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Sample records for cowpea viruses effect

  1. Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea

    Adekunle O.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

  2. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  3. Attempts to Improve the Method of Screening Cowpea Germplasm for Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus

    Use of visual symptom screening for cowpea plants in field plots improved screening for Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus (BICMV)-resistance. However, the method failed to improve the speed or accuracy of screening for Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV)-resistance. Plants that displayed few visual virus sympt...

  4. RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from cowpea mosaic virus-infected cowpea leaves

    Dorssers, L.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was the purification and identification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase engaged in replicating viral RNA in cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV)- infected cowpea leaves.Previously, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata

  5. Expression of Bottom Component RNA of Cowpea Mosaic Virus in Cowpea Protoplasts

    Rezelman, Geertje; Goldbach, Rob; van Kammen, Albert

    1980-01-01

    Upon inoculation of cowpea protoplasts with the bottom component of cowpea mosaic virus, at least six virus-induced proteins (with sizes of 170, 110, 87, 84, 60, and 32 kilodaltons) are synthesized, but not the capsid proteins (37 and 23 kilodaltons). These bottom-component-induced proteins were studied with respect to their genetic origin and mode of synthesis. The analyses were based on their electrophoretic peptide patterns resulting from partial digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protea...

  6. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Nsa, Imade Y; Kareem, Kehinde T

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar "White" and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar "White" was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures. PMID:26483824

  7. Virus Survey of Commercial Cowpea Fields in the U. S. and Evaluation of the Core of the USDA Cowpea Germplasm Collection for Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in the southern United States. Cowpea plants are susceptible to over 20 viruses and many of them are seed-borne. A survey was carried out to evaluate the current virus status in commercial cowpea fields in five States (MO, NM, SC, TN and TX...

  8. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and 7).The aim o

  9. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  10. Purification and properties of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replicase

    Zabel, P.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis concerns the partial purification and properties of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase) produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). The enzyme is believed to be coded, at least in part, by the virus genome and to be responsible for the

  11. Field Performance of Cowpea Genotypes Grown under Virus Pressure in Puerto Rico

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important grain legume in many regions of the tropics. However, viral diseases, particularly Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV), can be a limiting factor in cowpea production. We evaluated in replicated field plots and un...

  12. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  13. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata with a Full-Length DNA Copy of Cowpea Mosaic Virus M-RNA

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1987-01-01

    A full-length DNA copy of the M-RNA of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), supplied with either the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the nopaline synthase promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was introduced into the T-DNA region of a Ti-plasmid-derived gene vector and transferred to

  14. Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV. Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento.Many factors can affect the yield of cowpea, especially viruses. The main species of viruses infecting cowpea in Brazil are Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV and Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of cowpea genotypes for resistance to CMV in single or in co

  15. Cowpea mosaic virus RNA-1 acts as an amplicon whose effects can be counteracted by a RNA-2-encoded suppressor of silencing

    Lines of Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic for full-length copies of both Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) genomic RNAs, either singly or together, have been produced. Plants transgenic for both RNAs developed symptoms characteristic of a CPMV infection. When plants transgenic for RNA-1 were agro-inoculated with RNA-2, no infection developed and the plants were also resistant to challenge with CPMV. By contrast, plants transgenic for RNA-2 became infected when agro-inoculated with RNA-1 and were fully susceptible to CPMV infection. The resistance of RNA-1 transgenic plants was shown to be related to the ability of RNA-1 to self-replicate and act as an amplicon. The ability of transgenically expressed RNA-2 to counteract the amplicon effect suggested that it encodes a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). By examining the ability of portions of RNA-2 to reverse PTGS in N. benthamiana, we have identified the small (S) coat protein as the CPMV RNA-2-encoded suppressor of PTGS

  16. Endothelial targeting of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV via surface vimentin.

    Kristopher J Koudelka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via interaction with a 54 kD cell-surface protein, but this protein has not previously been identified. Here we identify the CPMV binding protein as a cell-surface form of the intermediate filament vimentin. The CPMV-vimentin interaction was established using proteomic screens and confirmed by direct interaction of CPMV with purified vimentin, as well as inhibition in a vimentin-knockout cell line. Vimentin and CPMV were also co-localized in vascular endothelium of mouse and rat in vivo. Together these studies indicate that surface vimentin mediates binding and may lead to internalization of CPMV in vivo, establishing surface vimentin as an important vascular endothelial ligand for nanoparticle targeting to tumors. These results also establish vimentin as a ligand for picornaviruses in both the plant and animal kingdoms of life. Since bacterial pathogens and several other classes of viruses also bind to surface vimentin, these studies suggest a common role for surface vimentin in pathogen transmission.

  17. Structure, morphogenesis and function of tubular structures induced by cowpea mosaic virus

    Kasteel, D.

    1999-01-01

    During systemic plant infection, viruses move from the initially infected cells through plasmodesmata to neighbouring cells. Different mechanisms have been proposed for this cell-to-cell movement. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) employs one of the major movement mechanisms, i.e. tubule-guided transport o

  18. Genes and sequences involved in the replication of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs.

    Eggen, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the RNA replication of the cowpea mosaic virus genome. Previously the replication of CPMV RNA has been examined extensively with crude membrane fractions prepared from CPMV inf

  19. Cowpea mosaic virus infection induces a massive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum but not Golgi membranes and is dependent on de novo membrane synthesis

    Carette, J.E.; Stuiver, M.; Lent, van J.; Wellink, J.; Kammen, van A.

    2000-01-01

    Replication of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is associated with small membranous vesicles that are induced upon infection. The effect of CPMV replication on the morphology and distribution of the endomembrane system in living plant cells was studied by expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) targete

  20. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  1. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F.) and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    B. Darfour; F.C.K. Ocloo; D.D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infeste...

  2. Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors.Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Alternative conjugation strategies, agarose gel electrophoresis of CPMV and CPMV-HRP conjugates, UV-vis spectrum of HRP-ADHCPMV, agarose gel electrophoresis of GOX-ADHCPMV particles and corresponding TEM image, calibration curves for HRP-ADHCPMV and GOX-ADHCPMV, DLS data for GOX-ADHCPMV are made available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31485a

  3. Effect of Water and Pests Stresses on Cowpea Yield

    J. Abedi Koupai; M. Salehi-Sirzar; S.S. Eslamian; J. Khajeali; Y. Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of pest and water stresses on different growing stages of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) and pest occurrence, an experiment was conducted in Khazaneh Research station of Isfahan University of Technology. The experiment was carried out in a factorial complete randomized block design, in two different farms, with and without insecticide application. The treatments included severe water stress (50% water requirement), moderate water stress (75% water requirement) in f...

  4. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on the Performance of Cowpea /Maize Intercrop in Derived Savannah of Nigeria

    Adigbo, S. O.; Iyasere, E.; Fabunmi, T. O.; Olowe, V. I. O.; Adejuyigbe, C. O.

    2013-01-01

    Promising varieties of cowpea were found to be adaptable in the derived savannah; however, their performances in intercropping systems have not been investigated. Therefore, there is the need to investigate the effect of spatial arrangement of maize/cowpea on the performance of maize and cowpea. The experiment was a 2 x 5 factorial in randomized complete block design. A field experiment was conducted at Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Nigeria during the late cropping seasons o...

  5. Crystal Structure and Proteomics Analysis of Empty Virus-like Particles of Cowpea Mosaic Virus.

    Huynh, Nhung T; Hesketh, Emma L; Saxena, Pooja; Meshcheriakova, Yulia; Ku, You-Chan; Hoang, Linh T; Johnson, John E; Ranson, Neil A; Lomonossoff, George P; Reddy, Vijay S

    2016-04-01

    Empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) are currently being utilized as reagents in various biomedical and nanotechnology applications. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMV eVLPs determined using X-ray crystallography at 2.3 Å resolution and compare it with previously reported cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of eVLPs and virion crystal structures. Although the X-ray and cryo-EM structures of eVLPs are mostly similar, there exist significant differences at the C terminus of the small (S) subunit. The intact C terminus of the S subunit plays a critical role in enabling the efficient assembly of CPMV virions and eVLPs, but undergoes proteolysis after particle formation. In addition, we report the results of mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of coat protein subunits from CPMV eVLPs and virions that identify the C termini of S subunits undergo proteolytic cleavages at multiple sites instead of a single cleavage site as previously observed. PMID:27021160

  6. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus-infected protoplasts

    Rottier, P. J. M.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to the situation concerning bacterial and, to a lesser extent, animal RNA viruses, little is known about the biochemical processes occurring in plant cells due to plant RNA virus infection. Such processes are difficult to study using intact plants or leaves. Great effort has therefore been spent in developing in vitro cultures of plant protoplasts, but the use of these protoplasts has been seriously hampered by various technical problems.It is clear that plant RNA virus infections...

  7. Expression and silencing of cowpea mosaic virus transgenes.

    Sijen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Plant viruses are interesting pathogens because they can not exist without their hosts and exploit the plant machinery for their multiplication. Fundamental knowledge on viral processes is of great importance to understand, prevent and control virus infections which can cause drastic losses in crops

  8. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Origin of the membrane compartment for cowpea mosaic virus replication

    Carette, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Replication of many positive-stranded RNA viruses takes place in association with intracellular membranes. Often these membranes are induced upon infection by vesiculation or rearrangement of membranes from different organelles including the early and late endomembrane system. Upon infection of cowp

  10. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste χ² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  11. Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals

    The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

  12. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  13. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada. As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua forma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88 do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas.SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved. The capsid proteins, in their native form, were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were

  14. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  15. In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer

    Lizotte, P. H.; Wen, A. M.; Sheen, M. R.; Fields, J.; Rojanasopondist, P.; Steinmetz, N. F.; Fiering, S.

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to contribute to cancer immunotherapy. The ‘in situ vaccination’ immunotherapy strategy directly manipulates identified tumours to overcome local tumour-mediated immunosuppression and subsequently stimulates systemic antitumour immunity to treat metastases. We show that inhalation of self-assembling virus-like nanoparticles from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) reduces established B16F10 lung melanoma and simultaneously generates potent systemic antitumour immunity against poorly immunogenic B16F10 in the skin. Full efficacy required Il-12, Ifn-γ, adaptive immunity and neutrophils. Inhaled CPMV nanoparticles were rapidly taken up by and activated neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment as an important part of the antitumour immune response. CPMV also exhibited clear treatment efficacy and systemic antitumour immunity in ovarian, colon, and breast tumour models in multiple anatomic locations. CPMV nanoparticles are stable, nontoxic, modifiable with drugs and antigens, and their nanomanufacture is highly scalable. These properties, combined with their inherent immunogenicity and demonstrated efficacy against a poorly immunogenic tumour, make CPMV an attractive and novel immunotherapy against metastatic cancer.

  16. Effect of radio frequency treatments on cowpea weevil adults

    Dried pulses (chickpeas, lentils and dried peas) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. Postharvest infestation by stored product insect pests such as the cowpea weevil may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically, chemical fumiga...

  17. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations

  18. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND SOME SERUM BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS

    N. GUMAA BALAIEL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inclusion of different levels of untreated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds (0, 5, 10 and 15% in broiler diet on performance and some serum biochemical factors was studied. The research was conducted on basis of a completely Randomized Design (CRD. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein intake and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced with the inclusion of 15% untreated cowpea seeds. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, albumin, total protein, Ca and K contents were significantly (P<0.05 decreased with increasing level of cowpea seeds in diets. Uric acid concentration observed to be higher in birds fed 15% cowpea seed. It is concluded that good performance of broiler chicken is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 10% inclusion of cowpea seeds in balanced diet for broiler.

  19. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  20. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    B. Darfour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

  1. A note on outbreak of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) in common bean in the River Nile State, Sudan

    An outbreak of a devastating virus disease occurred in common ben (phaseolus vulgaris) in Berber area, the River Nile State, during the 2004/2005 cropping season, with symptoms of stunting and yellowing. The disease incidence reached a level of more than 85% in all visited fields. One hundred fifty symptomatic samples, collected from different fields at Hudeiba, Berber and Shendi were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes and tested for the presence of different viruses, using the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) technique. The results of the serological tests revealed that 95% of the samples were positive for cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV). Among the common bean genotypes screened for resistance to CPMMV, only RO/2/1 and Giza 3 were resistant to the disease.(Author)

  2. Effect of Bradyrhizobium sp.Inoculation on Biomass and Nodulation of Cowpea

    ZHAOYUHUA; C.F.FONJI; 等

    1997-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata(L.)Walp (cowpea)is a tropical legume of very high nutrive and economic values.A laboratory experiment.was conducted to evaluate the BNF (biological nitrogen fixation) effciency of 4 strains of Bradyrhizobium sp.(VUXYI,VUIE1,VUMDS1 and VUID1).From the results obtained these strains were classified into efficiency groups,with VUID1 being the most efficient and VUXY1 the least efficient.the effect of inoculation was tested on 2 cowpea varieties in a field experiment.Remarkable increases in nodulation biomass and crop yield were observed.An increase from 58% ti 81% in dry seed was obtained for the two varieties.A significance test revealed a signifecantly positive correlation between nodulation and biomass.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  4. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  5. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  6. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico

    Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

  7. Separating multiple, short-term, deleterious effects of saline solutions on the growth of cowpea seedlings.

    Kopittke, Peter M; Blamey, F Pax C; Kinraide, Thomas B; Wang, Peng; Reichman, Suzie M; Menzies, Neal W

    2011-03-01

    • Reductions in plant growth as a result of salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. • Short-term (48-h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) or potassium (K). • Growth was poorly related to the ion activities in the bulk solution, but was closely related to the calculated activities at the outer surface of the plasma membrane, {I(z)}₀°. The addition of Mg, Na or K may induce Ca deficiency in roots by driving {Ca²+}₀° to roots to osmolarity. Specific ion toxicities reduced root elongation in the order Ca²+ > Mg²+ > Na+ > K+. The addition of K and, to a lesser extent, Ca alleviated the toxic effects of Na. Thus, Ca is essential but may also be intoxicating or ameliorative. • The data demonstrate that the short-term growth of cowpea seedlings in saline solutions may be limited by Ca deficiency, osmotic effects and specific ion toxicities, and K and Ca alleviate Na toxicity. A multiple regression model related root growth to osmolarity and {I(z)}₀° (R²=0.924), allowing the quantification of their effects. PMID:21118262

  8. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  9. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A. (Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)); Serafini, P.G. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s[sup [minus]1] as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    A.O. Awosanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491 were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were determined. Nodulation in the polluted soils reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control while the stem girth, terminal leaf length and shoot dry mass increased significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control. The plant height of each variety significantly differed (p<0.005 from one another. This study has shown that soil pollution causes significant reduction in nodule numbers hence having immense negative impact on nodulation in cowpea varieties used in this study. Meanwhile soil pollution is shown in this study to increase the stem girth, plant height, leaf length and shoot dry mass of the cowpea plants compared to the control.

  11. Transmissão do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feijão e soja Transmission of the Cowpea mild mottle virus by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B for plants of beans and soy

    Julio Massaharu Marubayashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A necrose da haste da soja é causada por um vírus do gênero Carlavirus transmitido pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci, também infectante de feijão e identificado como Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. Neste trabalho foram realizados testes para determinação do número de moscas-brancas B. tabaci biótipo B necessários para transmissão do vírus em feijoeiro e soja. Na sequência foram realizados dois outros testes, com 10 insetos por planta. Avaliaram-se períodos de acesso à aquisição (PAA de 'Jalo' para 'Jalo', e o efeito de períodos de acesso à inoculação (PAI. Foram visualmente constatados sintomas típicos do carlavírus como mosaico, clareamento de nervuras, necrose sistêmica e redução de crescimento. Houve transmissão do vírus para 'BT-2' de feijão e 'BRS-132' de soja com apenas um inseto por planta, sendo mais eficaz nesta última espécie. A taxa de transmissão do vírus foi maior com o aumento do número de insetos por planta. E o PAA foi determinado após 15' de tempo para aquisição, e o PAI com 5 min e aumentando os períodos de acesso a aquisição e inoculação aumentou-se a taxa de transmissão.The stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the Carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. In this work biotype B for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys B. tabaci. In the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. Periods of access to the acquisition (PAA of 'Jalo' for 'Jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (PAI had been evaluated increase. Visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. It had transmission of the virus for 'BT-2' of beans and 'BRS-132' of soy with only one insect for plant

  12. Characterization of the viral proteins involved in the RNA replication of cowpea mosaic virus.

    Bokhoven, van, LJA Laurens

    1993-01-01

    Veel virussen die planten of dieren infecteren hebben enkelstrengs RNA moleculen met een positieve polariteit als drager van hun genetische informatie. Genomische RNA moleculen met positieve polariteit, of (+)-strengs RNA, betekent dat deze RNA moleculen in de cel van de gastheer gebruikt worden als boodschapper RNA voor de productie van virale eiwitten. Deze eiwitten maken dan de verschillende stappen in de levenscyclus van het virus mogelijk, zoals de vermenigvuldiging van het virale RNA (r...

  13. Can the RNA of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus be released through a channel by means of free diffusion? A test in silico.

    Isea, Raul; Aponte, Carlos; Cipriani, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), a plant virus which is member of the Bromoviridae family, is used as a model for the diffusion of a random, short, single stranded RNA, [5'-R(PGpGpApCpUpUpCpGpGpUpCpC)-3')], through a channel on the pseudo-three-fold axis using molecular dynamic simulations. This proposition is based the fact that CCMV undergoes a dynamic structural transition as a response to changes of pH, temperature and ionic strength. Results indicate that the RNA looses its secondary structure and moves into the capside channel by free diffusion. These results are congruent with the hypothesis suggesting that the CCMV capside does not have to dissolve in order to release the RNA into the host. PMID:14962592

  14. The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana

    In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha-1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha-1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha-1. Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  15. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu2+ activities as low as 1-2 μM, the effect of Cu2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu2+. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu2+ activity of 1.0 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu2+ activity of 0.2 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ≥0.77 μM Cu2+, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  16. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  18. EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L WALP

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection, TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties, hand weeded and unweeded (controls were laid in randomised complete block design with three replications respectively. At maturity, dry samples of cowpea `Ife brown` seeds were ground to fine powder and the proximate composition and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in the two experiments were determined. Significant variations (p0.05 among the herbicide treatments. It was therefore recommended that CCWE could be used as a natural post-emergence herbicide in cowpea production without altering the nutritional quality and residue of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds.

  19. Preparation and Cell Imaging of Fluorescent Cowpea Mosaic Virus%荧光标记豇豆花叶病毒的制备及细胞成像

    陈小慧; 梁淑彩; 刘衍斌; 仰望; 鄢国平

    2013-01-01

    The fluorescent nanoparticles (5-FAM/CPMV) based on cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been prepared by modifying the amine groups on the surface of CPMV with amine -reactive fluorescent probe,5-carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester(5-FAMSE). The structure as well as one- and two-photon fluorescence of the nanoparticles have been investigated. The surface property of 5-FAM/CPMV has also been investigated by capillary electrophoresis. Finally,5-FAM/CPMV was employed for the two-photon fluorescence(TPF) imaging of Hela cells. The results showed that the modification of CPMV had no obvious effect on the nanostructure morphology of CPMV,or the biospecific property of CPMV. 5-FAM/ CPMV could be taken up by Hela cell and the green fluorescence could be observed in cellsap using TPF microscopy with the excitation wavelength of 800 nm, indicating 5-FAM/CPMV has the potential in targeted cancer cell TPF imaging.%利用与氨基选择性反应的荧光染料5羧基荧光素琥珀酰亚胺酯(5 FAMSE)对豇豆花叶病毒(CPMV)表面的氨基进行修饰,制备了荧光功能化CPMV纳米粒(5-FAM/CPMV).对其结构形态和单、双光子荧光进行了测试,用毛细管电泳对其表面特性进行了考察,并将其用于Hela细胞的双光子荧光成像.研究表明,目标纳米粒粒径均匀,仍具有天然CPMV的特性,能进入Hela细胞,在波长800 nm激光激发下可以成功地用于肿瘤细胞的成像分析,可望用于肿瘤靶向双光子荧光细胞成像方面的研究.

  20. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  1. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of cowpea effect of variet and locality

    Dalaram Sullaiman Ismael

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous seeds belong to plant foods which are generally rich in phenolic compounds. Cowpea seeds are a major source of plant proteins and vitamins for man, feed for animals. Polyphenolic compounds are secondary metabolites of amino acids present in many plant species, including legume. Their content depends on various factors, such as cultivar, pedoclimatic and cultivation conditions. The influence of cultivar, locality on the total polyphenols (TPC and antioxidant activity (TAC of Cowpea seeds was studied. Cowpea cultivars were cultivated under different climatic conditions in Iraq Republic. The main objective of the present work was to consider the changes of total polyphenols content in dependence on variety and to evaluate an antioxidant potential of three Cowpea varieties (white, light brown and red color in different localities of Erbil City in Kurdistan Region Iraq and to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds (polyphenolics in legumes commonly utilized in the human diet in Iraq, to compare their antioxidant capacity and to evaluate the influence of grown locality on observed parameters. Total polyphenols were determined by the Lachman´s method and expressed as mg of Gallic acid equivalent per kg dry matter. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by the Brand-Williams method using a compound DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (p0.05 among locality and color for phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. The various varieties of white color cowpea had significant influence on TPC and TAC and affected by locality too. From tested seeds the highest polyphenol content was measured in red color (802.323 ±15.937 - 825.700 ±8.494 mg.kg-1 GAE. The lowest value was in white color (480.195 ±15.286 - 721.952 ±25.004 mg.kg-1GAE.The similar trend was observed at values of TAC. The highest TAC value was determined in red color (28.709 ±15.937 - 34.777 ±8.494% DPPH. The lowest

  2. Structuur en eigenschappen van cowpea-mozaiekvirus

    Geelen, J.L.M.C.

    1974-01-01

    Purified infectious preparations of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) consist of three centrifugal components with sedimentation coefficients of 58, 95 and 118 S. These are referred to as top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B) component. M and B are nucleoproteins containing 25 and 36% RNA respectively. All th

  3. Inhibition of Cleavage of a Plant Viral Polyprotein by an Inhibitor Activity Present in Wheat Germ and Cowpea Embryos †

    Shih, Ding S.; Bu, Ming; Price, Mary A.; Shih, Chao-Yun T.

    1987-01-01

    In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the bottom component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus directs the synthesis of a 200,000-molecular-weight precursor protein (200K protein) that is cleaved during synthesis by a reticulocyte enzyme to form a 32K protein and a 170K protein. Cleavage of the 200K protein was found to be effectively inhibited by inhibitor activity in wheat germ and cowpea embryo extracts. The inhibitor was nondialyzable, precipitatable by ammonium sulfate, and partially stable at high temp...

  4. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Germination on Anti oxidative activity of Cowpea seeds

    Anti oxidative activity (AOA) of cowpea (Vigna unquiculata L.) methanolic extracts was investigated. AOA of crude methanolic extracts (CME's) for embryo was the strongest (81.4%) followed by seed coat (testa) (80.0%) and whole seed (13.95% of AOA for ∝-tocopherol at 120 hr storage period: while AOA of seed coat and whole seed were 98.6, 86.15% respectively at 168 hr. AOA increased for CME's of seed coat (from 80 to 89.76%) and whole seed (from 13.95 to 83.72%), as irradiation dose increased up to 7.5 KGy. In the first 24 hr germination, AOA declined for seed coat from 40 to 20.46% then start to increase to reach 73.02% at the end of germination period. AOA for whole seed as well increased in the first 48 hr from 13.95 to 44.18% then decreased to 37.5% of AOA for ∝-tocopherol. The research proved the commercial importance of cowpea seed as natural source for antioxidants, and investigated the role of gamma irradiation and germination in increasing the anti oxidative activity

  5. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  6. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils

    Ilesanmi, Joana O.; Daniel T. Gungula

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea) of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfe...

  7. Evaluation of the anti-nitrative effect of plant antioxidants using a cowpea Fe-superoxide dismutase as a target.

    Urarte, Estibaliz; Asensio, Aaron C; Tellechea, Edurne; Pires, Laura; Moran, Jose F

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide cytotoxicity arises from its rapid conversion to peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in the presence of superoxide, provoking functional changes in proteins by nitration of tyrosine residues. The physiological significance of this post-translational modification is associated to tissue injury in animals, but has not been yet clarified in plants. The objective of this study was to establish new approaches that could help to understand ONOO(-) reactivity in plants. A recombinant Fe-superoxide dismutase from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), rVuFeSOD, was the target of the ONOO(-)-generator SIN-1, and the anti-nitrative effect of plant antioxidants and haemoglobins was tested in vitro. Nitration on rVuFeSOD was evaluated immunochemically or as the loss of its enzymatic activity. This assay proved to be useful to test a variety of plant compounds for anti-nitrative capacity. Experimental data confirmed that rice (Oryza sativa L.) haemoglobin-1 (rOsHbI) and cowpea leghaemoglobin-2 exerted a protective function against ONOO(-) by diminishing nitration on rVuFeSOD. Both plant haemoglobins were nitrated by SIN-1. The chelator desferrioxamine suppressed nitration in rOsHbI, indicating that Fe plays a key role in the reaction. The removal of the haem moiety in rOsHbI importantly suppressed nitration, evidencing that this reaction may be self-catalyzed. Among small antioxidants, ascorbate remarkably decreased nitration in all tests. The phenolic compounds caffeic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and the flavonoid gossypin also diminished tyrosine nitration and protected rVuFeSOD to different extents. It is concluded that small plant antioxidants, especially ascorbate, and haemoglobins may well play key roles in ONOO(-) homeostasis in vivo. PMID:25221924

  8. Intercropping Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.): Effect of Bradyrhizobium Inoculation and Fertilization on Minerals Composition of Sorghum Seeds

    Ekhlas M. Musa; Elsiddig A. E. Elsheikh; Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of Bradyrhizobium inoculation and fertilization on the nutritional values of macro- and micronutrients of sorghum intercropped with cowpea in the field under rainfed conditions. The results of the present study demonstrated that intercropping, Bradyrhizobium inoculation, and N and P fertilization had significant effect on the mineral status of sorghum seeds. Intercropping significantly ( ≤ 0 . 0 5 ) inc...

  9. Effects of Initial Infestation Levels ofCallosobruchus maculatus(F.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) on Cowpea and Use ofNicotiana tabacum L. Aqueous Extract as Grain Protectant

    Musa A K; Odunayo A; Adeyeye O E

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of initial infestation of cowpea seeds (Ife brown variety) with different insect densities (0, 2, 4 and 6 pairs per 50 g seeds) ofCallosobruchus maculatus(F.) and evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Nicotiana tabacum L. onC. maculatus in the laboratory. It was observed that adult beetle population increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in insect density. The increase in population of beetles and corresponding weight loss of the seeds in different levels of infestation showed that the cowpea variety was susceptible to beetle infestation, emergence and survival of progeny. Significantly more adults emerged on higher infestation compared to lower and no infestation. In Nigeria,Nicotiana tabacum L. is a locally available plant, with known insecticidal properties. The plant leaf extract was easily extracted with water and confirmed its effectiveness as a protective agent for stored cowpea seeds. Experiment was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous extracts of N. tabacumat 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mL•50 g-1 cowpea seeds onC. maculatus. Data was recorded and showed varying levels of effectiveness againstC. maculatus. Result showed that seed appearance was dependent on levels of insect population, while N. tabacum aqueous extract exerted effects on survival ofC. maculatus. Aqueous leaf extract ofN. tabacum probably contained some insecticidal properties which might have significantly conferred beetle mortality and reduced beetle emergence leading to a decrease in seed weight loss.

  10. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES

    Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.; Bezerra-Neto Egídio; Burity Hélio A.

    2001-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1), -70.0 (S2) and

  11. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  12. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  13. Effects of different Fe levels from Fe-nano-chelate and Fe-EDDHA sources on growth and some nutrients concentrations in cowpea in a calcareous soil

    L. Jokar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of different levels of iron (Fe (from Fe-nano-chelate and Fe-EDDHA sources on growth parameters, concentration and absorption of Fe and some nutrients in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in a calcareous soil, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of four levels of Fe (0, 0.135, 0.270 and 0.405 mg Fe per kg soil as Fe-nano-chelate or Fe-EDDHA. The studied soil (Fine-loamy, carbonatic, thermic, Typic Calcixerepts had a loam texture with low available Fe content. Results showed that application of both Fe fertilizers increased shoot dry-matter yield, root dry matter yield, number of pods per plant, weight of pods and seeds per plant, grain weight per pot, shoot Fe concentration and Fe uptake by cowpea as compared to control treatment. Some of the evaluated growth parameters at all levels of Fe from Fe-nano-chelate source were higher than the Fe-EDDHA source and some were the same and had no significant difference. Application of both Fe-nano-chelate and Fe-EDDHA decreased phosphorus and manganese concentrations in shoots as compared to control treatment. Concentration of zinc and cooper in shoots was not significantly affected by the Fe level. In conclusion, lower rates of Fe-nano-chelate were required, as compared to Fe-EDDHA, to alleviate iron deficiency in cowpea grown in calcareous soils.

  14. Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Niranjana, S.R.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves; Prakash, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    The strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICM), genus Potyvirus, were detected from 25 common bean and 14 black gram seeds among 142 seed samples collected from different legume-growing regions of India. The samples were subjected to a growing-on test, an indicator...... complete identity of the two viruses was further confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the partial coat protein and 3'-UTR regions. The sequences of the four BCMV and BCMV–BICM isolates each consisted of 583–622 and 550–577 nucleotides. The present report confirms the widespread nature of these two serious...... potyviruses in the two most important legume crops in India....

  15. Effect of de cortication and roasting on trypsin inhibitors and tannin contents of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds.

    Balail, Nasara Gumaa

    2014-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9), for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73), for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52) for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32) for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60) for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73), respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005), respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36), respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value. PMID:26035962

  16. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  17. Introduction of the anti-apoptotic baculovirus p35 gene in passion fruit induces herbicide tolerance, reduced bacterial lesions, but does not inhibits passion fruit woodiness disease progress induced by cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV).

    de Freitas, Daniele Scandiucci; Coelho, Marly C Felipe; Souza, Manoel T; Marques, Abi; Ribeiro, E Bergmann Morais

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of anti-apoptotic genes into plants leads to resistance to environmental stress and broad-spectrum disease resistance. The anti-apoptotic gene (p35) from a baculovirus was introduced into the genome of passion fruit plants by biobalistics. Eleven regenerated plants showed the presence of the p35 gene by PCR and/or dot blot hybridization. Transcriptional analysis of regenerated plants showed the presence of specific p35 transcripts in 9 of them. Regenerated plants containing the p35 gene were inoculated with the cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae, and the herbicide, glufosinate, (Syngenta). None of the plants showed resistance to CABMV. Regenerated plants (p35+) showed less than half of local lesions showed by non-transgenic plants when inoculated with X. axonopodis and some p35+ plants showed increased tolerance to the glufosinate herbicide when compared to non-transgenic plants. PMID:17016672

  18. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  19. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  20. Effect of Osmopriming Duration on Germination, Emergence, and Early Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    Ajit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed osmopriming could be a sustainable method to increase crop establishment, uniform emergence, and growth of plant on the field. Laboratory and field studies were carried out in 2010 cropping season at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the effect of seed osmopriming duration on the germination, emergence, and growth of cowpea seeds. Treatments consisted of three osmopriming duration (soaking in 1% KNO3 salt for 6, 8, and 10 hrs, one hydroprimed control (10 hr, and an unprimed control. These five treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD replicated four times. The results showed that osmopriming with KNO3 for different durations was at par but was superior to unprimed treatments in terms of seed germination, emergence, plant height, and dry matter accumulation at 3 weeks after sowing. From this study, it can therefore be concluded that seeds of cowpea could be primed (both hydro and osmopriming for increased performance. However, osmopriming with KNO3 salt (soaked in 1% KNO3 salt solution and dried before sowing for 6 hours could result in greater seed germination and seedling height than hydropriming.

  1. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

  2. Farmers' agronomic and social evaluation of productivity yield and N2-fixation in different cowpea varieties and their subsequent residual N effects on a succeeding maize crop

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Kuyper, T.W.; Leeuwis, C.; Abekoe, M.K.; Cobbinah, J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cowpea-maize rotations form an important component of the farming systems of smallholder farmers in the forest/savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana. We evaluated five cowpea varieties for grain yield, N-2-fixation, biomass production, and contribution to productivity of subsequent mai

  3. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development

    Antônio Chagas Mota

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

  4. Effect of Long Period Cooling Storage on the Nucleic Acid of Harvested Cowpea Seeds ( Vigna Sinensis L.) Treated by Gamma Irradiation and Micro Elements

    Cowpea seeds ( Vigna sinensis L.) were exposed to 40 and 80 Gy gamma radiation, in order to study the effect of long period under cooling storage by using RAPD and ISSR PCR facilities. The obtained results indicated that RAPD protocol gave 65% monomorphic and 56% polymorphic fragments between the samples as compared to storage and non-storage controls. While , ISSR protocol gave 83% monomorphic and 85% polymorphic fragments. It should be mentioned that other percentage s 86% and 91% were found among samples in case of using another primers. The results could be summarized as follow: 1-Primer OP - B01 gave 7 monomorphic and 13 polymorphic fragments (65%). 2 - The Primer OP - B02 and Primer OP - B05 gave 4 monomorphic fragments with 14 polymorphic fragments (79%). 3 - The Primer HA-98 gave 4 monomorphic fragments with 19 detected polymorphic 83%. 4 - The Primer HA - 99 and HB-12 gave 3 monomorphic fragments and 17 polymorphic 85 and 86%, respectively. 5 - The Primer HB - 13 gave 2 monomorphic fragments with 21 detected polymorphic fragments 91%. 6 - The primer HA-98 gave 83% while the primer HA - 99 gave 85%. The previous results showed some polymorphism differences among the samples, while the primer HB-12 gave 86% and the primer HB-13 91% exhibited high levels of polymorphism. The DNA of stored cowpea seeds which were exposed to 80 Gy in the presence of zinc showed the highest differentiation , while radiation dose 40 Gy treated with zinc or boron, 80 Gy with boron and 40 or 80 Gy treatment alone compared to the two controls (storage and non storage)

  5. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse. PMID:25300846

  6. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

    Ampong-Nyarko, K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

  7. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Yussef F.B. Braga; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Eder A. Freire; Helano L. Lopes; José N. S. Bezerra; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Mary Anne S. Lima

    2007-01-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to ...

  8. Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds

    Alebeek, van F.A.N.; Antwi, K.K.; Huis, van A.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of two different habitats, stored cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] pods and seeds, on the dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) was investigated, with Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) eggs as hosts. In the

  9. Screening of Passiflora species for reaction to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus reveals an immune wild species Seleção de espécies de Passiflora inoculadas com o vírus do mosaico do caupi revela a imunidade de uma espécie selvagem

    Scheila da Conceição Maciel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV is a potyvirus that causes the most serious virus disease of passion fruit crops in Brazil. It is transmitted by several species of aphids in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner. The reaction of 16 species of Passiflora to infection by mechanical inoculation with four Brazilian isolates of CABMV was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Only P. suberosa, a wild species, was resistant to infection by all virus isolates, in two independent assays. P. suberosa grafted onto infected P. edulis f. flavicarpa did not develop symptoms; neither was the virus detected by RT-PCR in the upper leaves, suggesting that this species is immune to CABMV.O vírus do mosaico do caupi (Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus - CABMV é um potyvirus que causa uma das mais importantes doenças do maracujazeiro no Brasil. O vírus é transmitido por diversas espécies de afídeos de maneira não persistente, não circulativa. A reação de 16 espécies de Passiflora à infecção com quatro isolados brasileiros do CABMV, por meio de inoculação mecânica foi avaliada em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Somente a espécie selvagem P. suberosa foi resistente à infecção com todos os isolados do CABMV, em dois ensaios independentes. Plantas de P. suberosa enxertadas em plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa infectadas com o CABMV também não desenvolveram sintomas da doença. O vírus também não foi detectado por RT-PCR nas folhas superiores das plantas, sugerindo que essa espécie é imune ao CABMV.

  10. De zuivering en de eigenschappen van de replicatieve vorm van het RNA van cowpea-mozaiekvirus

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    1970-01-01

    Purified infectious preparations of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) consist of three centrifugal components with sedimentation coefficients of 58, 95 and 115 S . These are referred to as top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B) component and contain 0, 24 and 33% RNA respectively (Van Kammen, 1967). All three

  11. Effects of Brewers Spent Grains-typed Bio-organic Fertilizer on Cowpea Photosynthesis Characteristics%啤酒糟型生物有机肥对豇豆光合特性的影响

    喻夜兰; 荣湘民; 刘强; 谢桂先; 曾晶

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究在豇豆生长过程中施用啤酒糟型生物有机肥对豇豆光合特性的影响.[方法]采用田间小区试验,共设4个处理,以自然堆肥+化肥处理、纯化肥处理作为对照,比较啤酒糟型生物有机肥和双效活性精致有机肥2种肥料对豇豆功能叶光合特性的影响.[结果]在开花结英期,啤酒糟型生物有机肥处理豇豆功能叶净光合速率、胞间CO2浓度、叶绿素含量最高.[结论]啤酒糟型生物有机肥能明显促进豇豆中后期功能叶净光合速率,提高叶绿素含量,但对功能叶气孔导度影响不大.%[Objective] The effects of brewer's spent grains-typed bio-organic fertilizer on cowpea photosynthesis characteristics were studied. [ Method] Field plot experiments were conducted which had four treatments including natural compost, pure chemical fertilizer, brewers spent grains-typed bio-organic fertilizer, double effect exquisite bio-organic fertilizer. [Result] Net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentra tion and content of chlorophyll of cowpea functional leaves were uppermost during flower buds. [ Conclusion ] Brewers spent grains-typed bio organic fertilizer could increase net photosynthetic rate in later stage of cowpea growth, improve the content of chlorophyll of functional leaves, decrease transpiration rate, and it had little effect on stomata conductance of functional leaves.

  12. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria

    E. Ndor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined to form nine treatments which were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated three times to form twenty seven plots. The result showed that Phosphorus fertilizer had a significant (p<0.05 effect on the entire growth and yield parameter assessed in both years. 40 kg/ha of phosphorus gave a significantly higher number of nodulation count/plant (34.95 and 32.24, number of pod/plant (20.64 and 20.24, seed weight/plant (39.56 and 37.64, pods weight/plant (51.45 and 45.31 and seed weight/ha (1.56 and 1.52 t/ha in both years. The spacing also had a significant (p<0.05 response on almost the entire growth and yield parameter assessed except on the weight of 100 seeds. Spacing of 30×60 cm did not differ significantly with 45x80 cm which gave similar result in the no. of pod/plant, seed weight/plant, pods weight/plant and seed weight (t/ha in both years.

  13. 水溶性叶面肥对豇豆产量的影响%Effect of Water Soluble Foliar Fertilizer on Cowpea Yield

    张慧亮; 许恩光; 王顺德

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer on the yield of cowpea, eight different foliar fertilizers were sprayed in cowpea vegetative growth stage for 3 times. Results showed that the yield increased 67%by spraying 4.3%fulvic acid foliar fertilizer, increased 57% by spraying 8% fulvic acid+(N+P2O5+K2O), increased 48.2% by spraying major elements and trace elements[(N+P2O5+K2O≥23% 9∶6∶8)+(Fe+B+Z≥1%)], increased 43.2% by spraying 4%potassium humate+major elements+trace elements[(N+P2O5+K2O≥23% 9∶6∶8)+(Fe+B+Zn≥1%)], increased 40.8%by spraying 3% potassium humate+vitamin+carbamide urea+potassium sulfate≥7%; increased 39.5% by spraying major elements+tace elements[(N+P2O5+K2O≥35% 12∶10∶13)+(Fe+B+Zn≥0.6%)]; increased 33.7% by spraying 3%potassium humate+major elements and trace elements [(N+P2O5+K2O≥35% 12∶10∶13)+(Fe+B+Zn≥0.6%)];increased 15.9%by spraying 4%potassium humate. The most obvious of yield increase was fulvic acid, the effect of trace elements was better than that of major elements, potassium humate was the lowest, potassium humate+major elements+trace elements was less than major elements+trace elements.%使用8个不同配方叶面肥在豇豆营养生长阶段喷施3次,调查叶面肥对豇豆产量的影响。结果表明,与对照相比,喷施4.3%黄腐酸叶面肥处理增产67.0%;8%黄腐酸+氮磷钾增产57.1%;大量元素+微量元素[(N+P2O5+K2O≥23%9∶6∶8)+(F e+B+Z n≥1%)]的增产48.2%;4%腐植酸钾+大量元素+微量元素[(N+P2O5+K2O≥23%9∶6∶8)+(Fe+B+Zn≥1%)]增产43.2%(添加腐植酸钾不利于提高产量);3%腐植酸钾+维生素+尿素+硫酸钾≥7%增产40.8%;大量元素+微量元素[(N+P2O5+K2O≥35%12∶10∶13)+(F e+B+Z n≥0.6%)]增产39.5%;3%腐植酸钾+大量元素+微量元素[(N+P2O5+K2O≥35%12∶10∶13)+(F e+B+Z n≥0.6%)]增产33.7%;4%腐植酸钾增产15.9%。黄腐酸增产效果最明显,微量元素增产效果比大量元素明显,腐植酸

  14. Nodulation of cowpeas and survival of cowpeas Rhizobia in acid, aluminum-rich soils. [Vigna unguiculata; Rhizobium

    Hartel, P.G.; Whelan, A.M.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether the reduced nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) grown in certain acid, Alrich soils resulted from the poor survival of the potentially infective rhizobia. Two strains of Rhizobium capable of nodulating cowpeas were used. The lowest pH for growth in defined liquid medium was 4.2 for one strain and 3.9 for the other. Only the latter was Al tolerant and could grow in a defined liquid medium containing 50 ..mu..M KAl(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. The survival of the bacteria and their ability to nodulate cowpeas in three soils were measured after the soils were amended with Ca or Al salts to give pH values ranging from 5.7 to 4.1 and extractable-Al concentrations from < 0.1 to 3.7 cmol(p/sup +/)/kg of soil. Only small differences in survival in 7 or 8 weeks were noted between the two strains. Plants inoculated with the Al-sensitive strain bore significantly fewer nodules in the more acid, Al-rich soils than in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. No significant reduction in nodule number was evident for plants inoculated with the Al-tolerant strain and grown in the more acid, Al-rich soils compared to cowpeas grown in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. It is suggested that the Al content of soil is not a major factor in the survival of cowpea rhizobia but that it does have a significant effect on nodulation. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus

    J. Xavier Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

  16. A novel mutation in TFL1 homolog affecting determinacy in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Dhanasekar, P; Reddy, K S

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the widely conserved Arabidopsis Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene and its homologs have been demonstrated to result in determinacy across genera, the knowledge of which is lacking in cowpea. Understanding the molecular events leading to determinacy of apical meristems could hasten development of cowpea varieties with suitable ideotypes. Isolation and characterization of a novel mutation in cowpea TFL1 homolog (VuTFL1) affecting determinacy is reported here for the first time. Cowpea TFL1 homolog was amplified using primers designed based on conserved sequences in related genera and sequence variation was analysed in three gamma ray-induced determinate mutants, their indeterminate parent "EC394763" and two indeterminate varieties. The analyses of sequence variation exposed a novel SNP distinguishing the determinate mutants from the indeterminate types. The non-synonymous point mutation in exon 4 at position 1,176 resulted from transversion of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) leading to an amino acid change (Pro-136 to His) in determinate mutants. The effect of the mutation on protein function and stability was predicted to be detrimental using different bioinformatics/computational tools. The functionally significant novel substitution mutation is hypothesized to affect determinacy in the cowpea mutants. Development of suitable regeneration protocols in this hitherto recalcitrant crop and subsequent complementation assay in mutants or over-expressing assay in parents could decisively conclude the role of the SNP in regulating determinacy in these cowpea mutants. PMID:25146839

  17. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  18. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 μM) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 μM appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  19. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES

    Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1, -70.0 (S2 and <-85.0 KPa (S3. The experimental design was randomized blocks with sub-divided plots, each plot containing a different degree of water stress, divided in sub-plots for the four different developmental stages: E1 (0-15, E2 (15-30, E3 (20-35 and E4 (30-45 days after emmergence. Water stress treatments were applied by monitoring soil water potential using a set of porous cups. The effect of water stress was most harmful to cowpea when it was applied at E2 than at other symbiotic process stages. Shoot/root ratio decreased from 2.61 to 2.14 when matric potential treatment was <-85.0 and -70.0 KPa respectively. There was a reduction in the glutamine synthetase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxilase activity with increased stress, while glutamine synthase activity was the enzyme most sensitive to water stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased in more negative matric potential, indicating that this enzyme is sufficiently activitye under water stress.

  20. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  1. The Cowpea mosaic virus movement protein

    Carvalho, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  2. Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation--modulation of microRNA 126.

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-κB and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component. PMID:25300227

  3. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy

  4. Short communication. Growth and nodulation of cowpea after 5 years of consecutive composted tannery sludge amendment

    Ana R. L. Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tannery industry releases high amounts of tannery sludge which are currently composted and used in agricultural soils. The consecutive amendment of such composted tannery sludge (CTS may affect soil microrganisms, such as rhizobia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. CTS was applied in different amounts (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg/ha to a sandy soil. Amendment of CTS increased soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, sodium and chromium content. Plant growth, nodulation, N accumulation, and cowpea yield increased up to 10 Mg/ha; however, above this rate, these variables decreased. After 5 years of CTS amendment, the increase in soil chemical properties, particularly EC and Na content, exerted negative effects on the growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea.

  5. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response

    Rattanaruji Pomwised

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ. Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response.

  6. Bayesian approach increases accuracy when selecting cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability.

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Dos Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Sagrilo, E; Corrêa, C C G; Silva, F A; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify that a Bayesian approach could be used for the selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability, and the study also evaluated the efficiency of using informative and minimally informative a priori distributions. Six trials were conducted in randomized blocks, and the grain yield of 17 upright cowpea genotypes was assessed. To represent the minimally informative a priori distributions, a probability distribution with high variance was used, and a meta-analysis concept was adopted to represent the informative a priori distributions. Bayes factors were used to conduct comparisons between the a priori distributions. The Bayesian approach was effective for selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability using the Eberhart and Russell method. Bayes factors indicated that the use of informative a priori distributions provided more accurate results than minimally informative a priori distributions. PMID:26985961

  7. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    Joseany Andrade Santos; Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José de Melo; Marcia Barreto do Vale Figueiredo; Rajeev Pratap Singh; Antônio Aécio Carvalho Bezerra; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC) rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emerg...

  8. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  9. Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250μm and stored at 4 oC for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p oC. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils. The percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. It was established that at the lower doses studied although the radiation effect did not follow any

  10. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  11. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  12. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  13. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  14. Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds

    Jandiê Araújo da Silva

    2009-04-01

    environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L, compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

  15. Control of insect pests of cowpea in the savanna of Roraima, Brazil. = Controle de insetos-praga do feijão-caupi na savana de Roraima.

    Deyse Cristina Oliveira da Silva; José Maria Arcanjo Alves; José de Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima; Maria Edite da Silva Veloso; Luana dos Santos Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the insecticides acephate, imidacloprid and neem oil to control major insect pests of cowpea in cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR. The planting of cowpea (c.v. BRS Guariba) was carried out between the double rows of cassava (2.0 x 0.8 x 0.8 m). The rows of cowpea were spaced 0.5 m apart and 0.75 m double rows of cassava. We adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks wit...

  16. Effect of dietary cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) on the growth and development of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and on the success of the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Bell, H A; Fitches, E C; Down, R E; Ford, L; Marris, G C; Edwards, J P; Gatehouse, J A; Gatehouse, A M

    2001-01-01

    Cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was shown to have a deleterious effect on the growth and development of larvae of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea, when incorporated in artificial diet (2.0% of soluble protein) and expressed in transgenic potato leaf (up to 1.0% of soluble protein). The effect of CpTI on parasitism of L oleracea by the ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis was investigated. The parasitic success of the wasp was reduced by the presence of CpTI in the diet of the host and, in the case of transgenic potato leaves expressing the transgene protein, was collated with the length of time the host fed on the diet prior to parasitism. In all cases the proportion of hosts parasitised when fed CpTI-containing diets was reduced when compared with controls, although these differences were only significant when hosts were fed from the third instar on the transgenic potato leaves. Parasitoid progeny that developed on L oleracea reared on CpTI-containing diets, however, were not adversely affected. These results show that, whilst expression of CpTI in transgenic potato plants confers resistance to the lepidopterous pest L oleracea, adverse effects on the ability of the ectoparasitoid E pennicornis to parasitise this moth species successfully may also occur. These results are discussed in relation to the potential impact of transgenic crops on beneficial biological control agents. PMID:11455633

  17. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  18. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    Joseany Andrade Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emergence (DAE was greater in the TSC-amended than in the unamended soil. In the sandy soil, nodule dry weight increased with TSC application 45 DAE. In the clayey soil, 45 DAE, nodule dry weight decreased with TSC amendment levels greater than 7.5 t ha-1 compared to the unamended control. The application of TSC increased N accumulation in the cowpea plants. The results suggest that cowpea responds differently to TSC depending on the amendment rate and initial soil type.

  19. Seed Size Influence On Germination And Seedling Development Of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp

    Olayemi Ibukun Ehoniyotan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed size on the germination and seedling development was carried out on four local varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp, oloyin,drum, ifebrown and local white. Each of the varieties were sorted into big and small seeds, 100 seeds each of both big and small seeds of the four Varieties were weighed and the average weights were calculated and recorded. Six seeds of each sort were planted in a plastic pot filled with sandy-loamy soil in three replicates. Results of the various parameters studied revealed that germination efficiency was similar in both big and small seeds of drum, oloyin and ifebrown but not in small seeds of local white, weights of 100 seeds from big seeds were much heavier than those of small seeds. Number of leaves, leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf area, stem height and dry weight, were consistently higher in cowpea plants from big seeds than the small seeds of all the varieties. Number of seeds per pod was higher in cowpea from big seeds in all the varieties except in drum where number of seeds was higher in plants from small seeds. In general, seedlings emerging from big seeds of all the cowpea varieties performed better in all the parameters studied than those emerging from smaller seeds.

  20. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  1. Influence of planting densities on the performance of intercropped bambara groundnut with cowpea in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria

    G.A. Alhassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken during the rainy seasons (August – December of 2010 and 2011 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi in Benue State, located in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. The objective was to investigate the suitability of some landraces of bambara groundnut for intercropping at varying planting densities with cowpea. The experiment was a 2 x 3 x 3 split-split plot set out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Intercropping decreased canopy width, number of pods per plant and grain yields of bambara groundnut component. Number of pods plant-1 and grain yields of bambara groundnuts increased with increased planting density. Landrace x planting density interaction effects was significant signifying that landraces have to be selected for specific densities. The landraces of bambara groundnuts used for this study are better suited for planting at high densities (>100,000 plants ha-1. Sole cowpea proved superior to intercropped cowpea with bambara groundnut in dry grain yield, total plant biomass and harvest index. Productivity indices indicated that bambara groundnut/ cowpea intercropping was productive, but cowpea was the dominant component of this intercropping system.

  2. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  3. Ultrastructural changes in rat epididymides induced by cowpeas.

    Umapathy, E; Msamati, B C; Torode, M

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of tubular inclusions of caput and cauda epididymides were studied in rats that were fed only cowpeas from weaning (20-22 days old) to 130 days. The results showed significant (p lectins, one of the antinutritional factors found in cowpeas, which causes epididymal dysfunction and possibly renders these animals infertile. PMID:8166576

  4. Corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea

    Cowpea, a major crop in Oklahoma, is produced for the fresh market and canning industry. Synthetic preemergence and postemergence herbicides are the primary weed control method in conventional (non-organic) production systems. Organic weed control in organic cowpea production includes obstacles wh...

  5. Nanoindentation of virus capsids in a molecular model

    Cieplak, Marek; Robbins, Mark O.

    2010-01-01

    A molecular-level model is used to study the mechanical response of empty cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsids. The model is based on the native structure of the proteins that consitute the capsids and is described in terms of the C-alpha atoms. Nanoindentation by a large tip is modeled as compression between parallel plates. Plots of the compressive force versus plate separation for CCMV are qualitatively consistent with continuum models and experiments...

  6. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  7. Phytoremediation potentials of cowpea (Vigina unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) for hydrocarbon degradation in organic and inorganic manure-amended tropical typic paleustults.

    Jidere, C M; Akamigbo, F O R; Ugwuanyi, J O

    2012-04-01

    A field study on phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil was designed to assess the effects of organic manures (poultry droppings and cassava peels) and NPK fertilization on the potentials of cowpea (Vigina unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) to stimulate hydrocarbon degradation in soil. Cowpea and maize crops were established on the hydrocarbon contaminated soil amended with three rates (0, 4, and 8 ton/ha) of the soil amendments, and arranged in 3 x 3 x 3 factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design. Hydrocarbon was significantly (P amendments. While the treatment combinations of 8 t/ha Poultry Droppings (PD) + 8 t/ha Cassava Peels (CP) + 4 t/ha NPK fertilizer was optimal for hydrocarbon degradation in the cowpea plots, 4 t/ha PD + 8 t/ha CP + 8 t/ha NPK fertilizer was the most preferred in the maize plot. Cowpea showed greater potential for hydrocarbon degradation at the first year. The mean values of hydrocarbon concentrations at the cowpea and maize plots indicated no significant difference at the second year. Grain yield of cowpea increased by 87% at the second year, while maize was unable to grow to maturity in the first year. PMID:22567717

  8. Relationship between the yield contributing characters in cowpea for grain purpose [vigna unguiculata ( l. Walp

    R.Usha kumari, K.S .Usharani, R.Suguna, and C.R. Anandakumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted using fourteen genotypes of cowpea collected from different states in India to study the nature ofgenotypic association between the eight yield contributing characters and direct and indirect effects of the different characters onyield. The study revealed that the days to maturity, number of branches per plant and number of pods per plant showed positivesignificant correlation with seed yield. Path coefficient analysis exhibited days to fifty per cent flowering, plant height, pods perplant showed positive direct effect on yield except days to maturity, branches per plant, seeds per pod and hundred seed weightwhich showed negative direct effects. The characters plant stand at harvest and pods per plant exhibited moderate direct effects onyield. The implications of the results revealed that selection can be done for days to maturity, number of branches per plant andnumber of pods per plant for improving the grain yield in cowpea.

  9. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS

    Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho; Magda Beatriz de Almeida Matteucci

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp), Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus level...

  10. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    Saima Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flours of two local cowpea cultivars namely Red cowpea and Black cowpea were analysed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties. The crude protein and fat contents were higher for Black cultivar than the Red cultivar. The apparent amylose content was significantly higher for Red cowpea (25.54% than Black cowpea (15.09%. Polyphenols were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. The pasting profile of two cultivars revealed significantly higher values of peak viscosity (1873 cP, setback viscosity (701.00 cP, breakdown viscosity (705.33 cP and final viscosity (1868.67 cP for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. Water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity were found in the range of 1.22–1.39 g/g and 0.71–0.72 g/g, respectively, for the two cultivars. Emulsifying properties varied significantly between the two cultivars. Foaming capacity (198.67% and foaming stability (84.85% were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea (73.81% and 75.43%. Swelling power was observed significantly higher for Black cowpea than Red cowpea at 90°C. Solubility index was also significantly higher for Black cowpea than Red cowpea throughout the temperature range.

  11. Effective Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus

    Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Reliable inactivation of specimens before removal from high-level biocontainment is crucial for safe operation. To evaluate efficacy of methods of chemical inactivation, we compared in vitro and in vivo approaches using Ebola virus as a surrogate pathogen. Consequently, we have established parameters and protocols leading to reliable and effective inactivation. PMID:27070504

  12. Effective Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus.

    Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Reliable inactivation of specimens before removal from high-level biocontainment is crucial for safe operation. To evaluate efficacy of methods of chemical inactivation, we compared in vitro and in vivo approaches using Ebola virus as a surrogate pathogen. Consequently, we have established parameters and protocols leading to reliable and effective inactivation. PMID:27070504

  13. (Restriction of virus infection by plants: Annual report, 1986)

    Bruening, G.

    1986-12-05

    This research concerns the strong resistance, or even immunity, against a specific virus that is exhibited by one or a few lines of a plant species, in contrast to the general susceptibility of most lines of that species. The contrast between the reactions to virus inoculation of different lines of one species implies that a single gene or a very few genes may mediate the resistance or immunity. The prospects for isolating, studying and transferring such a gene should be good for a system with these characteristics. Seedlings of a line Arlington of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fail to support the replication of cowpea mosaic virus strain SB (CPMV-SB). Genetic crosses of Arlington cowpea to the systemic host Blackeye 5 cowpea show that the immunity is inherited as a simple dominant gene. In contrast to the seedlings, the protoplasts of the Arlington cowpea support CPMV-SB replication, but only to a very low level compared to protoplasts of Blackeye 5 cowpeas. From evidence reported earlier we concluded that Arlington cowpea protoplasts restrict the production of CPMV-SB proteins. We postulated, and obtained evidence for, a proteinase inhibitor that is specific for a CPMV-SB proteinase. This proteinase inhibitor is our prime candidate for the mediator of the resistance of Arlington protoplasts to CPMV-SB. Progress to date is described.

  14. [Restriction of virus infection by plants: Annual report, 1986

    Bruening, G.

    1986-12-05

    This research concerns the strong resistance, or even immunity, against a specific virus that is exhibited by one or a few lines of a plant species, in contrast to the general susceptibility of most lines of that species. The contrast between the reactions to virus inoculation of different lines of one species implies that a single gene or a very few genes may mediate the resistance or immunity. The prospects for isolating, studying and transferring such a gene should be good for a system with these characteristics. Seedlings of a line Arlington of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fail to support the replication of cowpea mosaic virus strain SB (CPMV-SB). Genetic crosses of Arlington cowpea to the systemic host Blackeye 5 cowpea show that the immunity is inherited as a simple dominant gene. In contrast to the seedlings, the protoplasts of the Arlington cowpea support CPMV-SB replication, but only to a very low level compared to protoplasts of Blackeye 5 cowpeas. From evidence reported earlier we concluded that Arlington cowpea protoplasts restrict the production of CPMV-SB proteins. We postulated, and obtained evidence for, a proteinase inhibitor that is specific for a CPMV-SB proteinase. This proteinase inhibitor is our prime candidate for the mediator of the resistance of Arlington protoplasts to CPMV-SB. Progress to date is described.

  15. Efeito da adição de lodo de curtume na fertilidade do solo, nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do Caupi Effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield of Cowpea

    Keyla Rafaelly Gramosa Teixeira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do lodo de curtume sobre a fertilidade do solo, a nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do caupi. O estudo foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se lodo de curtume adicionado ao solo, sendo em seguida plantadas sementes de caupi inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium sp. Os dados foram coletados aos 35 e 49 dias após a emergência das plantas. O lodo de curtume elevou o pH e os teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio e sódio do solo. Além disso, houve aumento na salinidade do solo com a aplicação do resíduo. Por outro lado, houve um incremento no rendimento de matéria seca do caupi com a adição do lodo de curtume, embora, em altas doses, o resíduo tenha diminuído a nodulação do caupi pela estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp inoculada.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield by cowpea. The study was conducted in greenhouse using tannery sludge applied to soil, and cowpea seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Data were collected at 35 and 49 days after plant emergence. Tannery sludge increased soil pH and organic matter, calcium and sodium content. There was an increase in soil salinity with application of the residue. There was also an increase in the dry matter yield of cowpea with tannery sludge addition, however, in higher rates, the residue decreased the Bradyrhizobium sp nodulation.

  16. FARMERS RESOURCE – USE AND TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY IN COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

    Omononona B.T.; A.T. Akanbi; O.A. Egbetokun

    2010-01-01

    In Nigeria, the use of stochastic frontier to estimate farm level efficiency effects is still at the rudimentary level and is beginning to build up. Few studies have been undertaken but there is dearth need for more empirical studies on this important issue. This paper presents the analysis of technical efficiency of cowpea production in Osun state southwest Nigeria, using the stochastic production frontier, budgetary and resource-use efficiency analyses. The marginal value products of all th...

  17. Functional properties of purified vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) and cowpea protein isolate.

    Rangel, Alessandra; Domont, Gilberto B; Pedrosa, Cristiana; Ferreira, Sérgio T

    2003-09-10

    The major storage globulins (vicilins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and a semipurified cowpea protein isolate (CPI) was prepared by isoelectric precipitation. Some of the functional properties of these proteins, including solubility, foaming, and emulsifying capacities, were investigated and compared. The solubility of purified cowpea vicilin was reduced at pH 5.0, increasing markedly below and above this value. Pea vicilin exhibited poor solubility between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0, and CPI was little soluble in the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. At neutral pH, the emulsifying activity indexes (EAI) of purified pea vicilin and CPI were 194 and 291 m(2)/g, respectively, which compare quite favorably to EAIs of 110 and 133 m(2)/g for casein and albumin, respectively. Remarkably, purified cowpea vicilin exhibited an EAI of 490 m(2)/g, indicating a very high emulsifying activity. Purified cowpea and pea vicilins exhibited lower foaming capacities and foam stablity indexes (FSI) than CPI. FSI values of 80 and 260 min were obtained for purified pea and cowpea vicilin, respectively, whereas a FSI value of 380 min was obtained for CPI. These results are discussed in terms of the possible utilization of purified vicilins or protein isolates from pea and cowpea in the food processing industry. PMID:12952435

  18. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Kossou, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a n

  19. Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata

    Biswas, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

  20. Variability for dry fodder yield and component traits in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp

    Olayiwola M.O. 1and P.A.S. Soremi2

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cowpea genotypes were evaluated and significant genotypic effects for most of the traits studied. Number of pods/plants, pod, seed and dry fodder yields were high for phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation. High heritability values were recorded for number of pods/plant, 100 seed weight and dry fodder yield. Genetic advance was high for seed, pod and dry fodder yield indicating that the traits could be improved through selection. All traits had high genetic advance as per cent of mean except days to 50% flowering and number of seeds/pods. Dry fodder yield alone had combined high genetic advance and heritability values indicating that this trait has high selection value and considered important in cowpea improvement. IT99K-494-6 and IT98k-573-2-1 that were high for seed and pod yield; and dry fodder yield respectively, may be considered for further improvement.

  1. Impacts of certain biofertilizers on cowpea plants in sludge amended sandy soil

    Sludge from El-Gabal EI-Asfer treatment plant was taken to minimize the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the treatments of gamma radiation and lime. Ten kGy dose level of gamma radiation and 20 percent lime were the optimum treatments to reduce the microbial load of sludge namely, total bacterial counts, total sporeformers, Enterococcus faecalis, total coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila and total fungi. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological agent in controlling certain soil borne diseases and reducing the toxicity of heavy metals comparing with 20 percent lime and 10 kGy gamma radiation using 4 percent sludge application and its effect on yield of cowpea components. treatments with gamma radiation, liming and biofertilizers reduced certain soil borne diseases, moreover liming and biofertilizers reduced the concentration of heavy metals in shoots and grains of cowpea plants. However, the application of lime at the rate of 20 percent with sludge exerted negative effect in all studied parameters as compared to control (NPK) or sludge alone. The greatest values of number and fresh weight of nodules were observed under biofertilizers and gamma radiation treatments. Results revealed that significant effects on dry weight of roots and shoots as well as grain yield production of cowpea plants treated biofertilizers and gamma radiation at dose level 10 kGy under sludge application

  2. Stability, biophysical properties and effect of ultracentrifugation and diafiltration on measles virus and mumps virus.

    Sviben, Dora; Forčić, Dubravko; Kurtović, Tihana; Halassy, Beata; Brgles, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus and mumps virus (MeV and MuV) are enveloped RNA viruses used for production of live attenuated vaccines for prophylaxis of measles and mumps disease, respectively. For biotechnological production of and basic research on these viruses, the preparation of highly purified and infectious viruses is a prerequisite, and to meet that aim, knowledge of their stability and biophysical properties is crucial. Our goal was to carry out a detailed investigation of the stability of MeV and MuV under various pH, temperature, shear stress, filtration and storage conditions, as well as to evaluate two commonly used purification techniques, ultracentrifugation and diafiltration, with regard to their efficiency and effect on virus properties. Virus titers were estimated by CCID50 assay, particle size and concentration were measured by Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) measurements, and the host cell protein content was determined by ELISA. The results demonstrated the stability of MuV and MeV at pH 9. Storage without stabilizer did not result in structural changes, but the reduction in infectivity after 24 hours was significant at +37 °C. Vortexing of the viruses resulted in significant particle degradation, leading to lower virus titers, whereas pipetting had much less impact on virus viability. Diafiltration resulted in higher recovery of both total and infectious virus particles than ultracentrifugation. These results provide important data for research on all upstream and downstream processes on these two viruses regarding biotechnological production and basic research. PMID:26935920

  3. Residues, dissipation, and risk assessment of spinosad in cowpea under open field conditions.

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2015-11-01

    The dissipation and residues of an eco-friendly bio-pesticide, spinosad, in cowpea under field conditions were studied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS) after Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction. The method exhibited good linearity with respect to spinosyn A and spinosyn D in solvent or blank cowpea matrix with correlation coefficients>0.99. Additionally, matrix effects were not significant in the range 0.987-1.014, and the average recoveries at three concentration levels were 75.1-91.1 and 79.4-90.5% for spinosyn A and spinosyn D, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 2.5-9.3 and 7.8-9.8% for spinosyn A, respectively, and 4.1-7.9 and 6.6-8.3% for spinosyn D, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.005 and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively, for spinosyn A, and 0.002 and 0.005 mg kg(-1), respectively, for spinosyn D. The dissipation of spinosad (sum of spinosyn A and spinosyn D) fitted well to first-order kinetics with half-lives of 0.9-1.5 days. The highest residue (HR) at pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 12 h was 0.321 mg kg(-1). Compared with the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by Codex, a PHI of at least 24 h was recommended. The estimated daily chronic intake of spinosad from cowpea was less than 0.14% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Therefore, the risk of consuming cowpea sprayed with spinosad under recommended field conditions was considered acceptable for the Chinese population. PMID:26502727

  4. Comparison of inoculant and indigenous rhizobial dinitrogen fixation in cowpeas by direct nitrogen-15 analyses

    Soil that contained 15N enriched organic matter (0.461 % 15N) was used to determine competitiveness of six strains at different logarithmic inoculum densities against indigenous rhizobia and against a previous surviving inoculant (strain P132). Analyses of N content of plant tissues by direct 15N technique showed that cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were capable of deriving 60 to 98% of shoot N from N2 fixation. The two fast-growing strains (176A26 and 176A28) were poorer competitors and fixed less N2 compared to the other slow-growing strains. Inoculum density had no effect upon yield response of cowpeas, but inoculation with strains P132, 401, and 22A1 effected greater seed yield, shoot dry matter, total N, and percentage of N derived from fixation (86-98%) than other strains and the uninoculated control (60-73%). By contrast, N2 fixation and yield parameters in inoculated cowpeas were not significantly different from inoculated controls that contained residual P132 from a previous inoculum study. The higher hydrogen uptake (Hup) efficiency of nodules containing residual P132 (98 ± 2%) facilitated presumptive identification of P132 (100% ± 0 Hup efficiency axenically) as the surviving and infecting inoculant strain since nodules infected by indigenous rhizobia had lower Hup efficiencies (88 ± 2%)

  5. Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria

    Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

  6. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

    2007-03-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

  7. Nutritional aspects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fortified cookies

    Defatted cowpea flour was used to replace 10%, 20% and 30% of wheat flour in cookies. The wheat flour and cowpea-fortified cookies were prepared with standardized levels of ingredients. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and sensory characteristics of the different cookies were investigated. The fortification with cowpea flour increased the contents of moisture, ash, protein, crude fibre, calcium, phosphorus and reducing non-reducing and total sugars. The fortification resulted in slight reduction in the in vitro digestibility. The products were accepted by the panelists who gave high scores for most of the attributes, although the fortification with more than 10% cowpea flour significantly (P<0.05) affected those attributes when compared with the control sample.(Author)

  8. Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector

    Gonçalves Manuel AFV

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry.

  9. Generation Means Analysis of Seed Sucrose Content in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.

    J.B. Noubissie Tchiagam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The sucrose concentration of seeds is an important component of the taste in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. The objective of this research was to estimate the heritability, to investigate the mode of genetic control and to evaluate the potential for genetic improvement of sucrose content in cowpea using generation’s means analysis. F1 and F2 generations as well as backcross populations (BCP1 and BCP2 were produced in three hybrid combinations by crosses of four selected cultivars. The sucrose level was measured via a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC system. The range of variation in sucrose content among tested varieties was from 1.88 mg/g (Lori to 5.32 mg/g (C93W-24-125. Broad-sense heritability (h2 was of a moderate 58.50% to high 68.12% value and no transgressive segregation was observed. Narrow-sense heritability (39.47 to 47.83% and heterosis (-20.00 to - 5.94% values and gene effects analysis suggested that the sucrose content is controlled by additive and non-additive genes. At 10% level of selection, an increase of 19.60 to 33.64% was predicted after one cycle. Epistasis was significant in most of crosses and at least five genes affected the sucrose accumulation in cowpea seeds. These results suggested that breeding for increased sucrose content in the seeds of cowpea can be quite successful through recurrent selection in later generations.

  10. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation. PMID:25601371

  12. Selection of Novel Cowpea Genotypes Derived through Gamma Irradiation.

    Horn, Lydia N; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M; Shimelis, Hussein A

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) yields are considerably low in Namibia due to lack of improved varieties and biotic and abiotic stresses, notably, recurrent drought. Thus, genetic improvement in cowpea aims to develop cultivars with improved grain yield and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify agronomically desirable cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis using gamma irradiation. Seeds of three traditional cowpea varieties widely grown in Namibia including Nakare (IT81D-985), Shindimba (IT89KD-245-1), and Bira (IT87D-453-2) were gamma irradiated with varied doses and desirable mutants were selected from M2 through M6 generations. Substantial genetic variability was detected among cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis across generations including in flowering ability, maturity, flower and seed colors and grain yields. Ten phenotypically and agronomically stable novel mutants were isolated at the M6 each from the genetic background of the above three varieties. The selected promising mutants' lines are recommended for adaptability and stability tests across representative agro-ecologies for large-scale production or breeding in Namibia or similar environments. The novel cowpea genotypes selected through the study are valuable genetic resources for genetic enhancement and breeding. PMID:27148275

  13. Selection of Novel Cowpea Genotypes Derived Through Gamma Irradiation

    Lydia eHorn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. yields are considerably low in Namibia due to lack of improved varieties and biotic and abiotic stresses, notably, recurrent drought. Thus, genetic improvement in cowpea aims to develop cultivars with improved grain yield and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify agronomically desirable cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis using gamma irradiation. Seeds of three traditional cowpea varieties widely grown in Namibia including Nakare (IT81D-985, Shindimba (IT89KD-245-1 and Bira (IT87D-453-2 were gamma irradiated with varied doses and desirable mutants were selected from M2 through M6 generations. Substantial genetic variability was detected among cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis across generations including in flowering ability, maturity, flower and seed colours and grain yields. Ten phenotypically and agronomically stable novel mutants were isolated at the M6 each from the genetic background of the above three varieties. The selected promising mutants’ lines are recommended for adaptability and stability tests across representative agro-ecologies for large-scale production or breeding in Namibia or similar environments. The novel cowpea genotypes selected through the study are valuable genetic resources for genetic enhancement and breeding.

  14. The immunodepressive effect of Friend virus

    Splenic immune responses having varying dependence on accessory cell co-operation have been studied after infection of mice with Friend virus. Infection had no effect on cell proliferation or antibody production in cultures stimulated with E.coli lipopolysaccharide. The response in vivo to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide was depressed only moderately. The response to sheep red blood cells was depressed severely both in vivo and in vitro. Depression in vitro was greatly reduced by co-stimulation with E.coli lipopolysaccharide. Depletion of potential suppressor lymphocyte populations by irradiation or adult thymectomy did not ameliorate depression of responses to sheep red blood cells or pneumococcal polysaccharide. Responses after adult thymectomy plus irradiation were not affected by the virus. Although it is known that macrophage and helper T-lymphocyte co-operation are not themselves impaired by infection, these results suggest that there is a direct relationship between severity of immune depression and dependence on co-operation. Implications for the action of the virus are discussed. (author)

  15. Antiviral effect of ranpirnase against Ebola virus.

    Hodge, Thomas; Draper, Ken; Brasel, Trevor; Freiberg, Alexander; Squiquera, Luis; Sidransky, David; Sulley, Jamie; Taxman, Debra J

    2016-08-01

    The recent epidemic of Ebola has intensified the need for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics that prolong and improve survival against deadly viral diseases. We sought to determine whether ranpirnase, an endoribonuclease from Rana pipiens with a demonstrated human safety profile in phase III oncology trials, can reduce titers of Ebola virus (EBOV) in infected cells, protect mice against mouse-adapted EBOV challenge, and reduce virus levels in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that 0.50 μg/ml ranpirnase is potently effective at reducing EBOV Zaire Kikwit infection in cultured Vero E6 cells (Selectivity Index 47.8-70.2). In a prophylactic study, a single intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg ranpirnase protected 70% of mice from progressive infection. Additionally, in a post-exposure prophylactic study, 100% of female mice survived infection after intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 mg/kg ranpirnase for ten days beginning 1 h post challenge. Most of the male counterparts were sacrificed due to weight loss by Study Day 8 or 9; however, the Clinical Activity/Behavior scores of these mice remained low and no significant microscopic pathologies could be detected in the kidneys, livers or spleens. Furthermore, live virus could not be detected in the sera of ranpirnase-treated mice by Study Day 8 or in the kidneys, livers or spleens by Study Day 12, and viral RNA levels declined exponentially by Study Day 12. Because ranpirnase is exceptionally stable and has a long track record of safe intravenous administration to humans, this drug provides a promising new candidate for clinical consideration in the treatment of Ebola virus disease alone or in combination with other therapeutics. PMID:27350309

  16. Molecular effects: interactions with chemicals and viruses

    Research focused upon an understanding of the cellular responses to the molecular effects of ionizing radiation should be an essential program component in the Federal Strategy for Research into the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although we know that DNA is a principal target molecule for some highly significant biological effects of ionizing radiation, we need to learn which other target substances such as membrane components may also be important. Most of the emphasis should continue to be on DNA effects and highest priority should be assigned to the identification of the complete spectrum of products produced in DNA. Once the lesions are known we can proceed to determine how these behave as blocks to replication and transcription or as modulators on the fidelity of these crucial processes. Considerable work should be done on the repair of these lesions. High priority should be given to the search for mutants in mammalian cell systems with evident defects in the processing of specific lesions. Viruses should provide important tools for the research in this area, as probes for host cell repair responses and also for the isolation of mutants. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interaction of viruses and ionizing radiation with regard to possible modulating effects on repair processes and tumorigenesis. Finally we must consider the important problem of the modification of repair responses by environmental factors

  17. Radiation induced promising mutants in Cowpea

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crop of the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa and America. Breeding objectives in recent years have been to combine high yields with upright growth habit, bushy dwarf determinate plant type, early maturity and large seed size in addition to resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. With a view to achieving these objectives and creating additional - variability, the seeds of an elite variety V-130 were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma rays, and a number of morphological mutants were isolated. The mutants with desirable characters like erect growth habit, dwarf, large seed size, and high pod number were isolated in the M2 generation and studied further in subsequent generations for their yield potential and other characteristics. The dwarf plant mutant TCM 77-4, characterised by reduced plant height, bushy growth, large seed size and absence of tendril bred true when grown in rabi seasons, but behaved like parent in respect of growth habit in kharif season. It was far superior to the parent in respect of seed size in all the seasons. The mutant is envisaged to be the most suitable for rice fallows. Among the several promising mutants with large seed size, the mutant TCM 13-5 showed a test weight of 16.8 g against 8.8 g of the parent. A mutant with large pod number designated as TCM 121-8 showed promise with its very high yield, when grown in summer albeit with delayed maturity. Several mutants with maturity similar to that of the parent have shown higher seed yield. The variability generated through the radiation- induced mutation is being utilised for creating novel high yielding early maturing varieties of cowpea. (author)

  18. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    Abdul-Razak Abizari; Nerisa Pilime; Margaret Armar-Klemesu; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed biochemical analysis on 14 landraces of cowpeas and assessed the opinion of 120 caregiver-child pairs on constructs based on the combined model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Hea...

  19. Evaluation of native and collected Germplasm for earliness Seed traits and resistance to rust, CMV and leaf spot in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp].

    K Sanjeev. Deshpand, B.R.Patil, P. M. Salimath , J.M. Nidagundi and S. Karthigeyan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 225 germplasm collections of cowpea including local types were evaluated in augmented design alongwith C152 (check for high test weight, desirable seed and pod features, earliness and resistance to Cowpea rust (Uromycesvignae, Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CMV and Cercospora leaf spot for two years ( kharif 2008 and kharif 2009 at Dharwad. Theresults of the investigation revealed that fifteen of the accessions showed bold seeds (test weight > 10g. Accession numberIC202932 and IC247435 showed extra bold seeds (test weight >14g and also bold pods. About 15 germplasm accessions werefound to be highly resistant to rust; 10 accessions displayed HR reaction to CMV and about 5 accessions showed highlyresistant reaction against leafspot. With respect to Multiple Disease Resistance, accession numbers IC201095, IC257406,IC257435 showed highly resistant reaction against leaf spot and CMV and accessions IC257410 and IC214753 showedresistance against rust and leaf spot. Some of the accessions identified against earliness are IC201087, IC201099,IC202707and IC202709 (68-75 days maturity. Such of the superior germplasm lines identified for earliness, multiple diseaseresistance, bold seed (100 seed weight > 12g and desirable seed features would be further useful in Cowpea breeding programas parents.

  20. Impact of αAI-1 expressed in genetically modified cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests. PMID:23840776

  1. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We p

  2. Wild tomato leaf extracts for spider mite and cowpea aphid control.

    Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 μmole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields. PMID

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A POWERED COWPEA THRESHER

    V.I. UMOGBAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Threshing is one of the major problems associated with production of cowpea in Nigeria and most farmers still employ crude methods of threshing the crop. For this reason a thresher was designed and constructed using locally available materials. The popularly grown variety of cowpea (Kakando in the middle belt region of Nigeria was used for performance evaluation of the thresher. The Kakando seed has an average length of 10.36 mm, and a thickness of 7.8 mm. Its angle of friction is 30° and a terminal velocity of 7.01 m/s. The evaluation was carried out at drum speeds of 700, 900 and 1200 rpm and moisture contents of 4.63 %, 6.40 % and 9.01 %. The study was laid in a 2 3 factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with a total of 9 treatment combinations replicated three times. The results showed that the percentage unthreshed pods, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, grain damage, blown away seeds, seed loss and threshing recovery were 2.19 %, 97.81 %, 97.02 %, 1.31 %, 0.86 %, 1.36 % and 69.49 % respectively. The grain output was 101.54 kg/hr. The result of regression analysis gave a coefficient R2 of 0.802, which implies that at any of the drum speeds and known moisture content the average grain output is about 80.2 % of the rated output of the thresher. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that the drum speed has no effect on the efficiency of the thresher except for seed damage and feed rate where it is significant at 0.01 and 0.05 for seed damage and feed rate respectively. Moisture content had no effect on cleaning efficiency, blown away seeds and threshing recovery, but showed high significance on performance efficiency at 0.01. The thresher can easily be dismantled for transportation and maintenance. The cost of production was seventy thousand naira (N70,000:00 $483:00.

  4. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice

    Brennan, F.R.; Bellaby, T.; Helliwell, S.M.; Jones, T.D.; Kamstrup, Søren; Dalsgaard, Kristian; Flock, J.I.; Hamilton, W.D.O.

    1999-01-01

    of CVPs to generate antibody at distant mucosal sites. IgG2a and TgG2b were the dominant IgG subclasses in sera to both CPMV and FnBP, demonstrating a bias in the response toward the T helper 1 type. The sera completely inhibited the binding of human fibronectin to the S. aureus FnBP. Oral......The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone or....... These studies demonstrate for the first time that recombinant plant viruses have potential as mucosal vaccines without the requirement for adjuvant and that the nasal route is most effective for the delivery of these nonreplicating particles....

  5. Protective effects of phillyrin against influenza A virus in vivo.

    Qu, Xin-Yan; Li, Qing-Jun; Zhang, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Influenza A virus infection represents a great threat to public health. However, owing to side effects and the emergence of resistant virus strains, the use of currently available anti-influenza drugs may be limited. In order to identify novel anti-influenza drugs, we investigated the antiviral effects of phillyrin against influenza A virus infection in vivo. The mean survival time, lung index, viral titers, influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein and serum cytokines levels, and histopathological changes in lung tissue were examined. Administration of phillyrin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 3 days significantly prolonged the mean survival time, reduced the lung index, decreased the virus titers and interleukin-6 levels, reduced the expression of HA, and attenuated lung tissue damage in mice infected with influenza A virus. Taken together, these data showed that phillyrin had potential protective effects against infection caused by influenza A virus. PMID:27323762

  6. An Automatic Unpacking Method for Computer Virus Effective in the Virus Filter Based on Paul Graham's Bayesian Theorem

    Zhang, Dengfeng; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji; Yoshida, Hitoaki

    Recently, the appearance frequency of computer virus variants has increased. Updates to virus information using the normal pattern matching method are increasingly unable to keep up with the speed at which viruses occur, since it takes time to extract the characteristic patterns for each virus. Therefore, a rapid, automatic virus detection algorithm using static code analysis is necessary. However, recent computer viruses are almost always compressed and obfuscated. It is difficult to determine the characteristics of the binary code from the obfuscated computer viruses. Therefore, this paper proposes a method that unpacks compressed computer viruses automatically independent of the compression format. The proposed method unpacks the common compression formats accurately 80% of the time, while unknown compression formats can also be unpacked. The proposed method is effective against unknown viruses by combining it with the existing known virus detection system like Paul Graham's Bayesian Virus Filter etc.

  7. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  8. Genetische analyse van cowpea-mozaiekvirusmutanten

    Jager, de C.P.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis the genetic analysis of a plant virus with a divided genome is described.In chapter 1 a review is given of RNA plant viruses with multipartite genomes (Table 1.1). If in plant viruses with heterogeneous RNA complements specific marker properties can be assigned to specific RNAs a func

  9. Genetic evaluation of two aphid resistant cowpea mutants in Kenya

    The aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Africa. It feeds on young shoots by sucking sap, resulting in the stunting and killing of the plant. Several insecticides are effective against aphids, but resistant cultivars offer the most effective and cheapest means of control. Two aphid resistant mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, were developed from the M2 population of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. Both mutants showed monogenic dominant inheritance of resistance. Crosses between these mutants and two other cultivars, ICV10 and TVu310, indicated that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant resistance gene which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and TVu310. The genes were designated Racl (in ICV10 and TVu310) and Rac2 (in ICV11 and ICV12). Both antixenosis and antibiosis types of resistance mechanism were found to be operating in the mutant cultivars. The improved attributes of the mutant cultivars ICV11 and ICV12 were a high level of resistance to aphid, an increased pod length, an increased number of seeds per pod, a semi-erect plant type and higher grain yields. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?

    Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil

  11. Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação

    JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO LIMA FILHO

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this p...

  12. Impact of αAI-1 Expressed in Genetically Modified Cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Its Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Lüthi, Christoph; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control ...

  13. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Maria de Jesus Passos de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the preference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding. IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  14. Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency

    Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic

  15. Effects of chloroquine and cytochalasin B on the infection of cells by Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Coombs, K; Mann, E; Edwards, J; Brown, D T

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cytochalasin B and chloroquine on the process of endocytosis of Sindbis virus particles and polystyrene spheres were determined by electron microscopy. The effects of these agents on the process of infection (attachment, penetration, and uncoating) of BHK-21 cells by Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus were also determined. Cytochalasin B completely blocked ingestion of Sindbis virus particles or latex spheres by BHK cells but had no effect on the ability of Sindbis vi...

  16. Short communication. Growth and nodulation of cowpea after 5 years of consecutive composted tannery sludge amendment

    Ana R. L. Miranda; Luis A. P. L. Nunes; Mara L. J. Oliveira; Wanderley J. Melo; Ademir S. F. Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Tannery industry releases high amounts of tannery sludge which are currently composted and used in agricultural soils. The consecutive amendment of such composted tannery sludge (CTS) may affect soil microrganisms, such as rhizobia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) CTS was applied in different amounts (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg/ha) to a sandy soil. Amendment of CTS increased soil pH, electr...

  17. Toxicity of metals to roots of cowpea in relation to their binding strength.

    Kopittke, Peter M; Blamey, F Pax C; McKenna, Brigid A; Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W

    2011-08-01

    Metal phytotoxicity is important in both environmental and agricultural systems. A solution culture study examined the toxicity of 26 metals to roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.); new data were collected for 15 metals and published data for 11 metals. Metal toxicity, calculated as causing a 50% reduction in root elongation rate, was determined based on either the measured concentration in the bulk solution (EC50(b)) or the calculated activity at the outer surface of the plasma membrane (EA50(0)°). The EC50(b) values ranged from 0.007 µM for Tl to 98,000 µM for K, with the order of rhizotoxicity to cowpea, from most to least toxic, being Tl = Ag > Cu > Hg = Ni = Ga = Ru = In > Sc = Cd = Gd = La = Co = Cs = Pb > Zn = Al = H > Mn > Ba = Sr > Li > Mg > Ca = Na > K. The EA50(0)° values suggest that the binding of metals to hard ligands is an important, general, nonspecific mechanism of toxicity, a hypothesis supported by the similar toxicity symptoms to roots of cowpea by many metals. However, additional mechanisms, such as strong binding to soft ligands, substantially increase rhizotoxicity of some metals, especially Tl, Ag, and Cs. Besides direct toxic effects, osmotic effects or reduced activity of Ca(2+) at the outer surface of the root plasma membrane (and resultant Ca deficiency) may decrease short-term root growth. PMID:21538487

  18. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  19. Diversity patterns of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with rhizosphere of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Benin, West Africa

    Johnson, J. M.; Houngnandan, P.; A. Kane; Sanon, K. B.; Neyra, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of diversity and understanding factors underlying species distribution are fundamental themes in ecology. However, the diversity of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in African tropical agro-ecosystems remains weakly known. This research was carried out to assess the morphological diversity of indigenous AMF species associated with rhizosphere of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) in different agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Benin and to examine the effects of soil...

  20. Bio-efficacy of gamma irradiation against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus L. infesting cowpea seeds

    The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus is an important pest of cowpea in storage. It has cosmopolitan distribution with wide host range and also has different strains. It causes 20-60 per cent losses during storage of cowpea. Hazardous environmental effects posed by the chemicals used for its management necessitate the need for an alternative ecofriendly strategy to control the insect. Gamma irradiation seems to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free, ecofriendly strategy. The experimental insect, C. maculatus was reared on the cowpea seeds under controlled conditions (28±1℃ and 65±5% RH). The freshly emerged adults (about 24-36 h of age) were exposed in very fine thin polythene envelops to gamma radiation at different doses viz., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy using Cobalt-60 Gamma irradiation facility at Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India. The parameters observed included adult mortality, longevity, fecundity of the survivors and adult emergence in F1 generation. Dose dependent insect mortality was observed with immediate mortality at higher doses. High mortality was observed within 24 hour of irradiation. However, complete mortality resulted within five days of irradiation at 600 and 800 Gy as compared to 12 days in control. Adult longevity decreased with increase in radiation dose. The mean longevity decreased from 6.00 days in control to 2.48 days at the highest dose. The eggs laid by the treated adult beetles did not develop into the adults of next generation. Much higher doses were required to kill the adult while the complete sterility (100% sterility) was found even at the lowest dose of 25 Gy. Thus, gamma irradiation has potential to be used as an eco-friendly mitigation measure against C. maculatus. (author)

  1. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  2. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  3. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  4. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  5. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  6. Corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea, Spring 2008

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is with preemergence and some postemergence herbicides, but recently fresh market...

  7. Pretreatment with nitric oxide reduces lead toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.

    Sadeghipour Omid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is one of the most important toxic heavy metals that reduce plant growth and development. Therefore, finding compounds that can alleviate the toxic effects of Pb is necessary. Nitric oxide (NO is a signaling molecule that plays important roles in different physiological processes in plants, such as the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenously applied NO on Pb stress tolerance in cowpea. Seeds were soaked at various concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; NO donor (0, 0.5 and 1 mM for 20 h, and then sown in pots containing 0 or 200 mg kg-1 Pb (NO32. The obtained results showed that Pb stress significantly reduced the chlorophyll value, relative water content (RWC and net photosynthetic rate, but increased lipid peroxidation, proline content and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR activities. Nonetheless, different levels of NO significantly lowered Pb toxicity by further increasing SOD, CAT, APX and GR activities as well as proline accumulation. NO pretreatment also raised the chlorophyll value, RWC and net photosynthetic rate but reduced lipid peroxidation. Both NO levels (0.5 and 1 mM were effective in Pb stress tolerance; however, 0.5 mM was more effective. These results indicate that NO pretreatment plays an important role in protecting cowpea plants against Pb toxicity by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities and proline accumulation.

  8. Thermal stability of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in african cowpea leaves ( Vigna unguiculata ) of different maturities.

    Wawire, Michael; Oey, Indrawati; Mathooko, Francis; Njoroge, Charles; Shitanda, Douglas; Hendrickx, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Cowpea, an African leafy vegetable ( Vigna unguiculata ), contains a high level of vitamin C. The leaves harvested at 4-9 weeks are highly prone to vitamin C losses during handling and processing. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO), total vitamin C content (l-ascorbic acid, l-AA), and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) and l-AA/DHAA ratio in cowpea leaves harvested at different maturities (4, 6, and 8 weeks old). The results showed that AAO activity, total vitamin C content, and l-AA/DHAA ratio in cowpea leaves increased with increasing maturity (up to 8 weeks). Eight-week-old leaves were the best source of total vitamin C and showed a high ratio of l-AA/DHAA (4:1). Thermal inactivation of AAO followed first-order reaction kinetics. Heating at temperatures above 90 °C for short times resulted in a complete AAO inactivation, resulting in a protective effect of l-AA toward enzyme-catalyzed oxidation. Total vitamin C in young leaves (harvested at 4 and 6 weeks) was predominantly in the form of DHAA, and therefore temperature treatment at 30-90 °C for 10 min decreased the total vitamin C content, whereas total vitamin C in 8-week-old cowpea leaves was more than 80% in the form of l-AA, so that a high retention of the total vitamin C can be obtained even after heating and/or reheating (30-90 °C for 10 min) before consumption. The results indicated that the stability of total vitamin C in situ was strongly dependent on the plant maturity stage and the processing conditions applied. PMID:21309563

  9. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  10. Proteomics changes during the incompatible interaction between cowpea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz and Sacc.

    Moura, Hudson Fernando N; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Silva, Fredy D A; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Lobo, Marina D P; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moura, Arlindo A; Costa, José H; Oliveira, José Tadeu A

    2014-03-01

    Anthracnose represents an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] caused by the hemibiothrophic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that drastically reduces cowpea field production. In this study we investigated some biochemical aspects underlying the incompatible interaction between a resistant cowpea genotype and C. gloeosporioides using a proteomic approach. Analyses of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns and protein identification indicate C. gloeosporioides infection-dependent cowpea leaf proteome changes associated with metabolism, photosynthesis, response to stress, oxidative burst and scavenging, defense signaling, and pathogenesis-related proteins. Moreover the C. gloeosporioides responsive proteins interaction network in cowpea revealed the interconnected modulation of key cellular processes involving particularly antioxidants proteins, photosynthetic apparatus forming proteins and proteins of the energetic metabolism that interact with each other suggesting that their expression changes are also important for resistance of cowpea to C. gloeosporioides. PMID:24467908

  11. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}

    PHIL DOBIE

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

  12. The Effects of High Temperature on Infection by Potato virus Y, Potato virus A, and Potato leafroll virus.

    Chung, Bong Nam; Canto, Tomas; Tenllado, Francisco; Choi, Kyung San; Joa, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Kim, Chun Hwan; Do, Ki Seck

    2016-08-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on acquisition of Potato virus Y-O (PVY-O), Potato virus A (PVA), and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae by performing transmission tests with aphids that acquired each virus at different temperatures. Infection by PVY-O/PVA and PLRV increased with increasing plant temperature in Nicotiana benthamiana and Physalis floridana, respectively, after being transmitted by aphids that acquired them within a temperature range of 10-20°C. However, infection rates subsequently decreased. Direct qRT-PCR of RNA extracted from a single aphid showed that PLRV infection increased in the 10-20°C range, but this trend also declined shortly thereafter. We examined the effect of temperature on establishment of virus infection. The greatest number of plants became infected when N. benthamiana was held at 20°C after inoculation with PVY-O or PVA. The largest number of P. floridana plants became infected with PLRV when the plants were maintained at 25°C. PLRV levels were highest in P. floridana kept at 20-25°C. These results indicate that the optimum temperatures for proliferation of PVY-O/PVA and PLRV differed. Western blot analysis showed that accumulations of PVY-O and PVA coat proteins (CPs) were lower at 10°C or 15°C than at 20°C during early infection. However, accumulation increased over time. At 25°C or 30°C, the CPs of both viruses accumulated during early infection but disappeared as time passed. Our results suggest that symptom attenuation and reduction of PVY-O and PVA CP accumulation at higher temperatures appear to be attributable to increased RNA silencing. PMID:27493607

  13. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  14. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    Cheung Foo; Chipumuro Edmond; Bokowiec Marta T; Laudeman Thomas W; Rushton Paul J; Timko Michael P; Town Christopher D; Chen Xianfeng

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major...

  15. Genetic analysis of abiotic and biotic resistance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is a most versatile African crop, it feeds people, their livestock and because of its ability in nitrogen-fixation, it improves soil fertility, and consequently helps to increase the yields of cereal crops when grown in rotation and contributes to the sustainability of cropping systems. Because of its ability to tolerate some level of drought stress, cowpea is a crop of choice where > 10 million hectares are cultivated to cowpea in the semiarid Savanna...

  16. Possible Involvement of Phage-Like Structures in Antagonism of Cowpea Rhizobia by Rhizobium trifolii

    Joseph, M. V.; Desai, J D; Desai, A J

    1985-01-01

    A reduction in the viability of cowpea rhizobia was observed when Rhizobium trifolii IARI and cowpea Rhizobium strain 3824 were inoculated together in soil. The reduction in number of cowpea rhizobia in soil was found to be associated with the reduction in number of nodules per plant and retardation in plant growth. An antimicrobial substance was isolated from R. trifolii which, on electron microscopic investigation, demonstrated the presence of several phage-like structures.

  17. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS) India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus ro...

  18. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  19. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Xiong, Haizheng; Shi, Ainong; Mou, Beiquan; Qin, Jun; Motes, Dennis; Lu, Weiguo; Ma, Jianbing; Weng, Yuejin; Yang, Wei; Wu, Dianxing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of cowpea was analyzed, and the population structure was estimated in a diverse set of 768 cultivated cowpea genotypes from the USDA GRIN cowpea collection, originally collected from 56 countries. Genotyping by sequencing was used to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cowpea and the identified SNP alleles were used to estimate the level of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to detect the gene pool structure of cowpea and to determine its relationship between different regions and countries. Based on the model-based ancestry analysis, the phylogenetic tree, and the principal component analysis, three well-differentiated genetic populations were postulated from 768 worldwide cowpea genotypes. According to the phylogenetic analyses between each individual, region, and country, we may trace the accession from off-original, back to the two candidate original areas (West and East of Africa) to predict the migration and domestication history during the cowpea dispersal and development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of the genetic variation and relationship between globally cultivated cowpea genotypes. The results will help curators, researchers, and breeders to understand, utilize, conserve, and manage the collection for more efficient contribution to international cowpea research. PMID:27509049

  20. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies. PMID:26758200

  1. Antagonistic effects of soybean viruses on soybean aphid performance.

    Donaldson, Jack R; Gratton, Claudio

    2007-08-01

    Although there is long-standing recognition that pest complexes require different management approaches than individual pests, relatively little research has explored how pests interact. In particular, little is known of how herbivorous insects and plant pathogens interact when sharing the same host plant. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Mastumura, a recently introduced pest of soybean in the upper midwestern United States, and a complex of plant viruses vectored to soybean by insects have become a major concern for growers in the region. Given the abundance of soybean aphid and the increase in virus incidence in recent years, soybean aphids often use soybean infected by plant viral pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that soybean aphid performance is affected by virus infection of soybean plants. We conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments that examined how infection of soybeans with the common plant viruses, alfalfa mosaic, soybean mosaic, and bean pod mottle viruses, influenced soybean aphid performance. Soybean plants (in the field and laboratory) were hand inoculated with individual viruses, and aphids were allowed to colonize plants naturally in field experiments or added to the plants in clip-cages or within mesh bags in laboratory assays. In the field, aphid density on uninfected control soybean plants was nearly double that on infected plants. In laboratory assays, aphid population growth rates were on average 20% lower for aphids on virus infected compared with uninfected plants. Life table analyses showed that increased mortality on virus-infected plants likely explain differences in aphid population growth. Although there was some heterogeneity in the significance of treatment effects among different experiments, when independent experiments are taken together, there is on average an overall negative effect of these viruses on soybean aphids. PMID:17716484

  2. Root N turnover in cowpea-millet rotation

    The contribution of N from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to a succeeding millet crop grown in rotation was studied in 15 kg soil pot culture using the 15N isotope. The proportion of N in the roots differed significantly between cowpea varieties, ranging between 19.4 and 31.6%, but was not related to the N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa), which ranged between 885.4 and 1346.2 mg N/pot. Of the four varieties of cowpea, TN7575-80 and KVX309-66 had a positive N balance of 73.3 and 25.5 mg/pot, respectively, and TN3-78 and TN88-63 had a negative N balance of 15 and 108 mg/pot, respectively. The N balance was not related to the N yield or Ndfa, but was related to the proportion of N found in the roots - varieties with a high proportion of N in their roots had a positive N balance and varieties with a low proportion of N in their roots had a negative N balance. Fallowed soil gave the highest millet shoot dry weight (50.7 g/pot) and N yield (437.7 mg/pot). The soil planted with the four cowpea varieties had a significantly higher shoot dry matter and N yield in the subsequent millet crop than the soil planted with millet. The percentage and amount of N derived from the roots (Ndfr) or the preceding crop was higher for cowpea than for millet, and was positively correlated with Ndfa, indicating the importance of fixing legumes in crop rotations. The percentage recovery of root N was quite low, ranging between 3.9 for millet and 23.2 for the cowpea variety TN3-78. It is concluded that residual root N is not important as a source of N for a succeeding cereal crop in a rotation but it is maintaining a favourable soil N balance. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using 15N2 and allopurinol

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed [15N]xanthine from 15N2 at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible 15N -labeling of asparagine from 15N2 was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery

  4. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  5. Effect of Transforming Viruses on Molecular Mechanisms Associated With Cancer

    DAYARAM, TAJHAL; Marriott, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Viruses have been linked to approximately 20% of all human tumors worldwide. These transforming viruses encode viral oncoproteins that interact with cellular proteins to enhance viral replication. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects of these viral oncoproteins ultimately result in cellular transformation. Historically, viral research has been vital to the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors with more current research aiding in unraveling some mechanisms of carcinogen...

  6. In Vitro Antiviral Effect of "Nanosilver" on Influenza Virus

    P Mehrbod

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered by world health authorities. Small particles of silver have a long history as general antiseptic and disinfectant. Silver does not induce resistance in microorganisms and this ability in Nano-size is stronger. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to determine antiviral effects of Nanosilver against influenza virus. TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose of the virus as well as CC50 (50% Cytotoxic Concentration of Nanosilver was obtained by MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Sigma method. This compound was non-toxic to MDCK (Madin-Darbey Canin Kidney cells at concentration up to 1 µg/ml.  Effective minimal cytotoxic concentration and 100 TCID50 of the virus were added to the confluent cells.  Inhibitory effects of Nanosilver on the virus and its cytotoxicity were assessed at different temperatures using Hemagglutination (HA assay, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, and DIF (Direct Immunofluorescent. RT-PCR and free band densitometry software were used to compare the volume of the PCR product bands on the gel. Results and Discussion:  In this study it was found that Nanosilver has destructive effect on the virus membrane glycoprotein knobs as well as the cells.

  7. Restriction of virus infection by plants. Final report, July 1, 1987--June 30, 1992

    Bruening, G.

    1992-12-31

    The basis of genotypic resistance of the Arlington line of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) against cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been attributed, to an inhibitor of the processing of CPMV polyproteins. We sought to purify the protein that is postulated to be the inhibitor of polyprotein processing and to characterize the inhibitor and its gene. Such information can be the basis for engineering resistance to specific viruses in plants. In studies with cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) we sought understanding of the biochemical basis of the resistance.

  8. Radiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds contaminated by Callosobruchus maculatus

    Development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) can be prevented by sterilization of the adult forms and destruction of the eggs, larvae and pupae using an ionizing treatment at doses less than 100 Gy, without causing unfavorable nutritional consequences. Storage of these cowpea seeds in polyethylene bags of a thickness greater than 100 micrometer avoids all recontamination by this weevil. Economically, the irradiation of such a foodstuff would certainly be worthwhile in Senegal on the condition that the ionizing treatment would also be profitable for other foodstuffs harvested locally, so as to attain a satisfactory utilization rate for the industrial plant which would be set up in this country

  9. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    Xu Junzeng; Peng Shizhang; Luo Yufeng; Jiao Xiyun

    2008-01-01

    With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001) and cowpea (2004) crop evapotranspiration (ETc) in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the tempe...

  10. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  11. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  12. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.Most farmers in West Africa have few possibilities to treat the beans and they face their stored supply

  13. Mobilization of a Sym plasmid from a fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium strain.

    Morrison, N.A.; Cen, Y H; Chen, H.C.; Plazinski, J; Ridge, R; Rolfe, B G

    1984-01-01

    A large Sym plasmid from a fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium species was made mobilizable by cointegration with plasmid pSUP1011, which carries the oriT region of RP4. This mobilizable Sym plasmid was transferred to a number of Rhizobium strains, in which nodulation and nitrogen fixation functions for symbiosis with plants of the cowpea group were expressed.

  14. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf p

  15. Identification of markers associated with bacterial blight resistance loci in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.; Fatokun, C.A.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Wydra, K.; Diop, N.N.; Muchero, W.; Ehlers, J.D.; Roberts, P.A.; Close, T.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpea bacterial blight (CoBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola (Xav), is a worldwide major disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Among different strategies to control the disease including cultural practices, intercropping, application of chemicals, and sowing pathogen-fr

  16. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea

  17. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    Sun Young Yin; Hyoung Jin Kim; Hong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extr...

  18. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

    He Wen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1. Results Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. Conclusion The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.

  19. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

  20. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

  1. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    Sun Young Yin

    Full Text Available Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1. We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases.

  2. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the factors that predict caregivers' intention to give them to schoolchildren.

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed biochemical analysis on 14 landraces of cowpeas and assessed the opinion of 120 caregiver-child pairs on constructs based on the combined model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model. We used correlations and multiple regressions to measure simple associations between constructs and identify predictive constructs. Cowpea landraces contained iron and zinc in the range of 4.9-8.2 mg/100 g d.w and 2.7-4.1 mg/100 g d.w respectively. The landraces also contained high amounts of phytate (477-1110 mg/100 g d.w and polyphenol (327-1055 mg/100 g d.w. Intention of mothers was strongly associated (rs = 0.72, P<0.001 with and predicted (β = 0.63, P<0.001 behaviour. The constructs, barriers (β = -0.42, P = 0.001 and attitudes towards behaviour (β = 0.25, P<0.028, significantly predicted intention albeit the predictive ability of the model was weak. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that some cowpea landraces from northern Ghana have appreciable amounts of iron and zinc but probably with poor bioavailability. Attitudes towards giving cowpeas and perception of barriers are important predictors of caregivers' intention to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Finally our results suggest that increasing knowledge on nutritional benefits of cowpeas may increase health values caregivers hold for their children in support of giving cowpeas to schoolchildren.

  3. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  4. Chickpea and cowpea grain improvement using mutation and other advanced genetic techniques

    The use of genetic engineering methodologies in breeding programmes seems to be very promising to find new resistance-related genes present in other phyla, to clone and transfer them into plants; and, to shorten the time to obtain an improved genotype since only a single gene is involved in this process. The main ''bottle-neck'' to apply this scheme in chickpea and cowpea is the absence of a reliable protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation. In this frame, following some pilot experiments on these grain legumes to induce regeneration and gene transfer, we attempted to find a regeneration medium, assay the effect of different hormones on young tissues; and, to select the best procedures for transfer of genes into the plant genome

  5. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit. PMID:27323025

  6. The Incidence, Severity and Occurrence of Four Viruses Infecting Pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Southern Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological Zone of Nigeria

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence, severity and occurrence of four viruses infecting pepper were determined in Kwara State, Nigeria. A disease survey and antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA were the tools deployed to achieve these objectives. The survey indicated the highest virus incidence (97% in four locations, and the lowest incidence (16% in three locations, with variations in severity scores. Th e ELISA result indicated the occurrence of all four viruses with the highest percentage occurrence of virus in the samples as follows: Pepper veinal mottle virus (36.3%, Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (16.2%, Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (7.4%, and Cucumber mosaic virus in the locations (4.8%. The results indicate the prevalence of these viruses on pepper in the Southern Guinea savannah agroecological zone and therefore the need for constant studies to detect other viruses that limit pepper production.

  7. Identification and comparative analysis of drought-associated microRNAs in two cowpea genotypes

    Roberts Philip A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important crop in arid and semi-arid regions and is a good model for studying drought tolerance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to play critical roles in plant stress responses, but drought-associated miRNAs have not been identified in cowpea. In addition, it is not understood how miRNAs might contribute to different capacities of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes. Results We generated deep sequencing small RNA reads from two cowpea genotypes (CB46, drought-sensitive, and IT93K503-1, drought-tolerant that grew under well-watered and drought stress conditions. We mapped small RNA reads to cowpea genomic sequences and identified 157 miRNA genes that belong to 89 families. Among 44 drought-associated miRNAs, 30 were upregulated in drought condition and 14 were downregulated. Although miRNA expression was in general consistent in two genotypes, we found that nine miRNAs were predominantly or exclusively expressed in one of the two genotypes and that 11 miRNAs were drought-regulated in only one genotype, but not the other. Conclusions These results suggest that miRNAs may play important roles in drought tolerance in cowpea and may be a key factor in determining the level of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes.

  8. Effect of Radiation on the Functions of Carcinogenic Viruses

    When carcinogenic viruses are irradiated under suitable experimental conditions with ultra-violet rays or ionizing radiation, the various viral functions can be dissociated and virions defective in certain functions can be obtained. These defects are real mutations; they are passed on to subsequent generations provided the virions affected remain capable of reproduction. It has been possible to obtain various types of mutant, e.g. hyper producers of virions, non-productive transformers, non-transforming producers. The production of these mutants opens up certain experimental possibilities with regard to the transformation mechanism and the possible consequences of irradiation in vivo. Attention will be devoted in particular to the increased oncogenic capability in vivo which is sometimes observed in pre-irradiated viruses, and also to the consequences of this effect in the radiotherapy of certain malignant infections. These studies are also of interest for analysing the structure of the viral genome and throwing light on that fraction of the genome which is responsible for the transforming capacity. In the case of small viruses with a single DNA molecule (polyoma, SV-40) it has been possible to measure the fraction of the molecule responsible for the transforming capacity. In the case of the Rous virus the experiments suggest that the viral RNA is made up of sub-units capable of independent replication, the transforming capacity being possessed by only one of these sub-units. The induced defect may reveal the presence of transforming capacity in a virus considered as non- oncogenic because the transformed cells are usually eliminated by the infective process. In this way irradiation could render carcinogenic a virus which is not carcinogenic under normal conditions. The paper covers work done at the various viral radiobiology laboratories of the Radium Institute during the last two years. (author)

  9. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25524889

  10. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops. PMID:25729958

  11. Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures

    Silvina R Drago

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación. Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante altoIn the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nutrients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

  12. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch in Medicago truncatula

    Kamphuis Lars G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis using a F2 population (n = 150 from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. Conclusions The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

  13. More Effective Purifying Selection on RNA Viruses than in DNA Viruses

    Hughes, Austin L.; Hughes, Mary Ann K.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the pattern of nucleotide diversity in 222 independent viral sequence datasets showed the prevalence of purifying selection. In spite of the higher mutation rate of RNA viruses, our analyses revealed stronger evidence of the action of purifying selection in RNA viruses than in DNA viruses. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide diversity was significantly lower in RNA viruses than in DNA viruses, indicating that nonsynonymous mutations have been removed at a greater r...

  14. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped

  15. Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki on a broad range of viruses.

    Kyoko Ueda

    Full Text Available Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus. We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses.

  16. Some characters of vacuum-uv effects on Sendai virus

    Taking advantage of having assay techniques for various functions located in nucleocapside (infectivity) and in the envelope (hemagglutination, neuraminidase activity and hemolysis), effects of vacuum-uv radiation on Sendai virus were investigated. Monochromatic 163-nm photons from a bromine discharge lamp and polychromatic synchrotron radiation with wave-lengths longer than 115 nm from the electron storage ring were used as the vacuum-uv sources. Irradiation was performed in vacuum (dry) and in aqueous suspension (wet). For comparison the viruses were irradiated with far-uv radiation (254 nm). While the far-uv radiation affected only infectivity, the vacuum-uv radiation affected the infectivity and other virus functions as well. SDS-electrophoretic behaviors after irradiation in dry state indicated that vacuum-uv radiation caused uniform damage over several polypeptide components. The pattern was more similar to that of γ-rays previously studied. These results may be related to the fact that far-uv photons are absorbed predominantly in viral nucleic acids while vacuum-uv photons are absorbed more or less uniformly by various virus components. In the irradiation in suspension some difference was noted between vacuum-uv and γ-radiations. (author)

  17. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission.

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G

    2015-10-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises. PMID:26512988

  18. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China. PMID:26429578

  19. Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Cowpea Hulls: A Kinetic Study

    Chioma M. Onyelucheya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dilute acid hydrolysis of cowpea hulls was carried out in two stages under the following conditions: pre-hydrolysis (4%v/v H2SO4, 121˚C, 30 minutes and hydrolysis ( at 10% and 15% v/v H2SO4,varied at different temperatures 150 oC, 160 oC, 170 oC and 180 oC for 2.5 hrs.. The substrate was characterized using both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proximate analysis. The percentage lignocellulosic composition of the substrate was obtained for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as 34%, 14% and 4.7% respectively. Maximum glucose concentration of 8.09g was obtained using 10%v/v acid concentration at 170˚C after a reaction time of 90min. Saeman’s model gave a good fit for the experimental data. Activation energy for glucose formation using 10%v/v and 15%v/v H2SO4 was obtained as 38.28KJ and 82.204KJ respectively. From the results obtained it can be concluded that cowpea hulls can be converted to a useful product.

  20. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    The virucidal effect of 60Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  1. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  2. EFFECT OF NATURAL VIRUS INFECTION ON QUALITY AND YIELD OF GARLIC ELITE LINES

    Pérez-Moreno L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic crops are naturally infested by virus complexes of genus Potyvirus and Carlavirus. Infection of these virus reduced garlic production, especially at Guanajuato state, Mexico. In present study, the effect of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV, Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV, Shallot latent virus (SLV, and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV complex virus on garlic (Taiwan type quality and yield lose was evaluated. This assessment was carried out during the Fall-Winter 2007-2008 period. The virus frequency detected in garlic infected plants was 73.5% for SLV, 60.8% for LYSV, 50.9% for GCLV, and 48.2% for OYDV. In present study, some garlic lines were identified, which despite of being single or mixed virus infected, and had the greatest bulb yield and agronomic characteristics. These results open the possibility to recommend the formation of garlic elite lines, which might reach the greatest yields, for Mexico and other countries.

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of conventional insecticides against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), on four different substrata surfaces%四种基质表面上常规杀虫剂对四纹豆象的药效评价

    Vahid MAHDAVI; Moosa SABER; Samad VOJOUDI

    2012-01-01

    In pest management programs,the control of pests in structural facilities or sites,where processed food products are consumed or stored,requires the application of insecticides upon a variety of substrate surfaces. In order to determine the insecticidal effectiveness on different substrate surfaces,adults of the cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus ( F.),were exposed to field recommended concentrations of chlorpyrifos, abamectin and deltamethrin insecticides. The results showed that abamectin caused mortality rates of 63.33%,22.41%,12.9% and 11.9% while deltamethrin caused mortality rates of 55%,44.2%,41.3% and 37.4% on glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces,respectively.Exposures to chlorpyrifos led to 100% mortality in all surfaces.Probit analysis of data showed that LC50 values were 8.66,13.6,29.16 and 56.5 μg/mL for chlorpyrifos,119.4,446.2,774.2 and 836.4 μg/mL for abamectin,and 1008,1131,1210 and 1336 μg/mL for deltamethrin on the glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces,respectively,based on formulated materials.It is concluded that chlorpyrifos is the most toxic insecticide to the cowpea weevil,but that its toxicity was reduced in the glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces in sequence.%在害虫治理中,在消费或贮藏粮食加工产品的建筑设施或场所进行害虫防治需要将杀虫剂施用在各种基质表面上.为了测定不同基质表面上杀虫剂的药效,将四纹豆象Callosobruchus maculatus(F.)成虫接触田间推荐剂量的阿维菌素、溴氰菊酯和毒死蜱.结果表明:施用在玻璃、瓷砖、塑料和纸盘表面上,阿维菌素对四纹豆象成虫的致死率分别为63.33%,22.41%,12.9%和11.9%,而溴氰菊酯在这4种基质表面上对四纹豆象成虫的致死率分别为55%,44.2%,41.3%和37.4%.在所有基质表面上接触毒死蜱,四纹豆象成虫的死亡率均为100%.对数据进行的Probit分析表明,毒死

  4. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  5. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus and Achyranthus aspera were used against the post harvest fungal mycoflora. All the plants used were found to be antifungal. In particular Eucalyptus globulus, Argemone mexicana, Tridax procumbens and Parthenium hysterophorus were highly inhibitory. These plant extracts can be used for controlling fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes during post harvest as these are eco-friendly and do not cause environmental hazard.

  6. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented la

  7. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  8. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  9. Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation

    E.A. Akinrinde; L. Iroh; G.O. Obigbesan; Hilger, T.; Neumann, G; V. Romheld

    2006-01-01

    Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al) toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0) with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contras...

  10. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    Kamphuis, Lars G.; Gao, Lingling; Singh, Karam B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Researc...