrigation conditions. The effect of fertilizing phosphorus was higher under irrigation. The interaction was significant only for grain yield and number of pods, which means that the effect of phosphorus in these two variables has not been the same for the two levels of irrigation, high levels of phosphate fertilizer (P2O5 have improved the tolerance of cowpea when not irrigated.

V.G. Uarrota

2010-01-01

210

In Vitro Antiviral Effect of "Nanosilver" on Influenza Virus  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered by world health authorities. Small particles of silver have...

Mehrbod, P.; Motamed, N.; Tabatabaian, M.; Soleimani Estyar, R.; Amini, E.; Shahidi, M.; Kheiri, M. T.

2009-01-01

211

Functional and physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated cowpea flours and pastes  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important potential source of protein in many parts of Africa. However, cowpea use is confined primarily to boiled whole seeds or traditional food preparations such as akara and moi-moi prepared from cowpea flours or pastes. By creating variety in the foods made from cowpeas, its utilization may be enhanced. The functional properties of cowpeas are mainly responsible for the quality of cowpea foods such as akara and moi-moi and are derived mostly from ...

Abu, Joseph Oneh

2005-01-01

212

Cowpea cultivars under differents water regimes  

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Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the growth of semi-erect and semi-prostrate cowpea cultivars as a function of water irrigation of to soil under climate conditions of Bom Jesus-Piauí. The experiment was conducted in São Luiz Farm, located 3 km far from Bom Jesus - Piauí, from June to August 2011. There were evaluated the number of leaves, dry leaves, dry branches, dry matter of pods and total dry matter of plants rate and photosynthetically active radiation of the BRS Aracê (semi-prostrado and BRS Tumucumaque (semi-erect cowpea cultivars submitted to five irrigation regimes (108.2 mm, 214.7 mm, 287.9 mm, 426.1 mm and 527, 7 mm. The BRS Aracê had a higher number of leaves than BRS Tumucumaque. The BRS Tumucumaque has produced 17.09% more dry matter than BRS Aracê under a water depth of 401.9 mm. The minimum rate of photosynthetically active radiation, which reflects greater soil cover by the canopy, is obtained with BRS Aracê.

Aderson Soares de Andrade Júnior

2014-02-01

213

Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation. PMID:25601371

Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

2015-02-01

214

Nutritional aspects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fortified cookies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Defatted cowpea flour was used to replace 10%, 20% and 30% of wheat flour in cookies. The wheat flour and cowpea-fortified cookies were prepared with standardized levels of ingredients. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and sensory characteristics of the different cookies were investigated. The fortification with cowpea flour increased the contents of moisture, ash, protein, crude fibre, calcium, phosphorus and reducing non-reducing and total sugars. The fortification resulted in slight reduction in the in vitro digestibility. The products were accepted by the panelists who gave high scores for most of the attributes, although the fortification with more than 10% cowpea flour significantly (P<0.05) affected those attributes when compared with the control sample.(Author)

215

MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM  

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Full Text Available A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004 field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilation rate (NAR and grain yield. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using LSD (P ? 0.05. NAR were enhanced (P?0.05 by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding × spatial arrangements reduced (P ? 0.05 striga incidence on cowpea during 2003 and 2004. Weeding thrice × sowing 1:2 and weeding twice × sowing on the same hill gave a statistically similar result. Nodulation was enhanced by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding frequency × planting arrangement significantly increased (P ? 0.05 cowpeas grain yield during 2004. The highest grain yields (1344 and1347 Kg/ha were recorded from weeding twice × sowing 1:2 and weeding thrice × sowing on the same hill. Based on these field data the frequency of weeding enhanced physical removal of weeds, minimized competetion for growth resources, improved soil conditioning for optimum aeration, increased soil air-water ratio for optimum mycorraler and other beneficial soil microbial activities; While intercropping possibly provided canopy coverage for moisture conservation and pest control.

Abiona M. Petu-Ibikunle

2012-12-01

216

The Use of Vegetable Oils in the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in Three Cowpea Varieties  

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Full Text Available The use of some of vegetable oils (rubber seed oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil was evaluated against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus in three cowpea varieties (Ife white, Ife brown and Kano white. The trial involved exposing adult weevils to various levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mL kg-1 of the oil admixed with cowpea seeds. All studies were undertaken under laboratory temperature of 28?3?C and 70?3% r.h. The results showed that all the plant oils tested have toxic effect on weevils in all cowpea varieties. The oil treatments showed significantly high (p<0.001 mortality of adult weevils (72-100% at 10 Days after Treatment (DAT. Mean percentage adult weevils mortality in the treated grain (82.5% was significantly higher than in the untreated control (0%. The treated grains gave adequate protection by recording lower oviposition (10.3% than the untreated control (96.3%. Lower adult weevils` emergence (6.3% was also associated with the treated grains as against untreated grains (88.2%. The plant oil treatments also significantly (p<0.001 reduced weight loss (2.1% and grain damaged (9.1% as compared with untreated control of (48.2% and (93.2% in weight loss and grain damaged, respectively. There was no adverse effect of the oils on grains quality. Of the three plant oils used, rubber seed oil was the most effective. Among the varieties used in this study, Ife brown was more resistant to cowpea weevil infestation than Ife white and Kano white in that order.

K.E. Law-Ogbomo

2006-01-01

217

The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) r...

Xavier Filho, J.

1991-01-01

218

Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone  

OpenAIRE

The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC), dehulled (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets fo...

Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega; Ofelia Rouzaud-Sandez; María Guadalupe Salazar-García; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores; Roberto Civera-Cerecedo

2009-01-01

219

Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p?cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage. PMID:24322505

Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

2014-07-01

220

In Vitro Antiviral Effect of "Nanosilver" on Influenza Virus  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered by world health authorities. Small particles of silver have a long history as general antiseptic and disinfectant. Silver does not induce resistance in microorganisms and this ability in Nano-size is stronger. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to determine antiviral effects of Nanosilver against influenza virus. TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose of the virus as well as CC50 (50% Cytotoxic Concentration of Nanosilver was obtained by MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Sigma method. This compound was non-toxic to MDCK (Madin-Darbey Canin Kidney cells at concentration up to 1 µg/ml.  Effective minimal cytotoxic concentration and 100 TCID50 of the virus were added to the confluent cells.  Inhibitory effects of Nanosilver on the virus and its cytotoxicity were assessed at different temperatures using Hemagglutination (HA assay, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, and DIF (Direct Immunofluorescent. RT-PCR and free band densitometry software were used to compare the volume of the PCR product bands on the gel. Results and Discussion:  In this study it was found that Nanosilver has destructive effect on the virus membrane glycoprotein knobs as well as the cells.

P Mehrbod

2009-08-01

221

Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com ci [...] nco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem de insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, duri [...] ng seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

Nivânia P. da, Costa; Arlindo L., Boiça Júnior.

2004-02-01

222

Economics of Insecticides Usage among Cowpea Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study carried out an economics of insecticides usage among cowpea farmers in Kaduna State. Specifically, the study estimated insecticides marginal productivity; the degree of response of demand for insecticides to changes in its prices and the return to cowpea production due to insecticides usage. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 150 cowpea farmers who used insecticides in controlling pest in cowpea production in the study area. Information collected includes those ...

Omolehin, R. A.; Adeola, S. S.; Ahmed, Ben; Ebukiba, E. O.; Adeniji, O. B.

2011-01-01

223

Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae  

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Full Text Available Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth tests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

P.G.C. Odeigah

1998-09-01

224

Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

225

PYRAMIDING OF INSECTICIDAL COMPOUNDS FOR CONTROL OF THE COWPEA BRUCHID (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATES F.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchini) is a major pest of stored cowpea grain. With limited technologies for managing the bruchid available, transgenic cowpeas with bruchid resistance genes engineered into them could become the next management tool. We investiga...

226

Radiation induced promising mutants in Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crop of the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa and America. Breeding objectives in recent years have been to combine high yields with upright growth habit, bushy dwarf determinate plant type, early maturity and large seed size in addition to resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. With a view to achieving these objectives and creating additional - variability, the seeds of an elite variety V-130 were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma rays, and a number of morphological mutants were isolated. The mutants with desirable characters like erect growth habit, dwarf, large seed size, and high pod number were isolated in the M2 generation and studied further in subsequent generations for their yield potential and other characteristics. The dwarf plant mutant TCM 77-4, characterised by reduced plant height, bushy growth, large seed size and absence of tendril bred true when grown in rabi seasons, but behaved like parent in respect of growth habit in kharif season. It was far superior to the parent in respect of seed size in all the seasons. The mutant is envisaged to be the most suitable for rice fallows. Among the several promising mutants with large seed size, the mutant TCM 13-5 showed a test weight of 16.8 g against 8.8 g of the parent. A mutant with large pod number designated as TCM 121-8 showed promise with its very high yield, when grown in summer albeit with delayed maturity. Several mutants wi with delayed maturity. Several mutants with maturity similar to that of the parent have shown higher seed yield. The variability generated through the radiation- induced mutation is being utilised for creating novel high yielding early maturing varieties of cowpea. (author)

227

Effects of Six Common Plant Seed Oils on Survival, Eggs Lying and Development of the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research reported the effects of 6 common plants extracts including neem and some others which have been never tested on the longevity of adults, the number of eggs laid and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus. Six seed oils extracted by methylene chloride were tested: Azadirachta indica, Ricinus communis, Thevetia nerifolia, Balanites eagyptiaca, Moringa oleifera and Kaya senegalensis. All these oils reduce significantly survival of adults, oviposition and total emergence of adults. The most efficient is that of Thevetia nerifolia. At higher concentrations the treatment affects slightly the germination of seeds which remains over 50%. Seed oil of Thevetia nerifolia can be used as a good alternative to pesticides against Callosobruchus maculatus in addition with that of Azadirachta indica which effects are well established by many former works.

Mbailao Mbaiguinam

2006-01-01

228

Protective effect of fluvastatin on influenza virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors and have pleiotropic effects. It has been suggested that statins may be a potential treatment during the next influenza pandemic. In a previous study we found that a statin/caffeine combination protects BALB/c mice against Influenza A, subtypes haemagglutinin type 5 and neuraminidase type 1 (H5N1), H3N2 and H1N1 infection. The effect of statins alone on influenza virus infection, however, is not known. In this study, it was investigated whether fluvastatin is capable of inhibiting influenza A virus replication in vitro. The results demonstrated that the synthesis of viral RNA and protein was affected by fluvastatin treatment. Virus production was markedly reduced when fluvastatin was administered simultaneously with the virus; however, a greater inhibition was observed when fluvastatin was added following viral adsorption. The selectivity index [SI; 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50)/50% inhibition concentration (IC50)], however, was only 21. It was further demonstrated that fluvastatin protects host cells against influenza-induced inflammation by reducing the production of tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin 8 and interferon ?. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that fluvastatin exerted a minor inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection, which involved anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24676773

Peng, Jing; Zhang, Dingmei; Ma, Yu; Wang, Guoling; Guo, Zhongmin; Lu, Jiahai

2014-06-01

229

How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legue found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

230

Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability). PMID:24211390

de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

2014-01-01

231

Effects of single and double infections with Potato virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus on disease development, plant growth, and virus accumulation in tomato  

OpenAIRE

The tomato cv. Fukuju nº. 2 was used for studying the effect of single and double infections with Potato virus X (PVX) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Mixed infection resulted in a synergistic increase of disease severity, where more growth reduction was seen with simultaneous inoculations than with sequential inoculations at four-day intervals. At five and 12 days post-inoculation, the increased severity of the disease coincided with enhancement of virus accumulation in the rapidly expandin...

Balogun Olusegun, S.; XU LEIXIN; TERAOKA TOHRU; HOSOKAWA DAIJIRO

2002-01-01

232

Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1. Results Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. Conclusion The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.

He Wen

2011-12-01

233

Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

2014-01-01

234

Inhibitory effects of podophyllotoxin derivatives on herpes simplex virus replication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Podophyllotoxin and its derivatives were examined for inhibitory effects on the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), including acyclovir-resistant virus and clinical isolates. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (RD4-6266) proved to be a highly potent and selective inhibitor of all HSV strains in MRC-5 cells. EC50 values of RD4-6283 (in which the methylenedioxy ring A is modified) for HSV-1 and -2 were inferior to those of deoxypodophyllotoxin. However, podorhizol (RD4-6277) and 5'-methoxy-podorhizol (RD4-6276), in which ring C is absent, did not inhibit HSV replication. Moreover, RD4-6266 also inhibited the production of infectious virus particles of HSV-1 KOS strain and HSV-2 G strain. In contrast, none of the podophyllotoxin derivatives were found to have an antiviral effect against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus or human cytomegalovirus in doses not toxic to the cells. PMID:9875405

Sudo, K; Konno, K; Shigeta, S; Yokota, T

1998-05-01

235

Tropical food legumes: virus diseases of economic importance and their control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverse array of food legume crops (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) have been adopted worldwide for their protein-rich seed. Choice of legumes and their importance vary in different parts of the world. The economically important legumes are severely affected by a range of virus diseases causing significant economic losses due to reduction in grain production, poor quality seed, and costs incurred in phytosanitation and disease control. The majority of the viruses infecting legumes are vectored by insects, and several of them are also seed transmitted, thus assuming importance in the quarantine and in the epidemiology. This review is focused on the economically important viruses of soybean, groundnut, common bean, cowpea, pigeonpea, mungbean, urdbean, chickpea, pea, faba bean, and lentil and begomovirus diseases of three minor tropical food legumes (hyacinth bean, horse gram, and lima bean). Aspects included are geographic distribution, impact on crop growth and yields, virus characteristics, diagnosis of causal viruses, disease epidemiology, and options for control. Effectiveness of selection and planting with virus-free seed, phytosanitation, manipulation of crop cultural and agronomic practices, control of virus vectors and host plant resistance, and potential of transgenic resistance for legume virus disease control are discussed. PMID:25410108

Hema, Masarapu; Sreenivasulu, Pothur; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Kumar, P Lava; Reddy, Dodla V R

2014-01-01

236

Inhibitory effect of doxycycline against dengue virus replication in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Doxycycline is an antibiotic derived from tetracycline that possesses antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Antiviral activity of doxycycline against dengue virus has been reported previously; however, its anti-dengue properties need further investigation. This study was conducted to determine the potential activity of doxycycline against dengue virus replication in vitro. Doxycycline inhibited the dengue virus serine protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) with an IC50 value of 52.3 ± 6.2 ?M at 37 °C (normal human temperature) and 26.7 ± 5.3 ?M at 40 °C (high fever temperature). The antiviral activity of doxycycline was first tested at different concentrations against DENV2 using a plaque-formation assay. The virus titter decreased significantly after applying doxycycline at levels lower than its 50 % cytotoxic concentration (CC50, 100 ?M), showing concentration-dependent inhibition with a 50 % effective concentration (EC50) of approximately 50 ?M. Doxycycline significantly inhibited viral entry and post-infection replication of the four dengue serotypes, with serotype-specific inhibition (high activity against DENV2 and DENV4 compared to DENV1 and DENV3). Collectively, these findings underline the need for further experimental and clinical studies on doxycycline, utilizing its anti-dengue and anti-inflammatory activities to attenuate the clinical symptoms of dengue virus infection. PMID:24142271

Rothan, Hussin A; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

2014-04-01

237

Effect of influenza virus on the immune responsiveness of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection of mice with A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) and A/PR8/34 (H0N1) influenza virus strains resulted in a significant inhibition of the formation of antibody-producing cells in response to administration of sheep erythrocytes and a reduced capacity of spleen cells to induce "graft-versus-host" reaction. The immunosuppression caused by influenza infection was observed for a long period of time post infection (3--6 months). The extent of inhibition of antibody production depended on the dose of virus, route of inoculation, the sequence of infection and immunization and the internal between them. Heat-inactivated virus exerted no immunosuppressive effect. PMID:17278

Kavetsky, R E; Savtsova, Z D; Struk, V I; Yakimenko, L V; Umansky, Y A

1977-03-01

238

Insecticidal Activity of Three Plants Extracts on the Cowpea Pod Sucking Bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis, STÄL (Hemiptera: Coreidae  

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Full Text Available In Burkina Faso, farmers commonly use insecticidal plants for crop protection. To understand how insecticidal plant works (their mode of action, we carried out a bioassay on Clavigralla tomentosicollis, the cowpea pod sucking bugs with three insecticidal plants, Cassia nigricans V., Cymbopogon schoenanthus S. and Cleome viscosa L. Three modes of exposures (1 direct contact application, (2 stomach poisoning activity (3 and inhalation toxicity activity, were tested. The results showed a potent contact and stomach toxicity on 1st instars larvae regardless of the three crude extracts. But the plant extracts was less effective with older stages of the insects. A highest effectiveness was recorded with inhalation of vapours of crude extracts regardless of insect stages and type of plants. Implications of these findings are discussed regarding the use of plant extract for controlling pod sucking bugs in cowpea fields.

N.M. BA

2009-01-01

239

Insecticidal activity of three plants extracts on the cowpea pod sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis, STAL (Hemiptera: Coreidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

In Burkina Faso, farmers commonly use insecticidal plants for crop protection. To understand how insecticidal plant works (their mode of action), we carried out a bioassay on Clavigralla tomentosicollis, the cowpea pod sucking bugs with three insecticidal plants, Cassia nigricans V., Cymbopogon schoenanthus S. and Cleome viscosa L. Three modes of exposures (1) direct contact application, (2) stomach poisoning activity (3) and inhalation toxicity activity, were tested. The results showed a potent contact and stomach toxicity on 1st instars larvae regardless of the three crude extracts. But the plant extracts was less effective with older stages of the insects. A highest effectiveness was recorded with inhalation of vapours of crude extracts regardless of insect stages and type of plants. Implications of these findings are discussed regarding the use of plant extract for controlling pod sucking bugs in cowpea fields. PMID:20387747

Ba, N M; Sawadogo, F; Dabire-Binso, C L; Drabo, I; Sanon, A

2009-10-01

240

Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage) subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days), started at flowering (34 days after sowing). Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables we...

Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas; Jeferson Luiz Dallabona Dombroski; Francisco Cláudio Lopes de Freitas; Narjara Walessa Nogueira; Igor Julyetson Silva Procópio

2013-01-01

241

Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic differences in nodulation under conditions of P stress. There were large genotypic variations for P uptake under high P levels but not under low P levels. The study showed that there was significant genotypic variation for root traits during early growth and genotypic differences for soybean and cowpea growth under low P. (author)

242

Estimation of N-fixed by cowpea as influenced by two phosphorus sources using N-15 dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non conventional phosphorus fertilizers have the potential to be used under different soils. Their effect on the biological nitrogen fixation by legumes is not clear. This greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate two p -sources, namely super phosphate (SSP), and the partially acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR) on nitrogen fixed by Cowpea, using N-15 isotopic dilution technique. Acid soil was limed with Ca C O3, treated with P(as SSP or PAPR), at rates of 0, 50, and 150 mg P/Kg soil, and planted with Cowpea. Results showed that, application of P as PAPR or SSP significantly increased the dry matter content of the whole plant, as well as the total nitrogen uptake. Significant biological nitrogen fixation was found as result of P application. Percentage Ndfa ranged from 28.3 to 70.1 depending on the rate and type of P source, also most of Ndfa was translocated to the seeds. 3 tab

243

Inactivation of Pathogenic Viruses by Plant-Derived Tannins: Strong Effects of Extracts from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a Broad Range of Viruses  

Science.gov (United States)

Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus). We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki), which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses. PMID:23372851

Ueda, Kyoko; Kawabata, Ryoko; Irie, Takashi; Nakai, Yoshiaki; Tohya, Yukinobu; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

2013-01-01

244

Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a broad range of viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus). We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki), which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses. PMID:23372851

Ueda, Kyoko; Kawabata, Ryoko; Irie, Takashi; Nakai, Yoshiaki; Tohya, Yukinobu; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

2013-01-01

245

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus) foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasi [...] l. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v). Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P Abstract in english The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil [...] . The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P

Yussef F.B., Braga; Thalles B., Grangeiro; Eder A., Freire; Helano L., Lopes; José N. S., Bezerra; Manoel, Andrade-Neto; Mary Anne S., Lima.

2007-03-01

246

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

Yussef F.B. Braga

2007-03-01

247

Field Occurrence of Bruchid Pests of Cowpea and Associated Parasitoids in a Sub Humid Zone of Burkina Faso: Importance on the Infestation of Two Cowpea Varieties at Harvest  

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Full Text Available The cowpea is a very important legume for peasant farmers in West Africa but this crop is very sensitive to bruchid attacks during storage. A study was carried out in a sub humid zone of Burkina Faso to determine the relation between the dynamic of bruchid and parasitoid populations in the fields and cowpea infestation at harvest. The variations in insect numbers were weekly estimated by net captures during the growth of an early and a late cowpea variety. Adults of two bruchid species, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.. and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic appeared early in the fields before cowpea flowering and their population regularly increased over time and from early to late cowpea variety. The Pteromalid Dinarmus basalis Rond was the only larval parasitoid encountered. Its adults appeared later than bruchids and their parasitism activity increased over time. At harvest, 35% of the early cowpea pods and 74.5% of the late cowpea pods were infested by bruchid eggs. 58.5 and 72% of the bruchid eggs laid respectively on the early and the late cowpea variety were parasitized by Uscana sp. The level of cowpea seed infestation by bruchids at the beginning of storage was estimated to be 1 and 2.7% for the early and late cowpea variety respectively. The parasitism rate of bruchid larvae by D. basalis was estimated at this period to be 7.8% for early cowpea variety and 18.2% for the late variety. These results are discussed in view of developing an integrated control method based on the enhancement of the pest natural enemies in the fields and/or into storage systems in combination with beneficial farming practices.

Sanon Antoine

2005-01-01

248

Proximate, Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Whole and Dehulled Cowpea Seed Flour (Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study was conducted to analyze the production, proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic properties of whole and dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds. Flour samples were produced from whole and dehulled cowpea seeds which was purchased from Obada market Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. The flour samples were subjected to proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses. The results of proximate analysis showed that dehulled cowpea was higher in crude protein (23.12% and carbohydrate content (62.86% than whole cowpea flour, which was recorded as 22.85% and 61.67% respectively. The fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture content were 1.6%, 1.03%, 0.48%, 10.89% for dehulled cowpea flour and 1.83%, 1.12%, 0.65%, 11.88% for whole cowpea flour respectively. The results obtained for physicochemical analysis showed that the pH, TSS and TS of whole cowpea flour were 6.84%, 16.47% and 88.12% while dehulled cowpea were recorded as 6.80%, 12.85%, 89.11% respectively. The results of organoleptic analysis revealed that beans ball produced from dehulled cowpea flour was more acceptable than that from whole cowpea flour.

W.A. Oyeleke

2011-01-01

249

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management. PMID:14994820

Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

2003-04-01

250

Effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine antibodies on the shedding and transmission of challenge viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different genotypes of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 virus (APMV-1) circulate in many parts of the world. Traditionally, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recognized as having two major divisions represented by classes I and II, with class II being further divided into sixteen genotypes. Although all NDV are members of APMV-1 and are of one serotype, antigenic and genetic diversity is observed between the different genotypes. Reports of vaccine failure from many countries and reports by our lab on the reduced ability of classical vaccines to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding have created renewed interest in developing vaccines formulated with genotypes homologous to the virulent NDV (vNDV) circulating in the field. We assessed how the amount and specificity of humoral antibodies induced by inactivated vaccines affected viral replication, clinical protection and evaluated how non-homologous (heterologous) antibody levels induced by live NDV vaccines relate to transmission of vNDV. In an experimental setting, all inactivated NDV vaccines protected birds from morbidity and mortality, but higher and more specific levels of antibodies were required to significantly decrease viral replication. It was possible to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding with high levels of antibodies and those levels could be more easily reached with vaccines formulated with NDV of the same genotype as the challenge viruses. However, when the levels of heterologous antibodies were sufficiently high, it was possible to prevent transmission. As the level of humoral antibodies increase in vaccinated birds, the number of infected birds and the amount of vNDV shed decreased. Thus, in an experimental setting the effective levels of humoral antibodies could be increased by (1) increasing the homology of the vaccine to the challenge virus, or (2) allowing optimal time for the development of the immune response. PMID:23796788

Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; El Attrache, John; Dorsey, Kristi M; Courtney, Sean C; Guo, Zijing; Kapczynski, Darrell R

2013-12-01

251

Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The virucidal effect of 60Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

252

Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

1983-03-01

253

EFFECT OF NATURAL VIRUS INFECTION ON QUALITY AND YIELD OF GARLIC ELITE LINES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Garlic crops are naturally infested by virus complexes of genus Potyvirus and Carlavirus. Infection of these virus reduced garlic production, especially at Guanajuato state, Mexico. In present study, the effect of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV, Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV, Shallot latent virus (SLV, and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV complex virus on garlic (Taiwan type quality and yield lose was evaluated. This assessment was carried out during the Fall-Winter 2007-2008 period. The virus frequency detected in garlic infected plants was 73.5% for SLV, 60.8% for LYSV, 50.9% for GCLV, and 48.2% for OYDV. In present study, some garlic lines were identified, which despite of being single or mixed virus infected, and had the greatest bulb yield and agronomic characteristics. These results open the possibility to recommend the formation of garlic elite lines, which might reach the greatest yields, for Mexico and other countries.

Pérez-Moreno L

2014-05-01

254

Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers  

OpenAIRE

The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or pol...

Wm, Cardoso; Jlc, Aguiar Filho; Jm, Roma?o; Wf, Oliveira; Rpr, Salles; Rsc, Teixeira; Mhr, Sobral

2005-01-01

255

Towards a safe, effective vaccine for Rift Valley fever virus  

OpenAIRE

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important animal and human threat and leads to longstanding morbidity and mortality in susceptible hosts. Since no therapies currently exist to treat Rift Valley fever, it remains a public and animal health priority to develop safe, effective RVFV vaccines (whether for animals, humans, or both) that provide long-term protective immunity. In the evaluated article, Bhardwaj and colleagues describe the creation and testing of two successful vaccine strategies...

Labeaud, Desiree

2010-01-01

256

Effects of ultraviolet laser radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of usual low-intensity continuous (? = 254 nm,I = 10 W/m2) UV radiation and high-intensity laser nanosecond (? = 266 nm, ?p = 10 ns, I = 109 W/m2) or picosecond (? = 266 nm, ?p = 23 ps, I = 1012 W/m2) UV radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (a member of the Togaviridae family) were compared. The quantum yields of infectivity inactivation, pyrimidine dimer formation and RNA-protein crosslinking were determined. (author)

257

EFFECT OF SIALODACRYOADENITIS VIRUS INFECTION ON AXONAL REGENERATION  

OpenAIRE

The effect of sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) infection on axonal regeneration and functional recovery was investigated in male Lewis rats. Animals underwent unilateral tibial nerve transection, immediate repair, and treatment with either FK506 (treated) or control vehicle (untreated). Serial walking track analyses were performed to assess functional recovery. Nerves were harvested for morphometric analysis on postoperative day 18 after an SDAV outbreak occurred that affected the 12 experime...

Yu, Vivian M.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Brenner, Michael J.

2011-01-01

258

Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui / Autoclaved cowpea in the nutrition of juvenile tambaqui  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g), alo [...] cados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in diets on the performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates of 20 juvenile tambaqui (10 g), allocat [...] ed in 310-L water tanks. The fish were fed for 60 days with isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, with six inclusion levels of cowpea: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Body and productive performance relations were determined. There was no significant difference between treatments. Juvenile tambaqui can be fed with the inclusion of up to 25% cowpea in the diet.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Rafaella Barbosa, Correa; Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki, Inoue; Irani da Silva de, Morais.

2013-04-01

259

Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

2014-01-01

260

Toxicity Potentials of Leaf Powders of Wild Lemon (Afreagle paniculate and African Rock Fig (Ficus congensis Engl. Against the Cowpea Seed Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The toxicity potentials of the wild lemon (Afreagle paniculate and the African rock fig (Ficcus congensis Engl. leaf powder as an alternative source of control against the cowpea seed bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. on stored cowpea was evaluated. The results obtained shows that, these plant material powdered leaves had remarkable effects on all the parameters measured. There were 76.34% and 77.20% undamaged seeds recorded respectively, when cowpea seeds were stored with these plant material powdered leaves compared to the control, 7.50%. High mortality of 84.61% and 85.51% respectively, was obtained in these plant material powdered leaves and the least was in the control, 16.84%. Likewise, there was only 7.67 and 6.01 number of adults that emerged while the control had 23.85. High number of eggs laid was recorded in the control. It was also found out that, these plant material powdered leaves are promising candidates for developing botanical, biodegradable and ecologically friendly insecticides which can be integrated with other pest management procedures and could replace the use of synthetic insecticides on small farmers holding. Therefore, the leaf powders are recommended for storing cowpea seeds for at least 12 weeks giving the grains perfect state of wholesomeness.

C. S. Oaya

2013-03-01

261

The virus of my virus is my friend: ecological effects of virophage with alternative modes of coinfection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virophages are viruses that rely on the replication machinery of other viruses to reproduce within eukaryotic hosts. Two different modes of coinfection have been posited based on experimental observation. In one mode, the virophage and the virus enter the host independently. In the other mode, the virophage adheres to the virus so both virophage and virus enter the host together. Here we ask: what are the ecological effects of these different modes of coinfection? In particular, what ecological effects are common to both infection modes, and what are the differences particular to each mode? We develop a pair of biophysically motivated ODE models of viral-host population dynamics, corresponding to dynamics arising from each mode of infection. We find that both modes of coinfection allow for the coexistence of the virophage, virus, and host either at a stable fixed point or through cyclical dynamics. In both models, virophage tends to be the most abundant population and their presence always reduces the viral abundance and increases the host abundance. However, we do find qualitative differences between models. For example, via extensive sampling of biologically relevant parameter space, we only observe bistability when the virophage and the virus enter the host together. We discuss how such differences may be leveraged to help identify modes of infection in natural environments from population level data. PMID:24662503

Taylor, Bradford P; Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S

2014-08-01

262

Evaluation of fungicide seed treatments to control seedling diseases of cowpea  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea is an important food crop and is increasingly being cultivated by small-scale farmers in South Africa. Cowpea is susceptible to a wide range of seedborne diseases, which causes damage to the crop at all stages. Seedling diseases caused by pathogens like Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn), Pythium ultimum (Trow) and Fusarium solani (Mart) App. and Wol attack cowpea, and result in low yields especially in rural areas where little or no control measures are taken against th...

Khumalo, Daniel Mkhathazi

2007-01-01

263

EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA  

OpenAIRE

The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS) India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus ro...

Mogle, Umesh P.

2013-01-01

264

Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Tw...

Sawadogo, A.; Thio, B.; Kiemde, S.; Drabo, I.; Dabire, C.; Ouedraogo, J.; Mullens, T. R.; Ehlers, J. D.; Roberts, P. A.

2009-01-01

265

Physical properties of virus causing cotton mosaic disease  

OpenAIRE

The physical properties were found to be thermal inactivation point (TIP) 55–600C, dilution end point (DEP) 10-2 -10-3, dilutions and longevity in vitro (LIV) 5 hrs. In ELISA test it was found that the virus showing positive test only with anti serum of TSV of cowpea an...

Jagtap, G. P.; Jadhav, T. H.; Utpal, D.

2012-01-01

266

Reduction of the nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus (Coloeptera: bruchidae)  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to study the food nutrients such as the Free Fatty Acids and some other nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus invitro. 400g of uninfested cowpea was divided into two parts of 200g each. The first 200g was left to be infested by Callosobruchus maculatus for 100 days. The remaining 200g was preserved in a Kilner jar in the laboratory. The mean moisture content of the infested cowpea was 21.10 while that of the uninfested cowpea was 32.70....

Oke and Akintunde

2013-01-01

267

Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using 15N2 and allopurinol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed [15N]xanthine from 15N2 at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible 15N -labeling of asparagine from 15N2 was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery

268

Transport and utilization of 14C photosynthate in cowpea (Vigna uniquiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was carried out to study the transport and distribution patterns of 14C assimilate during the reproductive phase of cowpea var. Pusa dofashali. The pattern of 14C distribution and relative transport from different leaf positions were assessed. The effect of 'Source' and 'Sink' size on movement and distribution of assimilates was also studied. During the reproductive phase, a considerable amount of 14C assimilates was trans-located to pod (34%) and to stem and branches (25.5%). Roots gained little amount of assimilate when whole plant was exposed to 14CO2. The export of 14C assimilates from middle leaf on plant without pod as well as from leaf at node bearing pod was of greater maqnitude as compared with the lowest leaf on the main stem. Export of 14C photosynthates was highest from 'source leaf' when all other leaves were removed and a higher proportion of 14C was recovered in stem and pods. When pods were removed the export of assimilate from source leaf was reduced. On depodded plants the stem and roots accumulated considerably larger amounts of 14C assimilates than normal plants. The assimilate requirements by pods determined the degree of diversion of assimilate into the vegetative parts during the reproductive ohase. Thus source sink relationships in varietal improvement programmes with cowpea merit consideration. (auth.)ation. (auth.)

269

Effect of Extension of the Cytoplasmic Domain of Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 Virus Transmembrane Protein gp41 on Virus Replication  

OpenAIRE

The biological significance of the presence of a long cytoplasmic domain in the envelope (Env) transmembrane protein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is still not fully understood. Here we examined the effects of cytoplasmic tail elongation on virus replication and characterized the role of the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail in interactions with the Gag protein. Extensions with six and nine His residues but not with fewer than six His residues were found to severely inhibit vi...

Chan, Woan-eng; Wang, Ya-lin; Lin, Hui-hua; Chen, Steve S. -l

2004-01-01

270

Antiviral effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on Japanese encephalitis virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which causes neurological disorders, completes its life cycle and triggers apoptotic cell death in infected cells. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal-derived steroid, has been implicated in protection against neurotoxicity and protection of animals from viral-induced encephalitis, resulting in an increased survival rate of the animals. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of DHEA against the virus are largely unknown. In this study, DHEA suppression of JEV replication and virus-induced apoptosis in murine neuroblastoma (N18) cells was investigated. It was found that DHEA suppressed JEV-induced cytopathic effects, JEV-induced apoptotic cell death and JEV propagation in a concentration-dependent manner. Antiviral activity was more efficient in cultures treated with DHEA immediately after viral adsorption compared with that in cultures receiving delayed administration after adsorption or transient exposure before adsorption. JEV-induced cytotoxicity was accompanied by the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). Inactivation of ERK by JEV infection was reversed by DHEA. When cells were treated with the ERK inhibitor U0126, DHEA lost its antiviral effect. Activation of ERK by anisomycin mimicked the action of DHEA in suppressing JEV-induced cytotoxicity. DHEA-related compounds, such as its sulfate ester (DHEAS) and pregnenolone, were unable to suppress JEV-induced cytotoxicity and ERK inactivation. The hormone-receptor antagonists ICI 182780 and flutamide failed to abrogate the antiviral effect of DHEA. These findings suggest that the antiviral effect of DHEA is not linked directly to the genomic steroid-receptor pathways and suggest that the signalling pathways of ERK play a role in the antiviral action of DHEA. PMID:16099910

Chang, Chia-Che; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Raung, Shue-Ling; Chen, Chun-Jung

2005-09-01

271

Effect of halothane on the replication of animal viruses.  

OpenAIRE

Five RNA- and two DNA-containing viruses were propagated in Vero cells and tested for their ability to replicate in the presence of halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane), a commonly used inhalational anesthetic. Halothane did not affect poliovirus replication at any anesthetic concentration tested, but all other viruses were either partially or totally inhibited by clinical doses of the anesthetic. Replication of Sendai virus, simian virus 40, vesicular stomatitis virus, and herp...

Bedows, E.; Davidson, B. A.; Knight, P. R.

1984-01-01

272

Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-?. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

Lin Na-Sheng

2007-09-01

273

Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of the tobacco mosaic virus group  

OpenAIRE

The initiation site for reconstitution on genome RNA was determined by electron microscopic serology for a watermelon strain of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-W), which is chemically and serologically related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The initiation site was located at the same position as that of the cowpea strain, a virus that produces short rods of encapsidated subgenomic messenger RNA for the coat protein (a two-component TMV), being about 320 nucleotides away from the 3?...

Fukuda, Megumi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Okada, Yoshimi; Otsuki, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Itaru

1981-01-01

274

Effects of ultraviolet laser radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of usual low-intensity continuous ({lambda} = 254 nm,I = 10 W/m{sup 2}) UV radiation and high-intensity laser nanosecond ({lambda} = 266 nm, {tau}{sub p} = 10 ns, I = 10{sup 9} W/m{sup 2}) or picosecond ({lambda} = 266 nm, {tau}{sub p} = 23 ps, I = 10{sup 12} W/m{sup 2}) UV radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (a member of the Togaviridae family) were compared. The quantum yields of infectivity inactivation, pyrimidine dimer formation and RNA-protein crosslinking were determined. (author).

Nikogosyan, D.N. (AN SSSR, Troitsk (USSR). Inst. Spektroskopii); Kapituletz, S.P.; Smirnov, Y.A. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Virusologii)

1991-11-01

275

Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal ?-hexamer structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a ?-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the ?-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having ?-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry. PMID:21864876

de Wispelaere, Melissanne; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan; Rao, A L N

2011-10-10

276

Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal ?-hexamer structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a ?-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the ?-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having ?-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

277

Influenza Virus Assembly: Effect of Influenza Virus Glycoproteins on the Membrane Association of M1 Protein  

OpenAIRE

Influenza virus matrix protein (M1), a critical protein required for virus assembly and budding, is presumed to interact with viral glycoproteins on the outer side and viral ribonucleoprotein on the inner side. However, because of the inherent membrane-binding ability of M1 protein, it has been difficult to demonstrate the specific interaction of M1 protein with hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA), the influenza virus envelope glycoproteins. Using Triton X-100 (TX-100) detergent treatmen...

Ali, Ayub; Avalos, Roy T.; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Nayak, Debi P.

2000-01-01

278

Evaluation of Sorghum-Cowpea Intercrop Productivity in Savanna Agro-ecology using Competition Indices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The competitive behaviour of sorghum-cowpea intercrops at different planting patterns were studied at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching and Research farm, Bauchi in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The treatments comprised of three row arrangements of sorghum/cowpea mixtures; one row of sorghum for one row of cowpea (1S:1C, two rows of sorghum for one row of cowpea (2S:1C and one row of sorghum for two rows of cowpea (1S:2C, respectively. Sole crops of sorghum and cowpea were included as check to compare yields of intercropped mixtures. Results indicated that grain and straw yields of both sorghum and cowpea were higher in sole cropping than in the intercropping mixtures. However, the 2S:1C planting arrangement exhibited higher LER, competitive indices values, SPI and MAI (N7857.11 compared to the other planting arrangements and the sole crops. From this study, it is inferred that intercropping of sorghum with cowpea at 2S:1C planting pattern will give higher income, better land use efficiency and thus enhancing sustainability of crop production than sole culture of each crop species.   

Tajudeen Olusegun Oseni

2010-08-01

279

Virucidal effect of acidic electrolyzed water and neutral electrolyzed water on avian influenza viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The virucidal effects of two types of electrolyzed water, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), on avian influenza viruses were studied. Virus titers of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus and the low-pathogenic H9N2 virus irreversibly decreased by >5-log at 1 min after the viruses were mixed with NEW containing ?43 ppm free available chlorine (FAC), but not with NEW containing 5 log at 1 min after the viruses were mixed with AEW, in which the concentration of the FAC ranged from 72 to 0 ppm. Thus, the virucidal effect of AEW did not depend on the presence of FAC. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplified fragments of the M and NP genes, but not the complete M gene, from RNA extracted from the AEW-inactivated virus. Moderate morphological changes were found under the electron microscope, although no changes were observed in the electrophoresed proteins of the AEW-inactivated virus. No viral genes were amplified from the RNA extracted from the NEW-inactivated virus, regardless of the length of the targeted genes. No viral particles were detected under the electron microscope and no viral proteins were detected by electrophoresis for the NEW-inactivated virus. Thus, this study demonstrated potent virucidal effects of AEW and NEW and differences in the virucidal mechanism of the two types of electrolyzed water. PMID:24026292

Tamaki, Shio; Bui, Vuong N; Ngo, Lai H; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

2014-03-01

280

Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and 7% were infected with the Blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV-BlCM). Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV) was detected with an infection range of 5.4%- 12.5% in bambara samples tested using indirect antigen-first ELISA, indicator IITA cowpea lines Tvu 3433, Tvu 1582, Tvu 401 and Tvu 2657 and Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Topcrop. No viruses were detected in the peanut samples. The lack of a broad range of serological antisera limited the number of viruses tested but results show that the bulk of the samples were infected with seed-borne viruses. The results imply that resources must be invested in improving the quality of seed from the smallholder sector. National and international germplasm collection centres should be equipped with capacity to test for seed-borne viruses so as to minimize the movement of infected germplasm in breeding materials or germplasm exchange in international collections.

Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.

2010-01-01

281

Effects of humic materials on virus recovery from water.  

OpenAIRE

Humic and fulvic acids were tested for their ability to interfere with virus recovery by microporous filters. Two electropositively charged types of filter (Seitz S and Zeta Plus 60S) were used to concentrate poliovirus in the presence of humic materials. Humic acid inhibited virus adsorption, but even at the highest humic acid concentrations tested (200 mg/liter), 30 to 40% of the virus was recovered by the filters. Fulvic acid, tested with Zeta Plus filters, did not affect virus recovery. F...

Guttman-bass, N.; Catalano-sherman, J.

1985-01-01

282

Response of Maize (Zea mays) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

OpenAIRE

Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage l...

Akande, M. O.; Oluwatoyinbo, F. I.; Kayode, C. O.; Olowokere, F. A.

2006-01-01

283

Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability. PMID:16887156

Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Smagghe, Guy

2006-09-01

284

Effects of Aging on Influenza Virus Infection Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The consequences of influenza virus infection are generally more severe in individuals over 65 years of age (the elderly). Immunosenescence enhances the susceptibility to viral infections and renders vaccination less effective. Understanding age-related changes in the immune system is crucial in order to design prophylactic and immunomodulatory strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Here, we propose different mathematical models to provide a quantitative understanding of the immune strategies in the course of influenza virus infection using experimental data from young and aged mice. Simulation results suggested a central role of CD8+ T cells for adequate viral clearance kinetics in young and aged mice. Adding the removal of infected cells by natural killer cells did not improve the model fit in either young or aged animals. We separately examined the infection-resistant state of cells promoted by the cytokines alpha/beta interferon (IFN-?/?), IFN-?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). The combination of activated CD8+ T cells with any of the cytokines provided the best fits in young and aged animals. During the first 3 days after infection, the basic reproductive number for aged mice was 1.5-fold lower than that for young mice (P < 0.05). IMPORTANCE The fits of our models to the experimental data suggest that the increased levels of IFN-?/?, IFN-?, and TNF-? (the “inflammaging” state) promote slower viral growth in aged mice, which consequently limits the stimulation of immune cells and contributes to the reported impaired responses in the elderly. A quantitative understanding of influenza virus pathogenesis and its shift in the elderly is the key contribution of this work. PMID:24478442

Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.; Wilk, Esther; Canini, Laetitia; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Binder, Sebastian C.; Uvarovskii, Alexey; Ross, Ted M.; Guzmán, Carlos A.

2014-01-01

285

Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity to chirality, ROA is an incisive probe of their aqueous solution structures at the molecular level. Protein ROA bands are especially prominent from which, as we have shown by comparison with the ROA spectra of proteins with known structures and by using a pattern recognition program, the folds of the major coat protein subunits may be deduced. Information about amino acid side-chain conformations, exemplified here by the determination of the sign and magnitude of the torsion angle chi(2,1) for tryptophan in fd, may also sometimes be obtained. By subtracting the ROA spectrum of the empty protein capsid (top component) of cowpea mosaic virus from those of the intact middle and bottom-upper components separated by means of a caesium chloride density gradient, the ROA spectrum of the viral RNA was obtained, which revealed that the RNA takes up an A-type single-stranded helical conformation and that the RNA conformations in the middle and bottom-upper components are very similar. This information is not available from the X-ray crystal structure of cowpea mosaic virus since no nucleic acid is visible.

Blanch, Ewan W.; Hecht, Lutz

2002-01-01

286

Synergistic pathogenic effects of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus in broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study interactions between avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the effects of co-infection on pathogenicity of these viruses, 1-day-old broiler chicks were infected with ALV-J, REV or both ALV-J and REV. The results indicated that co-infection of ALV-J and REV induced more growth retardation and higher mortality rate than ALV-J or REV single infection (P Newcastle disease virus and H9-avian influenza virus (P < 0.05). Perihepatitis and pericarditis related to severe infection with Escherichia coli were found in many of the dead birds. E. coli was isolated from each case of perihepatitis and pericarditis. The mortality associated with E. coli infection in the co-infection groups was significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Among 516 tested E. coli isolates from 58 dead birds, 12 serotypes of the O-antigen were identified in two experiments. Different serotypes of E. coli strains were even isolated from the same organ of the same bird. Diversification of O-serotypes suggested that perihepatitis and pericarditis associated with E. coli infection was the most frequent secondary infection following the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J and REV co-infection. These results suggested that the co-infection of ALV-J and REV caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects, growth retardation, immunosuppression, and secondary E. coli infection in broiler chickens. PMID:25484188

Dong, Xuan; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang; Ju, Sidi; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

2015-02-01

287

Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® on hepatitis C virus replication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the last decade, the current standard HCV treatment, pegylated interferon and ribavirin, have limited efficacy and significant side effects. Novel direct acting antivirals show promise, but escape mutants are expected, along with potential side effects. Pycnogenol®, a French maritime pine extract, has been reported to have antioxidant and antiviral effects. Here, we evaluated the effect of Pycnogenol® on HCV replication. Wild-type and protease inhibitor (VX-950; telaprevir)-resistant HCV replicon cells were treated with Pycnogenol®, Pycnogenol® and interferon-alpha, and ribavirin and telaprevir. Pycnogenol® effects on replication were also evaluated in HCV-infected chimeric mice. Pycnogenol® treatment showed antiviral effects without cytotoxicity at doses up to 50 ?g/mL. Pycnogenol® in combination with interferon-alpha or ribavirin showed synergistic effects. Moreover, Pycnogenol® inhibited HCV replication in telaprevir-resistant replicon cells; telaprevir and Pycnogenol® acted additively to reduce HCV RNA levels in wild-type HCV replicon cells without significantly increasing cytotoxicity. Pycnogenol® antiviral activity was higher than its components procyanidin and taxifolin. Further, treatment of infected chimeric mice with Pycnogenol® suppressed HCV replication and showed a synergistic effect with interferon-alpha. In addition, Pycnogenol® treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of reactive oxygen species in HCV replicon cell lines. Pycnogenol® is a natural product that may be used to improve the efficacy of the current standard antiviral agents and even to eliminate resistant HCV mutants. PMID:25446333

Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Kohara, Michinori; Benjelloun, Soumaya; Kino, Yoichiro; Inoue, Kazuaki; Matsumori, Akira; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

2015-01-01

288

Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We performed biochemical analysis on 14 landraces of cowpeas and assessed the opinion of 120 caregiver-child pairs on constructs based on the combined model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model. We used correlations and multiple regressions to measure simple associations between constructs and identify predictive constructs. Cowpea landraces contained iron and zinc in the range of 4.9–8.2 mg/100 g d.w and 2.7–4.1 mg/100 g d.w respectively. The landraces also contained high amounts of phytate (477–1110 mg/100 g d.w) and polyphenol (327–1055 mg/100 g d.w). Intention of mothers was strongly associated (rs?=?0.72, P<0.001) with and predicted (??=?0.63, P<0.001) behaviour. The constructs, barriers (??=?–0.42, P?=?0.001) and attitudes towards behaviour (??=?0.25, P<0.028), significantly predicted intention albeit the predictive ability of the model was weak. Conclusions We conclude that some cowpea landraces from northern Ghana have appreciable amounts of iron and zinc but probably with poor bioavailability. Attitudes towards giving cowpeas and perception of barriers are important predictors of caregivers’ intention to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Finally our results suggest that increasing knowledge on nutritional benefits of cowpeas may increase health values caregivers hold for their children in support of giving cowpeas to schoolchildren. PMID:23951289

Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Pilime, Nerisa; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Brouwer, Inge D.

2013-01-01

289

The effects of viral load on pseudorabies virus gene expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpesvirus genes are classified into distinct kinetic groups on the basis of their expression dynamics during lytic growth of the virus in cultured cells at a high, typically 10 plaque-forming units/cell multiplicity of infection (MOI. It has been shown that both the host response and the success of a pathogen are dependent on the quantity of particles infecting an organism. This work is a continuation of an earlier study 1, in which we characterized the overall expression of PRV genes following low-MOI infection. In the present study, we have addressed the question of whether viral gene expressions are dependent on the multiplicity of infection by comparing gene expressions under low and high-MOI conditions. Results In the present study, using a real-time RT-PCR assay, we address the question of whether the expression properties of the pseudorabies virus (PRV genes are dependent on the number of virion particles infecting a single cell in a culture. Our analysis revealed a significant dependence of the gene expression on the MOI in most of these genes. Specifically, we found that most of the examined viral genes were expressed at a lower level at a low MOI (0.1 than at a high MOI (10 experiment in the early stage of infection; however, this trend reversed by six hour post-infection in more than half of the genes. Furthermore, in the high-MOI infection, several PRV genes substantially declined within the 4 to 6-h infection period, which was not the case in the low-MOI infection. In the low-MOI infection, the level of antisense transcript (AST, transcribed from the antiparallel DNA strand of the immediate-early 180 (ie180 gene, was comparable to that of ie180 mRNA, while in the high-MOI experiment (despite the 10 times higher copy number of the viral genome in the infected cells the amount of AST dropped by more than two log values at the early phase of infection. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that adjacent PRV genes are under a common regulation. This is the first report on the effect of the multiplicity of infection on genome-wide gene expression of large DNA viruses, including herpesviruses. Conclusion Our results show a strong dependence of the global expression of PRV genes on the MOI. Furthermore, our data indicate a strong interrelation between the expressions of ie180 mRNA and AST, which determines the expression properties of the herpesvirus genome and possibly the replication strategy (lytic or latent infection of the virus in certain cell types.

Takács Irma F

2010-12-01

290

Effect of caffeine on the ultraviolet light induction of SV40 virus from transformed hamster cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of caffeine on the uv light induction of SV40 virus from two transformed hamster cell lines heterogeneous for the induction of infectious virus was studied. The amount of virus induced was significantly increased in both cell lines when exposure to uv light was followed by treatment with caffeine. Caffeine in the absence of uv irradiation did not stimulate virus induction, nor did it stimulate SV40 replication in a lytic infection. There was an apparent difference in the concentrations of caffeine which maximally stimulated SV40 virus induction in the two cell lines. This effect could not be explained by differences in cell survival after exposure to uv light and caffeine. Since caffeine is known to cause the accumulation of gaps formed in DNA during postreplication repair of uv-irradiated rodent cells, our results support the hypothesis that the formation of gaps or breaks in DNA is an important early step in virus induction

291

Virus-inhibitory effect of a yeast RNA-tilorone molecular complex in cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The virus-inhibitory activity of a molecular complex (MC) of tilorone and yeast RNA was studied in vitro on three virus-cell systems: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) - murine fibroblast L929 cells, Venezuelan equine encephalittis virus (VEEV) - swine embryo kidney (SEK) cells and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) - established piglet testicular (EPT) cells. In all these systems the MC exerted an antiviral effect similar to that of polynucleotide interferon (IFN) inducers such as poly(I)-poly(C), larifan and ridostin. The antiviral effect of the MC was similar when the compound was applied before or after virus adsorption to cells. The MC may be regarded as a perspective antiviral agent of common use. PMID:11774897

Karpov, A V; Zholobak, N M; Spivak, N Y; Rybalko, S L; Antonenko, S V; Krivokhatskaya, L D

2001-06-01

292

Effects of carcase decomposition on rabies virus infectivity and detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcases received for rabies diagnosis are occasionally decomposed due to delays in finding, submitting or storing them. Positive diagnostic results from such samples are reliable but negative results may be invalid. Previous studies assessed the effect of decomposition on rabies detection using excised brains. To better reflect decomposition in the field, intact infected mouse carcases were stored at three temperatures for up to 70 days. The brains were then removed and tested using routine rabies diagnostic assays. Rabies virus was isolated using the Rabies Tissue Culture Inoculation Test (RTCIT) on days 18, 3 and 3 at 4°C, 25°C and 35°C, respectively. The Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) detected viral antigen on days 36, 12 and 3, whilst a rabies specific Hemi-nested RT-PCR detected viral RNA on days 70, 48 and 48 at 4°C, 25°C and 35°C, respectively. These findings suggest the persistence of infectious rabies virus in carcases left for 18 days at cold temperatures (4°C) and up to 3 days in temperatures reaching 35°C. The detection of viral RNA from a carcase decomposing at 35°C for 48 days supports the use of molecular assays to accompany OIE-prescribed rabies diagnostic tests particularly when decomposed samples are likely to be submitted. Count=199. PMID:25010791

McElhinney, Lorraine M; Marston, Denise A; Brookes, Sharon M; Fooks, Anthony R

2014-10-01

293

Cost-effective Method for Microbial Source Tracking Using Specific Human and Animal Viruses  

OpenAIRE

Microbial contamination of the environment represents a significant health risk. Classical bacterial fecal indicators have shown to have significant limitations, viruses are more resistant to many inactivation processes and standard fecal indicators do not inform on the source of contamination. The development of cost-effective methods for the concentration of viruses from water and molecular assays facilitates the applicability of viruses as indicators of fecal contamination and as microbial...

Bofill-mas, Si?lvia; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Calgua, Byron; Rusin?ol, Marta; Maluquer Motes, Carlos; Girones, Rosina

2011-01-01

294

The effect of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's) virus infection on young mature boars and boar fertility.  

OpenAIRE

This study was designed to determine the effects of experimental inoculation with pseudorabies virus on the reproductive tracts of young adult boars. Pseudorabies virus was inoculated intranasally into 12 boars and intrapreputially into four boars. All animals seroconverted after nasal or preputial inoculation. Semen abnormalities were observed 21 days postinoculation with partial recovery by 50 days postinoculation. Virus was isolated from the preputial sheath of two intrapreputially inocula...

Hall, L. B.; Kluge, J. P.; Evans, L. E.; Hill, H. T.

1984-01-01

295

Differential effect of monensin on enveloped viruses that form at distinct plasma membrane domains  

OpenAIRE

We have observed a striking differential effect of the ionophore, monensin, on replication of influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and baby hamster kidney (BHK21) cells. In MDCK cells, influenza virus is assembled at the apical surfaces, whereas VSV particles bud from the basolateral membranes; no such polarity of maturation is exhibited in BHK21 cells. A 10(-6) M concentration of monensin reduces VSV yields in MDCK cells by greater than 90%...

1981-01-01

296

Protease digestion of hepatitis A virus: disparate effects on capsid proteins, antigenicity, and infectivity.  

OpenAIRE

High concentrations of either trypsin or chymotrypsin caused nearly complete cleavage of capsid protein VP2 of hepatitis A virus but did not significantly reduce the infectivity, thermostability, or antigenicity of the virus. Chymotrypsin also had a lesser effect on VP1. These findings indicate the presence of a protease-accessible VP2 surface site which neither contributes significantly to the dominant antigenic site nor plays a role in the attachment of the virus to putative cell receptors.

Lemon, S. M.; Amphlett, E.; Sangar, D.

1991-01-01

297

Effect of Ionic Composition of Suspending Solution on Virus Adsorption by a Soil Column  

OpenAIRE

The effect of various electrolytes on the adsorption of poliovirus was measured in 250-cm-long soil columns with ceramic samplers at different depths. Viruses suspended in deionized water moved much farther through the soil than those suspended in tap water, whereas movement in sewage water was intermediate. The salt content of the tap water and sewage water promoted virus adsorption, but evidently the organic compounds in sewage retarded adsorption. When viruses were suspended in chloride so...

Lance, J. C.; Gerba, C. P.

1984-01-01

298

N fixation and transfer in Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea inter cropping systems as determined by N-15 isotope dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N fixation and transfer in maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea intercropping systems, as determined by N-15 dilution technique was studied in two field trials conducted at Bata-atha, in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Two cvs. of cowpea i.e; Bombay and MI-35 were used in maize/cowpea intercropping system, with following combinations of treatments; maize/Bombay, maize/MI-35, Bombay (monocrop), MI-35 (monocrop) and maize (monocrop). A similar set of treatments was used in sorghum/cowpea intercropping system also. The N-15 atom excess, percentage Ndfa, total amount of N fixed, N yield and the total dry matter production were estimated. Maize/cowpea intercropping resulted in an increase in total dry matter production and total N yield compared to monocrop treatment. However the percentage Ndfa and total N fixed showed a decrease compared to monocrop stand. The percentage Ndfa was 60-65 percent monocrop while the same was 45-50 percent in intercropped treatments

299

The African yam bean seed lectin affects the development of the cowpea weevil but does not affect the development of larvae of the legume pod borer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera : Pyrialidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0% (wt/wt) of dietary lectin. Larval mortality was between 30% and 88%, while delays in total developmental time ranged between 7 and 13 days. The lectin had no effect on development of larvae of M. vitrala, when tested through topical artificial diet incorporation assays, except at the extremely high dose of 35% dietary level. PMID:10746879

Machuka, J S; Okeola, O G; Chrispeels, M J; Jackai, L E

2000-03-01

300

Estimation of the effective number of founders that initiate an infection after aphid transmission of a multipartite plant virus  

OpenAIRE

The fecundity of RNA viruses can be very high. Thus, it is often assumed that viruses have large populations, and RNA virus evolution has been mostly explained using purely deterministic models. However, population bottlenecks during the virus life cycle could result in effective population numbers being much smaller than reported censuses, and random genetic drift could be important in virus evolution. A step at which population bottlenecks may be severe is host-to-host transmiss...

Betancourt Va?squez, Mo?nica; Fereres Castiel, Alberto; Fraile Pe?rez, Aurora; Garcia-arenal Rodriguez, Fernando

2008-01-01

301

Inheritance of Time to First Flower in Photo-insensitive Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early maturity is a relatively important agronomic trait and is important in the adaptation of annual crops, including cowpea to any agro ecological zone. This trait was studied using days to first flowering under screen house condition to determine heterotic effects, heritability and inheritance of early heritable (h2ns was 98.9% while (h2bs was 68%. The F1 hybrid performed better than the average parent by 8.82 and 23.3% over the superior parent. Transgressive segregation was observed in the F2 population with plants flowering 9 days earlier than the early parent and 37 days later than the late maturing parent. Inheritance of earliness was observed to be controlled by duplicate dominant epistasis with late flowering partially dominant over early flowering.

A.O. Adeyanju

2007-01-01

302

Chickpea and cowpea grain improvement using mutation and other advanced genetic techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of genetic engineering methodologies in breeding programmes seems to be very promising to find new resistance-related genes present in other phyla, to clone and transfer them into plants; and, to shorten the time to obtain an improved genotype since only a single gene is involved in this process. The main ''bottle-neck'' to apply this scheme in chickpea and cowpea is the absence of a reliable protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation. In this frame, following some pilot experiments on these grain legumes to induce regeneration and gene transfer, we attempted to find a regeneration medium, assay the effect of different hormones on young tissues; and, to select the best procedures for transfer of genes into the plant genome

303

STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE) DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.)}  

OpenAIRE

Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus sp...

PHIL DOBIE; RENNIE ROESLI

1991-01-01

304

Effect of tunicamycin on herpes simplex virus glycoproteins and infectious virus production.  

OpenAIRE

The antibiotic tunicamycin, which blocks the synthesis of glycoproteins, inhibited the production of infectious herpes simplex virus. In the presence of this drug, [14C]glucosamine and [3H]mannose incorporation was reduced in infected cells, whereas total protein synthesis was not affected. Gel electrophoresis of [2-3H]mannose-labeled polypeptides failed to detect glycoprotein D or any of the other herpes simplex virus glycoproteins. By use of specific antisera we demonstrated that in the pre...

Pizer, L. I.; Cohen, G. H.; Eisenberg, R. J.

1980-01-01

305

Eficiência de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi / Efficiency of herbicides for cowpea crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e eficácia de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), conduziu-se um experimento no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados nove herbicidas/misturas (S-metolachlor, bentazo [...] n + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl) e uma testemunha sem herbicidas, e nas subparcelas foram avaliados dois tratamentos: com capinas e sem capinas, para determinar a seletividade e a eficácia dos herbicidas, respectivamente. Os herbicidas S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl foram seletivos para a cultura. A mistura lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl causou severa intoxicação no feijão-caupi, com posterior recuperação e produtividade igual ou superior à dos demais tratamentos. As principais espécies de plantas infestantes foram: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Digitaria bicornis, sendo todas controladas com eficiência pelos herbicidas S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência + bentazon + imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência e lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl aplicados em pós-emergência. Conclui-se que a eficiência de herbicidas para o feijão-caupi depende da seletividade para a cultura, bem como de sua eficácia no controle de plantas daninhas, a qual pode variar de acordo com a comunidade infestante. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of herbicides for the crop of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block design. The plots consisted of nine herbicides/mixtures (S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazo [...] n + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p- butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl, fluazifop-p-butyl) and a control without herbicides , while the subplots consisted of the evaluation of two treatments : with weeding and without weeding, to determine the selectivity and effectiveness of the herbicides , respectively. The herbicides S-metolachlor, imazamox + bentazon, bentazon + S-metolachlor + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazamox + bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the cowpea crop. The mixture lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl caused severe intoxication in the cowpea crop with subsequent recovery and yield equal to or higher than the other treatments. The main weed species were: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria bicornis, all being efficiently controlled by the herbicide S-metolachlor applied at pre-emergence + imazamox + bentazon applied at post-emergence and lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl applied at post-emergence. It was concluded that the efficiency of the herbicides for cowpea depends on the selectivity for the crop, as well as on their effectiveness in controlling weeds, which may vary according to the weed community.

K.S., Silva; F.C.L., Freitas; L.M., Silveira; C.S., Linhares; D.R., Carvalho; M.F.P., Lima.

2014-03-01

306

Insecticidal Activity of the Aqueous Extracts of Four Under-utilized Tropical Plants as Protectant of Cowpea Seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation  

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Full Text Available The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids.

J. Kayode

2013-01-01

307

Insecticidal activity of the aqueous extracts of four under-utilized tropical plants as protectant of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus infestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids. PMID:24171265

Obembe, O M; Kayode, J

2013-02-15

308

Radiation enhaced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultraviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since caffeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation

309

Temperature effects on vaccine induced immunity to viruses in fish  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract In poikilothemic vertebrates such as teleost fishes, temperature affects all physiological processes including host-pathogen interactions like immune response and propagation of infection. Whether an infection with a pathogenic virus in fish results in development of clinical disease often depends on the balance between virus multiplication and anti viral immune reactions in the host. Water temperature is one of the most important factors influencing the balance between the fish and its environment. Usually, an optimal immune response of a particular fish species is obtained at its normal summer temperature whereas low temperatures may be immunosuppressive. Although innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms should be considered as integrated parts of the immunedefence, low temperatures appears to affect (inhibit) adaptive mechanisms more than innate mechanisms. This might represent a problem in terms of inducing a protective immune response by vaccination in aquaculture, since it is often desirable to vaccinate fish during autumn, winter, or spring. In experimental vaccination trials with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a DNA-vaccine encoding the viral glycoprotein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), non-specific as well as specific immune mechanisms seemed to be delayed at low temperature. At five weeks post vaccination fish kept at 5?C had no detectable response of neutralising antibodies while two thirds of the fish kept at 15?C had sero-converted. While protective immunity was still established at both temperatures, specificity analysis suggested that protection at the lower temperature was mainly due to non-specific innate antiviral mechanisms, which appeared to last longer at low temperature. This was presumably related to a prolonged persistence of the vaccine. In DNA vaccination trials with spring viremia of carp (SVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), protection at low temperature (10?C) appeared to require considerable longer time to develop compared to at 19?C, stressing that determination of optimal vaccination strategies in terms of temperature related effects need to be based on experimental evidence with the actual host and pathogen species rather on general principles.

Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen

310

Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch in Medicago truncatula  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis using a F2 population (n?=?150 from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. Conclusions The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

Kamphuis Lars G

2012-07-01

311

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins bind to the peritrophic membrane of larval sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we show that vicilins from two Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) genotypes, Epace-10 and IT 81D-1045, which are susceptible and resistant to attack by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus, respectively, associate with the peritrophic membrane (PM) from larvae of Diatraea saccharalis. Solutions with increasing concentrations of vicilins were incubated with PM of the larvae and subsequently analysed by electrophoresis with SDS. It was observed that the majority of the bands of approximately 50,000 Da (characteristic of vicilins) did not appear in the separating gel and only lower molecular weight polypeptides were seen. When vicilins were incubated with PM, and the solution was then heated after the incubation, the band pattern in the gel appeared completely different. It was observed that the vicilins were being hydrolysed by proteinases associated with the PM. When the incubated samples were heated after the reaction, the major bands reappeared, demonstrating that most of the vicilin molecules had bound to the PM of D. saccharalis. These results suggest that when the vicilins are in contact with the PM they are bound and also digested by the PM of this insect. The major and several minor proteinases from the PM were extracted with Triton X-100 and their activity and the inhibition of this activity were analysed by ingel assays. Based on the effects of proteinase inhibitors, the PM-associated activity is due to serine class proteinases. Larvae of D. saccharalis were fed on artificial diets containing purified vicilins from Epace-10 or IT 81D-1045 seeds. Vicilins from Epace-10 did not affect the larval development, while IT 81D-1045 vicilins reduced significantly the survival rate of the sugar cane borer. PMID:16256689

Mota, A C; Damatta, R A; Lima Filho, M; Silva, C P; Xavier-Filho, J

2003-09-01

312

Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?  

OpenAIRE

Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality of seeds acquired from the informal SS, and compared this with the quality of seeds obtained from the formal SS. Cowpea seed production in northern Nigeria was used as a case study to evaluate the ...

Biemond, P. C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T. J.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; Struik, P. C.

2013-01-01

313

Response of Maize (Zea mays and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

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Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP amended with cow dung (CD manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05 affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1, okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1 and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1 in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

M.O. Akande

2006-03-01

314

Glucocorticosteroids enhance replication of respiratory viruses: effect of adjuvant interferon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucocorticosteroids (GCS) are used on a daily basis to reduce airway inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This treatment is usually escalated during acute disease exacerbations, events often associated with virus infections. We examined the impact of GCS on anti-viral defences and virus replication and assessed supplementary interferon (IFN) treatment. Here, we report that treatment of primary human airway cells in vitro with GCS prior to rhinovirus (RV) or influenza A virus (IAV) infection significantly reduces the expression of innate anti-viral genes and increases viral replication. Mice given intranasal treatment with GCS prior to IAV infection developed more severe disease associated with amplified virus replication and elevated inflammation in the airways. Adjuvant IFN treatment markedly reduced GCS-amplified infections in human airway cells and in mouse lung. This study demonstrates that GCS cause an extrinsic compromise in anti-viral defences, enhancing respiratory virus infections and provides a rationale for adjuvant IFN treatment. PMID:25417801

Thomas, Belinda J; Porritt, Rebecca A; Hertzog, Paul J; Bardin, Philip G; Tate, Michelle D

2014-01-01

315

The effect of leukocyte depletion on pulmonary M2 muscarinic receptor function in parainfluenza virus-infected guinea-pigs.  

OpenAIRE

1. Parainfluenza infections of the airways cause dysfunction of inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on the pulmonary parasympathetic nerves. To distinguish the direct effects of virus from the effects of virus-induced airway inflammation on M2 muscarinic receptor function, guinea-pigs were depleted of leukocytes by pretreating with cyclophosphamide (30 mg kg-1, i.p. daily for 7 days) after which they were infected with parainfluenza virus type 1 (Sendai virus). 2. Guinea-pigs were anaesthetize...

Fryer, A. D.; Yarkony, K. A.; Jacoby, D. B.

1994-01-01

316

Inhibitory effects of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates on human hepatitis B virus and duck hepatitis B virus infections in tissue culture  

OpenAIRE

The inhibitory effects of the 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-related compounds (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine, (S)-9-(3-fluoro-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine, (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine, (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine, and (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine on human hepatitis B virus replication in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 2.2...

Heijtink, R. A.; Kruining, J.; Wilde, G. A.; Balzarini, J.; Clercq, E.; Schalm, S. W.

1994-01-01

317

Interaction of bovine respiratory syncytial virus with bovine alveolar macrophages in vivo: effects of virus infection upon selected cell functions.  

OpenAIRE

The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) upon alveolar macrophage (AM) function was investigated using an in vivo calf inoculation model. Alveolar macrophages were collected sequentially from live calves at multiple time points during the 14 day period following viral inoculation. Alveolar macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were purified by density gradient centrifugation (> 95% AM) prior to in vitro evaluation of cell functions. There were significant but variable ...

Olchowy, T. W.; Ames, T. R.; Molitor, T. W.

1994-01-01

318

Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

F.A.Ajayi

2006-01-01

319

EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA  

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Full Text Available The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus and Achyranthus aspera were used against the post harvest fungal mycoflora. All the plants used were found to be antifungal. In particular Eucalyptus globulus, Argemone mexicana, Tridax procumbens and Parthenium hysterophorus were highly inhibitory. These plant extracts can be used for controlling fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes during post harvest as these are eco-friendly and do not cause environmental hazard.

Umesh P. Mogle

2013-01-01

320

Cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.: traditional and improved cropping methods in northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The present article describes the traditional cowpea cropping system in Dambatta, Kano State, Nigeria. Through a baseline survey it becomes clear that traditionally cowpea is mostly intercropped with cereals, that the importance of land preparation is marginal, that yields are low and that, in general, the technical level of the cowpea grower is low (low inputs of fertilizer and pesticide. In a second part some data are given about a project that introduced à new cowpea variety, T.V.X.-3.236, and improved methods. It is shown that, although better yields are possible, the extension service does not succeed in motivating the farmers enough so that the outcome of the project intervention is uncertain.

W. Sampers

1986-01-01

321

In-Vitro Experiments on the Radiosensitivity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus and other Animal Viruses to the Direct Effect of X-Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various in-vitro techniques have been used to observe the direct X-ray inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and the virus of Teschen disease. All these methods were intended to eliminate the indirect effects of the irradiation, and for each virus an upper limit to the radioresistance was observed, which was assumed to correspond to inactivation by the direct effect. Further confirmation of the absence of indirect effects was obtained by observing the dose-rate and the concentration-independent survival curves, and by direct observation of the inactivated virus in the electron microscope. Virus suffering only direct inactivation retained its morphological integrity at a much higher radiation dose level (relative to loss of infectivity) than virus which was exposed to some residual indirect effects. These results are of value since the radio resistances observed represent the upper limits which may have to be taken into account in, for example, the elimination of foot-and-mouth disease virus from frozen meat. (author)

322

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas / Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testem [...] unha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; [...] d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Romero Francisco Vieira, Carneiro; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Fábio Fernando de, Araújo.

2010-02-01

323

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

2010-02-01

324

Minimising Insecticide Application in the Control of Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L) WALP) in Delta State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Many commercial cowpea farmers control insect pests on cowpea with synthetic chemicals and may sometimes spray their farms during the growing season as many as 8 to 10 times. This leads to health hazards and environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to reduce the number of times, cypermethrin (conventional chemical) is applied before harvest and still, produce the expected cowpea grains. The experiments were carried out in two agro-ecological zones - Asaba and Abraka of Delta S...

Egho, E. O.; Enujeke, E. C.

2012-01-01

325

Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

326

Microsatellite association with seed protein content and flowering time in Nigerian cowpea cultivars  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea microsatellites were evaluated for their potential to be used as markers associated with seed protein content and plant flowering time. Seeds with high and low protein content as well as plants with early and late flowering time were selected from 104 Nigerian cowpea accessions. Fifteen (15) microsatellite primer pairs were tested for amplification of microsatellite sequences using PCR and seven pairs amplified a single-locus. Sequence analysis showed a high level of divers...

Afiukwa, Celestine A.; Kunert, Karl J.; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher A.; Ubi, Benjamin E.

2011-01-01

327

Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage  

OpenAIRE

Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf powders of two plant species and stored in traditional palm-leaf huts. Beetle damage was evaluated before and after storage. The treatments did not prevent damage, but after treatment with oils, few...

Boeke, S. J.; Kossou, D. K.; Huis, A.; Loon, J. J. A.; Dicke, M.

2004-01-01

328

Are investments in an informal seed system for cowpea a worthwhile endeavour?  

OpenAIRE

High seed quality is a critical component for realising yield potential. For smallholder cowpea farmers in northern Nigeria the informal seed system is a major supplier of genetically high-quality seed, but the physiological quality of farmers’ produced seed remains unknown. The project “Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno State” (PROSAB) trained and supported farmers in seed production in Borno State, Nigeria. We analysed the quality of farmers’ produced cowpea seed based on s...

Biemond, P. C.; Stomph, T. J.; Kamara, A.; Abdoulaye, T.; Hearne, S.; Struik, P. C.

2012-01-01

329

Laboratory Assessment of Some Plants Latex as Biopesticide Against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae  

OpenAIRE

Laboratory evaluation of Calotropis procera, Alstonia boonei, Jatropha curcas and Argemone mexicana latex as biopesticide against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] were evaluated at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28±2oC and 75±5% respectively. The plants latex was tested at rates of 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insects ...

Ileke, K. D.; Oni, M. O.; Adelegan, O. A.

2013-01-01

330

Cowpea seed coats and their extracts : phenolic composition and use as antioxidants in sunflower oil  

OpenAIRE

Seed coats of cream-coloured Bechuana white and purple-coloured Agriblue cowpea varieties and the freeze-dried forms of their acetone extracts (CPE) were analysed for total phenol content using the Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferric Ammonium Citrate methods. The seed coats and CPE of both cowpea varieties were analysed for antioxidant activity using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) was done to determine the free pheno...

Mokgope, Lethabo B.

2006-01-01

331

Genetic Architecture of Delayed Senescence, Biomass, and Grain Yield under Drought Stress in Cowpea  

OpenAIRE

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line popul...

Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye N.; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J.; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.

2013-01-01

332

Fumonisin production by and biological control of Fusarium species associated with cowpea seed  

OpenAIRE

Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. is an important edible legume crop gaining recognition in the world generally and in Africa particular. The seed is a very good source of vegetable protein for millions of people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Cowpea seed are susceptible to global post-harvest losses caused by insect damage, microbial deterioration and other factors especially when stored at high ambient temperatures and relative humidities. The detection of Fusarium species and fumonisins ...

Lodama, Kafua Emlo

2011-01-01

333

Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference for processed cowpea-based products, such as, boiled cowpea with cereals, fried cowpea paste, and cowpea fortified maize dough in selected communities of the coastal regions of Ghana. Using descriptive statistics, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance, and Logit Model, it was found that there was high preference for processed cowpea-based products in all the communities studied; and that processing cowpea into various food types was relatively profitable. Key socio-economic factors and consumer characteristics that influence preference include gender, marital status, income, education, product taste, sustainability of products (satisfying and product availability. The production of gas (flatulence after consumption of the products was the most pressing factor that influences preference. Unavailability of the products was identified as the least pressing factor. The researchers recommend that the production and utilization of cowpea in the study area and in other parts of Ghana should be encouraged as it would help to both improve the nutritional status of consumers and also help generate income to producers and processors. There should also be further research into the disliking intrinsic characteristics of the products considered.

Nimoh, F.

2012-06-01

334

Effects of influenza A virus infection on migrating mallard ducks  

OpenAIRE

The natural reservoir of influenza A virus is waterfowl, particularly dabbling ducks (genus Anas). Although it has long been assumed that waterfowl are asymptomatic carriers of the virus, a recent study found that low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) infection in Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) negatively affected stopover time, body mass and feeding behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether LPAI infection incurred ecological or physiological costs to migratory ma...

Latorre-margalef, Neus; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Munster, Vincent J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Elmberg, Johan; Olsen, Bjo?rn; Wallensten, Anders; Haemig, Paul D.; Fransson, Thord; Brudin, Lars; Waldenstro?m, Jonas

2009-01-01

335

Effective Motion of a Virus Trafficking Inside a Biological Cell  

OpenAIRE

Virus trafficking is fundamental for infection success and plasmid cytosolic trafficking is a key step of gene delivery. Based on the main physical properties of the cellular transport machinery such as microtubules, motor proteins, our goal here is to derive a mathematical model to study cytoplasmic trafficking. Because experimental results reveal that both active and passive movement are necessary for a virus to reach the cell nucleus, by taking into account the complex in...

Lagache, Thibault; Holcman, David

2007-01-01

336

Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ? 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus. PMID:22661784

Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

2009-06-01

337

Quality of Garabia (A Nigerian Traditional Snack From Four Varieties of Rice As Affected By the Addition of Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and sensory attributes of garabia a traditional cereal-based snack of Nigeria manufactured from flour obtained from broken fractions of milled four popular rice varieties in Nigeria as a strategy for the improvement of rice postharvest system for improved income and livelihood. The mean moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of rice-cowpea blend garabia were 2.25, 11.87, 34.83, 2.04, and 49.00%, respectively and ranged between 1.88 to 2.47% for moisture, 10.72 to 12.86% for protein with FARO 52 blend having the highest and NERICA-L34 recording the lowest value. Calcium was found to be the most abundant mineral in rice garabia. The calculated metabolizable energy values of the blended rice garabia showed that the products are concentrated energy sources and compares favorably snacks from other sources. Consumer overall acceptability (liking rating was higher than 6 (like slightly based on hedonic ratings based on 9-point hedonic scales indicating that the product are well-liked by the consumers. It can then be concluded that addition of cowpea to rice flour for the production of garabia significantly improves nutritive value of the products with little or no pronounced effect on consumer acceptability.

M.H. Badau

2013-03-01

338

Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The virucidal effect of 60Co ?-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P 10 TCID 50, both in cell culture medium and in liquid manure and this value corresponded to the international effectiveness demand for a disinfectant. The results showed that the safe disinfection virus in liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

339

Effect of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation and liver monooxigenase activity in experimental influenza virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza virus infection was associated with development of oxidative stress in liver of mice, viz. increase in amount of lipid peroxidation products, decrease in cytochrome P-450 and NADP. H-cytochrome c-reductase activity, and inhibition of liver monooxygenases (aniline hydroxylase, ethylmorphine-N-demethylase, amidopyrine-N-demethylase and analgin-N-demethylase). These effects were most pronounced on the 7th day after virus inoculation as compared to the 5th one. Supplementation of mice with vitamin E before virus inoculation leads to liver protection against oxidative stress and toxicosis. A marked decrease of lipid peroxidation products and an increase of cytochrome P-450 and activities of monooxygenases was established. The stabilizing effect of vitamin E was dose-dependent and was most pronounced on the 5th day after virus inoculation as compared to the 7th one. PMID:10713467

Mileva, M; Tancheva, L; Bakalova, R; Galabov, A; Savov, V; Ribarov, S

2000-04-01

340

Effects of interferons on hepatitis C virus infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of hepatitis C virus infections (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are one of the major problems in clinical medicine. The persistence of infection in spite of high specific antibody titre suggests that the virus has the ability to "escape" the immunological response. Interferon therapy. Interferons are important components of the early host response to infection. They have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities. Many viruses have developed the ability to "annul" or alleviate the action of interferon by preventing its synthesis or by interfering with signaling pathways in the cells. During acute infection some of the non-structural proteins of HCV block regulatory factors that are responsible for the synthesis of endogenous infection. Within a cell, interferon induces a number of genes to produce proteins that prevent virus replication. Among them, the most important are RNA-dependent protein kinase and the eukaryotic initiation factor. However, viral proteins, especially viral envelope proteins and nonstructural protein 5A, prevent their phosphorylation and activation which enhance virus replication. These are the facts that have to be considered when using IFN in chronic hepatitis C patients. .

Boji? Ivanko

2006-01-01

341

Persistence and residual activity of an organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl, and three IGRs, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen, against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three insect growth regulators (IGR), the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron and the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) pyriproxyfen, as well as the organophosphate (OP) pirimiphos-methyl, were evaluated for their activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F), in cowpea seeds stored for up to 8 months post-treatment. The initial activity data showed that, based on LC50 level, teflubenzuron had strong ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.056 mg kg(-1)) followed by pirimiphos-methyl (1.82 mg kg(-1)) and pyriproxyfen (91.9 mg kg(-1)). The residual activity data showed that none of the IGRs tested had strong activity when applied at 200 mg kg(-1) in reducing the oviposition rates of C maculatus at various storage intervals up to 8 months post-treatment. However, teflubenzuron reduced adult emergence (F1 progeny), achieving control ranging from 96.2% at 1 month to 94.3% at 8 months. Hexaflumuron showed a similar trend in its residual activity, ranging between 93.8% control at 1 month to 88.2% control at 8 months post-treatment. However, pyriproxyfen was more active than the CSIs tested and caused complete suppression (100% control) of adult emergence at all storage intervals. Unlike the IGRs tested, pirimiphos-methyl applied at 25 mg kg(-1) was more effective in reducing oviposition rates of C maculatus up to 8 months post-treatment. A strong reduction of adult emergence was also observed at various bimonthly intervals (98.6% control at 1 month to 91.6% control at 8 months post-treatment). The persistence of hexaflumuron and pirimiphos-methyl in cowpea seeds was also studied over a period of 8 months. The loss of hexaflumuron residue in treated cowpeas (200 mg kg(-1)) was very slow during the first month post-treatment (4.43%). At the end of 8 months, the residue level had declined significantly to 46.4% of the initial applied rate. The loss of pirimiphos-methyl residue in treated cowpeas (25 mg kg(-1)) was relatively high during the first month post-treatment (36.7%) and increased to 81.6% after 8 months. PMID:14727746

Abo-Elghar, Gamal E; El-Sheikh, Anwar E; El-Sayed, Ferial M; El-Maghraby, Hamdi M; El-Zun, Hesham M

2004-01-01

342

Effects of inducing or inhibiting apoptosis on Sindbis virus replication in mosquito cells  

OpenAIRE

Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. Like most alphaviruses, SINVs exhibit lytic infection (apoptosis) in many mammalian cell types, but are generally thought to cause persistent infection with only moderate cytopathic effects in mosquito cells. However, there have been several reports of apoptotic-like cell death in mosquitoes infected with alphaviruses or flaviviruses. Given that apoptosis has been shown to be an antiviral response in o...

Wang, Hua; Blair, Carol D.; Olson, Ken E.; Clem, Rollie J.

2008-01-01

343

Discerning an Effective Balance between Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Attenuation and Vaccine Efficacy  

OpenAIRE

Among the diverse experimental vaccines evaluated in various animal lentivirus models, live attenuated vaccines have proven to be the most effective, thus providing an important model for examining critical immune correlates of protective vaccine immunity. We previously reported that an experimental live attenuated vaccine for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), based on mutation of the viral S2 accessory gene, elicited protection from detectable infection by virulent virus challenge (F. L...

Craigo, Jodi K.; Li, Feng; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Durkin, Shannon; Howe, Laryssa; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles; Montelaro, Ronald C.

2005-01-01

344

Effect of Acute Plasmodium falciparum Malaria on Reactivation and Shedding of the Eight Human Herpes Viruses  

OpenAIRE

Human herpes viruses (HHVs) are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, ...

Che?ne, Arnaud; Nyle?n, Susanne; Donati, Daria; Bejarano, Maria Teresa; Kironde, Fred; Wahlgren, Mats; Falk, Kerstin I.

2011-01-01

345

Effectiveness of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Australia, 2010  

OpenAIRE

To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case–control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test result...

Fielding, James E.; Grant, Kristina A.; Garcia, Katherine; Kelly, Heath A.

2011-01-01

346

Incidence and effects of West Nile virus infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in California  

OpenAIRE

A prospective cohort study was used to estimate the incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a group of unvaccinated horses ($n$ = 37) in California and compare the effects of natural WNV infection in these unvaccinated horses to a group of co-mingled vaccinated horses ($n$ = 155). Horses initially were vaccinated with either inactivated whole virus ($n$ = 87) or canarypox recombinant ($n$ = 68) WNV vaccines during 2003 or 2004, prior to emergence of WNV in the region. Unvaccina...

Gardner, Ian; Wong, Susan; Ferraro, Gregory; Balasuriya, Udeni; Hullinger, Pamela; David Wilson, W.; Shi, Pei-yong; James Maclachlan, N.

2007-01-01

347

Effect of strain and inoculation dose of classical swine fever virus on within-pen transmission  

OpenAIRE

To improve the understanding of the dynamics and options for control of classical swine fever (CSF), more quantitative knowledge is needed on virus transmission. In this study, virus excretion and within-pen transmission of a strain of low, moderate and high virulence were quantified. Furthermore, the effect of inoculation dose on excretion and transmission were studied. The transmission was quantified using a stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model. Five transmission...

Weesendorp, Eefke; Backer, Jantien; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie

2009-01-01

348

[Effect of the influenza virus and its structural components on the animal immunocompetence system].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors studied the effect of the influenza virus A (PR8/34) and of its structural components on the immunological reactivity of mice. The enzyme of the external coat of the influenza virus--neuraminidase--possessed an immunodepressive action. Administration of neuraminidase led to the elimination of sialic acids from the surface of lymphocytes and to the reduction of their electrophoretic mobility. The mechanism of the immunodepressive action of neuraminidase is discussed. PMID:566139

Novichenko, N L; Struk, V I; Kavetski?, R E

1978-05-01

349

The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus  

OpenAIRE

Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnos...

Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S.; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

2011-01-01

350

The effect of temperature and humidity on dengue virus propagation in Aedes aegypti mosquitos.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of temperature and relative humidity on dengue virus propagation in the mosquito as one of the possible contributing factors to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks was studied. Ae. aegypti mosquitos were reared under standard conditions and inoculated intrathoracically with dengue virus. Virus propagation in the mosquitos was determined at the temperature and relative humidity of all 3 seasons of Yangon and for the simulated temperature and relative humidity of Singapore. The virus propagation was detected by direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT) with mosquito head squash and the virus titer was determined by plaque forming unit test (PFUT) in baby hamster kidney-21 cells. The results show that the infected mosquitos kept under the conditions of the rainy season and under the simulated conditions of Singapore had a significantly higher virus titer (p=<0.05) when compared with the other 2 seasons of Yangon. So it is thought that the temperature and relative humidity of the rainy season of Yangon and that of Singapore favors dengue virus propagation in the mosquito and is one of the contributing factors to the occurence of DHF outbreaks. PMID:9886113

Thu, H M; Aye, K M; Thein, S

1998-06-01

351

The effect of host resistance to tick infestation on the transmission of Thogoto virus by ticks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne virus transmission was examined using guinea-pigs and hamsters previously infested with ticks. Guinea-pigs developed immunity to Rhipicephalus appendiculatus after a single exposure to the ticks. Nymphal and adult stages that fed on resistant guinea-pigs had increased mortality during feeding, and reduced engorged weights. Egg production from female ticks fed on resistant hosts fell by at least 50%. Guinea-pigs maintained high levels of immunity to tick infestation for at least 210 days after the initial exposure. In contrast, hamsters did not develop resistance to ticks even after three or four infestations. R. appendiculatus adults infected with Thogoto (THO) virus (donors) were allowed to co-feed with uninfected nymphs (recipients) on either resistant or naive guinea-pigs. The number of recipient ticks that acquired virus was significantly reduced on resistant guinea-pigs. In contrast, feeding on pre-infested hamsters did not affect tick-borne transmission of THO virus. Host resistance to tick infestation, if prevalent in nature, may severely limit the spread of tick-borne viruses. Such an effect could result directly from a reduction in the number of ticks that acquire virus, or indirectly from poor egg production (in the case of viruses maintained in ticks by vertical transmission) and reduced survival of ticks fed on resistant hosts. PMID:2345364

Jones, L D; Nuttall, P A

1990-05-01

352

Effects of ultraviolet radiation on structural components of enveloped RNA viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of ultraviolet radiation and virus particles of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (WEE) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) which have respectively RNA of positive (RNA+) and negative (RNA-) polarity as genomes, was studied using purified particles. The purified virus preparations were irradiated at a range of 1,000 to 6,000 joules per m2 with posterior analysis of their propagation in primary cells cultures of chicken embryos. It could be observed that a radiation dose of 4,500 joules per m2 could induce 109 TCID50 per ml as minimal loss of titer for WEE virus and NDV. The hemagglutination assay was used as a tool for evaluate the alterations caused by UV radiation on the molecular arrangement of virus proteins. Alterations of the virus hemagglutinating activity were only observed when radiation levels higher than 6,000 joules per m2 were used. The results from hemolysis assays showed the importance of the loss of the envelope integrity and the damages to nucleoprotein structures during the inactivation process, when we use radiation doses higher than 6,000 joules per m2. This model of study can increase our comprehension of the radiation effects on the cell physiology and biological components of the cell membranes. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

353

Effects of ultraviolet radiation on structural components of enveloped RNA viruses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction of ultraviolet radiation and virus particles of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (WEE) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) which have respectively RNA of positive (RNA+) and negative (RNA-) polarity as genomes, was studied using purified particles. The purified virus preparations were irradiated at a range of 1,000 to 6,000 joules per m{sup 2} with posterior analysis of their propagation in primary cells cultures of chicken embryos. It could be observed that a radiation dose of 4,500 joules per m{sup 2} could induce 10{sup 9} TCID50 per ml as minimal loss of titer for WEE virus and NDV. The hemagglutination assay was used as a tool for evaluate the alterations caused by UV radiation on the molecular arrangement of virus proteins. Alterations of the virus hemagglutinating activity were only observed when radiation levels higher than 6,000 joules per m{sup 2} were used. The results from hemolysis assays showed the importance of the loss of the envelope integrity and the damages to nucleoprotein structures during the inactivation process, when we use radiation doses higher than 6,000 joules per m{sup 2}. This model of study can increase our comprehension of the radiation effects on the cell physiology and biological components of the cell membranes. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Silva, Mauro R.; Couceiro, Jose N.S.S.; Brito, Sieberth N.; Cabral, Maulori C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Microbiologia

1995-01-01

354

Effects of different NS genes of avian influenza viruses and amino acid changes on pathogenicity of recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine the effects of the NS1 and NEP genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on pathogenicity in mice, we generated recombinant PR8 viruses containing 3 different NS genes of AIVs. In contrast to the reverse genetics-generated PR8 (rPR8) strain and other recombinant viruses, the recombinant virus rPR8-NS(0028), which contained the NS gene of A/chicken/KBNP-0028/2000 (H9N2) (0028), was non-pathogenic to mice. The novel single mutations of 0028 NS1 to corresponding amino acid of PR8 NS1, G139D and S151T increased the pathogenicity of rPR8-NS(0028). The replacement of the PL motifs (EPEV or RSEV) of pathogenic recombinant viruses with that of 0028 (GSEV) did not reduce the pathogenicity of the viruses. However, a recombinant virus with an EPEV-grafted 0028 NS gene was more pathogenic than rPR8-NS(0028) but less than rPR8. The lower pathogenicity of rPR8-NS(0028) might be associated with the lower virus titer and IFN-? level in the lungs of infected mice, and be attributed to G139, S151 and GSEV-PL motif of NS1 gene of 0028. In conclusion we defined new amino acid residues of NS1 related to mice pathogenicity and the presence of pathogenic NS genes among low pathogenic AIVs may encourage continuous monitoring of their mammalian pathogenicity. PMID:25480165

Kim, Il-Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Lee, Su-Hyung; Kim, Dae-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hong

2015-01-30

355

Infection of porcine alveolar macrophages with recombinant chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: effects on cellular gene transcription and virus growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genetic determinants affecting the response of the host primary target cell, the macrophage, to infection are yet to be defined. Here we have used recombinant viruses encompassing ORF 1A to identify PRRSV determinants associated with growth and modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) cultures. Three genomic chimeras encompassing ORF 1A of PRRSV live attenuated vaccine Prime Pac (LAV SP) in the genetic background of pathogenic strain NVSL 97-7895 (FL12v) were characterized in vitro. Unlike parental viruses, two of the recombinant viruses encompassing the area of the genome encoding for NSP2 to NSP8 showed reduced growth in PAM cultures. The effect of virus infections on gene activation was studied for 25 immunomodulatory cellular genes in PAMs at 24 and 48h post-infection (hpi). Steady state mRNA levels in PAMs infected with recombinant and LAV SP viruses were compared to levels observed in cells infected with parental virus FL12v. Recombinant viruses induced patterns of transcriptional activation differing from patterns induced by parental FL12v, suggesting a regulatory role of PRRSV ORF1A on PAM gene expression. PMID:19540286

Gudmundsdottir, Ingigerdur; Risatti, Guillermo R

2009-10-01

356

Effects of collagen matrix on Sindbis virus infection of BHK cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) components on the outcomes of alphavirus interaction with cells are not known. Studies that address such interactions have to address several methodological difficulties, including: the survival of the cells within the matrix; the passage of the virus through the matrix to infect embedded cells; and the dissociation of cells and matrix into single-cell suspension, before and after virus infection, for quantitative analysis. Herein, these issues were addressed in the context of a model system of collagen as the ECM component, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, and Sindbis virus. The outcomes of Sindbis virus infection of BHK cells, grown in three-dimensional (3D) collagen gel versus on plastic, and on two-dimensional (2D) collagen versus bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated surfaces were compared. Cell morphology was more slender in 3D and on 2D collagen than on plastic or BSA-coated surfaces. The cells were able to survive in the 3D environment. Using Sindbis virus carrying the green fluorescent protein gene, the virions were found to be capable of penetrating the 3D collagen matrix and infecting the cells. There was more infectious virus in cultures of cells in 3D and on 2D collagen than on plastic or BSA-coated surfaces, respectively. Higher virus titers from cells on 2D collagen compared to BSA-coated surfaces was not associated with uninfected cell number or viability but with increased cell survival after infection. Infected cells on BSA surfaces became detached, while those on 2D collagen remained attached. These experiments establish procedures for analysis of interaction of collagen, BHK cells, and Sindbis virus and suggest that collagen increases infectious Sindbis virus titers from BHK cells by enhancing post-infection cell survival. PMID:12711058

Thach, Dzung C; Stenger, David A

2003-05-01

357

Isolation of protoplast from soybean, cowpea, and tobacco and their fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protoplast were isolated from leaf and callus. Young leaf of 3-4 weeks old plant of soybean T219 and A24, A27, C4, E1, and H6 of cowpeas strains (strains named by Prof. S. Sakamoto, University of Kyoto) were suspended in digestive medium containing cellulase 'Onuzuka' R-10, macerozyme R-10, mannitol, CaCl, and 2 (N-morpholilno) echane sulfonic acid (MES). For soybean leaf, the medium was enriched with driselase and pectolyase Y-23. They were incibated in full darkness at 27 Celcius centigrade by constant shaking at 50 rpm orbitor shaker. Callus wich has been two times resubcultured was suspended in the digestive medium without driselase, CaCl2, and MES and incubated in lowlight intensity by constant shaking at 100 rpm in reciprocal water shaker at 30 celcius centigrade. Leaf protoplast were releasaed in 10-14 h, soybean and tobacco callus protoplast in 3-4 h, and cowpeas callus protoplast in 4-6 h of incubation. Protoplast were collected by centrifugation of 400 g and a thin layer of the suspension was irradiated with ultraviolet light. Fusion was induced with PEG 6000 solution according to Uchimia and fused protoplasts were collected by centrifugation of 200 g. Protoplast were cultured on the medium of Ikeda and Uchimia. On both medium leaf protoplast, irradiated protoplasts and their fused do not regenerate cell wall and all cultured died out within four weeks incubation. Cell wall generation was observed. Regeneration of cell wall observed progessively in mother prll wall observed progessively in mother protoplast from tobacco, cowpea (A27, E1, and H6) and fused protoplast of soybean with tobacco, tobacco with cowpea (C4, E1, and H6), soybean with cowpea (C4) and between cowpea (C4) and cowpea (E1). (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

358

Production of policlonal antisera specific to plant viruses by rabbit oral immunization  

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Full Text Available Serological techniques are of great importance for plant virus identification and characterization. The major limiting factor for using these techniques for plant virus identification is the requirement of a good virus purified preparation to be used in immunizing animals for antiserum production. In the present study, two New Zealand rabbits were orally immunized with extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants systemically infected with Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV and with extracts from papaya (Carica papaya infected with Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV. The leaf extracts were prepared in saline solution 0.15 M in the rate of 1:1 (w/v and clarified by a centrifugation of 10,000 g for 10 min. The clarified extracts containing the viruses were orally administered to the New Zealand rabbits in two series of five daily doses of 1.0 ml each. The obtained policlonal antisera were shown to be very specific to their respective viruses in double immunodiffusion and indirect ELISA. These seem to be the first antisera specific for plant virus obtained by rabbit oral immunization. The results open up some possibilities for producing antisera to plant viruses of difficult purification. It is a simple, fast and inexpensive method for production of antisera for plant viruses when compared to the traditional techniques that involve rabbit injections with purified virus preparations.

LIMA J. ALBÉRSIO A.

2001-01-01

359

Squash vein yellowing virus and its effects on watermelon  

Science.gov (United States)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the Potyviridae was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline in Florida. Watermelon plants were grown under whitefly-free conditions in a greenhouse and inoculated with buffer (mock), SqVYV, or SqVYV and Papaya rin...

360

Experimental studies on immunosuppressive effects of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus in goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of virulent and attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus on the immune response to nonspecific antigen (ovalbumin) was investigated. Clinical and serological responses were monitored in goats administered with ovalbumin concurrently with either PPR vaccine or virulent virus. Study showed that PPR virulent virus causes marked immunosuppression as evidenced by leukopenia, lymphopenia, and reduced early antibody response to both specific and nonspecific antigen. These observations were predominant particularly during acute phase of disease (4-10 days post-infection). On the other hand, the vaccine virus induced only a transient lymphopenia without significantly affecting the immune response to nonspecific antigen or to itself during this period. Further, the antibody levels to ovalbumin in the group administered with virulent PPRV increased significantly between days 28 and 35 post-infection in comparison to the titers in other two groups given with either ovalbumin alone or in combination with vaccine. PMID:16188317

Rajak, K K; Sreenivasa, B P; Hosamani, M; Singh, R P; Singh, S K; Singh, R K; Bandyopadhyay, S K

2005-07-01

361

Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clinical specimens from patients infected with Lassa, Ebola, or Marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. The authors have examined the effects of heat, alteration of pH, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. Heating serum at 60 degrees C for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without altering the serum levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and electrolytes. Dilution of blood in 3% acetic acid, diluent for a leukocyte count, inactivated all of these viruses. All of the methods tested for viral inactivation markedly altered certain serum proteins, making these methods unsuitable for samples that are to be tested for certain enzyme levels and coagulation factors.

Mitchell, S.W.; McCormick, J.B.

1984-09-01

362

Nonviremic transmission of West Nile virus: evaluation of the effects of space, time, and mosquito species.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the potential for nonviremic transmission (NVT) of West Nile virus (WNV) to occur in nature, we examined the effect of increasing spatial and temporal separation between co-feeding mosquitoes on the efficiency of nonviremic transmission and the potential of a West Nile virus bridge vector species, Aedes albopictus, to be infected via nonviremic transmission. West Nile virus-infected (donor) Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were allowed to feed on a mouse for 5 minutes followed by non-infected (recipient) mosquitoes with increasing spatial (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mm) or temporal (0, 15, 30, 45, or 60 min) separation from the site or time of donor feeding, respectively. Recipients became infected when feeding up to 40 mm from the donor and up to 45 minutes after donor feeding. Additionally, nonviremic transmission of West Nile virus from Cx. p. quinquefasciatus to Ae. albopictus was observed. PMID:17360862

McGee, Charles E; Schneider, Bradley S; Girard, Yvette A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

2007-03-01

363

Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical specimens from patients infected with Lassa, Ebola, or Marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. The authors have examined the effects of heat, alteration of pH, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. Heating serum at 60 degrees C for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without altering the serum levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and electrolytes. Dilution of blood in 3% acetic acid, diluent for a leukocyte count, inactivated all of these viruses. All of the methods tested for viral inactivation markedly altered certain serum proteins, making these methods unsuitable for samples that are to be tested for certain enzyme levels and coagulation factors

364

Effects of single and double infections with Potato virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus on disease development, plant growth, and virus accumulation in tomato  

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Full Text Available The tomato cv. Fukuju nº. 2 was used for studying the effect of single and double infections with Potato virus X (PVX and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. Mixed infection resulted in a synergistic increase of disease severity, where more growth reduction was seen with simultaneous inoculations than with sequential inoculations at four-day intervals. At five and 12 days post-inoculation, the increased severity of the disease coincided with enhancement of virus accumulation in the rapidly expanding upper leaves. The PVX concentration in leaves nº 5 to 7 of doubly infected plants was three to six fold that of singly infected ones, as determined by DAS-ELISA. Mixed infection with the L strain led to higher enhancement of PVX than with the TMV-L11A strain. The concentration of TMV-L was lower in double infection and significantly higher than TMV-L11A in both singly and doubly infected plants. Analyses of the PVX ORF2 by Western blot and Northern hybridization revealed the pattern of accumulation of the 25 kDa protein and the RNAs, respectively, following those of the virion and coat protein. The strain TMV-L11A overcame the resistance gene in cv. GCR 237 (Tm-1. In the upper leaf nº. 8, the concentration of PVX was three times higher in plants with mixed infection than with L11A. The concentrations of the L and OM (TMV strains in both singly and doubly infected plants were at very low levels, and the synergistic effect on PVX concentration and disease severity was not observed.

BALOGUN OLUSEGUN S.

2002-01-01

365

Minimising Insecticide Application in the Control of Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L WALP in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Many commercial cowpea farmers control insect pests on cowpea with synthetic chemicals and may sometimes spray their farms during the growing season as many as 8 to 10 times. This leads to health hazards and environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to reduce the number of times, cypermethrin (conventional chemical is applied before harvest and still, produce the expected cowpea grains. The experiments were carried out in two agro-ecological zones - Asaba and Abraka of Delta State during the late cropping season. The experiments consisted of 4 treatments - cowpea plots sprayed 4 times (at 7 days’ intervals, cowpea plots sprayed 5 times (at 10 days’ intervals, cowpea plots whose insect infestation were monitored before chemical application and control plots (without chemical treatment. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. The experiments were organised into a randomised complete block design (RCBD. The results indicated that cypermethrin controlled the major insect pests of cowpea.  Second, grain yield was high at both locations; significant differences did not exist (P>0.05 in insect number and grain yield among the treatments. The study provides the evidence that (i high cowpea grain yield is obtained at reduced number of chemical application of 4 or 5 times during the growing season (ii Grain yield was significantly (P<0.05 higher at Abraka with1400.60kg ha-1 than Asaba (714.40kg ha-1 during the late cropping season.

E. O. Egho

2012-01-01

366

Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

Cheung Foo

2008-02-01

367

Symbiotic functioning and bradyrhizobial biodiversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to strain IGS types at the continent level. In this study, 9 cowpea genotypes were planted in field experiments in Botswana, South Africa and Ghana with the aim of i trapping indigenous cowpea root-nodule bacteria (cowpea "rhizobia" in the 3 countries for isolation, molecular characterisation using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing of the 16S - 23S rDNA IGS gene, ii quantifying N-fixed in the cowpea genotypes using the 15N natural abundance technique, and iii relating the levels of nodule functioning (i.e. N-fixed to the IGS types found inside nodules. Results Field measurements of N2 fixation revealed significant differences in plant growth, ?15N values, %Ndfa and amounts of N-fixed between and among the 9 cowpea genotypes in Ghana and South Africa. Following DNA analysis of 270 nodules from the 9 genotypes, 18 strain IGS types were found. Relating nodule function to the 18 IGS types revealed significant differences in IGS type N2-fixing efficiencies. Sequencing the 16S - 23S rDNA gene also revealed 4 clusters, with cluster 2 forming a distinct group that may be a new Bradyrhizobium species. Taken together, our data indicated greater biodiversity of cowpea bradyrhizobia in South Africa relative to Botswana and Ghana. Conclusions We have shown that cowpea is strongly dependant on N2 fixation for its N nutrition in both South Africa and Ghana. Strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency was assessed for the first time in this study, and a positive correlation was discernible where there was sole nodule occupancy. The differences in IGS type diversity and symbiotic efficiency probably accounts for the genotype × environment interaction that makes it difficult to select superior genotypes for use across Africa. The root-nodule bacteria nodulating cowpea in this study all belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Some strains from Southern Africa were phylogenetically very distinct, suggesting a new Bradyrhizobium species.

Dakora Felix D

2010-03-01

368

Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F.) Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.)  

OpenAIRE

Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower) were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fu...

Naheed Ikram; Shahnaz Dawar

2012-01-01

369

Sepia 200cH at 1:1000 dilution ameliorates salt stress in cowpea seedlings but its medium 90% ethanol proves ineffective at the same dilution  

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Full Text Available Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1 control in sterile water, (2 in 50mM NaCl solution, (3 seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4 seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect.

Sandhimita Mondal

2012-12-01

370

Efficacy of crude extracts of Andrographis paniculata nees. on Callosobruchus chinensis L. during post harvest storage of cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioefficacy of different solvent fractions of A. paniculata was tested against the cowpea weevil, C. chinensis in terms of its effect on adult mortality, total egg output and emergence of F1 adults. All the extracts were effective against the weevil, the efficacy was however more significant with respect to methanol and ethyl acetate extracts at the highest concentrations (1,000 ppm) which lead to 72.01 and 67.69% adult mortality respectively. The efficacy was dose dependent. Total egg and percent emergence of Fl adults were lowest for methanol followed by ethyl acetate fractions. Possible role of the principal chemical constituents of this plant in bringing about mortality of the pest, reduction in egg laying and adult emergence are discussed. PMID:12019768

Bright, A A; Babu, A; Ignacimuth, S; Dorn, S

2001-07-01

371

Potential of plant materials for the management of cowpea bruchid callosobruchus analis (coleoptera: bruchidae) in gram cicer arietinum during storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present research was carried out to identify alternatives to synthetic insecticides to control cowpea weevil Callosobruchus analis (F.) population in gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.), during storage. The efficacies of three plant materials such as Nicotiana tabacum, Citrullus colocythis and Aloe vera were assessed to determine their insecticidal activities against survival of bruchid C. analis on seeds of gram varieties viz., CM-98 and Jubiha-1. These plant materials tested reduced weevil infestation and emergence as compared with untreated control seeds. Seeds treatment with A. vera followed by N. tabacum reduced maximum pest damage over C. colocythis, which proved least effective to control C. analis population. Consequently, the tested plant materials should be given due consideration for effective gram protection as a component of integrated pest management approach in storage. (author)

372

Genetic structure and mating system of wild cowpea populations in West Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea populations from West Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, 9 of them showing polymorphism. Results Outcrossing rates ranged from 1% to 9.5% (mean 3.4%, which classifies the wild cowpea breeding system as primarily selfing, though rare outcrossing events were detected in each population studied. Furthermore, the analyses of both the genetic structure of populations and the relationships between the wild and domesticated groups suggest possibilities of gene flow that are corroborated by field observations. Conclusions As expected in a predominantly inbred breeding system, wild cowpea shows high levels of genetic differentiation and low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Gene flow from domesticated to wild cowpea does occur, although the lack of strong genetic swamping and modified seed morphology in the wild populations suggest that these introgressions should be rare.

Kouam Eric B

2012-07-01

373

Resistance of Cowpea Genotypes to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae  

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Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. when stored is mainly attacked by bruchid Coleopterans. The control of these pests is done primarily through chemicals, however, with problems related to the selection of resistant insects, alternative forms of control are searched. Seeking an alternative control, the objective this work was to evaluate the resistance of cowpea genotypes to the attack of Z. subfasciatus. In the first selection of genotypes were evaluated 35 cowpea genotypes, being observed the variables: number of eggs, number of insects emerged and weight loss (%. In this first selection of cowpea were selected 10 genotypes. In the second selection of genotypes, the 10 most resistant from the first selection were used, but with eight repetitions per genotype, besides evaluating the egg viability (% and instantaneous rate of population growth. The cowpea genotypes showed significant differences for resistance to attack by Z. subfasciatus. The most resistant to Z. subfasciatus were BRS Tracuateua, 31 MNC03-720C-20, 26 MNC00-553D-8-1-2-2 and 37 MNC05-832B-234-5. 

Aline Viana Kloss Toledo

2013-04-01

374

Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the i [...] nterference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or polyvalent vaccinations against IBV and NDV, except for the non-vaccinated control group (CG). Sera were collected at 35 and 45 days of age and submitted to serologic tests to assess antibody levels. It was observed the occurrence of interference in the immune response against NDV by the use of associated vaccines to NDV and IBV; however, the group that was immunized with commercial combined vaccines (IBV+NDV) presented antibody titers to NDV similar to the group that was given only vaccine against NDV. We concluded based on these preliminary studies that the interference of IBV on the immune response against NDV depends also whether the association between the two vaccines is done just before vaccination or in the manufacturing laboratory.

WM, Cardoso; JLC, Aguiar Filho; JM, Romão; WF, Oliveira; RPR, Salles; RSC, Teixeira; MHR, Sobral.

2005-09-01

375

Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers  

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Full Text Available The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or polyvalent vaccinations against IBV and NDV, except for the non-vaccinated control group (CG. Sera were collected at 35 and 45 days of age and submitted to serologic tests to assess antibody levels. It was observed the occurrence of interference in the immune response against NDV by the use of associated vaccines to NDV and IBV; however, the group that was immunized with commercial combined vaccines (IBV+NDV presented antibody titers to NDV similar to the group that was given only vaccine against NDV. We concluded based on these preliminary studies that the interference of IBV on the immune response against NDV depends also whether the association between the two vaccines is done just before vaccination or in the manufacturing laboratory.

WM Cardoso

2005-09-01

376

Effect of novobiocin on mycoplasma virus L2 replication.  

OpenAIRE

L2 is a temperate mycoplasma virus containing 11.8 kilobase pairs of negatively superhelical double-stranded DNA. We observed L2 DNA with less superhelicity in novobiocin-treated cells than that in untreated cells. However, although no change in viral DNA superhelicity could be found in novobiocin-treated novobiocin-resistant cells, L2 production decreased in these novobiocin-treated cells.

Poddar, S. K.; Maniloff, J.

1984-01-01

377

Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated an...

He Wen; Han Huamin; Wang Wei; Gao Bin

2011-01-01

378

Avian influenza virus (H5N1; effects of physico-chemical factors on its survival  

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Full Text Available Abstract Present study was performed to determine the effects of physical and chemical agents on infective potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 (local strain virus recently isolated in Pakistan during 2006 outbreak. H5N1 virus having titer 108.3 ELD50/ml was mixed with sterilized peptone water to get final dilution of 4HA units and then exposed to physical (temperature, pH and ultraviolet light and chemical (formalin, phenol crystals, iodine crystals, CID 20, virkon®-S, zeptin 10%, KEPCIDE 300, KEPCIDE 400, lifebuoy, surf excel and caustic soda agents. Harvested amnio-allantoic fluid (AAF from embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H5N1 treated virus (0.2 ml/egg was subjected to haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI tests. H5N1 virus lost infectivity after 30 min at 56°C, after 1 day at 28°C but remained viable for more than 100 days at 4°C. Acidic pH (1, 3 and basic pH (11, 13 were virucidal after 6 h contact time; however virus retained infectivity at pH 5 (18 h, 7 and 9 (more than 24 h. UV light was proved ineffectual in inactivating virus completely even after 60 min. Soap (lifebuoy®, detergent (surf excel® and alkali (caustic soda destroyed infectivity after 5 min at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% dilution. All commercially available disinfectants inactivated virus at recommended concentrations. Results of present study would be helpful in implementing bio-security measures at farms/hatcheries levels in the wake of avian influenza virus (AIV outbreak.

Hameed Sajid

2009-03-01

379

A theoretical assessment of the effects of vector-virus transmission mechanisms on plant virus disease epidemics  

OpenAIRE

A continuous-time and deterministic model was used to characterize plant virus disease epidemics in relation to virus transmission mechanism and population dynamics of the insect vectors. The model can be written as a set of linked differential equations for healthy (virus-free), latently infected, infectious, and removed (postinfectious) plant categories, and virus-free, latent, and infective insects, with parameters based on the transmission classes, vector population dynamics, immigration/...

Madden, L. V.; Jeger, M. J.; Bosch, F.

2000-01-01

380

Control of insect pests of cowpea in the savanna of Roraima, Brazil. = Controle de insetos-praga do feijão-caupi na savana de Roraima.  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the insecticides acephate, imidacloprid and neem oil to control major insect pests of cowpea in cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR. The planting of cowpea (c.v. BRS Guariba was carried out between the double rows of cassava (2.0 x 0.8 x 0.8 m. The rows of cowpea were spaced 0.5 m apart and 0.75 m double rows of cassava. We adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were as follows: T1 - control (without application of products, T2 - Neem oil ( applied to 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after planting - DAP, T3 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP + Acephate (30 DAP + Imidacloprid (40 DAP + Acephate (50 DAP, T4 - Acephate (20 DAP + Imidacloprid (30 DAP + Acephate (40 DAP + Imidacloprid (50 DAP T5 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP + Oil nim (30 DAP + Acephate (40 DAE + neem oil (50 DAP. It measured the number of plants located in the middle row with symptoms of pest attack, and the calculation of the percentage of plants attacked. It was found that all treatments were effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, the best treatments for control of Chalcodermus bimaculatus were those who had been cunning application of neem oil, that the treatment using only the neem oil was effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, Bemisia tabaci, Empoasca kraemeri and the Chalcodermus bimaculatus. The treatments used in this study were not effective to control the Cerotoma arcuatus.

Deyse Cristina Oliveira da Silva

2011-12-01

381

Effect of weak acid hypochlorous solution on selected viruses and bacteria of laboratory rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weak acid hypochlorous solution (WAHS) is known to have efficacy for inactivating pathogens and to be relatively safe with respect to the live body. Based on these advantages, many animal facilities have recently been introducing WAHS for daily cleaning of animal houses. In this study, we determined the effect of WAHS in inactivating specific pathogens of laboratory rodents and pathogens of opportunistic infection. WAHS with an actual chloride concentration of 60 ppm and a pH value of 6.0 was generated using purpose-built equipment. One volume of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with 9 or 99 volumes of WAHS (×10 and ×100 reaction) for various periods (0.5, 1, and 5 min) at 25°C. After incubation, the remaining infectious viruses and live bacteria were determined by plaque assay or culture. In the ×100 reaction mixture, infectious viruses and live bacteria could not be detected for any of the pathogens examined even with the 0.5-min incubation. However, the effects for MHV, B. bronchiseptica, and P. aeruginosa were variable in the ×10 reaction mixture with the 0.5- and 1-min incubations. Sufficient effects were obtained by elongation of the reaction time to 5 min. In the case of MHV, reducing organic substances in the virus stock resulted in the WAHS being completely effective. WAHS is recommended for daily cleaning in animal facilities but should be used properly in order to obtain a sufficient effect, which includes such things as using a large enough volume to reduce effects of organic substances. PMID:24770639

Taharaguchi, Motoko; Takimoto, Kazuhiro; Zamoto-Niikura, Aya; Yamada, Yasuko K

2014-01-01

382

Divergência genética em feijão-caupi / Genetic divergence among cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a divergência genética entre genótipos de feijão-caupi, visando à seleção dos mais divergentes e de maior potencial produtivo para indicar como genitores em cruzamentos genéticos para futura recomendação de cultivares aos agricultores do Recôncavo Baiano. Os experimen [...] tos foram desenvolvidos na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas (BA), utilizando-se 22 genótipos do tipo prostrado e 20 do tipo semi-ereto, dispostos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram analisados os caracteres altura da planta, comprimento de vagem, massa de vagens, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos, índice de grãos, produtividade de vagem e de grãos. A divergência genética foi obtida através da distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Novas combinações gênicas promissoras podem surgir nos cruzamentos entre os genótipos TE97-309G-1, TE97-367G-3, TE97-367G-11 e TE97-430G-12 do tipo prostrado e TE97-321G-4 e TE97-404-1E-1 do tipo semi-ereto. A seleção dos genótipos TE93-244-23F-1, TE97-299G-10 e BR 17-Gurguéia tipo prostrado e os genótipos TE97-321G-4, TE97-406-2E, TE96-282-22G e EV x 91-2E-1 tipo semi-ereto demonstram superioridade para a produtividade de grãos. Os caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem e produtividade de vagens são os que mais contribuem para a divergência genética. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence among cowpea genotypes, for selection of most divergent genotypes and of highest yield potential as parents in crossings as well as for future recommendation of cultivars in the reconcave region in Bahia, Brazil. The experiment was carried out Agron [...] omy School of Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, using twenty two erect cowpea and twenty semi-erect cowpea genotypes, in a randomized design, with four replications. The following characters were analyzed: plant height, pod length, pod weight, grain weight for pod, number of grains for pod, weight of hundred grains, grain index, pod yield and grain yield. The genetic divergence was obtained by means of the Mahalanobis generalized distance. New genetic combinations can appear in the crossings among the TE97-309G-1, TE97-367G-3, TE97-367G-11 climbing genotype and TE97-430G-12 and TE97-321G-4 and TE97-404-1E-1 semi-erect genotypes. The selection of the climbing genotypes TE93-244-23F-1, TE97-299G-10 and BR 17-Gurguéia and the TE97-321G-4, TE97-406-2E, TE96-282-22G and EV x 91-2E-1 semi-erect genotypes demonstrated superiority for grain yield. Pod length, weight and yield characters are ones that contribute most to the genetic divergence.

Adriana Rodrigues, Passos; Simone Alves, Silva; Pedro Jacinto, Cruz; Maurisrael de Moura, Rocha; Elizangela Mércia de Oliveira, Cruz; Moema Angélica Chaves da, Rocha; Henrique Fortes, Bahia; , Saldanha.

383

Effect of monensin on the assembly of Uukuniemi virus in the Golgi complex.  

OpenAIRE

The effect of the carboxylic ionophore monensin on the maturation of Uukuniemi virus, a bunyavirus, and the transport of its two membrane glycoproteins, G1 and G2, were studied in chicken embryo fibroblasts and baby hamster kidney cells. Virus maturation, which occurs in the Golgi complex (E. Kuismanen, K. Hedman, J. Saraste, and R. F. Pettersson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 2:1444-1458, 1982; E. Kuismanen, B. Bång, M. Hurme, and R. F. Pettersson, J. Virol. 51:137-146, 1984), was effectively inhibited ...

Kuismanen, E.; Saraste, J.; Pettersson, R. F.

1985-01-01

384

Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

2013-12-01

385

Soyacystatin N inhibits proteolysis of wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and potentiates toxicity against cowpea weevil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic engineering may be used to introduce multiple insect resistance genes with different modes of action into crop plants. We explored the possible interactions of two differing gene products fed in the diet of cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculates (F.), a stored grain pest. The soybean cysteine protease inhibitor soyacystatin N (scN) and alpha-amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) from wheat have defensive function against this coleopteran. When artificial seeds containing both scN and alpha(AI) were infested with eggs of C. maculatus, the delays in larval development were longer than was predicted by summing the developmental delays seen when larvae were fed a diet containing the individual proteins, indicating that the effects of scN and alpha(AI) are synergistic. Alpha(AI) was readily hydrolyzed when incubated with insect gut extract. This proteolytic degradation was inhibited by scN, but not by Kunitz inhibitor (a serine protease inhibitor). Thus, degradation of alpha(AI) was due to proteolysis by insect digestive cysteine proteases. These data suggest that C. maculatus uses digestive enzymes not only to function in food protein digestion but also to defend the insects themselves by helping reduce the concentration of a toxic dietary protein. PMID:15666770

Amirhusin, Bahagiawati; Shade, Richard E; Koiwa, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Paul M; Bressan, Ray A; Murdock, Larry L; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2004-12-01

386

Toxicity Studies of Some Inert Dusts with the Cowpea Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to find out the effectiveness of DE and some other inert dusts like, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and a dust formulation insecticide carbaryl on the cowpea beetles Callosobruchus maculates (F. . The bioassay of the dusts was done on adult beetles by applying them with normal food. The LD50 of C. maculatus after 24 h was 737.15, 73305.15, 1479.29, 11449.60, 117371.50, 5171.79 and 21.49 ppm for diatomaceous earth, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and carbaryl, respectively. The LD50 after 48 h was 385.24, 12078.10, 974.11, 7433.71, 10650.42, 1168.22 and 11.25 ppm for diatomaceous earth, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and carbaryl respectively. The order of toxicity of the insecticides was carbaryl > diatomaceous earth > paddy husk ash > china clay > coal ash > alluvial soil> kaolin powder.

Shah Hussain Ahmad Mahdi

2006-01-01

387

Fate and distribution of lindane and endosulfan in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative study is presented on linande and endosulfan residues in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively. Both pesticides were found to dissipate very fast under the tropical Ghanaian conditions. The high rate of dissipation in leaves is attributed to the fact that the leaves were exposed to sunshine and wind leading to increased volatilisation. Endosulfan was found to dissipate faster from the cowpea ecosystem than lindane did in the maize ecosystem. The mean residue levels of lindane in maize grains were 0.02 ?g g-1; whilst residue levels of endosulfan in cowpea seeds were 0.05 ?g g-1. These levels are lower than the maximum residue limits recognized as acceptable by the Codex Alimentarus Commission. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

388

Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) after tannery sludge compost amendment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with ta [...] nnery sludge compost (TSC). Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%). Only Cr accumulation was significant (P

Maria Doroteia, Marçal Silva; Ademir Sérgio, Ferreira Araújo; Luís Alfredo, Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José, de Melo; Rajeev, Pratap Singh.

2013-09-01

389

18F used as tracer to study water uptake and transport imaging of a cowpea plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water uptake ability of cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) which has been regarded as one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops is presented. It has been suggested that in the lower part of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. It was confirmed by neutron radiography that in this tissue, water amount was high compared to the other stems. Then the water uptake manner was measured by positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) using 18F labeled water produced by a cyclotron. Comparing the water uptake manner of cowpea plant with that of common bean, cowpea plant was found to maintain high water uptake activity after drying treatment, suggesting the high drought resistant character. (author)

390

NOTE - Phenotypic correlations between combining abilities of F 2 cowpea populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea is a crop that has become socio-economically relevant, mainly in developing countries. Correlation studies are important to determine the association between quantitative traits and yield to guide the selection, i.e., choose direct or indirect selection. The objective was to estimate the correlations between six agronomic traits in cowpea as well as the correlations between the estimates of combining abilities of parents. Genotypes with high pod weight and pod length, 100-grain weight, and number of beans per pod should be used to improve grain yield in cowpea. The breeder should preferably insert plants into his group of crosses that have a high combining ability for pod length, number of grains per pod and yield per plot.

Carolline de Jesús Pires

2012-09-01

391

Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.

Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

2014-10-01

392

Effect of quercetin supplementation on lung antioxidants after experimental influenza virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the mice, instillation of influenza virus A/Udorn/317/72(H3N2) intranasally resulted in a significant decrease in the pulmonary concentrations of catalase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. There was a decrease in vitamin E level also. These effects were observed on the 5th day after viral instillation. Oral supplementation with quercetin simultaneous with viral instillation produced significant increases in the pulmonary concentrations of catalase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. However, quercetin did not reverse the fall in vitamin E level associated with the viral infection. It is concluded that during influenza virus infection, there is "oxidative stress." Because quercetin restored the concentrations of many antioxidants, it is proposed that it may be useful as a drug in protecting the lung from the deleterious effects of oxygen derived free radicals released during influenza virus infection. PMID:16019982

Kumar, Pankaj; Khanna, Madhu; Srivastava, Vikram; Tyagi, Yogesh Kumar; Raj, Hanumanthrao G; Ravi, K

2005-06-01

393

Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; ?rutek, M?cis?aw

2014-08-01

394

Genetic variability, evolution, and biological effects of Grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNAs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large satellite RNAs (type B satRNAs) of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) from the genus Nepovirus, family Secoviridae were identified in a naturally infected vineyard and a grapevine germplasm collection. These GFLV satRNA variants had a higher nucleotide sequence identity with satRNAs of Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) strains NW and J86 (93.8 to 94.6%) than with the satRNA of GFLV strain F13 and those of other ArMV strains (68.3 to 75.0%). Phylogenetic analyses showed no distinction of GFLV and ArMV satRNAs with respect to the identity of the helper virus. Seven stretches of 8 to 15 conserved nucleotides (I-VII) were identified in the 5' region of subgroup A nepovirus genomic RNAs GFLV, ArMV, and Grapevine deformation virus) and nepovirus type B satRNAs, including previously reported motif I, suggesting that large satRNAs might have originated from recombination between an ancestral subgroup A nepovirus RNA and an unknown RNA sequence with the 5' region acting as a putative cis-replication element. A comparative analysis of two GFLV strains carrying or absent of satRNAs showed no discernable effect on virus accumulation and symptom expression in Chenopodium quinoa, a systemic herbaceous host. This work sheds light on the origin and biological effects of large satRNAs associated with subgroup A nepoviruses. PMID:23718838

Gottula, J; Lapato, D; Cantilina, K; Saito, S; Bartlett, B; Fuchs, M

2013-11-01

395