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Sample records for cowpea viruses effect

  1. Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo MA; Kareem KT

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculating three cowpea cultivars: "OLO II", "OLOYIN" and IT86D-719 with three unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars at 10 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Generally, the growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were s...

  2. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsa Imade Y

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White" and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76 were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.

  3. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Moni A; Kareem, Kehinde T; Nsa, Imade Y; D'A Hughes, Jackies

    2007-01-01

    Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI) and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm) of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP) apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control. PMID:17900355

  4. Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, KT; Taiwo, MA

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculating three cowpea cultivars: "OLO II", "OLOYIN" and IT86D-719 with three unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars at 10 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Generally, the growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were significantly higher than those of the virus inoculated plants. Inoculation of plants at an early age of 10 DAP resulted in more severe effect than inoculations at a later stage of 30 DAP. The average values of plant height and number of leaves produced by plants inoculated 30 DAP were higher than those produced by plants inoculated 10 DAP. Most of the plants inoculated 10 DAP died and did not produce seeds. However, " OLOYIN" cultivar was most tolerant and produced reasonable yields when infected 30 DAP. The effect of single viruses on growth and yield of cultivars showed that CABMV caused more severe effects in IT86D-719, SBMV had the greatest effect on "OLO II" while CMeV induced the greatest effect on "OLOYIN". Yield was greatly reduced in double infections involving CABMV in combination with either CMeV or SBMV in "OLOYIN" and "OLO II", however, there was complete loss in yield of IT86D-719. Triple infection led to complete yield loss in all the three cultivars. PMID:17286870

  5. Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo MA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculating three cowpea cultivars: "OLO II", "OLOYIN" and IT86D-719 with three unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV, genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars at 10 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Generally, the growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were significantly higher than those of the virus inoculated plants. Inoculation of plants at an early age of 10 DAP resulted in more severe effect than inoculations at a later stage of 30 DAP. The average values of plant height and number of leaves produced by plants inoculated 30 DAP were higher than those produced by plants inoculated 10 DAP. Most of the plants inoculated 10 DAP died and did not produce seeds. However, " OLOYIN" cultivar was most tolerant and produced reasonable yields when infected 30 DAP. The effect of single viruses on growth and yield of cultivars showed that CABMV caused more severe effects in IT86D-719, SBMV had the greatest effect on "OLO II" while CMeV induced the greatest effect on "OLOYIN". Yield was greatly reduced in double infections involving CABMV in combination with either CMeV or SBMV in "OLOYIN" and "OLO II", however, there was complete loss in yield of IT86D-719. Triple infection led to complete yield loss in all the three cultivars.

  6. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  7. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsa, Imade Y.; Kareem, Kehinde T.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar “White” and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar “White” was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures. PMID:26483824

  8. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robson Marcelo, Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de, Novaes; Sérgio Florentino, Pascholati.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente [...] estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushroom [...] s significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.

  9. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor.

  10. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus / Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislanne Brito, Barros; Maria do Socorro da Rocha, Nogueira; Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de, Oliveira; Francisco Rodrigues, Freire Filho; Valdenir Queiroz, Ribeiro; Carlos Frederico de Menezes, Veiga; Paulo Sérgio Torres, Brioso; Marcelo, Eiras.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijã [...] o-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants show [...] ing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

  11. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  12. Endothelial Targeting of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) via Surface Vimentin

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Plummer, Emily M; Trauger, Sunia A.; Siuzdak, Gary; Manchester, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via in...

  13. Cowpea mosaic virus RNA-1 acts as an amplicon whose effects can be counteracted by a RNA-2-encoded suppressor of silencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lines of Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic for full-length copies of both Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) genomic RNAs, either singly or together, have been produced. Plants transgenic for both RNAs developed symptoms characteristic of a CPMV infection. When plants transgenic for RNA-1 were agro-inoculated with RNA-2, no infection developed and the plants were also resistant to challenge with CPMV. By contrast, plants transgenic for RNA-2 became infected when agro-inoculated with RNA-1 and were fully susceptible to CPMV infection. The resistance of RNA-1 transgenic plants was shown to be related to the ability of RNA-1 to self-replicate and act as an amplicon. The ability of transgenically expressed RNA-2 to counteract the amplicon effect suggested that it encodes a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). By examining the ability of portions of RNA-2 to reverse PTGS in N. benthamiana, we have identified the small (S) coat protein as the CPMV RNA-2-encoded suppressor of PTGS

  14. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de Novaes; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus....

  15. Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi / Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iraildes P., Assunção; Liliane R., M.-Filho; Luciane V., Resende; Márcia C. S., Barros; Gaus S. A., Lima; Rildo Sartori B., Coelho; J. Albérsio A., Lima.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe m [...] osaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes promissoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSM [...] V), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

  16. Templated mineralization by charge-modified cowpea mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A A; Evans, David J

    2014-01-01

    Templated mineralization of virus particles provides routes to narrowly dispersed nanoparticles that are not readily prepared by other means. The templated mineralization of metal or metal oxide on the external surface of wild-type cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant virus, is facilitated by increasing the external surface negative charge. This is achieved by the chemical modification of surface lysine groups by succinic anhydride. Hence, for example, treatment of charge-modified CPMV succinamate with a 1:2 mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) salts, followed by raising the pH to 10.2, led to the formation of narrowly dispersed, CPMV-templated, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. PMID:24243242

  17. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbach, R W; Krijt, J.

    1982-01-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

  18. EFFECT OF EFFLUENT WATER ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF COWPEA APHID, APHIS CRACCIVORA KOCH (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE), ON COWPEA PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    S.O. Tshwenyane; NKETSO T.H.; TIROESELE B.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) is an important legume grown in Botswana and the main yield losses incurred are from cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch). Agriculture in Botswana is hampered by limitation in water resources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of effluent water on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth. This was randomized completely block design pot experiment conducted under net shade environment. Four treatments of 100%, 60%, 30% of effluent di...

  19. Effect of Basalin on Cowpea Rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalin (5-Propyl-B-(2-chloroethyl) 2,6 dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl aniline) is a selective pre-emergence herbicide used for the control of common weeds in cultivated fields in India. The dehydrogenase activity in a red loamy. soil and in cowpea rhizosphere incorporated with various concentrations of Basalin viz., 0 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, over a period of 8 weeks incubation was studied following the method of Klein et al. (1971). There was no significant effect of Basalin on the dehydrogenase activity at the recommended level of application, i.e. 2 ppm. However, there was reduction in dehydrogenase activity at the higher levels of Basalin. This decrease in dehydrogenase activity was found to be correlated with a decrease in bacterial actinomycete and fungal plate counts

  20. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada. As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua forma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88 do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas.SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved. The capsid proteins, in their native form, were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were used for subcutaneous immunization. The mucosal immune response was detected by the cellular proliferation of the Peyer's patches of mice immunized by oral route with CPSMV. It was demonstrated that CPSMV induces immune response, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies, when administered in the native form by the oral and nasal routes or with two denatured capsid proteins by the subcutaneous route. The use of adjuvants in the oral and nasal immunizations was not necessary. The 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were responsible for the immunogenicity of the virus, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies detected by ELISA test. The cellular proliferation analysis of the Peyer's patches revealed an increase (r=0.88 of leucocytes along 42 days after immunization. The results reinforce the possibility of the use of CPSMV as a safe vector of antigens for human/animal diseases of low immunogenicity for the production of vaccines.

  1. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) / Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Evando Aguiar, Beserra Júnior; Márcia Maria Mendes, Marques; Beatriz Meireles, Barguil; Carlos Alberto Furtado, Lopes Junior; Maria Izabel Florindo, Guedes.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa) e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada). As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua f [...] orma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88) do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas. Abstract in english SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa) and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved). The capsid proteins, in their native form [...] , were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were used for subcutaneous immunization. The mucosal immune response was detected by the cellular proliferation of the Peyer's patches of mice immunized by oral route with CPSMV. It was demonstrated that CPSMV induces immune response, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies, when administered in the native form by the oral and nasal routes or with two denatured capsid proteins by the subcutaneous route. The use of adjuvants in the oral and nasal immunizations was not necessary. The 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were responsible for the immunogenicity of the virus, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies detected by ELISA test. The cellular proliferation analysis of the Peyer's patches revealed an increase (r=0.88) of leucocytes along 42 days after immunization. The results reinforce the possibility of the use of CPSMV as a safe vector of antigens for human/animal diseases of low immunogenicity for the production of vaccines.

  2. Effect of Rhizobium Inoculants on Cowpea under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker P. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted under rainfed condition to study the effect of Rhizobium inoculation (with or without chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer ( 0 and 50-30-20 Kg ha -1 P2O5, K2O and S on cowpea. Two sources of biofertilizer were used. Biofertilizer showed significantly higher yield attributes and seed yield of cowpea as compared to control. Biofertilizer of BARI source gave the highest cowpea seed yield (880 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (658 Kg ha -1 was obtained without biofertilizer. No significant difference was found between the two sources of bio-fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer showed better performance than control in case of seed yield and all yield contributing characters of cowpea. Interaction of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer also showed statistically significant difference. PKS with biofertilizer of both BAU and BARI sources gave the highest seed yield (987 Kg ha -1 and the lowest seed yield (525 Kg ha -1 was obtained from control treatment. Though the highest average rate of return (4556% was found using biofertilizer of BARI source but on consideration of net return and also soil health, PKS with biofertilizer of BARI source where ARR was the second highest may be suggested for growing cowpea under rainfed condition.

  3. Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV. Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento.

  4. Identification of distinct steps during tubule formation by the movement of protein of Cowpea mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pouwels, J.; Kornet, N.; Van Bers, N.E.M.; Guighelaar, T.; van Lent, J. W. M.; Bisseling, T; Wellink, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) forms tubules through plasmodesmata in infected plants thus enabling virus particles to move from cell to cell. Localization studies of mutant MPs fused to GFP in protoplasts and plants identified several functional domains within the MP that are involved in distinct steps during tubule formation. Coinoculation experiments and the observation that one of the C-terminal deletion mutants accumulated uniformly in the plasma membrane suggest...

  5. Cowpea mosaic virus 32- and 60-kilodalton replication proteins target and change the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Carette, J.E.; van Lent, J; MacFarlance, S.A.; Wellink, J.E.; Kammen, A., van

    2002-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) replicates in close association with small membranous vesicles that are formed by rearrangements of intracellular membranes. To determine which of the viral proteins are responsible for the rearrangements of membranes and the attachment of the replication complex, we have expressed individual CPMV proteins encoded by RNA1 in cowpea protoplasts by transient expression and in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expression vector. The 3...

  6. Effect of Water and Pests Stresses on Cowpea Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abedi Koupai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of pest and water stresses on different growing stages of cowpea (Vigna sinensis and pest occurrence, an experiment was conducted in Khazaneh Research station of Isfahan University of Technology. The experiment was carried out in a factorial complete randomized block design, in two different farms, with and without insecticide application. The treatments included severe water stress (50% water requirement, moderate water stress (75% water requirement in four stages of cowpea growth, the first stage (from seed germination until flower in, second stage (from flowering until pod-filling, third stage (from pod-filling until harvesting and the whole period of cowpea growth, in three replications. There was a control treatment in each farm with no stress in the whole period of cowpea growth, in three replications. The results showed that water stress had no significant effect on percentage of protein and mineral material. Result also showed that water stress had a significant effect (P? 0.01 on population of insects. Water stress significantly (P? 0.01 reduced the population of nymphs and adults of Empoasca decipiens Paoli and leaf minor damages, but water stress increased population of Thrips tabaci Lind. Considering the duration of first stage of growth (63 days, it is concluded that this stage had less sensitivity to water stress than the other stages. In regions, where farmers encounter water shortage for cowpea planting, the best performance can be obtained when moderate water stress (75% water requirement is applied at the first stage of growth.

  7. Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors.Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Alternative conjugation strategies, agarose gel electrophoresis of CPMV and CPMV-HRP conjugates, UV-vis spectrum of HRP-ADHCPMV, agarose gel electrophoresis of GOX-ADHCPMV particles and corresponding TEM image, calibration curves for HRP-ADHCPMV and GOX-ADHCPMV, DLS data for GOX-ADHCPMV are made available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31485a

  8. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F.) and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Darfour; F.C.K. Ocloo; D.D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infeste...

  9. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  10. Complete nucleotide sequences of the coat protein messenger RNAs of brome mosaic virus and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus.

    OpenAIRE

    DasGupta, R; Kaesberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the subgenomic coat protein messengers (RNA4's) of two related bromoviruses, brome mosaic virus (BMV) and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), have been determined by direct RNA and CDNA sequencing without cloning. BMV RNA4 is 876 b long including a 5' noncoding region of nine nucleotides and a 3' noncoding region of 300 nucleotides. CCMV RNA 4 is 824 b long, including a 5' noncoding region of 10 nucleotides and a 3' noncoding region of 244 nucleotides. The encode...

  11. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Molecular variability of cowpea mild mottle virus infecting soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardo, L G; Silva, F N; Lima, A T M; Milanesi, D F; Castilho-Urquiza, G P; Almeida, A M R; Zerbini, F M; Carvalho, C M

    2014-04-01

    Molecular variability was assessed for 18 isolates of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexiviridae) found infecting soybean in various Brazilian states (Bahia, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará) in 2001 and 2010. A variety of symptoms was expressed in soybean cv. CD206, ranging from mild (crinkle/blistering leaves, mosaic and vein clearing) to severe (bud blight, dwarfing, leaf and stem necrosis). Recombination analysis revealed only one CPMMV isolate to be recombinant. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis were performed for partial genomes (ORF 2 to the 3' terminus) and for each ORF individually (ORFs 2 to 6), showing the isolates to be distinct. The topology of the phylogenetic tree could be related to symptoms, but not to the year of collection or geographical origin. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of two distinct strains of the virus, designated CPMMV-BR1 and CPMMV-BR2, with molecular variations between them. PMID:24142270

  13. The NTP-binding motif in cowpea mosaic virus B polyprotein is essential for viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S A; Verver, J; Nollen, E A; van Lent, J W; Wellink, J; van Kammen, A

    1994-11-01

    We have assessed the functional importance of the NTP-binding motif (NTBM) in the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) B-RNA-encoded 58K domain by changing two conserved amino acids within the consensus A and B sites (GKSRTGK500S and MDD545, respectively). Both Lys-500 to Thr and Asp-545 to Pro substitutions are lethal as mutant B-RNAs were no longer replicated in cowpea protoplasts. Transiently produced mutant proteins were not able to support trans-replication of CPMV M-RNA in cowpea protoplasts in contrast to transiently produced wild-type B proteins. Therefore loss of viral RNA synthesis was a result of a protein defect rather than an RNA template defect. Mutant B polyproteins were correctly processed in vitro and in vivo and the regulatory function of the 32K protein on processing of B proteins was not affected by these mutations. Since regulation of processing by the 32K protein depends on interaction with the 58K domain, the mutations in the NTBM apparently do not interfere with this interaction. The Asp-545 to Pro substitution left intact the binding properties of the 84K precursor of the 58K protein, with respect to ATP-agarose, whereas the Lys-500 to Thr substitution decreased the binding capacity of the 84K protein, suggesting that the Lys-500 residue is directly involved in ATP binding. The Lys-500 to Thr substitution in the 58K domain resulted in an altered distribution of viral proteins, which failed to aggregate into large cytopathic structures as observed in protoplasts infected with wild-type B-RNA. However viral proteins containing the Asp-545 to Pro substitution showed a normal distribution in protoplasts. PMID:7964626

  14. Infectious in vitro transcripts from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus cDNA clones and exchange of individual RNA components with brome mosaic virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, R F; Janda, M.; Ahlquist, P

    1988-01-01

    Complete cDNA copies of genomic RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) were cloned 1 base downstream from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The mixture of capped in vitro transcripts from all three clones produced normal CCMV infections in barley protoplasts and cowpea plants. By using transcripts from these clones and from a similar set of biologically active clones of the related brome mosaic virus (BMV), all possible single component exchanges between the BMV and CCMV tri...

  15. NEW METHOD FOR SCREENING COWPEA GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Germplasm line, GC-86L-98, a greenhouse screening method was developed to find potential sources of CMV resistance in the USDA cowpea germplasm collection. GC-86L-98, the first CMV-resistant cowpea germplasm line, was released by ARS in August 2001. A...

  16. Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

  17. Immune response induced in mice oral immunization with cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Florindo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the immune response induced by plant viruses since these could be used as antigen-expressing systems in vaccination procedures. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, as a purified preparation (300 g of leaves, 2 weeks post-inoculation, or crude extract from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata leaves infected with CPSMV both administered by gavage to Swiss mice induced a humoral immune response. Groups of 10 Swiss mice (2-month-old females were immunized orally with 10 daily doses of either 50 µg viral capsid protein (boosters of 50 µg at days 21 and 35 after immunization or 0.6 mg protein of the crude extract (boosters of 0.6 mg at days 21 and 35 after immunization. Anti-CPSMV antibodies were quantified by ELISA in pooled sera diluted at least 1:400 at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the 10th dose. IgG and IgA against CPSMV were produced systemically, but IgE was not detected. No synthesis of specific antibodies against the proteins of leaf extracts from V. unguiculata, infected or not with CPSMV, was detected. The use of CPSMV, a plant-infecting virus that apparently does not induce a pathogenic response in animals, induced a humoral and persistent (at least 6 months immune response through the administration of low antigen doses by gavage. These results raise the possibility of using CPSMV either as a vector for the production of vaccines against animal pathogens or in quick and easy methods to produce specific antisera for viral diagnosis.

  18. Immune response induced in mice oral immunization with cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.I., Florindo; M.E.F. de, Aragão; A.C.M. da, Silva; M.L., Otoch; D. Fernandes de, Melo; J.A.A., Lima; M.G. Silva, Lima.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the immune response induced by plant viruses since these could be used as antigen-expressing systems in vaccination procedures. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), as a purified preparation (300 g of leaves, 2 weeks post-inoculation), or crude extract from cowpea (Vig [...] na unguiculata) leaves infected with CPSMV both administered by gavage to Swiss mice induced a humoral immune response. Groups of 10 Swiss mice (2-month-old females) were immunized orally with 10 daily doses of either 50 µg viral capsid protein (boosters of 50 µg at days 21 and 35 after immunization) or 0.6 mg protein of the crude extract (boosters of 0.6 mg at days 21 and 35 after immunization). Anti-CPSMV antibodies were quantified by ELISA in pooled sera diluted at least 1:400 at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the 10th dose. IgG and IgA against CPSMV were produced systemically, but IgE was not detected. No synthesis of specific antibodies against the proteins of leaf extracts from V. unguiculata, infected or not with CPSMV, was detected. The use of CPSMV, a plant-infecting virus that apparently does not induce a pathogenic response in animals, induced a humoral and persistent (at least 6 months) immune response through the administration of low antigen doses by gavage. These results raise the possibility of using CPSMV either as a vector for the production of vaccines against animal pathogens or in quick and easy methods to produce specific antisera for viral diagnosis.

  19. Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 A. The structures and sequences of three Carmoviruses, CPMoV, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) have been compared to TBSV from the Tombusvirus genus. CPMoV, TCV, and CarMV all have a deletion in ?C strand in the S domain relative to TBSV that may be distinctive to the genus. Although CPMoV has an elongated C-terminus like TBSV, it does not interact with the icosahedrally related P domain as observed in TBSV. In CPMoV, the termini of A and B interact with the icosahedrally related shell domains of A and C, respectively, to form a chain of interactions around the 5-fold axes. The C subunit terminus does not, however, interact with the B subunit because of quasi-equivalent differences in the P domain orientations

  20. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  1. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: ? We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. ? Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ? Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. ? Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  2. Identification of distinct steps during tubule formation by the movement protein of Cowpea mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, Jeroen; Kornet, Noortje; van Bers, Nikkie; Guighelaar, Teun; van Lent, Jan; Bisseling, Ton; Wellink, Joan

    2003-12-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) forms tubules through plasmodesmata in infected plants thus enabling virus particles to move from cell to cell. Localization studies of mutant MPs fused to GFP in protoplasts and plants identified several functional domains within the MP that are involved in distinct steps during tubule formation. Coinoculation experiments and the observation that one of the C-terminal deletion mutants accumulated uniformly in the plasma membrane suggest that dimeric or multimeric MP is first targeted to the plasma membrane. At the plasma membrane the MP quickly accumulates in peripheral punctuate spots, from which tubule formation is initiated. One of the mutant MPs formed tubules containing virus particles on protoplasts, but could not support cell-to-cell movement in plants. The observations that this mutant MP accumulated to a higher level in the cell than wt MP and did not accumulate in the cell wall opposite infected cells suggest that breakdown or disassembly of tubules in neighbouring, uninfected cells is required for cell-to-cell movement. PMID:14645930

  3. Capsid protein properties of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus confirm the existence of two major subgroups of aphid-transmitted, legume-infecting potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenot, C; Furneaux, M T; Hamilton, R I

    1994-12-01

    A study of the capsid proteins of different legume-infecting potyviruses using specific monoclonal antibodies on immunoblots of crude extracts from infected plants revealed that cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) have coat protein M(r) values of 32K and 35K, respectively. Immunoblot comparisons of BICMV, peanut stripe mosaic virus (PStV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and azuki bean mosaic virus (AzMV) revealed equal reactivity of their 35K coat proteins. Similar comparisons between CAMV and the necrotic strain of BCMV (isolate NL3) showed a serological relationship between their 32K coat proteins, results providing the first evidence of a possible similarity between CAMV and BCMV NL3. Peptides from trypsin digests of the coat proteins of several of these legume-infecting potyviruses were analysed by HPLC. Comparison of the peptide profiles confirmed the serological results in distinguishing the two subgroups. Peptide profiles of coat protein from BICMV, PStV, AzMV and BCMV were almost identical, results suggesting that they could be considered as strains of one virus. In contrast, peptide profiles of various CAMV serotypes and BCMV NL3 were distinct from the first group and exhibited limited similarities to each other. PMID:7996147

  4. Evidence that the 32,000-dalton protein encoded by bottom-component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus is a proteolytic processing enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Franssen, H.; Moerman, M; Rezelman, G.; Goldbach, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Translation of middle-component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus in vitro produced two polypeptides of 95 and 105 kilodaltons (95K and 105K, respectively) with overlapping amino acid sequences, which were specifically cleaved by a protease encoded by the bottom-component RNA. The proteolytic cleavage was studied by the addition of antibodies raised against various bottom-component RNA-encoded proteins to extracts prepared from bottom-component RNA-inoculated cowpea protoplasts. Since antiserum to t...

  5. In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, P. H.; Wen, A. M.; Sheen, M. R.; Fields, J.; Rojanasopondist, P.; Steinmetz, N. F.; Fiering, S.

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to contribute to cancer immunotherapy. The ‘in situ vaccination’ immunotherapy strategy directly manipulates identified tumours to overcome local tumour-mediated immunosuppression and subsequently stimulates systemic antitumour immunity to treat metastases. We show that inhalation of self-assembling virus-like nanoparticles from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) reduces established B16F10 lung melanoma and simultaneously generates potent systemic antitumour immunity against poorly immunogenic B16F10 in the skin. Full efficacy required Il-12, Ifn-γ, adaptive immunity and neutrophils. Inhaled CPMV nanoparticles were rapidly taken up by and activated neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment as an important part of the antitumour immune response. CPMV also exhibited clear treatment efficacy and systemic antitumour immunity in ovarian, colon, and breast tumour models in multiple anatomic locations. CPMV nanoparticles are stable, nontoxic, modifiable with drugs and antigens, and their nanomanufacture is highly scalable. These properties, combined with their inherent immunogenicity and demonstrated efficacy against a poorly immunogenic tumour, make CPMV an attractive and novel immunotherapy against metastatic cancer.

  6. Swelling and softening of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus in response to pH shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Schaap, Iwan A T; Schmidt, Christoph F

    2015-05-19

    Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) forms highly elastic icosahedral protein capsids that undergo a characteristic swelling transition when the pH is raised from 5 to 7. Here, we performed nano-indentation experiments using an atomic force microscope to track capsid swelling and measure the shells' Young's modulus at the same time. When we chelated Ca(2+) ions and raised the pH, we observed a gradual swelling of the RNA-filled capsids accompanied by a softening of the shell. Control experiments with empty wild-type virus and a salt-stable mutant revealed that the softening was not strictly coupled to the swelling of the protein shells. Our data suggest that a pH increase and Ca(2+) chelation lead primarily to a loosening of contacts within the protein shell, resulting in a softening of the capsid. This appears to render the shell metastable and make swelling possible when repulsive forces among the capsid proteins become large enough, which is known to be followed by capsid disassembly at even higher pH. Thus, softening and swelling are likely to play a role during inoculation. PMID:25992732

  7. Highly sensitive determination of transient generation of biophotons during hypersensitive response to cucumber mosaic virus in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Sasaki, Kensuke; Enomoto, Masaru; Ehara, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is one mechanism of the resistance of plants to pathogen infection. It involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which have crucial roles in signal transduction or as toxic agents leading to cell death. Often, ROS generation is accompanied by an ultraweak photon emission resulting from radical reactions that are initiated by ROS through the oxidation of living materials such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. This photon emission, referred to as 'biophotons', is extremely weak, but, based on the technique of photon counting imaging, a system has been developed to analyse the spatiotemporal properties of photon emission. Using this system, the dynamics of photon emission which might be associated with the oxidative burst, which promotes the HR, have been determined. Here, the transient generation of biophotons is demonstrated during the HR process in cowpea elicited by cucumber mosaic virus. The distinctive dynamics in spatiotemporal properties of biophoton emission during the HR expression on macroscopic and microscopic levels are also described. This study reveals the involvement of ROS generation in biophoton emission in the process of HR through the determination of the inhibitory effect of an antioxidant (Tiron) on biophoton emission. PMID:17158510

  8. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI

    2011-01-01

    Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration) and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl) on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming sig...

  9. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Darfour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

  10. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

  11. Cowpea mosaic virus 32- and 60-kilodalton replication proteins target and change the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carette, Jan E; van Lent, Jan; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Wellink, Joan; van Kammen, Ab

    2002-06-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) replicates in close association with small membranous vesicles that are formed by rearrangements of intracellular membranes. To determine which of the viral proteins are responsible for the rearrangements of membranes and the attachment of the replication complex, we have expressed individual CPMV proteins encoded by RNA1 in cowpea protoplasts by transient expression and in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expression vector. The 32-kDa protein (32K) and 60K, when expressed individually, accumulate in only low amounts but are found associated with membranes mainly derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). 24K and 110K are freely soluble and accumulate to high levels. With the TRV vector, expression of 32K and 60K results in rearrangement of ER membranes. Besides, expression of 32K and 60K results in necrosis of the inoculated N. benthamiana leaves, suggesting that 32K and 60K are cytotoxic proteins. On the other hand, during CPMV infection 32K and 60K accumulate to high levels without causing necrosis. PMID:12021362

  12. Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Fumigant Effect of Some Medicinal Plant and Pirimiphos Methyl Powders against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in Stored Cowpea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. ILEKE; D. S. Bulus

    2012-01-01

    The contact toxicity and fumigant effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Anacardium occidentale (L), Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn seeds powders and Pirimiphos methyl (Actellic) dust were evaluated against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Contact toxicity assay show that A. indica and P. guineense powders have a comparative effect to synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl. Both were able to cause 100% mortality of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 an...

  13. Effect of pesticides applied in cowpea production on rumen microbial fermentation of cowpea haulms as reflected in in vitro gas production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Antwi; E.L.K, Osafo; D.S, Fisher; H.M, Yacout; A, Donkoh; A.A, Hassan; S.M.M, Sobhy; H, Adu-Dapaah; A.Z.M, Salem.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effect of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and dimethoate residues in cowpea haulm on microbial fermentation using gas syringes as incubators. The lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and dimethoate were applied at the vegetative, flowering and podding stages of the cowpea [...] at the rate of 2.66 mg/L, 5.14 mg/L and 6.68 mg/L of water, respectively. Dimethoate was detected in the cowpea haulm at the highest concentration of 1.38 mg/kg. The haulm with no pesticide treatment was incubated with media containing rumen fluid, and pesticides were added at concentrations of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg. In vitro gas production was measured at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h to estimate the rate of gas evolution. Gas production in general was influenced by pesticide application. In general, gas evolution was reduced by increasing levels of lambda cyhalothrin up to 80 mg/kg. However, an increase in gas accumulation was observed with increasing levels of dimethoate, while the application of cypermethrin yielded no noticeable change in gas production. The study indicates that pesticide residues may function as toxins at concentrations greater than those encountered in the field or lethal dose (LD50) and may inhibit the growth of rumen microbes.

  14. [Nutritional and taste properties of canned cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. II. Effect of storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, G M; Guerra, N B; Pessoa, D C

    1992-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of storage on nutritional and sensory properties of canned cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), a batch of 180 cans was stocked at room temperature (22 degrees C to 32 degrees C) for a period of six months. At intervals of 0, 30, 90 and 180 days, 26 samples collected randomly were submitted to physicochemical, sensory and biological analyses. Significant statistical reductions (p Food Efficiency of samples stored for 180 days when compared to those freshly canned on day 0, though values for Net Protein Ratio (NPR) showed no discernible decrease; these data lead to the conclusion that canned cowpeas stored can be consumed without, restrictions, in spite of the slight decrease in biological value caused by the time of storage. PMID:1342166

  15. Analysis of genome comparison of two Indian isolates of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ritesh; Verma, Rakesh Kumar; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The complete sequence of two Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) isolates (RR3 and RR4) from India was determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both isolates showed different closeness with other isolates of CABMV. CABMV-RR3 showed maximum identity of 99 % with CABMV-BR1 from Brazil at nucleotide and protein levels, whereas CABMV-RR4 showed identity of 73 and 95 % with CABMV-Z isolate from Zimbabwe at nucleotide and protein levels respectively. Similarity identity matrix revealed 69 % identity at nucleotide level and 91 % at protein level with each other. Recombination breakpoint detection showed that CABMV-MG-Avr from Brazil and CABMV-Z from Zimbabwe act as major parents in our isolates RR3 and RR4, respectively. PMID:26184969

  16. Effect of Phytase Supplementation on the Digestibility of Crude Protein, Amino Acids and Phosphorus of Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata) in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Eustace A. Iyayi

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea contains phytate-P and other nutrients like amino acids which are poorly digested in broilers. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve digestibility of these nutrients. In 2 experiments the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein, amino acids and P of cowpea in broilers were investigated. Experiment One, had 6 diets in which 0, 150 or 300 g kg-1 cowpea replaced maize starch and 0 or 500 units of phytase enzyme (Natupho...

  17. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico

    CERN Document Server

    Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

  18. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: ? In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation ? Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. ? Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. ? Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. ? Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  1. Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurivan Soares de Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV. Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

  2. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  3. The effects of sun-drying surfaces and packaging materials on the storability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogba, S S; Ugwu, F M; Abu, J D

    1999-01-01

    The effects of sun-drying cowpea seeds for three hours on cement (CS), wood (WS), and corrugated iron sheet (CIS) surfaces and packaging separately in polyethene and jute bags were studied. Moisture-gain, and resistance to insect and mold damage were monitored monthly for six months, while proximate analyses on day zero and at the 6th month were conducted. Results showed that the three-hour sun-drying of cowpea seeds on reflective surfaces (CIS and CS) enhanced the rate of moisture-reabsorption during storage and consequently, the degree of mold and insect damage irrespective of the packaging material employed. Crude fat, fiber and ash contents, unlike protein and moisture contents, remained virtually constant (p < or = 0.05). In this study, the wood surface and polyethene bag were the most preferred treatments to store sun-dried cowpea seeds for about 5.7 months. PMID:10472788

  4. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Awosanya; A. Sebiomo; J.I. Idiagi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491) were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were ...

  5. Alternative hosts of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in sesame (Sesamum indicum) crops grown in Paraguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis R., González-Segnana; Arnaldo, Esquivel Fariña; Diego D., González; Ana Paula O. A., Mello; Jorge A. M., Rezende; Elliot W., Kitajima.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production in Paraguay has been severely affected by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), which causes a disease known locally as ka'are. Because very little is known about the epidemiology of this disease, a survey was performed in fields surrounding a [...] ffected sesame plantations to identify CABMV-infected plants that may be acting as sources of inoculum. Samples from 48 plant species (symptomatic or asymptomatic, mostly spontaneous and a few cultivated) belonging to 17 families were evaluated by biological and serological assays. In a few select cases, confirmation of the infection was achieved by RT-PCR. The following species were found to be naturally infected by CABMV: Amaranthus hybridus, Arachis hypogaea, Crotalaria incana, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata. The absence of resistant/tolerant sesame cultivars along with the ineffectiveness of disease control through the chemical control of aphid vectors indicates that the only alternative available for disease management at present is the elimination and/or reduction of the sources of inoculum immediately before starting new plantations.

  6. Metal-ion-induced formation and stabilization of protein cages based on the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minten, Inge J; Wilke, Koos D M; Hendriks, Linda J A; van Hest, Jan C M; Nolte, Roeland J M; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2011-04-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a versatile building block for the construction of nanoreactors and functional materials. Upon RNA removal, the capsid can be reversibly assembled and disassembed by adjusting the pH. At pH 5.0 the capsid is in the native assembled conformation, while at pH 7.5 it disassembles into 90 capsid protein dimers. This special property enables the encapsulation of various molecules, such as protein and enzymes, but only at low pH. It is possible to stabilize the capsid at pH 7.5 by addition of negatively charged polyelectrolytes or negatively charged particles, but these methods all fill the interior of the capsid, leaving little or no space for other cargo molecules. This pH restriction therefore severely limits the range of enzymes that can be encapsulated, and hampers the investigation of the CCMV capsid as a nanoreactor for the study of enzymes in confined spaces. Herein, the interaction of N-terminal histidine-tag-modified capsid proteins with several metal ions is reported. Depending on the conditions used, nanometer-sized protein particles or capsidlike architectures are formed that are stable at pH 7.5. This metal-mediated stabilization methodology is employed to form stable capsids containing multiple proteins at pH 7.5, thereby greatly expanding the scope of the CCMV capsid as a nanoreactor. PMID:21381194

  7. Cowpea mosaic virus VPg: sequencing of radiochemically modified protein allows mapping of the gene on B RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial amino acid sequence of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) VPg radiochemically modified by chloramine-T and Bolton-Hunter reagent has been determined. VPg covalently bound to viral RNA chains (VPg-RNA) was iodinated at the tyrosine and lysine residues. [125I]VPg-RNA was digested with nuclease P1 and the resulting [125I]Vpg-pU was purified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subjected to automated Edman degradation. Analysis of CPMV [125I]VPg-pU revealed the presence of tyrosine residues at position 12 and 14, and of lysine residues at position 3 and 20, respectively. In combination with Edman degradation of unlabeled CPMV VPg, which showed serine and arginine residues to be present at position 1 and 2, respectively, the data obtained allow the precise positioning of VPg within the 200 000 dalton (200 K) polyprotein encoded by CPMV B RNA and the prediction of its entire amino acid sequence. VPg is located at the COOH terminus of its 60 K, membrane-bound, precursor and proximal to the amino terminus of the protease-polymerase domain of the polyprotein. A processing scheme for the 200 K polyprotein is discussed in which Gln-Ser amino acid pairs act as the major signal for proteolytic cleavage. (author)

  8. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  9. Efficient generation of cowpea mosaic virus empty virus-like particles by the proteolytic processing of precursors in insect cells and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Keith; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P

    2009-10-25

    To elucidate the mechanism of formation of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles, RNA-2-encoded precursor proteins were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Processing of the 105K and 95K polyproteins in trans to give the mature Large (L) and Small (S) coat proteins required both the 32K proteinase cofactor and the 24K proteinase itself, while processing of VP60, consisting of the fused L-S protein, required only the 24K proteinase. Release of the L and S proteins resulted in the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs), showing that VP60 can act as a precursor of virus capsids. Processing of VP60 expressed in plants also led to efficient production of VLPs. Analysis of the VLPs produced by the action of the 24K proteinase on precursors showed that they were empty (RNA-free). This has important implications for the use of CPMV VLPs in biotechnology and nanotechnology as it will permit the use of noninfectious particles. PMID:19733890

  10. Pre-exposure to gamma rays alleviates the harmful effect of salinity on cowpea plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. H. M. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the low concentrations of NaCl (25mM increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA, lipid peroxidation, non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol, number of legumes per plant, number of seeds per legume, number of seeds per plants, legume length, fresh and dry weight of legumes and weight of 1000 seeds and total soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents in harvested seeds as compared to control. On the other hand, the high concentrations of NaCl (50, 100 and 200 mM caused reduction in plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA, all yield attributes and harvested seeds components but increased lipid peroxidation and non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol. Electrophoretic studies of proteins showed three types of modifications are observed in the protein patterns of cowpea seeds, some protein bands were disappeared, other proteins were selectively increased and synthesis of new set of protein was induced. Some of these responses were observed under gamma rays and salinity treatments, while others were induced by either gamma rays or salinity. Seeds irradiation with gamma rays alleviates the adverse effect of salt stress compared to non irradiated seeds.

  11. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J.L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid show that the capsid’s physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which change with the depth of indentation and depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Under large deformations, the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state ΔHind = 11.5–12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending; the entropy change TΔSind = 5.1–5.8 MJ/mol is due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which mediate the capsid stiffening. Direct coupling of these modes defines the extent of (ir)reversibility of capsid indentation dynamics correlated with its (in)elastic mechanical response to the compressive force. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses’ biological function. PMID:24138865

  12. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Awosanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491 were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were determined. Nodulation in the polluted soils reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control while the stem girth, terminal leaf length and shoot dry mass increased significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control. The plant height of each variety significantly differed (p<0.005 from one another. This study has shown that soil pollution causes significant reduction in nodule numbers hence having immense negative impact on nodulation in cowpea varieties used in this study. Meanwhile soil pollution is shown in this study to increase the stem girth, plant height, leaf length and shoot dry mass of the cowpea plants compared to the control.

  13. Effect of Chinese traditional cooking on eight pesticides residue during cowpea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Jiang, Wayne; Chen, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinhui

    2015-03-01

    Thermal processing can concentrate residues or convert residues to more toxic metabolites in food. Chinese traditional cooking pays more attention to thermal processing and more vegetables were eaten after thermal processing. In this study, the effect of Chinese traditional cooking (washing, blanching, stir-frying, frying and combined operations) on eight pesticides residues (pyridaben, procymidone, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, ?-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, S-fenvalerate and ?-cyhalothrin) in cowpea which was one of the most important legume crops in China was examined. Result showed washing and blanching could reduce residues with low Kow while stir-frying and frying were more effective to residues with high Kow; stir-frying and frying could concentrate residues with low Kow; the residue levels in oil increased following increasing frying time and frequency especially the residues with high Kow; one metabolite studied in this paper was not detected. Blanching (5 min) followed by stir-frying (3 min) was the most effective combined operation. PMID:25306325

  14. Conformation of the RNA-binding N-terminus of the coat protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus: a nuclear magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy study.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Graaf, M

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this thesis was to obtain information about protein-RNA interactions in cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). CCMV consists of RNA and a protective protein coat, composed of 180 identical coat proteins. The positively charged N-terminal arm of the coat protein is essential for binding the encapsidated RNA. Previously, the so-called 'snatch-pull' model has been suggested for the assembly of coat protein and RNA. According to this model the N-terminal reg...

  15. Detection and Some Properties of Cowpea mild mottle virus Isolated from Soybean in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tavassoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey were carried to identify a virus disease causing mosaic of soybean in the field in Southern region (Khozestan Province of Iran. To detect the viral infection, diseased leaf samples showing mild mosaic and leaf malformation were collected from soybean fields in Dezful, located in Khozestan Province. Infected samples were carried to the lab in a proper condition on ice packages. TPIA and DAS-ELISA serological tests were applied to identify the viral agent. To investigate the host-range, several indicator plants were mechanically inoculated under green-house condition. Seed transmission of CPMMV was examined using the seeds obtained from infected plants. The virus isolate was not found to be seed-borne in Clark variety of soybean. Different steps of ultracentrifugation including sucrose density gradient (10-40% were carried out in order to obtain partial purified virus. On the basis of biological, serological and EM results, CPMMV-Carla virus was identified in the infected soybean samples. This is the first report of CPMMV infection of soybean in Iran.

  16. The effects of gamma radiation on the reproduction of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera - Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghogomu, TR.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F. was carried out to study its effects on reproduction. Complete sterility of males and females is obtained when treated as adults with 10 krad. At lower doses the female is more susceptible than the male. The fecundity is affected and at doses above 100 krad death occurs before the female lays all her mature eggs. The sterility induced is observed in the reduction in percentage of egg hatch, but mortality after hatching is negligible...

  17. The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha-1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha-1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha-1. Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  18. Antagonistic regulation, yet synergistic defense: effect of bergapten and protease inhibitor on development of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2012-01-01

    The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10(-6)) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917

  19. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu2+ activities as low as 1-2 ?M, the effect of Cu2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu2+. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu2+ activity of 1.0 ?M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu2+ activity of 0.2 ?M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ?0.77 ?M Cu2+, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  20. Effect of salicylic acid on morphological and biochemical attributes in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A; Anand, A; Dubey, A

    2007-04-01

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination, seedling growth, flowering and biochemical activities were studied out in four cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes in control environments. The results revealed that both germination and seedling growth were negatively affected by 0.02%. SA application, however did not affect the size of full expanded buds, time of 50% flowering and date of flower initiation. A maximum increase in peroxidase (EC1.11.1.7) activity was observed in UPC 4200 over other genotypes. No significant change in the content of total soluble and intercellular fluid proteins was observed except in UPC 4200 genotype. SA induced accumulation of total soluble sugars more at flowering stage than at seed setting stage. It is evident from the present study that UPC 4200 genotype was more responsive to salicylic acid both in terms of increased peroxidase activity and less negative effect on morphological attributes, thus suggesting its wider use without negative impact on environment as salicylic acid has been reported in plants. PMID:17915749

  1. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  2. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND COWPEA COVER CROP ON PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES, WEEDS, AND PEPPER YIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field experiments with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ‘Wizard X3R’ were established (May 2003, 2004) in Marion Co., Florida, U.S.A. The objective was to compare yields, nematode populations, and weeds as impacted by six soil management treatments: cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.) summer co...

  3. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  4. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F? progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils' damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:26463066

  5. CO2 enhances effects of hypoxia on mortality, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Wang, Yu; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2013-11-01

    Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20 days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2. PMID:24001922

  6. Effects of decreased O2 and elevated CO2 on survival, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2012-06-01

    Use of modified atmospheres with depleted O(2) and/or elevated CO(2) is an environmentally friendly alternative to currently used fumigants for control of stored grain insect pests. In the present study, we examined the impact of hypoxia and hypercapnia on cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Two O(2)/CO(2) combinations were used; (i) 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), (ii) 2% O(2)+18% CO(2). In both cases, N(2) was maintained at 80%, equivalent to normal atmospheric concentration. In ambient atmosphere, the rate of O(2) consumption and CO(2) output at different stages (from low to high) was: eggs?1st instar<2nd instar?pupae?adults<3rd instar<4th instar. When exposed to 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), eggs, larvae and pupae were able to complete development and successfully enter the next developmental stage, although developmental time and mortality varied at different stages. In contrast, more severe hypoxic/hypercapnic treatment, i.e. 2% O(2)+18% CO(2), led to cessation of development of all stages. Effects on eggs and adults were most dramatic as they could only withstand 2-3 days exposure. Further, eggs at early (4-6h old) and later stages (102-104 h old, black-headed) were more susceptible compared to those at intermediate stage (52-54 h old). The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were least sensitive and could survive up to 20 days treatment. To gain some insight into molecular mechanisms underpinning the hypoxic/hypercarpnic response, we performed qPCR reactions on selected metabolic genes involved in TCA cycle and in protein digestion, as well as genes encoding stress-responsive heat shock proteins. Patterns of gene expression and proteolysis suggest that cowpea bruchids suppress their metabolic activity and increase stress tolerance when challenged by O(2) deprivation. Transcript abundance as well as proteolytic activity recovered once normoxic conditions resumed. Taken together, cowpea bruchids were found able to cope with hypoxic and hypercapnic stress. This ability was particularly strong in the late larval stage. PMID:22387498

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on the reproductive organs of the southern cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupae of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. exposed to the sterilizing dose (3000 rad) from 60Co gamma radiation gave rise to adults in which the first mature oocyte was retarded. The first mature oocyte began to appear after 31 hours. Exposure to the dose 10000 rad prevented egg formation in the resulting weevils. Soon after emergence normal weevils had a mature oocyte in each ovariole. Doses of gamma rays tested decreased the size of testes treated in the pupal stage

  8. Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). / Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z.M., Peña P.; G., Trujillo.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluy [...] en pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %). Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral. Abstract in english In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that al [...] low to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%). The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

  9. Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Peña P.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %. Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral.In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%. The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

  10. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of cowpea effect of variet and locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram Sullaiman Ismael

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous seeds belong to plant foods which are generally rich in phenolic compounds. Cowpea seeds are a major source of plant proteins and vitamins for man, feed for animals. Polyphenolic compounds are secondary metabolites of amino acids present in many plant species, including legume. Their content depends on various factors, such as cultivar, pedoclimatic and cultivation conditions. The influence of cultivar, locality on the total polyphenols (TPC and antioxidant activity (TAC of Cowpea seeds was studied. Cowpea cultivars were cultivated under different climatic conditions in Iraq Republic. The main objective of the present work was to consider the changes of total polyphenols content in dependence on variety and to evaluate an antioxidant potential of three Cowpea varieties (white, light brown and red color in different localities of Erbil City in Kurdistan Region Iraq and to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds (polyphenolics in legumes commonly utilized in the human diet in Iraq, to compare their antioxidant capacity and to evaluate the influence of grown locality on observed parameters. Total polyphenols were determined by the Lachman´s method and expressed as mg of Gallic acid equivalent per kg dry matter. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by the Brand-Williams method using a compound DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (p0.05 among locality and color for phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. The various varieties of white color cowpea had significant influence on TPC and TAC and affected by locality too. From tested seeds the highest polyphenol content was measured in red color (802.323 ±15.937 - 825.700 ±8.494 mg.kg-1 GAE. The lowest value was in white color (480.195 ±15.286 - 721.952 ±25.004 mg.kg-1GAE.The similar trend was observed at values of TAC. The highest TAC value was determined in red color (28.709 ±15.937 - 34.777 ±8.494% DPPH. The lowest value was in white color (6.065 ±0.836% - 9.578 ±0.884% DPPH. The various varieties had significant influence on TPC and TAC according to used statistical analyses. Correlation between the phenolic contents and antioxidant activity was significantly positive (r = 0.783645. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition.

  11. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  12. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  13. Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concentration as low as 1 ?M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb2+ activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and at a Pb2+ activity of 0.06 ?M for the roots. The primary site of Pb2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb2+ ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and 0.06 ?M for the roots

  14. The effects of gamma radiation on the reproduction of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera - Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghogomu, TR.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F. was carried out to study its effects on reproduction. Complete sterility of males and females is obtained when treated as adults with 10 krad. At lower doses the female is more susceptible than the male. The fecundity is affected and at doses above 100 krad death occurs before the female lays all her mature eggs. The sterility induced is observed in the reduction in percentage of egg hatch, but mortality after hatching is negligible. When females are exposed to substerilizing doses as pupae or adults, the fertility on the first day of oviposition is significantly reduced and those treated as adults are the most affected. On the second day there is improvement in fertility.

  15. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Antônio Chagas; Fernandes Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales Maurício Pereira; Flores Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho José

    2002-01-01

    Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to af...

  16. Effect of Osmopriming Duration on Germination, Emergence, and Early Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Singh1; Rabi Dahiru; Mukhtar Musa; Bello Sani Haliru

    2014-01-01

    Seed osmopriming could be a sustainable method to increase crop establishment, uniform emergence, and growth of plant on the field. Laboratory and field studies were carried out in 2010 cropping season at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the effect of seed osmopriming duration on the germination, emergence, and growth of cowpea seeds. Treatments consisted of three osmopriming duration (soaking in 1% KNO3 salt for 6, 8, and 10?hrs), one hydroprimed control (10?hr), and an unprimed...

  17. Highly efficient strategy for the heterologous expression and purification of soluble Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid protein and in vitro pH-dependent assembly of virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Valle, Armando; García-Salcedo, Yardena M; Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Silva-Rosales, Laura; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining pure and soluble viral capsid proteins (CPs) has been a major challenge in the fields of science and technology in recent decades. In many cases, the CPs can self-assemble in the absence of a viral genome, resulting in non-infectious, empty virus-like particles (VLPs) which can be safely handled. The use of VLPs has found great potential in biotechnology and health purposes. In addition, VLPs are a good model system to study protein-protein interactions at the molecular level. In this work, an optimized strategy for the heterologous expression of the Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) CP based in Escherichia coli is described. The method is efficient, inexpensive and it consistently produces higher yields and greater purity levels than those reported so far. Additionally, one of the main advantages of this method is the prevention of the formation of inclusion bodies, thus allowing to directly obtain high amounts of the CP in a soluble and functionally active state with the capacity to readily form VLPs in vitro. The CCMV CP self-assembly pH dependence was also investigated, providing guidelines to easily modulate the process. PMID:26342905

  18. Effect of manganese toxicity on the proteome of the leaf apoplast in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht-Christoffers, Marion M; Braun, Hans-Peter; Lemaitre-Guillier, Christelle; VanDorsselaer, Alain; Horst, Walter J

    2003-12-01

    Excess manganese (Mn) supply causes formation of visible brown depositions in the cell walls of leaves of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), which consist of oxidized Mn and oxidized phenols. Because oxidation of Mn and phenolic compounds in the leaf apoplast was proposed to be catalyzed by apoplastic peroxidases (PODs), induction of these enzymes by Mn excess was investigated. POD activity increased upon prolonged Mn treatment in the leaf tissue. Simultaneously, a significant increase in the concentration of soluble apoplastic proteins in "apoplastic washing fluid" was observed. The identity of the released proteins was systematically characterized by analysis of the apoplast proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Some of the identified proteins exhibit sequence identity to acidic PODs from other plants. Several other proteins show homologies to pathogenesis-related proteins, e.g. glucanase, chitinase, and thaumatin-like proteins. Because pathogenesis-related-like proteins are known to be induced by various other abiotic and biotic stresses, a specific physiological role of these proteins in response to excess Mn supply remains to be established. The specific role of apoplastic PODs in the response of plants to Mn stress is discussed. PMID:14605229

  19. Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins and fungal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Rose

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

  20. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  1. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  2. Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Ola Salawu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested cowpeas commonly consumed in Nigeria. The result revealed that infestation brings about an increase in the evaluated anti-nutrients (phytate, oxalate and alkaloids and a marked reduction in protein, carbohydrate content, whereas a marked increase was recorded for the fibre content. The result of the antioxidant activities revealed a significant reduction for total phenol, total flavonoids and reducing power and a slight reduction was recorded for the inhibitory action against lipid oxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging, 2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and 1, 1-diphenyly-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities after infestation. The present investigations revealed that Callosobruchus maculatus infestation do not only affect the nutrient composition of the studied cowpeas by reducing the nutritional value, but would also have an adverse effect on their potential to prevent free radical mediated diseases.

  3. Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Methods: The samples were cooked in both regular pans and pressure cookers with and without previous soaking. Mineral analyses were carried out by Spectrometry of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Results: The results showed high contents of iron and zinc in raw samples as well as in cooked ones, with the use of regular pan resulting in greater percentage of iron retention and the use of pressure cooker ensuring higher retention of zinc. Conclusions: The best retention of iron was found in the BRS Aracê cultivar prepared in a regular pan with previous soaking. This cultivar may be indicated for cultivation and human consumption. The best retention of zinc was found for the BRS Tumucumaque cultivar prepared in a pressure cooker without previous soaking.

  4. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  5. Effect of De Cortication and Roasting on Trypsin Inhibitors and Tannin Contents of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasara Gumaa Balail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9 , for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73, for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52 for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32 for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60 for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36, respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value.

  6. Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F) Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    A. Olonisakin; M.O. Oladimeji; L. LAJIDE

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus) infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate) admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto te...

  7. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ndor; N.S. Dauda; E.O. Abimuku; D.E. Azagaku; H. Anzaku

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined...

  8. Differential uptake of chemically modified Cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles in macrophage subpopulations present in inflammatory and tumor microenvironments

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpita; Manchester, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    There remains a tremendous need to develop targeted therapeutics that can both image and localize the toxic effects of chemotherapeutics and antagonists on diseased tissue while reducing adverse systemic effects. These needs have fostered the development of a nanotechnology-based approach that can combine targeting and toxicity potential. In this study, CPMV nanoparticles were chemically modified with the dye Alexa Flour 488 and were also tandemly modified with PEG1000 followed by AF488; and ...

  9. Differential uptake of chemically modified cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles in macrophage subpopulations present in inflammatory and tumor microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpita; Manchester, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    There remains a tremendous need to develop targeted therapeutics that can both image and localize the toxic effects of chemotherapeutics and antagonists on diseased tissue while reducing adverse systemic effects. These needs have fostered the development of a nanotechnology-based approach that can combine targeting and toxicity potential. In this study, CPMV nanoparticles were chemically modified with the dye Alexa Flour 488 and were also tandemly modified with PEG1000 followed by AF488; and the derivatized nanoparticles were subsequently added to macrophages stimulated with either LPS (M1) or IL-4 (M2). Previously published studies have shown that M1/M2 macrophages are both present in an inflammatory microenvironment (such as a tumor microenvironment and atherosclerosis) and play opposing yet balancing roles; M2 macrophages have a delayed and progressive onset in the tumor microenvironment (concomitant with an immunosuppression of M1 macrophages). In this study, we show higher uptake of CPMV-AF488 and CPMV-PEG-AF488 by M2 macrophages compared to M1 macrophages. M1 macrophages showed no uptake of CPMV-PEG-AF488. More specifically, M2 macrophages are known to be up-regulated in early atherosclerosis plaque. Indeed, previous work showed that M2 macrophages in plaque also correlate with CPMV internalization. These studies emphasize the potential effectiveness of CPMV as a tailored vehicle for targeting tumor macrophages involved in cancer metastasis or vascular inflammation and further highlight the potential of CPMV in targeted therapeutics against other diseases. PMID:22963597

  10. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, J.J.A., van; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, A; Dicke, M

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated beans. The volatile oils of Cymbopogon nardus and C. schoenanthus caused the majority of the eggs not to develop...

  11. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  12. DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756 strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

  13. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Chagas, Mota; Kátia Valevski Sales, Fernandes; Maurício Pereira, Sales; Victor Martin Quintana, Flores; José, Xavier-Filho.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações i [...] soladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes. Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were inc [...] orporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

  14. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Chagas Mota

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

  15. The Effect of Animal Manures on Susceptibility of Cowpea VAR. Moussa Local to Infection by Root-knot Nematode; Meloidogyne javanica Treub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different types of animal manures namely; poultry, goat and cow dung on the susceptibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Var moussa local to root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne javanica was tested in a replicated pot experiment. Manured plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs of M. javanica while uninoculated manured plants served as control for each manure type and unmanured but inoculated plants as general control. The result showed that unmanured and inoculated plants were susceptible to M. javanica to varying degrees. Plants applied with poultry manure were more resistant to root-knot nematode infection followed by those applied with cow dung and goat dropping in that order. The most susceptible plants were those inoculated but not applied with manure. Gall index and resistance rating showed that plants fertilized with poultry manure, cow dung and goat droppings were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible, respectively.

  16. Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

  17. Effect of Supplementation of Ogi a Pearl Millet Based Nigerian Weaning Food, With Cowpea, on Chemical Composition, Sensory and in vitro Protein Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Modu S.H. Zanna; M.A. Milala

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the supplementation of ogi a weaning food produced from different pearl millet varieties with cowpea was carried out. The proximate composition of the ogi/cowpea blends shows that, the moisture content within the ogis blends ranged from 8.48 ± 0.58 for GB 8735 to 9.31 ± 0.35 for Zango, respectively. The crude protein of the ogi/cowpea blends ranged from 8.60 ± 0.36 for GB 8735 to 9.27 ± 0.10 for Gwagwa. GB 8735 ogi blend, an improved variety had the higher carbohydrate content comp...

  18. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brennan, F.R.; Bellaby, T.; Helliwell, S.M.; Jones, T.D.; Kamstrup, Søren; Dalsgaard, Kristian; Flock, J.I.; Hamilton, W.D.O.

    1999-01-01

    The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone o....... These studies demonstrate for the first time that recombinant plant viruses have potential as mucosal vaccines without the requirement for adjuvant and that the nasal route is most effective for the delivery of these nonreplicating particles.......The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone or...

  19. Effects of weed control through cowpea intercropping on mayze morphology and yield Efeitos do controle de plantas daninhas, por meio da consorciação com feijão-caupi, na morfologia e no rendimento de cultivares de mil

    OpenAIRE

    J.K.O. Gomes; P.S.L Silva; K.M.B Silva; F.F. Rodrigues Filho; V.G. Santos

    2007-01-01

    Intercropping combined with competitive maize cultivars can reduce the use of herbicides to control weeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping cowpea and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize morphology and yield. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks, with treatments arranged in split-plots and five replications. The plots consisted of four maize cultivars (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001, EX 6004) and the split-plots consisted of the follo...

  20. Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA FILHO JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.

  1. Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P2O5/ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. Effect of cowpea intercropping on weed control and corn yieid / Efeito da consorciação do feijão-caupi no controle de plantas daninhas e no rendimento do milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.S.L., Silva; O.F., Oliveira; P.I.B., Silva; K.M.B., Silva; J.D., Braga.

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas têm simplificado o controle de plantas daninhas, mas, além de caros, têm causado o surgimento de biótipos de plantas daninhas a eles resistentes e se tornado fator de contaminação ambiental. A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos objetivos da agricultura moderna, e várias alternativas [...] estão sendo investigadas, incluindo a consorciação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da consorciação de cultivares de feijão-caupi com cultivares de milho sobre o controle de plantas daninhas e os rendimentos de espigas verdes (espigas imaturas com grãos com teor de umidade de 80%) e de grãos do milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os cultivares de milho AG 1051, AG 2060 e PL 6880 (atribuídos às parcelas) foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos: sem capina, duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura) e milho consorciado com feijão-caupi (cultivares BR 14 e IPA 206, com crescimento indeterminado). O feijão-caupi foi semeado (por ocasião da semeadura do milho) entre as fileiras do milho, em covas distanciadas de 1,0 m, com duas plantas/cova. Os cultivares de milho não diferiram entre si quanto à densidade e biomassa fresca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas, bem como quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e grãos. As médias mais elevadas da densidade e da biomassa de plantas daninhas foram encontradas em subparcelas sem controle de plantas daninhas (sem capinas); as menores médias, em subparcelas com controle de plantas daninhas (duas capinas); e as médias intermediárias, nas subparcelas consorciadas, indicando que os cultivares de feijão-caupi exerceram, em certa extensão, controle das plantas daninhas. As subparcelas sem controle de plantas daninhas e as subparcelas consorciadas apresentaram os menores rendimentos de espigas verdes e grãos. Embora os cultivares de feijão-caupi tenham tido certo controle sobre as plantas daninhas (reduções médias de 22,5 e de 18,3%, em termos de densidade e peso da matéria fresca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas, respectivamente), elas também competiram com o milho, causando redução nos rendimentos (reduções médias de 17,0 e 32%, nos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, respectivamente). Os cultivares de feijão-caupi não produziram grãos devido, certamente, à forte competição exercida pelo milho e plantas daninhas sobre as plantas do feijão-caupi. Abstract in english Herbicides have simplified weed control, but the use of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes and has become an environmental contamination factor. Herbicide use reduction is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several alternatives [...] being investigated, including intercropping. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cowpea and corn cultivar intercropping on weed control and corn green-ear (immature ears with 80% humidity grains) and grain yield. A completely randomized block design with split-plots and four replications was used. AG 1051, AG 2060 and PL 6880 corn cultivars (assigned to plots) were submitted to the four treatments: no weeding, two hoe-weeding (22 and 41 days after planting), and intercropping with cowpea (BR 14 and IPA 206 cultivars, with indeterminate growth). The cowpea was planted (with corn planting) between the corn rows, in pits 1.0 m apart, with two plants per pit. The corn cultivars did not differ from each other as to weed density (WD), fresh above-ground weed biomass (WB), green-ear yield and grain yields. Higher WD and WB mean values were found in no weeding subplots; lower mean values in two hoe-weeding subplots; and intermediate mean values in intercropped subplots, indicating that cowpea plants had, to a certain extent, control over weeds. The no-weeded plots and the intercropped plots had lower green-ear and grain yields. Although the cowpea cultivars had a certain control over weeds (mean reductions of 22.5 and 18.3%, in terms of gree

  3. Irradiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds to control southern cowpea beetle Callosbruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using gamma radiation as an alternative to fumigation or direct chemical applications for the control of stored-products insects was investigated in the laboratory and in a warehouse in Cairo, Egypt. Polyethylene bags of the type used in local markets were filled with cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata] Callosobruchus maculatus and irradiated at 400, 600 or 800 Gy [4, 6 or 8 krad]. All the treatments were effective, and no living adults infested by were found in the bags until 3 months later, when adults from outside penetrated the bags with their mandibles. It is therefore recommended that 4 krad should be administered for initial control, but that treated cowpeas should be stored in polypropylene rather than polyethylene bags in order to prevent reinfestation

  4. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampong-Nyarko, K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

  5. Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olonisakin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto test arenas (filter paper discs treated with different dosages of each of the oil. Insecticidal oil were ranked in the order of decreasing toxicity as Syzgium aromaticum oil (LC50 = < 0.1 mg/10 g seed > Xylopia aethopica oil (LC50 = 0.485 mg/10 g seed > Piper guineese oil (LC50 = 0.510 mg/100 g seed > Ocimum shave oil (LC50 0.660 mg/10 g seed. Significantly higher proportion of C. maculates adults were repelled from filter paper discs treated with all plant oils with average means repellent order of 60.24, 77.87, 80.23 and 86.66% for Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineese, Syzguim aromaticum and Ocimum suare, respectively.

  6. Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L.) Grains using Botanicals

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia O.W.M. Reuben; Minza Masunga; Rhodes Makundi; Robert N. Misangu; Bukheti Kilonzo; Maulid Mwatawala; Herman F. Lyimo; Christine G. Ishengoma; Dastun G. Msuya; Loth S. Mulungu

    2006-01-01

    An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted during September 2004-January 2005. The test materials consisted of two commercial cultivars of cowpea namely Fahari and Tumaini; 8 botanical protectants and their combinations and two controls viz., no prot...

  7. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yussef F.B. Braga; Thalles B. Grangeiro; Eder A. Freire; Helano L. Lopes; José N. S. Bezerra; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Mary Anne S. Lima

    2007-01-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to ...

  8. Productivity and Nodulation Cowpea Inoculated in Function of Phosphorus and Potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Hélcio Canuto Amaral; Júlio César Azevedo Nóbrega; Raimundo Nonato Lopes Martins; Alessandro Franco Torres da Silva; Elaine Martins da Costa; Rafaela Simão Abrahão Nóbrega; José Ferreira Lustosa Filho; Larissa Castro Diógenes; Leandro Pereira Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    The cowpea represents one of the most important agricultural species of the brazilian Northeast, and proper management of mineral fertilizer that culture becomes essential to their production. The present work aimed to study the effect of the interaction between potassium and phosphorus in the presence of the inoculant INPA 03-11B in the culture of cowpea for Production Pole of Bom Jesus, Piaui, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal University of Piaui, ...

  9. A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntoukam, G.; Kitch, L.W.; Shade, R.E.; Murdock, L.L. [Purdue Univ., Entomology Dept., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Experiments conducted in Maroua, Cameroon, demonstrated that a large 50-kg-capacity solar heater can be used to successfully eradicate infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus from cowpea seeds kept in small, transparent Minigrip zip lock plastic bags. Temperatures produced inside the heater were sufficient to kill all developing insects living within infested cowpea seeds. Small, transparent ziplock plastic bags are useful seed storage containers for short-term cowpea germplasm collections and are easily inspected during storage following solar disinfestation. Published reports indicate that temperatures of up to 85{sup o}C do not adversely affect seed germination, germination rates, or seeding viability. These temperature and biological experiments provide evidence that the solar heater technique can serve as an effective and practical means to improve the short-term storage of cowpea seeds in developing country national agricultural research programs. (author)

  10. Toxicity Potentials of Leaf Powders of Wild Lemon (Afreagle paniculate) and African Rock Fig (Ficus congensis Engl.) Against the Cowpea Seed Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.)

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Oaya; A. E. Samaila

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity potentials of the wild lemon (Afreagle paniculate) and the African rock fig (Ficcus congensis Engl.) leaf powder as an alternative source of control against the cowpea seed bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.) on stored cowpea was evaluated. The results obtained shows that, these plant material powdered leaves had remarkable effects on all the parameters measured. There were 76.34% and 77.20% undamaged seeds recorded respectively, when cowpea seeds were stored with these plant...

  11. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Xavier Filho.

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enz [...] yme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

  12. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xavier Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

  13. Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

  14. Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Ola Salawu; Emmanuel Oluwafemi Ibukun; Oladipupo David; Bukola Bunmi Ola-Salawu

    2014-01-01

    Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested c...

  15. Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walison Fabio Rogério

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp, grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed coats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1. These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

  16. Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walison Fabio, Rogério; Ralf, Greiner; Itaciara Larroza, Nunes; Sabrina, Feitosa; Dalva Maria da Nóbrega, Furtunato; Deusdélia Teixeira de, Almeida.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed c [...] oats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ?mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ?mol.g- 1, respectively) than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ?mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ?mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ?mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ?mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ?mol.g- 1). These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

  17. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8?kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80?°C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04?µg/ml and 25.62?µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95?×?10(-3?)µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  18. Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin ?1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin ?1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin ?1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin ?1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin ?1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin ?1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin ?1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea

  19. Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    OpenAIRE

    Z.M. Peña P.; G Trujillo

    2006-01-01

    En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta f...

  20. Effects of weed control through cowpea intercropping on mayze morphology and yield Efeitos do controle de plantas daninhas, por meio da consorciação com feijão-caupi, na morfologia e no rendimento de cultivares de mil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.O. Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping combined with competitive maize cultivars can reduce the use of herbicides to control weeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping cowpea and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize morphology and yield. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks, with treatments arranged in split-plots and five replications. The plots consisted of four maize cultivars (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001, EX 6004 and the split-plots consisted of the following treatments: no-weeding; twice hand-weeding (20 and 40 days after sowing; and intercropping with cowpea ('Sempre Verde' cultivar, both maize and cowpea sown at the same time. The variables evaluated were: maize fresh green ears and grain yield; characteristics of internodes, leaves, tassels, ears, grains; plant height and ear insertion height; number of weed plants and species; fresh and dry biomass of weed species and cowpea. Ten weed species were outstanding during the experiment, many of them from the Poaceae family. No interactions were found between weed control method and maize cultivars for most variables evaluated; and plants from hand-weeded split-plots showed superior mean values compared to plants from non-weeded and intercropped split-plots, both not differing from each other. The cowpea was inefficient in controlling weed, reducing the maize yields and not producing any grain. The maize cultivars 'BA 8512' and 'BA 9012 showed the highest mean green ear yield, and the highest grain yield in hand-weeded, no-weeded and intercropped split-plots. On the other hand, the maize cultivar 'EX 6004' showed such high means only in no-weeded and intercropped split-plots. 'EX 4001 presented the worst means in these variables for hand-weeded, no-weeded ant intercropped split-plots.A consorciação aliada ao uso de cultivares de milho mais competitivos é um método que permite reduzir o uso de herbicidas para controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso do caupi, em consorciação, e de capinas sobre a morfologia e o rendimento de cultivares de milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas e cinco repetições. Quatro cultivares de milho (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001 e EX 6004 foram aplicados às parcelas e submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capinas; duas capinas (aos 20 e 40 dias após o plantio; e consorciação com o caupi (cultivar Sempre Verde, plantado por ocasião do plantio do milho, entre as fileiras da gramínea. Foram avaliados os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos; as características de entrenós, folhas, pendões, espigas e grãos; as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga; o número de espécies e de plantas por unidade de área das plantas daninhas; e a biomassa fresca e seca das plantas daninhas e do feijão-caupi. Dez espécies de plantas daninhas predominaram no experimento, com destaque para a família Poaceae. Na maioria das características, não se verificou interação entre métodos de controle de plantas daninhas e cultivares, e as plantas das parcelas capinadas foram superiores (mais produtivas e com maiores médias nas outras características avaliadas àquelas das parcelas não-capinadas e das parcelas consorciadas, as quais não diferiram entre si. Portanto, o feijão-caupi foi ineficiente no controle das plantas daninhas, não produziu grãos e reduziu os rendimentos do milho. Os cultivares de milho BA 8512 e BA 9012 apresentaram os maiores rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos nas subparcelas capinadas, não-capinadas e consorciadas. Por sua vez, o cultivar EX 6004 apresentou as maiores médias nessas características apenas nas parcelas não-capinadas e consorciadas. O cultivar EX 4001 foi o pior nas referidas características, nos três tipos de subparcelas.

  1. Effects of weed control through cowpea intercropping on mayze morphology and yield / Efeitos do controle de plantas daninhas, por meio da consorciação com feijão-caupi, na morfologia e no rendimento de cultivares de mil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.K.O., Gomes; P.S.L., Silva; K.M.B., Silva; F.F., Rodrigues Filho; V.G., Santos.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A consorciação aliada ao uso de cultivares de milho mais competitivos é um método que permite reduzir o uso de herbicidas para controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso do caupi, em consorciação, e de capinas sobre a morfologia e o rendimento de cultivares [...] de milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas e cinco repetições. Quatro cultivares de milho (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001 e EX 6004) foram aplicados às parcelas e submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capinas; duas capinas (aos 20 e 40 dias após o plantio); e consorciação com o caupi (cultivar Sempre Verde), plantado por ocasião do plantio do milho, entre as fileiras da gramínea. Foram avaliados os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos; as características de entrenós, folhas, pendões, espigas e grãos; as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga; o número de espécies e de plantas por unidade de área das plantas daninhas; e a biomassa fresca e seca das plantas daninhas e do feijão-caupi. Dez espécies de plantas daninhas predominaram no experimento, com destaque para a família Poaceae. Na maioria das características, não se verificou interação entre métodos de controle de plantas daninhas e cultivares, e as plantas das parcelas capinadas foram superiores (mais produtivas e com maiores médias nas outras características avaliadas) àquelas das parcelas não-capinadas e das parcelas consorciadas, as quais não diferiram entre si. Portanto, o feijão-caupi foi ineficiente no controle das plantas daninhas, não produziu grãos e reduziu os rendimentos do milho. Os cultivares de milho BA 8512 e BA 9012 apresentaram os maiores rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos nas subparcelas capinadas, não-capinadas e consorciadas. Por sua vez, o cultivar EX 6004 apresentou as maiores médias nessas características apenas nas parcelas não-capinadas e consorciadas. O cultivar EX 4001 foi o pior nas referidas características, nos três tipos de subparcelas. Abstract in english Intercropping combined with competitive maize cultivars can reduce the use of herbicides to control weeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping cowpea and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize morphology and yield. The experimental design was in randomized comple [...] te blocks, with treatments arranged in split-plots and five replications. The plots consisted of four maize cultivars (BA 8512, BA 9012, EX 4001, EX 6004) and the split-plots consisted of the following treatments: no-weeding; twice hand-weeding (20 and 40 days after sowing); and intercropping with cowpea ('Sempre Verde' cultivar), both maize and cowpea sown at the same time. The variables evaluated were: maize fresh green ears and grain yield; characteristics of internodes, leaves, tassels, ears, grains; plant height and ear insertion height; number of weed plants and species; fresh and dry biomass of weed species and cowpea. Ten weed species were outstanding during the experiment, many of them from the Poaceae family. No interactions were found between weed control method and maize cultivars for most variables evaluated; and plants from hand-weeded split-plots showed superior mean values compared to plants from non-weeded and intercropped split-plots, both not differing from each other. The cowpea was inefficient in controlling weed, reducing the maize yields and not producing any grain. The maize cultivars 'BA 8512' and 'BA 9012 showed the highest mean green ear yield, and the highest grain yield in hand-weeded, no-weeded and intercropped split-plots. On the other hand, the maize cultivar 'EX 6004' showed such high means only in no-weeded and intercropped split-plots. 'EX 4001 presented the worst means in these variables for hand-weeded, no-weeded ant intercropped split-plots.

  2. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 ?M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 ?M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1, -70.0 (S2 and <-85.0 KPa (S3. The experimental design was randomized blocks with sub-divided plots, each plot containing a different degree of water stress, divided in sub-plots for the four different developmental stages: E1 (0-15, E2 (15-30, E3 (20-35 and E4 (30-45 days after emmergence. Water stress treatments were applied by monitoring soil water potential using a set of porous cups. The effect of water stress was most harmful to cowpea when it was applied at E2 than at other symbiotic process stages. Shoot/root ratio decreased from 2.61 to 2.14 when matric potential treatment was <-85.0 and -70.0 KPa respectively. There was a reduction in the glutamine synthetase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxilase activity with increased stress, while glutamine synthase activity was the enzyme most sensitive to water stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased in more negative matric potential, indicating that this enzyme is sufficiently activitye under water stress.

  4. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  5. Efeito do inóculo, período de molhamento foliar e do estádio fenológico do feijão-caupi no desenvolvimento da mela / Effect of inoculum, leaf wetness period and cowpea phenological states on web blight development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kátia de Lima, Nechet; Bernardo A., Halfeld-Vieira.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mela, causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani grupo de anastomose 1 IA) é uma das principais doenças do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na região norte. Não há estudos sobre o efeito de parâmetros epidemiológicos no desenvolvimento da doença em condições controlada [...] s. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram definir efeito do tipo e da concentração de inóculo de R. solani, do(s) estádio(s) do feijão-caupi suscetível(is) e do período de molhamento foliar na severidade da doença em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro experimento testou-se o efeito do tipo de inóculo [fragmentos de micélio (fgm) ou microescleródios]; no segundo experimento testou-se as concentrações de 0,10³,10(4),10(5) e 10(6) fgm.mL-1; no terceiro experimento as plantas foram submetidas aos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de câmara úmida após a inoculação e no quarto experimento inoculou-se plantas nos estádios de folhas primárias, folhas trifoliadas, de floração e de enchimento de vagens. Observou-se que, para desenvolvimento de alta severidade da mela do feijão-caupi as plantas devem ser inoculadas no estádio de flores abertas na concentração de 10(6) fgm.mL-1 e submetidas a seis horas de molhamento foliar. Estes parâmetros podem ser utilizados para definição de uma metodologia de inoculação de R. solani em feijão-caupi em condições controladas. Abstract in english Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA ) is one of the most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the north of Brazil. There is no information about the effect of epidemiological parameters on development of the disease under [...] controlled conditions. The aims of this work were to identify the type and inoculum concentration of R. solani, the susceptible phenological states and the leaf wetness periods for disease development in greenhouse conditions. In the first study we tested the use of mycelia fragments (mf) and sclerotia as source of inoculum; in the second experiment, the effect of different inoculum concentrations (0, 10³, 10(4),10(5) and 10(6) mf.mL-1); in the third experiment, the effect of leaf wetness period was tested by maintaining cowpea plants at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of leaf wetness after the inoculation, and in the last experiment the effect of phenological states was tested by inoculating cowpea plants at the stages of cotyledonal leaf, trifoliate leaves, flowering and pod filling. The highest severity values of disease were observed with the plants inoculated in the flowering phenological state with 10(6) mf.mL-1 and six hours of leaf wetness. These parameters can be utilized to establish an inoculation methodology for R. solani on cowpea plants under controlled conditions.

  6. Efeito do inóculo, período de molhamento foliar e do estádio fenológico do feijão-caupi no desenvolvimento da mela Effect of inoculum, leaf wetness period and cowpea phenological states on web blight development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Lima Nechet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mela, causada pelo fungo Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorfo Rhizoctonia solani grupo de anastomose 1 IA é uma das principais doenças do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata na região norte. Não há estudos sobre o efeito de parâmetros epidemiológicos no desenvolvimento da doença em condições controladas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram definir efeito do tipo e da concentração de inóculo de R. solani, do(s estádio(s do feijão-caupi suscetível(is e do período de molhamento foliar na severidade da doença em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro experimento testou-se o efeito do tipo de inóculo [fragmentos de micélio (fgm ou microescleródios]; no segundo experimento testou-se as concentrações de 0,10³,10(4,10(5 e 10(6 fgm.mL-1; no terceiro experimento as plantas foram submetidas aos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de câmara úmida após a inoculação e no quarto experimento inoculou-se plantas nos estádios de folhas primárias, folhas trifoliadas, de floração e de enchimento de vagens. Observou-se que, para desenvolvimento de alta severidade da mela do feijão-caupi as plantas devem ser inoculadas no estádio de flores abertas na concentração de 10(6 fgm.mL-1 e submetidas a seis horas de molhamento foliar. Estes parâmetros podem ser utilizados para definição de uma metodologia de inoculação de R. solani em feijão-caupi em condições controladas.Web blight caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA is one of the most important diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in the north of Brazil. There is no information about the effect of epidemiological parameters on development of the disease under controlled conditions. The aims of this work were to identify the type and inoculum concentration of R. solani, the susceptible phenological states and the leaf wetness periods for disease development in greenhouse conditions. In the first study we tested the use of mycelia fragments (mf and sclerotia as source of inoculum; in the second experiment, the effect of different inoculum concentrations (0, 10³, 10(4,10(5 and 10(6 mf.mL-1; in the third experiment, the effect of leaf wetness period was tested by maintaining cowpea plants at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of leaf wetness after the inoculation, and in the last experiment the effect of phenological states was tested by inoculating cowpea plants at the stages of cotyledonal leaf, trifoliate leaves, flowering and pod filling. The highest severity values of disease were observed with the plants inoculated in the flowering phenological state with 10(6 mf.mL-1 and six hours of leaf wetness. These parameters can be utilized to establish an inoculation methodology for R. solani on cowpea plants under controlled conditions.

  7. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy onwards) had significant negative effect. Dose dependent changes in various biochemical parameters were not observed. No chlorophyll mutation was observed in the M2 generation when seeds were grown in the field. Thus, doses upto 900 Gy are safe for the seed and therefore, can be used for developing the protocols for the management of pulse beetle infesting cowpea. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have necessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dosages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus. (au)

  9. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Joseany Andrade Santos; Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José de Melo; Marcia Barreto do Vale Figueiredo; Rajeev Pratap Singh; Antônio Aécio de Carvalho Bezerra; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC) rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emerg...

  10. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  11. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  12. Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250?m and stored at 4 oC for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p oC. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils. The percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. It was established that at the lower doses studied although the radiation effect did not follow any clear pattern with increase in the radiation dose, there was significant (p < 0.05) effect on some proximate parameters (protein, fat, moisture and mineral), functional and pasting properties. The radiation did not affect sensory qualities and acceptability of the cowpea seeds. For cowpea insects disinfestation a radiation dose of 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial. (au)

  13. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-01-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  14. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  15. Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandiê Araújo da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida químico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL. As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas.Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L, compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

  16. Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi / Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jandiê Araújo da, Silva; Claúdia Maria Alves, Pegado; Valéria Veras, Ribeiro; Noelma Miranda de, Brito; Luciana Cordeiro do, Nascimento.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, av [...] aliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida químico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL). As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas. Abstract in english Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to com [...] pare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L), compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter) made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL) was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

  17. Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Manuel AFV

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of ...

  18. Organic weed control in Cowpea: Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within the state of Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is primarily handled with preemergence and some postemergence herbicid...

  19. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  20. The Use of Vegetable Oils in the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Three Cowpea Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    K.E. Law-Ogbomo; R.K.A. Egharevba

    2006-01-01

    The use of some of vegetable oils (rubber seed oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil) was evaluated against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus in three cowpea varieties (Ife white, Ife brown and Kano white). The trial involved exposing adult weevils to various levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mL kg-1 of the oil admixed with cowpea seeds. All studies were undertaken under laboratory temperature of 28?3?C and 70?3% r.h. The results showed that all the plant oils tested have toxic effect on ...

  1. Storage Time: Influence of Nano-ZnO and Soft-Sterilization on Biophysical and Quality Attributes of Canned Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, TN 5-78)

    OpenAIRE

    Moutaleb Oumarou Hama; Issoufou Amadou; Tidjani Amza; Cheikna Daou; Min Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Cowpea seeds can be cooked in the dried form, sprouted, or ground into flour. This study is to investigate effect of soft-sterilization and nano-ZnO treatment on canned cowpea (TN 5-78) biophysical and quality attributes during 10 months of storage. Cowpea was blanched, ultrasonicated with nano-ZnO solution 0.025% (w/v) added prior to canning at 110 ºC for 15 min and analyzed every 2 months up to 10 month at ambient storage. Total mold and yeast count were below the limits of detection for na...

  2. Novel in situ evaluation of the role minerals play in the development of the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect of cowpeas and its effect on the in vitro mineral bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Johanita; Minnis-Ndimba, Roya; Mtshali, Christopher; Minnaar, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea is a nutritionally important drought-resistant legume in sub-Saharan Africa. It is, however, underutilised, in part due to the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect caused by adverse storage conditions resulting in seeds not softening during cooking. This study introduced a novel evaluation of the potential role that minerals play in the development of the HTC defect. The mineral distribution in the cotyledons of normal and HTC cowpeas were analysed by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry. The phytate, tannin and total phenolic contents were analysed together with in vitro mineral bioaccessibility. In HTC cowpeas, Ca and Mg were more concentrated in the cell wall-middle lamella area of the parenchyma cells. This, together with the reduction in phytate content, confirmed the 'phytase-phytate-mineral' hypothesis as a mechanism for development of the HTC defect. Despite the phytate reduction in stored cowpeas, the HTC defect decreased the bioaccessibility of Ca, Fe and Zn in cowpeas. PMID:25529693

  3. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Inoculated with New Recombinant Isolates of Bradyrhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaied K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legume roots is characterized by a high degree of specificity. Two varieties of cowpea were gamma irradiated as a one method to create genetic variation resulting in new varieties with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes. Conjugation is the second method used in this study, a cell contact-dependent DNA transfer mechanism, which has served as elegant tool in the development of genetic engineering technology. The possibility of horizontal gene transfer to other rhizobia, revealed that it is necessary, in view of possibility of deliberate release of a variety of recombinant rhizobia into the environment for such agricultural purposes as improving nitrogen fixation. New recombinants revealed higher amounts of indole compounds from tryptophan above the mid-parents in two out of six transconjugants resulted from the cross between P1 x P3. Significant number of nodules were developed on the root system of V2-variety in M4 generation treated with 20 krad in response to inoculation with the parental strains (P2 and P3 and also in response to inoculation with triparental transconjugants (Tr4 and Tr5, above that developed on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. The results revealed the success of rhizobial strains and their recombinants to colonize and infect roots of cowpea, because of significant dry weight of nodules per plant which can be obtained in V1-variety treated with 20 krad in M4 generation inoculated with the parental strain (P3, above that on the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N. Total chlorophyll formation in V1-variety inoculated with di-parental transconjugants (DPM-Tr2 and DPM-Tr3 at all doses of gamma irradiation was significantly increase above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose and the mid-parents, with the exception at 30 krad if compared with the mid-parents. Significant increase was resulted in fresh weight of pods developed per plant above the mid-parents in M3 generation of V1-variety at doses zero and 10 krad, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugant, DPM-Tr2. While, the same trend was also achieved above the full dose in M3 generation at 10 krad in response to inoculation with DPM-Tr2, DPM-Tr3, TPM-Tr4 and TPM-Tr5. The highest nitrogen content was appeared in the shoots of V1-variety at all doses of gamma irradiation in response to inoculation with diparental transconjugant (DPM-Tr2. However, V2-variety had the lowest nitrogen content in relation to the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen and to the mid-parents of rhizobial transconjugants. The genetic variability of grain-protein content appeared that V2-variety treated with 10 krad had significant increase in protein content above that in the plants fertilized with recommended dose of N among M3 and M4 generations, in response to inoculation with parental strains and most of their transconjugants. The same trend was also shown in M4 generation of V1-variety treated with 20 and 30 krad above the plants fertilized with recommended dose of nitrogen, in response to inoculation with di-parental transconjugants. All biochemical traits studied were more affected by biofertilization than the doses of gamma rays and the interaction between biofertilization x doses. This indicated that the significance of treatments was mainly due to inoculation and particularly to gamma irradiation and the interaction between both of them.

  4. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) / Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco de A. C., Almeida; Silvana A. de, Almeida; Nilene R. dos, Santos; Josivanda P., Gomes; Maria E. R., Araújo.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espéc [...] ies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable [...] species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  5. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  6. Biological and physicochemical properties of cowpea severe mosaic comovirus isolated from soybean in the State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula V. Bertacini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean plants with symptoms of bud blight were growing close to cowpea with severe symptoms of mosaic associated with blisters in the leaves. A group of plants of both species were collected and used for etiological studies. This kind of symptom in soybeans was common in certain areas of the State of Paraná, induced by tobacco streak ilarvirus. Host range, serological reaction, particle morphology and size, protein and nucleic acid analysis, and transmission by beetles from species Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. showed that the virus involved was cowpea severe mosaic comovirus. This is the first report on the occurrence of this virus in soybean plants in the State of Paraná. Results using indirect ELISA showed that in cowpea the relative virus concentration was higher in green leaf areas than in chlorotic ones. Also, virus concentration, determined through indirect ELISA was much higher in plants kept at diurnal regime of 25º C x 23º C (12 x 12 h than at 30º C x 28º C.

  7. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  8. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseany Andrade Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emergence (DAE was greater in the TSC-amended than in the unamended soil. In the sandy soil, nodule dry weight increased with TSC application 45 DAE. In the clayey soil, 45 DAE, nodule dry weight decreased with TSC amendment levels greater than 7.5 t ha-1 compared to the unamended control. The application of TSC increased N accumulation in the cowpea plants. The results suggest that cowpea responds differently to TSC depending on the amendment rate and initial soil type.

  9. Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea from Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Y. Abubakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%, seedling weight change (1.52 g, shoot length (25.81 cm, root length (23.12 cm was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties.

  10. Phenotyping Cowpeas for Adaptation to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnthonyHall

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay and fresh pea production. The strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought that is available, resistance to mid-season drought, escaping terminal drought, the delayed-leaf-senescence trait, water-use-efficiency, deeper rooting and heat tolerance are discussed. Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Use of varietal intercrops and rotations are examined. Breeding and experimental field strategies for enhancing the adaptation to drought of cowpeas are described.

  11. Vitamin A Activity of Rice-based Weaning Foods Enriched with Germinated Cowpea Flour, Banana, Pumpkin and Milk Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N; Pongjata, J

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different drying methods on vitamin A activity of formulated weaning food. Weaned foods on vitamin A activity of formulated using treated cowpea flour, locally available rice flour, banana-pumpkin, skim milk powder and sugar in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5. Treated cowpea flour consisted of original cowpea flour, 24 h germinated cowpea flour. Each treated flour was mixed separately with the other ingredients and cooked into a slurry. Each mixture was either oven-dried or freeze-dried to produce a dry flaky mixture. The carotenoid composition of the product was determined by HPLC. Vitamin A activity of oven-dried weaning food was significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to freeze-dried weaning food. The freeze-dried weaning foods showed a higher retinol equivalent than oven-dried weaning foods for all treatments. The results of the study found that an intake of 100 g of freeze-dried weaning foods enriched with banana-pumpkin and cowpea flour provided an adequate amount of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin A for infants. PMID:22692393

  12. Influence of planting densities on the performance of intercropped bambara groundnut with cowpea in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Alhassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken during the rainy seasons (August – December of 2010 and 2011 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi in Benue State, located in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. The objective was to investigate the suitability of some landraces of bambara groundnut for intercropping at varying planting densities with cowpea. The experiment was a 2 x 3 x 3 split-split plot set out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Intercropping decreased canopy width, number of pods per plant and grain yields of bambara groundnut component. Number of pods plant-1 and grain yields of bambara groundnuts increased with increased planting density. Landrace x planting density interaction effects was significant signifying that landraces have to be selected for specific densities. The landraces of bambara groundnuts used for this study are better suited for planting at high densities (>100,000 plants ha-1. Sole cowpea proved superior to intercropped cowpea with bambara groundnut in dry grain yield, total plant biomass and harvest index. Productivity indices indicated that bambara groundnut/ cowpea intercropping was productive, but cowpea was the dominant component of this intercropping system.

  13. Supplemental Ca2+ does not improve growth but it affects nutrient uptake in NaCl-stressed cowpea plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Valderez Augusto, Guimarães; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Elton Camelo, Marques; Carlos Eduardo Braga de, Abreu; Boanerges Freire de, Aquino; José Tarquinio, Prisco; Enéas, Gomes-Filho.

    Full Text Available The growth and nutrient assimilation was evaluated in CaCl2- and CaSO4-supplemented cowpea plants subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). The salinity significantly reduced the cowpea vegetative growth. The addition of CaCl2 in the growth medium did not significantly affect plant growth, while for th [...] e CaSO4, the beneficial effects of Ca2+ were moderate. Salinity increased the Na+, K+, Cl-, N and P content in the plants, however it decreased the content of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Increases in Ca2+ concentration in the nutrient solution caused decreases in the Na+ and Mg2+ contents and increases in Ca2+, K+, P, and Cl- contents. The supplemental Ca2+ may alleviate the Na+ toxicity and may improve nutritional and ionic balance in cowpea, but it cannot overcome the osmotic effects associated with the increased total salt concentration.

  14. Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Manuel AFV

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry.

  15. Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Niranjana, S.R.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves; Prakash, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    plant test, an electron microscopic observations, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and an immunocapture RT-PCR. The incidence of the two tested viruses in common bean and black gram seed samples was 1–6% and 0.5–3.5%, respectively in growing-on test evaluations. Electron microscopic observations...... revealed filamentous virion particles from the leaves of plants showing characteristic virus disease symptoms in growing-on and host inoculation tests. The identity of the strains was confirmed by immunocapture RT-PCR, with a final amplification product of approximately 700 bp for BCMV and BCMV–BICM. The...... complete identity of the two viruses was further confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the partial coat protein and 3'-UTR regions. The sequences of the four BCMV and BCMV–BICM isolates each consisted of 583–622 and 550–577 nucleotides. The present report confirms the widespread nature of these two serious...

  16. Indução de resistência a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Tracheiphilum em Caupi: eficiência de indutores abióticos e atividade enzimática elicitada Induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum in cowpea plants: effectiveness of abiotic inducers and elicited enzymatic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Alice C. Rodrigues

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de indutores abióticos em cultivares de caupi inoculadas com Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum quanto à severidade, controle da doença e atividade enzimática. Para isso, plantas das cultivares IPA-206 e BR-17 Gurguéia com cinco dias de idade foram pulverizadas com soluções aquosas de ASM (5,0 g do i.a./100 L de água, BABA (1,5 mM e quitosana (2,0 mg/mL, no primeiro par de folhas e inoculadas, após sete dias da germinação, com 20 mL de uma suspensão de 1 x 10(6 conídios/mL do isolado ISO-PE. A avaliação da severidade da doença foi realizada aos 25 dias após a germinação, através de escala de notas e índice de doença. As atividades das enzimas beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL foram determinadas em plantas submetidas aos tratamentos anteriores, coletadas aos cinco e 10 dias após a inoculação. Foi observada diferença significativa entre os indutores e a testemunha, nas duas cultivares testadas, aos cinco e 10 dias, destacando-se o indutor ASM, proporcionando um controle da doença de 68,90% e 71,59% nas cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, respectivamente. O indutor ASM apresentou melhores resultados nas atividades de beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e PAL, destacando-se na cultivar IPA-206 nos dois períodos analisados. Os indutores BABA e quitosana diferiram da testemunha, na atividade de PAL e beta-1,3-glucanase, nessa mesma cultivar, aos cinco dias após a inoculação.The effect of abiotic inducers in two cowpea cultivars inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (E. F. Smith Snyder & Hansen was evaluated in relation to severity, disease control and enzyme activity. Aqueous solution of ASM (5.0 mg/mL, BABA (1.5 mM or chitosan (2.0 mg/mL was sprayed on the first pair of leaves of five-day-old cowpea plants, cultivars BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206. After seven days of elicitor application, inoculation was carried out with 20 mL of a 1 x 10(6 conidia/mL suspension of the ISO-PE isolate. Plants were harvested at five and 10 days after inoculation, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, beta-1.3-glucanase and peroxidase was analyzed. Significant difference between treatment with inducers and control was verified, mainly for ASM which provided a disease control of 68.9% and 71.59% for BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206 cultivars, respectively. ASM showed the best results related to beta-1.3-glucanase, peroxidase and PAL and activities, especially for the cultivar IPA-206 five or 10 days. BABA and chitosan differed from the control for PAL and beta-1.3-glucanase activity on cultivar IPA-206, five days after inoculation.

  17. Efeito de manejos do solo no déficit hídrico, trocas gasosas e rendimento do feijão-de-corda no semiárido / Effect of soil management on water deficit, gas exchange and cowpea yield in the semi-arid region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Bergson Parente, Fernandes; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Eunice Maia de, Andrade; Antônia Leila Rocha, Neves; Carlos Henrique Carvalho de, Sousa.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A variabilidade das chuvas no semiárido ocasiona, frequentemente, insuficiências hídricas durante o ciclo do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), afetando o seu rendimento. Objetivou-se investigar o efeito de diferentes manejos do solo no déficit hídrico do solo, nas trocas gasosas [...] foliares e no rendimento do feijão-de-corda, em regime de sequeiro no semiárido. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas com cinco sistemas de manejo (tratamentos), duas camadas de solo (0,15 e 0,30 m) e quatro repetições. Os manejos investigados foram: T-P, solo mobilizado somente pela enxada; T-ESC, solo escarificado a 0,30 m; T-CS, solo com subsolagem e captação in situ; o T-CCM, subsolagem, captação in situ e cobertura morta e o T-CCO, com subsolagem, captação in situ, cobertura morta e compostagem. Os resultados mostraram que a interação das práticas da cobertura morta, compostagem, subsolagem e a técnica de captação in situ, dotaram o T-CCO de maior capacidade de captar e armazenar água no solo, com um consequente aumento da disponibilidade hídrica para as culturas. Tal fato aumentou o rendimento da T-CCO em relação aos demais tratamentos na ordem (1º ao 4º) de 41%, 28%, 47% e 12%. Para um déficit hídrico gerado por 10 dias consecutivos sem chuvas, o T-CCO apresentou os melhores resultados na manutenção do estado fisiológico das plantas. No entanto, quando o solo se encontra próximo à capacidade de campo, as práticas de manejo do solo não mostraram diferenças significativas na condutância estomática, fotossíntese, transpiração e na temperatura foliar. Tal fato expressa a importância do manejo do solo em condições limitantes de umidade. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Rainfall variability in semi-arid areas often results in water shortages during the cycle of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), affecting yield. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different management practices on soil water deficit, leaf gas exchange and the yield of the [...] cowpea under rainfed conditions in a semi-arid region. The experimental design was completely randomised into split lots of five management systems (treatments) and two layers of soil (0.15 and 0.30 m), with four replications. The management systems investigated were: T-P, soil turned by hoe only; T-ESC, ploughing to 0.30 m only; T-CS, soil with subsoiling and in situ catchment; T-CCM, subsoiling, in situ catchment and mulch, and T-CCO, subsoiling, in situ catchment, mulch and compost. The results showed that the interaction of the practices of mulching, composting, subsoiling and in situ catchment, resulted in the T-CCO having a greater capacity to capture and store water in the soil, with a consequent increase in water availability for the crops. This fact increased the yield of T-CCO in relation to the other treatments by (1st to 4th) 41%, 28%, 47% and 12%. For a water deficit generated after ten consecutive days without rain, the T-CCO displayed the best results in maintaining the physiological state of the plants. However, when the soil was close to field capacity, there were no significant differences for soil management practice in stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration or leaf temperature. This fact demonstrates the importance of soil management under limiting conditions of moisture.

  18. The immunodepressive effect of Friend virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splenic immune responses having varying dependence on accessory cell co-operation have been studied after infection of mice with Friend virus. Infection had no effect on cell proliferation or antibody production in cultures stimulated with E.coli lipopolysaccharide. The response in vivo to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide was depressed only moderately. The response to sheep red blood cells was depressed severely both in vivo and in vitro. Depression in vitro was greatly reduced by co-stimulation with E.coli lipopolysaccharide. Depletion of potential suppressor lymphocyte populations by irradiation or adult thymectomy did not ameliorate depression of responses to sheep red blood cells or pneumococcal polysaccharide. Responses after adult thymectomy plus irradiation were not affected by the virus. Although it is known that macrophage and helper T-lymphocyte co-operation are not themselves impaired by infection, these results suggest that there is a direct relationship between severity of immune depression and dependence on co-operation. Implications for the action of the virus are discussed. (author)

  19. Molecular effects: interactions with chemicals and viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research focused upon an understanding of the cellular responses to the molecular effects of ionizing radiation should be an essential program component in the Federal Strategy for Research into the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although we know that DNA is a principal target molecule for some highly significant biological effects of ionizing radiation, we need to learn which other target substances such as membrane components may also be important. Most of the emphasis should continue to be on DNA effects and highest priority should be assigned to the identification of the complete spectrum of products produced in DNA. Once the lesions are known we can proceed to determine how these behave as blocks to replication and transcription or as modulators on the fidelity of these crucial processes. Considerable work should be done on the repair of these lesions. High priority should be given to the search for mutants in mammalian cell systems with evident defects in the processing of specific lesions. Viruses should provide important tools for the research in this area, as probes for host cell repair responses and also for the isolation of mutants. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interaction of viruses and ionizing radiation with regard to possible modulating effects on repair processes and tumorigenesis. Finally we must consider the important problem of the modification of repair responses by environmental factors

  20. N2O Emission and Mineral N Release in a Tropical Acrisol Incorporated with Mixed Cowpea and Maize Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Baggs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory microcosm incubation was conducted to study the influence of mixed cowpea-maize residues on N2O emission and N mineralization in a tropical acrisol. The soils were incorporated with different ratios of cowpea:maize mixtures on weight basis: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, and a control treatment in which there was no residue incorporation. The results show that N2O and CO2 emissions were higher in the sole cowpea treatment (100:0 than the sole maize treatment (0:100 and the control. However, cowpea-maize residue mixtures increased the proportion of N lost as N2O compared to the sole treatments. This interactive effect was highest in the 75:25 treatment. The 50:50 treatment showed moderate N2O emission compared to the 100:0, 75:25 and 25:75 treatments but with corresponding steady N mineralization and appreciable mineral N concentration. It is concluded that mixing cowpea-maize residues might increase the proportion of N lost as N2O in a tropical acrisol. However, compared to the other residue mixture treatments, mixing cowpea-maize residues in equal proportions on weight basis might offer a path to reducing N2O emissions while maintaining a steady N mineralization without risking good N supply in acrisols. The study therefore offers potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining soil fertility in tropical acrisols. However, further studies under both laboratory and field conditions will be required to verify and validate this claim.

  1. Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moravvej

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 ±1 L-1 at 24 h exposure, respectively. The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 ±1 L-1. The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles.

  2. Induced mutations for insect resistance in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy losses in grain yield are caused by pests in cowpea. Aphids, flower thrips, pod sucking bugs and pod borers are major constraints. Genetic resistance against these pests is scanty in the germplasm screened so far, therefore, a mutation breeding programme was initiated. Seeds of two locally adapted cultivars Katuli-107 and Emma-60 will be irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR of gamma rays. Screening of M1, M2 and further generations for resistance to aphids and Maruca pod borer will be carried out both under field and screenhouse conditions. An outline of the proposed programme is given. (author)

  3. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food bean and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is being reported on a project aiming at genetic improvement of cowpea and Phaseolus bean for better disease resistance using induced mutations. The diseases of concern are anthracnose, angular leaf spot, halo blight and bean rust. Selection was effective in M3 and M4 generations and provided some lines with different resistance and yield levels, which will have to be examined further. (author)

  4. Salt stress tolerance in cowpea is poorly related to the ability to cope with oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Praxedes, Sidney C.; Damatta, Fabio M.; Lacerda, Claudivan F. de; Prisco, Jose T.; Gomes-Filho, Eneas

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that salt tolerance in cowpea could be associated with lesser impairments of the photosynthetic capacity. Taking into account that photosynthesis is the main sink for reducing power consumption, our central working hypothesis is that a salt- sensitive cultivar is more prone to suffer from oxidative stress. We analyzed the long-term effects of salt stress on oxidative damage and protection against reactive oxygen species in both leaves and roots of a salt-tolera...

  5. Functional properties of purified vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) and cowpea protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Alessandra; Domont, Gilberto B; Pedrosa, Cristiana; Ferreira, Sérgio T

    2003-09-10

    The major storage globulins (vicilins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and a semipurified cowpea protein isolate (CPI) was prepared by isoelectric precipitation. Some of the functional properties of these proteins, including solubility, foaming, and emulsifying capacities, were investigated and compared. The solubility of purified cowpea vicilin was reduced at pH 5.0, increasing markedly below and above this value. Pea vicilin exhibited poor solubility between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0, and CPI was little soluble in the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. At neutral pH, the emulsifying activity indexes (EAI) of purified pea vicilin and CPI were 194 and 291 m(2)/g, respectively, which compare quite favorably to EAIs of 110 and 133 m(2)/g for casein and albumin, respectively. Remarkably, purified cowpea vicilin exhibited an EAI of 490 m(2)/g, indicating a very high emulsifying activity. Purified cowpea and pea vicilins exhibited lower foaming capacities and foam stablity indexes (FSI) than CPI. FSI values of 80 and 260 min were obtained for purified pea and cowpea vicilin, respectively, whereas a FSI value of 380 min was obtained for CPI. These results are discussed in terms of the possible utilization of purified vicilins or protein isolates from pea and cowpea in the food processing industry. PMID:12952435

  6. Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

  7. Impacts of certain biofertilizers on cowpea plants in sludge amended sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge from El-Gabal EI-Asfer treatment plant was taken to minimize the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the treatments of gamma radiation and lime. Ten kGy dose level of gamma radiation and 20 percent lime were the optimum treatments to reduce the microbial load of sludge namely, total bacterial counts, total sporeformers, Enterococcus faecalis, total coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila and total fungi. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological agent in controlling certain soil borne diseases and reducing the toxicity of heavy metals comparing with 20 percent lime and 10 kGy gamma radiation using 4 percent sludge application and its effect on yield of cowpea components. treatments with gamma radiation, liming and biofertilizers reduced certain soil borne diseases, moreover liming and biofertilizers reduced the concentration of heavy metals in shoots and grains of cowpea plants. However, the application of lime at the rate of 20 percent with sludge exerted negative effect in all studied parameters as compared to control (NPK) or sludge alone. The greatest values of number and fresh weight of nodules were observed under biofertilizers and gamma radiation treatments. Results revealed that significant effects on dry weight of roots and shoots as well as grain yield production of cowpea plants treated biofertilizers and gamma radiation at dose level 10 kGy under sludge application

  8. Residues, dissipation, and risk assessment of spinosad in cowpea under open field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2015-11-01

    The dissipation and residues of an eco-friendly bio-pesticide, spinosad, in cowpea under field conditions were studied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS) after Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction. The method exhibited good linearity with respect to spinosyn A and spinosyn D in solvent or blank cowpea matrix with correlation coefficients>0.99. Additionally, matrix effects were not significant in the range 0.987-1.014, and the average recoveries at three concentration levels were 75.1-91.1 and 79.4-90.5% for spinosyn A and spinosyn D, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 2.5-9.3 and 7.8-9.8% for spinosyn A, respectively, and 4.1-7.9 and 6.6-8.3% for spinosyn D, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.005 and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively, for spinosyn A, and 0.002 and 0.005 mg kg(-1), respectively, for spinosyn D. The dissipation of spinosad (sum of spinosyn A and spinosyn D) fitted well to first-order kinetics with half-lives of 0.9-1.5 days. The highest residue (HR) at pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 12 h was 0.321 mg kg(-1). Compared with the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by Codex, a PHI of at least 24 h was recommended. The estimated daily chronic intake of spinosad from cowpea was less than 0.14% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Therefore, the risk of consuming cowpea sprayed with spinosad under recommended field conditions was considered acceptable for the Chinese population. PMID:26502727

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. ILEKE; Odeyemi, O. O.; M. O. Ashamo

    2012-01-01

    The bioactivity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocyanaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea seeds was evaluated in the laboratory by admixing leaf, stem bark and root powders of A. boonei with cowpea seeds at ambient temperature of 28+20C and 70+5% relative humidity. The powders were incorporated into 20g of cowpea seeds, Vigna unguiculata at 0.0% (control) 2.5%, 5.0%, 12.5% and 25.0% (w/w) concentration. The ability of the plant powders to p...

  10. Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

  11. The effect of carvacrol on enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2015-01-01

    Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is said to have extensive antimicrobial activity in a wide range of food spoilage or pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess its antiviral activity on norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as its potential in food applications. Initially, different concentrations of carvacrol (0.25, 0.5, 1%) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log TCID50/ml and incubated 2h at 37°C. Carvacrol at 0.5% completely inactivated the two norovirus surrogates, whereas 1% concentration was required to achieve ca. 1 log reduction of HAV. In lettuce wash water, carvacrol efficacy on MNV was dependent on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), with no effect over 300 ppm. A 4 log reduction in FCV infectivity was observed when 0.5% carvacrol was used to sanitize lettuce wash water, regardless of COD. Carvacrol was also evaluated as a natural disinfectant of produce, showing 1% carvacrol reduced inoculated NoV surrogates titers in lettuce by 1 log after 30 min contact. These results represent a step forward in improving food safety by using carvacrol as an alternative natural additive to reduce viral contamination in the fresh vegetable industry. PMID:25310265

  12. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Xavier Filho

    1991-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) r...

  13. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yussef F.B., Braga; Thalles B., Grangeiro; Eder A., Freire; Helano L., Lopes; José N. S., Bezerra; Manoel, Andrade-Neto; Mary Anne S., Lima.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus) foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasi [...] l. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v). Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P Abstract in english The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil [...] . The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P

  15. MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiona M. Petu-Ibikunle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004 field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilation rate (NAR and grain yield. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and means were separated using LSD (P ? 0.05. NAR were enhanced (P?0.05 by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding × spatial arrangements reduced (P ? 0.05 striga incidence on cowpea during 2003 and 2004. Weeding thrice × sowing 1:2 and weeding twice × sowing on the same hill gave a statistically similar result. Nodulation was enhanced by the interaction of weeding frequency and spatial arrangement. Weeding frequency × planting arrangement significantly increased (P ? 0.05 cowpeas grain yield during 2004. The highest grain yields (1344 and1347 Kg/ha were recorded from weeding twice × sowing 1:2 and weeding thrice × sowing on the same hill. Based on these field data the frequency of weeding enhanced physical removal of weeds, minimized competetion for growth resources, improved soil conditioning for optimum aeration, increased soil air-water ratio for optimum mycorraler and other beneficial soil microbial activities; While intercropping possibly provided canopy coverage for moisture conservation and pest control.

  16. Effects of chloroquine and cytochalasin B on the infection of cells by Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, K; Mann, E; Edwards, J.; Brown, D T

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cytochalasin B and chloroquine on the process of endocytosis of Sindbis virus particles and polystyrene spheres were determined by electron microscopy. The effects of these agents on the process of infection (attachment, penetration, and uncoating) of BHK-21 cells by Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus were also determined. Cytochalasin B completely blocked ingestion of Sindbis virus particles or latex spheres by BHK cells but had no effect on the ability of Sindbis vi...

  17. Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) / Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nivânia P. da, Costa; Arlindo L., Boiça Júnior.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com ci [...] nco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem de insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, duri [...] ng seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

  18. Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.G.C., Odeigah; A.O., Osanyinpeju; G.O., Myers.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth t [...] ests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

  19. EFFECT OF CHLORINE TREATMENT ON INFECTIVITY OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of chlorine treatment on the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Prodromal chimpanzee feces, shown to induce hepatitis in marmosets (Saguinus sp.), was clarified, and the virus was precipitated with 7% polyethylene glycol 6000, harvested and res...

  20. Inactivation of Pathogenic Viruses by Plant-Derived Tannins: Strong Effects of Extracts from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a Broad Range of Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Kyoko; Kawabata, Ryoko; Irie, Takashi; Nakai, Yoshiaki; TOHYA, Yukinobu; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

    2013-01-01

    Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivi...

  1. Effects of Six Common Plant Seed Oils on Survival, Eggs Lying and Development of the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbailao Mbaiguinam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reported the effects of 6 common plants extracts including neem and some others which have been never tested on the longevity of adults, the number of eggs laid and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus. Six seed oils extracted by methylene chloride were tested: Azadirachta indica, Ricinus communis, Thevetia nerifolia, Balanites eagyptiaca, Moringa oleifera and Kaya senegalensis. All these oils reduce significantly survival of adults, oviposition and total emergence of adults. The most efficient is that of Thevetia nerifolia. At higher concentrations the treatment affects slightly the germination of seeds which remains over 50%. Seed oil of Thevetia nerifolia can be used as a good alternative to pesticides against Callosobruchus maculatus in addition with that of Azadirachta indica which effects are well established by many former works.

  2. Effects of Six Common Plant Seed Oils on Survival, Eggs Lying and Development of the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera:Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mbailao Mbaiguinam; Nanadoum Maoura; Automne Bianpambe; Gabra Bono; Emmanuel Alladoumbaye

    2006-01-01

    This research reported the effects of 6 common plants extracts including neem and some others which have been never tested on the longevity of adults, the number of eggs laid and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus. Six seed oils extracted by methylene chloride were tested: Azadirachta indica, Ricinus communis, Thevetia nerifolia, Balanites eagyptiaca, Moringa oleifera and Kaya senegalensis. All these oils reduce significantly survival of adults, oviposition and total emergence...

  3. EFFECT OF NATURAL VIRUS INFECTION ON QUALITY AND YIELD OF GARLIC ELITE LINES

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Moreno L; Santibañez-Jaramillo L I; Mendoza-Celedón B; Ramírez-Malagón R

    2014-01-01

    Garlic crops are naturally infested by virus complexes of genus Potyvirus and Carlavirus. Infection of these virus reduced garlic production, especially at Guanajuato state, Mexico. In present study, the effect of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV) complex virus on garlic (Taiwan type) quality and yield lose was evaluated. This assessment was carried out during the Fall-Winter 2007...

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A POWERED COWPEA THRESHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. UMOGBAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Threshing is one of the major problems associated with production of cowpea in Nigeria and most farmers still employ crude methods of threshing the crop. For this reason a thresher was designed and constructed using locally available materials. The popularly grown variety of cowpea (Kakando in the middle belt region of Nigeria was used for performance evaluation of the thresher. The Kakando seed has an average length of 10.36 mm, and a thickness of 7.8 mm. Its angle of friction is 30° and a terminal velocity of 7.01 m/s. The evaluation was carried out at drum speeds of 700, 900 and 1200 rpm and moisture contents of 4.63 %, 6.40 % and 9.01 %. The study was laid in a 2 3 factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with a total of 9 treatment combinations replicated three times. The results showed that the percentage unthreshed pods, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, grain damage, blown away seeds, seed loss and threshing recovery were 2.19 %, 97.81 %, 97.02 %, 1.31 %, 0.86 %, 1.36 % and 69.49 % respectively. The grain output was 101.54 kg/hr. The result of regression analysis gave a coefficient R2 of 0.802, which implies that at any of the drum speeds and known moisture content the average grain output is about 80.2 % of the rated output of the thresher. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that the drum speed has no effect on the efficiency of the thresher except for seed damage and feed rate where it is significant at 0.01 and 0.05 for seed damage and feed rate respectively. Moisture content had no effect on cleaning efficiency, blown away seeds and threshing recovery, but showed high significance on performance efficiency at 0.01. The thresher can easily be dismantled for transportation and maintenance. The cost of production was seventy thousand naira (N70,000:00 $483:00.

  5. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability). PMID:24211390

  6. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  7. Inhibitory effect of medicinal herbs against RNA and DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, María Julieta; Wagner, Marcelo Luis; Suriano, Mónica; Vicente, Carlos; Nadinic, Jelena; Pampuro, Sandra; Salomón, Horacio; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor; Cavallaro, Lucía

    2004-05-01

    Fifteen Argentine medicinal plants were tested for their antiviral activity in vitro against herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and 2), bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), influenza virus type A (Inf A) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral activity was evaluated by a reduction in cytopathic effect, plaque-forming units and p24 HIV-1 antigen. The Selective Index of the active extract (SI(extract) = CC50(extract)/EC50(extract)) of Coronopus didymus (SI(extract) = 110.7), Juglans australis (SI(extract) = 8.1) and Lippia alba (SI(extract) = 19.2) against BVDV-1, HSV-1 and influenza A virus, respectively, justify a further analysis. None of the seven plants assayed against HIV-1 displayed any antiviral activity. The results of this study justify the continuing isolation and characterization of the antiviral components present. PMID:15266897

  8. Floral Biology and Pollination Ecology of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    O.E. Ige; Olotuah, O.F; Akerele, V.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the floral biology and pollination ecology of three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were carried out. The varieties studied were Var. Oloyin, Var. Sokoto, and Var. Drum. Cowpea is a self pollinated crop which is encouraged by the arrangements of the floral parts. However, Insects visiting cowpea flowers have been implicated in the movement of pollen from one cowpea plant to another. Flower opening of cowpea begins between 6:00am and 6:30am and closes between 11:30am...

  9. Genetic evaluation of two aphid resistant cowpea mutants in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Africa. It feeds on young shoots by sucking sap, resulting in the stunting and killing of the plant. Several insecticides are effective against aphids, but resistant cultivars offer the most effective and cheapest means of control. Two aphid resistant mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, were developed from the M2 population of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. Both mutants showed monogenic dominant inheritance of resistance. Crosses between these mutants and two other cultivars, ICV10 and TVu310, indicated that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant resistance gene which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and TVu310. The genes were designated Racl (in ICV10 and TVu310) and Rac2 (in ICV11 and ICV12). Both antixenosis and antibiosis types of resistance mechanism were found to be operating in the mutant cultivars. The improved attributes of the mutant cultivars ICV11 and ICV12 were a high level of resistance to aphid, an increased pod length, an increased number of seeds per pod, a semi-erect plant type and higher grain yields. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

  11. Growth and Yield Performance of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp) as influenced by Row-Spacing and Period of Weed interference in South-West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Adigun; A. O. Osipitan; Segun Toyosi Lagoke; Raphael Olusegun Adeyemi; Stephen Olaoluwa Afolami

    2014-01-01

    Weed problem appears to be the most deleterious factor causing between 25 and 60% reduction in potential yield of cowpea. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effect of inter-row spacing and period of weed interference on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (07° 15'; 03° 25' E) in South Western Nigeria during the early and late wet seasons of 2009. The experiment consisted of...

  12. Comparison of Shoot Regeneration on Different Concentrations of Thidiazuron from Shoot Tip Explant of Cowpea on Gelrite and Agar Containing Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Sebahattin ÖZCAN; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Aasim, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume grown all over the world as grain crop, animal fodder, cover crop, gren manure and vegetable. The present study compares effects of agar and gelrite on micropropagation from shoot tip explant of two Turkish cowpea cultivars Akkiz and Karagoz using 0.15, 0.15, 0.35 mg/l Thidiazuron (TDZ), 3 g/l activated charcoal, 2 mg/l yeast extract with and without 1.25 mg/l Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). To overcome problem of endogenic bacterial conta...

  13. Effects of organic matter on virus transport in unsaturated flow.

    OpenAIRE

    Powelson, D K; Simpson, J. R.; Gerba, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of natural humic material and sewage sludge organic matter (SSOM) derived from primary treated sewage sludge on virus transport by unsaturated flow through soil columns were evaluated. Bacteriophage MS-2 was applied to loamy fine sand columns 0.052 m in diameter and 1.05 m long. Virus concentrations in the influent and effluent were measured daily for 7 to 9 days. In the first experiment, virus transport through two fresh soil columns was compared with that through a column previo...

  14. Effect of cacao husk extract on human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unten, S; Ushijima, H; Shimizu, H; Tsuchie, H; Kitamura, T; Moritome, N; Sakagami, H

    1991-12-01

    A sodium hydroxide extract from cacao husk inhibited the cytopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) against HTLV-1-transformed T-cell lines MT-2 and MT-4. It also inhibited syncytium formation between HIV-infected and uninfected lymphoblastoid T-cell line, MOLT-4. The anti-HIV activity was concentrated by membrane filter fractionation to a fraction with molecular weight of 100-300 KDa. Anti-HIV activity of the extract was attributable to interference with the virus adsorption, rather than to inhibition of the virus replication after adsorption. PMID:1367748

  15. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Passos de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the preference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding. IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  16. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Márquez; T, Córdova; L, Castejón; A, Higuera.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  17. Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Hecht, Lutz; Syme, Christopher D.; Volpetti, Vito; Lomonossoff, George P.; Nielsen, Kurt; Barron, Laurance D.

    2002-01-01

    A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity to chirality, ROA is an incisive probe of their aqueous solution structures at the molecular level. Protein ROA bands are especially prominent from which, as we have shown by comparison with the ROA spectra of p...

  18. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Reddy, K Raja

    2010-09-01

    The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:20605100

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A POWERED COWPEA THRESHER

    OpenAIRE

    Umogbai, V. I.; A.U. FULANI; S.E. Obetta

    2014-01-01

    Threshing is one of the major problems associated with production of cowpea in Nigeria and most farmers still employ crude methods of threshing the crop. For this reason a thresher was designed and constructed using locally available materials. The popularly grown variety of cowpea (Kakando) in the middle belt region of Nigeria was used for performance evaluation of the thresher. The Kakando seed has an average length of 10.36 mm, and a thickness of 7.8 mm. Its angle of friction is 30° and a ...

  20. In Vitro Antiviral Effect of "Nanosilver" on Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mehrbod

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered by world health authorities. Small particles of silver have a long history as general antiseptic and disinfectant. Silver does not induce resistance in microorganisms and this ability in Nano-size is stronger. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to determine antiviral effects of Nanosilver against influenza virus. TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose of the virus as well as CC50 (50% Cytotoxic Concentration of Nanosilver was obtained by MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Sigma method. This compound was non-toxic to MDCK (Madin-Darbey Canin Kidney cells at concentration up to 1 µg/ml.  Effective minimal cytotoxic concentration and 100 TCID50 of the virus were added to the confluent cells.  Inhibitory effects of Nanosilver on the virus and its cytotoxicity were assessed at different temperatures using Hemagglutination (HA assay, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, and DIF (Direct Immunofluorescent. RT-PCR and free band densitometry software were used to compare the volume of the PCR product bands on the gel. Results and Discussion:  In this study it was found that Nanosilver has destructive effect on the virus membrane glycoprotein knobs as well as the cells.

  1. Effect of the CTL proliferation program on virus dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    into memory cells. The effect of this program on the infection dynamics and the advantages gained by the program have, however, not been explored yet. We investigate this with mathematical models. We find that more programmed divisions can make virus clearance more efficient because CTL division......Experiments have established that CTLs do not require continuous antigenic stimulation for expansion. Instead, responses develop by a process of programmed proliferation which involves approximately 7-10 antigen-independent cell divisions, the generation of effector cells and the differentiation...... continues to occur independent from antigenic stimulation when virus load drops to low levels. This results in stronger effector activity at low virus loads, and in a higher chance of virus extinction. On the other hand, the more programmed divisions occur, the less efficient the response is at preventing...

  2. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, J.J.A., van; Huis, A; Dicke, M; Kossou, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a no-choice situation. Powders of Nicotiana tabacum, Tephrosia vogelii and Securidaca longepedunculata significantly reduced the number of progeny. Repellence was evaluated by observing the behaviour ...

  3. Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Moravvej; S. Abbar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. para...

  4. Field Occurrence of Bruchid Pests of Cowpea and Associated Parasitoids in a Sub Humid Zone of Burkina Faso: Importance on the Infestation of Two Cowpea Varieties at Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanon Antoine

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea is a very important legume for peasant farmers in West Africa but this crop is very sensitive to bruchid attacks during storage. A study was carried out in a sub humid zone of Burkina Faso to determine the relation between the dynamic of bruchid and parasitoid populations in the fields and cowpea infestation at harvest. The variations in insect numbers were weekly estimated by net captures during the growth of an early and a late cowpea variety. Adults of two bruchid species, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.. and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic appeared early in the fields before cowpea flowering and their population regularly increased over time and from early to late cowpea variety. The Pteromalid Dinarmus basalis Rond was the only larval parasitoid encountered. Its adults appeared later than bruchids and their parasitism activity increased over time. At harvest, 35% of the early cowpea pods and 74.5% of the late cowpea pods were infested by bruchid eggs. 58.5 and 72% of the bruchid eggs laid respectively on the early and the late cowpea variety were parasitized by Uscana sp. The level of cowpea seed infestation by bruchids at the beginning of storage was estimated to be 1 and 2.7% for the early and late cowpea variety respectively. The parasitism rate of bruchid larvae by D. basalis was estimated at this period to be 7.8% for early cowpea variety and 18.2% for the late variety. These results are discussed in view of developing an integrated control method based on the enhancement of the pest natural enemies in the fields and/or into storage systems in combination with beneficial farming practices.

  5. Changes induced by infestation on some chemical properties of cowpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojimelukwe, P C

    2002-01-01

    Three cowpea varieties were used in the present study, Insect susceptible popular variety, 'Ife-brown' (IFB), an improved variety for insect resistance IT 81D-975 (1975) and a local black cowpea variety with a white hilium adapted to diverse habitats, 'Akidi' (AKD). Cowpea seeds were infested with Callosobruchus maculatus. Crude protein content of infested and uninfested whole cowpea flour and protein concentrate was determined. Prolamin contents of flour and protein concentrates were evaluated. Fat content, free fatty acid and peroxide values of cowpea seeds were also determined. All determinations were carried out in infested and uninfested cowpea seeds in 3 replicates for each determination. Emulsion properties of cowpea seeds stored in 3 containers, plastic cans (PC) and polyethylene bags (white and black WPB/BPB) were monitored on a biweekly basis for 24 weeks. Varietal differences existed in the protein, fat and prolamin contents of cowpeas. Infestation reduced the contents of these nutrients in all cases. Free fatty acid contents and peroxide values were increased by > 100%. Infestation reduced the prolamin content by > 25% in all cases. Varietal differences also existed in emulsion capacities of cowpea flours; IFB and 975 formed better and more stable emulsions than AKD flour. Storage in plastic cans led to better retention of the emulsion properties of the cowpeas. PMID:12049145

  6. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  7. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  8. Bio-efficacy of gamma irradiation against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus L. infesting cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus is an important pest of cowpea in storage. It has cosmopolitan distribution with wide host range and also has different strains. It causes 20-60 per cent losses during storage of cowpea. Hazardous environmental effects posed by the chemicals used for its management necessitate the need for an alternative ecofriendly strategy to control the insect. Gamma irradiation seems to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free, ecofriendly strategy. The experimental insect, C. maculatus was reared on the cowpea seeds under controlled conditions (28±1? and 65±5% RH). The freshly emerged adults (about 24-36 h of age) were exposed in very fine thin polythene envelops to gamma radiation at different doses viz., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy using Cobalt-60 Gamma irradiation facility at Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India. The parameters observed included adult mortality, longevity, fecundity of the survivors and adult emergence in F1 generation. Dose dependent insect mortality was observed with immediate mortality at higher doses. High mortality was observed within 24 hour of irradiation. However, complete mortality resulted within five days of irradiation at 600 and 800 Gy as compared to 12 days in control. Adult longevity decreased with increase in radiation dose. The mean longevity decreased from 6.00 days in control to 2.48 days at the highest dose. The eggs laid by the treated adult beetles did not develop into the adults of next generation. Much higher doses were required to kill the adult while the complete sterility (100% sterility) was found even at the lowest dose of 25 Gy. Thus, gamma irradiation has potential to be used as an eco-friendly mitigation measure against C. maculatus. (author)

  9. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  10. Estimation of N-fixed by cowpea as influenced by two phosphorus sources using N-15 dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non conventional phosphorus fertilizers have the potential to be used under different soils. Their effect on the biological nitrogen fixation by legumes is not clear. This greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate two p -sources, namely super phosphate (SSP), and the partially acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR) on nitrogen fixed by Cowpea, using N-15 isotopic dilution technique. Acid soil was limed with Ca C O3, treated with P(as SSP or PAPR), at rates of 0, 50, and 150 mg P/Kg soil, and planted with Cowpea. Results showed that, application of P as PAPR or SSP significantly increased the dry matter content of the whole plant, as well as the total nitrogen uptake. Significant biological nitrogen fixation was found as result of P application. Percentage Ndfa ranged from 28.3 to 70.1 depending on the rate and type of P source, also most of Ndfa was translocated to the seeds. 3 tab

  11. Corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is with preemergence and some postemergence herbicides, but recently fresh market...

  12. Effects of promyelocytic leukemia protein on virus-host balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Weldy V; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Klenerman, Paul; Rousson, Valentin; Gaboli, Mirella; Pandolfi, Pier P; Zinkernagel, Rolf M; Salvato, Maria S; Hengartner, Hans

    2002-04-01

    The cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) associates with the proteins of several viruses and in some cases reduces viral propagation in cell culture. To examine the role of PML in vivo, we compared immune responses and virus loads of PML-deficient and control mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). PML(-/-) mice exhibited accelerated primary footpad swelling reactions to very-low-dose LCMV, higher swelling peaks upon high-dose inoculation, and higher viral loads in the early phase of systemic LCMV infection. T-cell-mediated hepatitis and consequent mortality upon infection with a hepatotropic LCMV strain required 10- to 100-times-lower inocula despite normal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reactivity in PML(-/-) mice. Furthermore, PML deficiency rendered mice 10 times more susceptible to lethal immunopathology upon intracerebral LCMV inoculation. Accordingly, 10-times-lower VSV inocula elicited specific neutralizing-antibody responses, a replication-based effect not observed with inactivated virus or after immunization with recombinant VSV glycoprotein. These in vivo observations corroborated our results showing more virus production in PML(-/-) fibroblasts. Thus, PML is a contributor to innate immunity, defining host susceptibility to viral infections and to immunopathology. PMID:11907221

  13. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extr...

  14. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1. Results Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. Conclusion The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.

  15. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-01-01

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

  16. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHIL DOBIE

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

  17. Proteomics changes during the incompatible interaction between cowpea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz and Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Hudson Fernando N; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Silva, Fredy D A; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Lobo, Marina D P; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moura, Arlindo A; Costa, José H; Oliveira, José Tadeu A

    2014-03-01

    Anthracnose represents an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] caused by the hemibiothrophic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that drastically reduces cowpea field production. In this study we investigated some biochemical aspects underlying the incompatible interaction between a resistant cowpea genotype and C. gloeosporioides using a proteomic approach. Analyses of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns and protein identification indicate C. gloeosporioides infection-dependent cowpea leaf proteome changes associated with metabolism, photosynthesis, response to stress, oxidative burst and scavenging, defense signaling, and pathogenesis-related proteins. Moreover the C. gloeosporioides responsive proteins interaction network in cowpea revealed the interconnected modulation of key cellular processes involving particularly antioxidants proteins, photosynthetic apparatus forming proteins and proteins of the energetic metabolism that interact with each other suggesting that their expression changes are also important for resistance of cowpea to C. gloeosporioides. PMID:24467908

  18. Response of Cowpea Plants Grown Under Salinity Stress to PK-Foliar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Shaaban

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre to study the effect of two doses (50 and 100 mg L-1 of PK foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 on leaf nutrient concentrations and growth parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. grown under two diluted Mediterranean seawater levels (3.0, 6.0 dS m-1 in the irrigation water in addition to tap water (0.4 dS m-1 as control. Diluted seawater as irrigation led to significant decreases of macro and micronutrients concentrations in the leaves of cowpea plants. Plant height, number of green leaves, fresh and dry weights were also negatively affected with high significance (p0.05 as the plants irrigated with saline water. PK-foliar fertilization in the form of K2PO3 could increase P, K and other macro- and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves of the salt-stressed plants. The most effective dose was the 100 mg L-1 K2PO3 with the lower salinity level (3.0 dS m-1. Making the plants more tolerant to salinity stress, PK-foliar fertilization could improve plant growth parameters and increase plant heights, number of green leaves, fresh and dry weights.

  19. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ezezika Obidimma C; Daar Abdallah S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”). Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricu...

  20. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS) India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus ro...

  1. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung Foo; Chipumuro Edmond; Bokowiec Marta T; Laudeman Thomas W; Rushton Paul J; Timko Michael P; Town Christopher D; Chen Xianfeng

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major...

  2. Inhibitory effect of doxycycline against dengue virus replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2014-04-01

    Doxycycline is an antibiotic derived from tetracycline that possesses antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Antiviral activity of doxycycline against dengue virus has been reported previously; however, its anti-dengue properties need further investigation. This study was conducted to determine the potential activity of doxycycline against dengue virus replication in vitro. Doxycycline inhibited the dengue virus serine protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) with an IC50 value of 52.3 ± 6.2 ?M at 37 °C (normal human temperature) and 26.7 ± 5.3 ?M at 40 °C (high fever temperature). The antiviral activity of doxycycline was first tested at different concentrations against DENV2 using a plaque-formation assay. The virus titter decreased significantly after applying doxycycline at levels lower than its 50 % cytotoxic concentration (CC50, 100 ?M), showing concentration-dependent inhibition with a 50 % effective concentration (EC50) of approximately 50 ?M. Doxycycline significantly inhibited viral entry and post-infection replication of the four dengue serotypes, with serotype-specific inhibition (high activity against DENV2 and DENV4 compared to DENV1 and DENV3). Collectively, these findings underline the need for further experimental and clinical studies on doxycycline, utilizing its anti-dengue and anti-inflammatory activities to attenuate the clinical symptoms of dengue virus infection. PMID:24142271

  3. Reduction of the nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus (Coloeptera: bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oke and Akintunde

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to study the food nutrients such as the Free Fatty Acids and some other nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus invitro. 400g of uninfested cowpea was divided into two parts of 200g each. The first 200g was left to be infested by Callosobruchus maculatus for 100 days. The remaining 200g was preserved in a Kilner jar in the laboratory. The mean moisture content of the infested cowpea was 21.10 while that of the uninfested cowpea was 32.70....

  4. Effect of monensin on Mayaro virus replication in monkey kidney and Aedes albopictus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campos, R M; Ferreira, D F; Da Veiga, V F; Rebello, M A; Rebello, M C S

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a cationic ionophore, monensin, on the replication of Mayaro virus in monkey kidney TC7 and Aedes albopictus cells has been studied. Treatment of these cells with 1 micromol/l monensin during infection did not affect the virus protein synthesis but inhibited severely the virus replication. Electron microscopy of the cells infected with Mayaro virus and treated with monensin revealed that the morphogenesis of Mayaro virus was impaired in TC7 but not in A. albopictus cells. PMID:14524478

  5. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  6. Efeito da variaç??o de níveis de água disponível no solo sobre o crescimento e produção de feijão caupi, vagens e grãos verdes Effect of different levels of available water in the soil on the growth and production of cowpea bean pods and green grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Nascimento

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da variação de níveis de água disponível no solo, sobre o crescimento e produção de vagens e grãos verdes de feijão caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp], cv. IPA 206. A produção de vagens e de grãos verdes desta espécie é uma excelente alternativa de comercialização para os agricultores do Nordeste do Brasil, visto que o seu consumo é bastante significativo na região. Instalou-se o experimento em vasos de 13 kg, em casa de vegetação na UFPB em Areia (PB, de agosto a dezembro de 2000. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 4 tratamentos correspondentes aos níveis de água disponível do solo (40; 60; 80 e 100%, logo após as irrigações, com 6 repetições. Os resultados observados mostraram que o nível crescente de déficit hídrico afetou drasticamente o desempenho desta cultivar em estudo em comparação à testemunha. As maiores reduções estimadas foram constatadas no comprimento da haste principal, 26 e 48%, no número de folha por planta, 23 e 35%, no número de vagens por planta, 32 e 49%, e na massa de vagens por planta, 23 e 30%, respectivamente para os níveis de 60 e 40% de água disponível do solo. Nas condições do experimento a cultivar de feijão caupi IPA 206 não tolera déficit hídrico acentuado.The effect of different levels of available water in the soil was evaluated on the growth and production of green pod and green beans (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp of cowpea, cv. IPA 206. Both forms of commercialization are excellent alternatives for farmers from the Northeast of Brazil. Plants were cultivated in 13 kg soil pots under green house conditions in Areia, Paraiba State, from August to December/2000. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with six replications and four treatments corresponding to 40; 60; 80 and 100% of available water in the soil, just after irrigations. The production was significantly affected by the deficit of water. Great reduction was observed in the length of the main stem (26 and 48%, in the number of leaves per plant (23 and 35%, in the number of pods per plant (32 and 49% and in the mass of pods per plant (23 and 30%, respectively, for the levels of 60 and 40% of available water in the soil. The production of green pod and green beans of cowpea cv. IPA 206 is greatly affected by deficit of water of 40 and 60%.

  7. Vírus do mosaico severo do caupi-CPSMV como molécula carreadora para a p28 do vírus da artrite-encefalite caprina-CAEV / Cowpea severe mosaic virus CPSMV as a carrier molecule to p28 from caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-CAEV

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Jarbas Santos de, Sousa; Marcelo Róseo de, Oliveira; Ney de Carvalho, Almeida; Marlos Gomes, Martins; Maria Erivalda Farias de, Aragão; Maria Fátima da Silva, Teixeira; Maria Izabel Florindo, Guedes.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da Artrite-encefalite caprina (CAEV) pertence à família Retroviridae, gênero Lentivirus. O CAEV infecta caprinos do mundo inteiro causando artrite, encefalite, mamite, pneumonia e emagrecimento progressivo. Este trabalho mostra a formação de uma quimera construída através da mistura da p28 d [...] o CAEV com glutaraldeído e CPSMV, purificada por meio de cromatografia em biogel e sephadex G-150. As cromatografias foram monitoradas através de leituras em espectrofotômetro no comprimento de onda de 280nm, dos líquidos coletados nos tubos. Os picos contendo a quimera foram coletados e submetidos à eletroforese (SDS-PAGE), sendo assim evidenciada a banda correspondente à mesma. Grupos de camundongos swiss foram imunizados com o vírus quimérico (CPSMV + p28), com o vírus CPSMV purificado e com a proteína p28 do CAEV, utilizando o adjuvante de Freund incompleto. Os anticorpos específicos produzidos contra o CPSMV e p28 reconheceram a proteína quimérica em Western Blotting e em teste de ELISA. Os anticorpos contra o vírus quimérico apresentaram títulos mais elevados do que os anticorpos produzidos contra a p28, demonstrando que o vírus quimérico apresenta maior imunogenicidade do que a proteína p28 sozinha. Os resultados mostraram que o acoplamento covalente entre o CPSMV e a p28 do CAEV foi obtido com sucesso, originando uma molécula estável não comprometendo a estrutura do capsídeo do CPSMV. Desta forma, sugere-se que o CPSMV possa ser utilizado como molécula carreadora na produção de vacinas para vírus que infectam animais. Abstract in english Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) belongs to Retroviridae family, Lentivirus genus. This virus infects caprine all over the world causing arthritis, encephalitis, mammitis and progressive emaciating. This research showed chimera's building made by mixing up CAEV p28, with glutaraldehyde, a [...] nd CPSMV, purified through the chromotography in biogel and sephadex (G-150). After that, some measures in a spectrophometric were developed to absorbance at 280nm. Peaks, which contained chimera, were collected and submitted to SDS-PAGE, evidencing the band relative to itself. Groups of swiss mice were immunized with chimeric virus, purified CPSMV and with p28 protein using incomplete Freund Adjuvant. CPSMV and p28 specific antibodies recognized chimeric protein in Western Blotting and ELISA showing the efficacy of the method. The results showed the covalent coupling between CPSMV and CAEV p28 was successfully archieved, originating a stable molecule, which no disestablished the capside from CPSMV. Besides, it showed that chimeric virus presents more immunogenicity than protein p28 isolated. It's suggesting CPSMV can be used as a carrier molecule in the production of vaccines to the virus, which infect animals.

  8. Vírus do mosaico severo do caupi-CPSMV como molécula carreadora para a p28 do vírus da artrite-encefalite caprina-CAEV Cowpea severe mosaic virus CPSMV as a carrier molecule to p28 from caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-CAEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jarbas Santos de Sousa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da Artrite-encefalite caprina (CAEV pertence à família Retroviridae, gênero Lentivirus. O CAEV infecta caprinos do mundo inteiro causando artrite, encefalite, mamite, pneumonia e emagrecimento progressivo. Este trabalho mostra a formação de uma quimera construída através da mistura da p28 do CAEV com glutaraldeído e CPSMV, purificada por meio de cromatografia em biogel e sephadex G-150. As cromatografias foram monitoradas através de leituras em espectrofotômetro no comprimento de onda de 280nm, dos líquidos coletados nos tubos. Os picos contendo a quimera foram coletados e submetidos à eletroforese (SDS-PAGE, sendo assim evidenciada a banda correspondente à mesma. Grupos de camundongos swiss foram imunizados com o vírus quimérico (CPSMV + p28, com o vírus CPSMV purificado e com a proteína p28 do CAEV, utilizando o adjuvante de Freund incompleto. Os anticorpos específicos produzidos contra o CPSMV e p28 reconheceram a proteína quimérica em Western Blotting e em teste de ELISA. Os anticorpos contra o vírus quimérico apresentaram títulos mais elevados do que os anticorpos produzidos contra a p28, demonstrando que o vírus quimérico apresenta maior imunogenicidade do que a proteína p28 sozinha. Os resultados mostraram que o acoplamento covalente entre o CPSMV e a p28 do CAEV foi obtido com sucesso, originando uma molécula estável não comprometendo a estrutura do capsídeo do CPSMV. Desta forma, sugere-se que o CPSMV possa ser utilizado como molécula carreadora na produção de vacinas para vírus que infectam animais.Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV belongs to Retroviridae family, Lentivirus genus. This virus infects caprine all over the world causing arthritis, encephalitis, mammitis and progressive emaciating. This research showed chimera's building made by mixing up CAEV p28, with glutaraldehyde, and CPSMV, purified through the chromotography in biogel and sephadex (G-150. After that, some measures in a spectrophometric were developed to absorbance at 280nm. Peaks, which contained chimera, were collected and submitted to SDS-PAGE, evidencing the band relative to itself. Groups of swiss mice were immunized with chimeric virus, purified CPSMV and with p28 protein using incomplete Freund Adjuvant. CPSMV and p28 specific antibodies recognized chimeric protein in Western Blotting and ELISA showing the efficacy of the method. The results showed the covalent coupling between CPSMV and CAEV p28 was successfully archieved, originating a stable molecule, which no disestablished the capside from CPSMV. Besides, it showed that chimeric virus presents more immunogenicity than protein p28 isolated. It's suggesting CPSMV can be used as a carrier molecule in the production of vaccines to the virus, which infect animals.

  9. Effect of Radiation on the Functions of Carcinogenic Viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When carcinogenic viruses are irradiated under suitable experimental conditions with ultra-violet rays or ionizing radiation, the various viral functions can be dissociated and virions defective in certain functions can be obtained. These defects are real mutations; they are passed on to subsequent generations provided the virions affected remain capable of reproduction. It has been possible to obtain various types of mutant, e.g. hyper producers of virions, non-productive transformers, non-transforming producers. The production of these mutants opens up certain experimental possibilities with regard to the transformation mechanism and the possible consequences of irradiation in vivo. Attention will be devoted in particular to the increased oncogenic capability in vivo which is sometimes observed in pre-irradiated viruses, and also to the consequences of this effect in the radiotherapy of certain malignant infections. These studies are also of interest for analysing the structure of the viral genome and throwing light on that fraction of the genome which is responsible for the transforming capacity. In the case of small viruses with a single DNA molecule (polyoma, SV-40) it has been possible to measure the fraction of the molecule responsible for the transforming capacity. In the case of the Rous virus the experiments suggest that the viral RNA is made up of sub-units capable of independent replication, the transforming capacity being possessed by only one of these sub-units. The induced defect may reveal the presence of transforming capacity in a virus considered as non- oncogenic because the transformed cells are usually eliminated by the infective process. In this way irradiation could render carcinogenic a virus which is not carcinogenic under normal conditions. The paper covers work done at the various viral radiobiology laboratories of the Radium Institute during the last two years. (author)

  10. Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonov, Evgeniy; Kochneva, Galina; Yunusova, Anastasiya; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Richter, Vladimir; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic abilities of vaccinia virus (VACV) served as a basis for the development of various recombinants for treating cancer; however, “natural” oncolytic properties of the virus are not examined in detail. Our study was conducted to know how the genetically unmodified L-IVP strain of VACV produces its antitumor effect. Human A431 carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and murine Ehrlich carcinoma in C57Bl mice were used as targets for VACV, which was injected intratumorally. A set of virological methods, immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy was used in the study. We found that in mice bearing A431 carcinoma, the L-IVP strain was observed in visceral organs within two weeks, but rapidly disappeared from the blood. The L-IVP strain caused decrease of sizes in both tumors, however, in different ways. Direct cell destruction by replicating virus plays a main role in regression of A431 carcinoma xenografts, while in Ehrlich carcinoma, which poorly supported VACV replication, the virus induced decrease of mitoses by pushing tumor cells into S-phase of cell cycle. Our study showed that genetically unmodified VACV possesses at least two mechanisms of antitumor effect: direct destruction of tumor cells and suppression of mitoses in tumor cells. PMID:26771631

  11. Radiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds contaminated by Callosobruchus maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) can be prevented by sterilization of the adult forms and destruction of the eggs, larvae and pupae using an ionizing treatment at doses less than 100 Gy, without causing unfavorable nutritional consequences. Storage of these cowpea seeds in polyethylene bags of a thickness greater than 100 micrometer avoids all recontamination by this weevil. Economically, the irradiation of such a foodstuff would certainly be worthwhile in Senegal on the condition that the ionizing treatment would also be profitable for other foodstuffs harvested locally, so as to attain a satisfactory utilization rate for the industrial plant which would be set up in this country

  12. Effect of Zinc Salts on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Suara, Rahaman O.; Crowe, James E

    2004-01-01

    Zinc supplementation decreases the morbidity of lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients in the developing world. We sought to determine if zinc mediates a specific inhibitory effect against the major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We determined the in vitro inhibitory effect of three zinc salts (zinc acetate, lactate, and sulfate) on the replication of RSV at various concentrations of 10 and 1 mM and 100 and 10 ?M. The de...

  13. Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Hecht, Lutz; Syme, Christopher D.; Volpetti, Vito; Lomonossoff, George P.; Nielsen, Kurt; Barron, Laurance D.

    2002-01-01

    chirality, ROA is an incisive probe of their aqueous solution structures at the molecular level. Protein ROA bands are especially prominent from which, as we have shown by comparison with the ROA spectra of proteins with known structures and by using a pattern recognition program, the folds of the major......A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity to...... RNA conformations in the middle and bottom-upper components are very similar. This information is not available from the X-ray crystal structure of cowpea mosaic virus since no nucleic acid is visible....

  14. Primary structural comparison of RNA-dependent polymerases from plant, animal and bacterial viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamer, G; Argos, P

    1984-01-01

    Possible alignments for portions of the genomic codons in eight different plant and animal viruses are presented: tobacco mosaic, brome mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, sindbis, foot-and-mouth disease, polio, encephalomyocarditis, and cowpea mosaic viruses. Since in one of the viruses (polio) the aligned sequence has been identified as an RNA-dependent polymerase, this would imply the identification of the polymerases in the other viruses. A conserved fourteen-residue segment consisting of an Asp-Asp ...

  15. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Maternal Effects of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarahn M; Dotters-Katz, Sarah; Heine, R Phillip; Grotegut, Chad A; Swamy, Geeta K

    2015-11-01

    Given the illness and deaths caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during the first year of life, preventing infant RSV infections through maternal vaccination is intriguing. However, little is known about the extent and maternal effects of RSV infection during pregnancy. We describe 3 cases of maternal RSV infection diagnosed at a US center during winter 2014. Case-patient 1 (26 years old, week 33 of gestation) received a diagnosis of RSV infection and required mechanical ventilation. Case-patient 2 (27 years old, week 34 of gestation) received a diagnosis of infection with influenza A(H1N1) virus and RSV and required mechanical ventilation. Case-patient 3 (21 years old, week 32 of gestation) received a diagnosis of group A streptococcus pharyngitis and RSV infection and was monitored as an outpatient. Clarifying the effects of maternal RSV infection could yield valuable insights into potential maternal and fetal benefits of an effective RSV vaccination program. PMID:26485575

  17. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  18. Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a broad range of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kyoko; Kawabata, Ryoko; Irie, Takashi; Nakai, Yoshiaki; Tohya, Yukinobu; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

    2013-01-01

    Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus). We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki), which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses. PMID:23372851

  19. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak—potentially, the largest of its kind—as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises. PMID:26512988

  20. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virucidal effect of 60Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  1. Effects of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; McGrath, M. S.; Hanks, D.; Erickson, S.; Pulliam, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the direct effect of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 (dmPGA1) on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). dmPGA1 significantly inhibited viral replication in both HSV and HIV infection systems at concentrations of dmPGA1 that did not adversely alter cellular DNA synthesis. The 50% inhibitory concentration (ID50) for several HSV type 1 (HSV-1) strains ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 micrograms/ml for Vero cells and from 4.6 to 7.3 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. The ID50s for two HSV-2 strains varied from 3.8 to 4.5 micrograms/ml for Vero cells; the ID50 was 5.7 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. We found that closely related prostaglandins did not have the same effect on the replication of HSV; dmPGE2 and dmPGA2 caused up to a 60% increase in HSV replication compared with that in untreated virus-infected cells. HIV-1 replication in acutely infected T cells (VB line) and chronically infected macrophages was assessed by quantitative decreases in p24 concentration. The effective ID50s were 2.5 micrograms/ml for VB cells acutely infected with HIV-1 and 5.2 micrograms/m for chronically infected macrophages. dmPGA1 has an unusual broad-spectrum antiviral activity against both HSV and HIV-1 in vitro and offers a new class of potential therapeutic agents for in vivo use.

  2. The Incidence, Severity and Occurrence of Four Viruses Infecting Pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Southern Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence, severity and occurrence of four viruses infecting pepper were determined in Kwara State, Nigeria. A disease survey and antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA were the tools deployed to achieve these objectives. The survey indicated the highest virus incidence (97% in four locations, and the lowest incidence (16% in three locations, with variations in severity scores. Th e ELISA result indicated the occurrence of all four viruses with the highest percentage occurrence of virus in the samples as follows: Pepper veinal mottle virus (36.3%, Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (16.2%, Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (7.4%, and Cucumber mosaic virus in the locations (4.8%. The results indicate the prevalence of these viruses on pepper in the Southern Guinea savannah agroecological zone and therefore the need for constant studies to detect other viruses that limit pepper production.

  3. Chickpea and cowpea grain improvement using mutation and other advanced genetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of genetic engineering methodologies in breeding programmes seems to be very promising to find new resistance-related genes present in other phyla, to clone and transfer them into plants; and, to shorten the time to obtain an improved genotype since only a single gene is involved in this process. The main ''bottle-neck'' to apply this scheme in chickpea and cowpea is the absence of a reliable protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation. In this frame, following some pilot experiments on these grain legumes to induce regeneration and gene transfer, we attempted to find a regeneration medium, assay the effect of different hormones on young tissues; and, to select the best procedures for transfer of genes into the plant genome

  4. The Effect of Precipitation on the Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus in Nature: A Complex Effect on Antibody-Positive Rate to JE Virus in Sentinel Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiko Takasaki; Yasuaki Hijioka; Ken-ichi Shibasaki; Akira Kotaki; Ichiro Kurane

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in Asia. Pigs are a natural host and the amplifier of JE virus. The sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs reflects the activity of JE virus in the region. We analyzed whether precipitation has any effect on the sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlations between the levels of precipitation and sero-conversion rates to J...

  5. Roots and leaves display contrasting oxidative response during salt stress and recovery in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Fabio Rossi; Lima, João Paulo Matos Santos; Ferreira-Silva, Sérgio Luiz; Viégas, Ricardo Almeida; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we compare some antioxidative responses of leaves and roots associated to growth reduction in cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata) during short-term salt stress and recovery. The salt treatment was imposed (200 mM NaCl) for six consecutive days and the salt withdrawal after 3 d. The salt treatment caused an almost complete cessation in the relative growth rate of both leaves and roots. Although NaCl withdrawal has induced an intense reduction in the Na(+) content from the leaves and roots, the growth recovery was slight, after 3 d. The leaf lipid peroxidation was increased in salt-stressed plants and slightly reduced in recovered plants after 3 d. Surprisingly, in the salt-stressed roots it decreased markedly after 3 d treatment and in the pre-stressed/recovered roots it was restored to levels near to the control. In leaves, catalase (CAT) activity showed a rapid and prominent decrease after 1 d of NaCl treatment and salt withdrawal had no effect on its recovery. In contrast, the root CAT activity was not changed by effects of both NaCl and salt withdrawal, over time interval. Leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity did not change in all treatments, whereas in roots it significantly decreased after 3 d of salt treatment and recovered after NaCl withdrawal. Contrasting to the other enzymes, the guaiacol-peroxidase activity increased in leaves and roots, reaching almost 200% of control values and it significantly decreased in both organs from the pre-stressed/recovered plants. In conclusion, cowpea roots and leaves present distinct mechanisms of response to lipid peroxidation and CAT and SOD activities during salt stress and recovery. However, these responses and/or the oxidative damages caused by reactive oxygen species were not related with the growth reduction. PMID:16690169

  6. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-?. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  7. Toxicity Studies of Some Inert Dusts with the Cowpea Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Hussain Ahmad Mahdi; M Khalequzzaman

    2006-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to find out the effectiveness of DE and some other inert dusts like, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and a dust formulation insecticide carbaryl on the cowpea beetles Callosobruchus maculates (F. ). The bioassay of the dusts was done on adult beetles by applying them with normal food. The LD50 of C. maculatus after 24 h was 737.15, 73305.15, 1479.29, 11449.60, 117371.50, 5171.79 and 21.49 ppm for diatomaceous eart...

  8. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal ?-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a ?-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the ?-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having ?-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  9. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal ?-hexamer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wispelaere, Melissanne; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan; Rao, A L N

    2011-10-10

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a ?-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the ?-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having ?-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry. PMID:21864876

  10. Relative planting times on the production components in sesame/cowpea bean intercropping in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio César de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at better land use, small farmers usually plant sesame and cowpea bean intercropped with other crops. The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the influence of four relative planting times of the cowpea bean in intercropping with sesame from the standpoint of their production components, plant productivity and the index of land equivalent ratio (LER. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the sesame and the cowpea bean in intercropping with the cowpea bean planted at the same time, 7, 14 and 21days after than the sesame. A greater part of the production components of both the sesame as well the cowpea bean was affected by the intercropping and significant differences were noted among the treatments in a larger part of the parameters. As the planting of the cowpea bean became more distant from that of the sesame, the yield of the Pedaliaceae increased and the yield of the Fabaceae decreased. The results for LER findings on the other hand suggest that in the sesame/cowpea bean intercropping, when the Fabaceae is planted seven days after the sesame, there is better use of the land and a largest possibility to the producer earning a profit.

  11. Genetics of induced mutant genes for resistance to aphids in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The cowpea aphid is a serious pest, particularly in Africa and Asia. Aphids damage the crop by sucking sap from the terminal shoot and from petioles of the young leaves. An indirect and often more serious damage is caused by the transmission of mosaic viruses. Several resistant lines have been identified at IITA and were used in breeding. More recently, two resistant varieties ICV11 and ICV12 were developed at ICIPE, which derive their aphid resistance from mutation induction by gamma irradiation. Backcrossing the mutants with the susceptible original variety ICV1 indicated monogenic-dominant inheritance of the resistance. Other resistant cultivars included in the genetic study were ICV10, an improved breeding line from landraces in Kenya and Tvu 310, a breeding line from IITA. Crosses between these resistant cultivars led to conclude that ICV10 and Tvu 310 contain the same dominant gene for resistance and that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant gene for resistance, which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and Tvu 310. The genes were designated as Rac1 (in ICV10 and Tvu 310) and Rac2 (in induced mutants). (author)

  12. Eficiência de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi / Efficiency of herbicides for cowpea crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.S., Silva; F.C.L., Freitas; L.M., Silveira; C.S., Linhares; D.R., Carvalho; M.F.P., Lima.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade e eficácia de herbicidas para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), conduziu-se um experimento no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados nove herbicidas/misturas (S-metolachlor, bentazo [...] n + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl) e uma testemunha sem herbicidas, e nas subparcelas foram avaliados dois tratamentos: com capinas e sem capinas, para determinar a seletividade e a eficácia dos herbicidas, respectivamente. Os herbicidas S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazon + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl e fluazifop-p-butyl foram seletivos para a cultura. A mistura lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl causou severa intoxicação no feijão-caupi, com posterior recuperação e produtividade igual ou superior à dos demais tratamentos. As principais espécies de plantas infestantes foram: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Digitaria bicornis, sendo todas controladas com eficiência pelos herbicidas S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência + bentazon + imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência e lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl aplicados em pós-emergência. Conclui-se que a eficiência de herbicidas para o feijão-caupi depende da seletividade para a cultura, bem como de sua eficácia no controle de plantas daninhas, a qual pode variar de acordo com a comunidade infestante. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of herbicides for the crop of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block design. The plots consisted of nine herbicides/mixtures (S-metolachlor, bentazon + imazamox, S-metolachlor + bentazo [...] n + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + imazamox + fluazifop-p- butyl, lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl, fluazifop-p-butyl) and a control without herbicides , while the subplots consisted of the evaluation of two treatments : with weeding and without weeding, to determine the selectivity and effectiveness of the herbicides , respectively. The herbicides S-metolachlor, imazamox + bentazon, bentazon + S-metolachlor + imazamox, imazamox + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazethapyr + fluazifop-p-butyl, bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl, imazamox + bentazon + fluazifop-p-butyl and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the cowpea crop. The mixture lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl caused severe intoxication in the cowpea crop with subsequent recovery and yield equal to or higher than the other treatments. The main weed species were: Cleome affinis, Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria bicornis, all being efficiently controlled by the herbicide S-metolachlor applied at pre-emergence + imazamox + bentazon applied at post-emergence and lactofen + fluazifop-p-butyl applied at post-emergence. It was concluded that the efficiency of the herbicides for cowpea depends on the selectivity for the crop, as well as on their effectiveness in controlling weeds, which may vary according to the weed community.

  13. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE) DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.)}

    OpenAIRE

    PHIL DOBIE; RENNIE ROESLI

    1991-01-01

    Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp...

  14. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, A; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

    2003-01-01

    The virucidal effect of peppermint oil, the essential oil of Mentha piperita, against herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of peppermint oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.002% and 0.0008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Peppermint oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 82% and 92% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Higher concentrations of peppermint oil reduced viral titers of both herpesviruses by more than 90%. A clearly time-dependent activity could be demonstrated, after 3 h of incubation of herpes simplex virus with peppermint oil an antiviral activity of about 99% could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of the essential oil, peppermint oil was added at different times to the cells or viruses during infection. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oil prior to adsorption. These results indicate that peppermint oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus this essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACV(res)), plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes infection. PMID:13678235

  15. Comparison of life history and genetic properties of cowpea bruchid strains and their response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Fox, Charles W; Johnston, J Spencer; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-04-01

    The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) is the most important storage pest of grain legumes and comprises geographically distinct strains. Storage under a modified atmosphere with decreased O2 content represents an alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control of stored grains. In this study, we compared reproduction, development and survival, as well as genome size of bruchid strains from South India (SI), Burkina Faso (BF), Niger (CmNnC) and the United States (OH), reared on mung bean (Vigna radiata). Fecundity and egg-to-adult duration varied significantly among these strains. Notably, strain BF had the highest fecundity, and strain SI displayed the fastest development whereas strain OH was the slowest. Differences in adult lifespan among strains were only detected in unmated but not in the mated group. Genome size of SI females was significantly larger than that of OH females, and for all four strains, the female genomes were larger than those of their corresponding males. Furthermore, we studied effects of exposure to 1% O2+99% N2 on strains SI and BF. Mortality caused by hypoxia was influenced by not only developmental stage but also by insect strain. Eggs were most sensitive, particularly at the early stage, whereas the 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most tolerant and could survive up to 15 days of low O2. Strain SI was slightly more resistant than BF in egg and larval stages. Proteolytic activity prior to, during and after hypoxia treatment revealed remarkable metabolic plasticity of cowpea bruchids in response to modified atmosphere. PMID:25733404

  16. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.

    2010-01-01

    The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and 7% were infected with the Blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV-BlCM). Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV) was detected with an infection range of 5.4%- 12.5% in bambara samples tested using indirect antigen-first ELISA, indicator IITA cowpea lines Tvu 3433, Tvu 1582, Tvu 401 and Tvu 2657 and Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Topcrop. No viruses were detected in the peanut samples. The lack of a broad range of serological antisera limited the number of viruses tested but results show that the bulk of the samples were infected with seed-borne viruses. The results imply that resources must be invested in improving the quality of seed from the smallholder sector. National and international germplasm collection centres should be equipped with capacity to test for seed-borne viruses so as to minimize the movement of infected germplasm in breeding materials or germplasm exchange in international collections.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Viruses from Clinical Respiratory Samples Producing Unidentified Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Boivin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600-1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses. Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation was present in the viral surface EF and CD loops. These results demonstrate the usefulness of SISPA for identifying emerging viruses and also known viruses not easily identified by standard virological methods.

  18. Identification and comparative analysis of drought-associated microRNAs in two cowpea genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts Philip A; Ehlers Jeffrey D; Wu Zhigang; Diop Ndeye N; Gao Lei; Barrera-Figueroa Blanca E; Close Timothy J; Zhu Jian-Kang; Liu Renyi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop in arid and semi-arid regions and is a good model for studying drought tolerance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in plant stress responses, but drought-associated miRNAs have not been identified in cowpea. In addition, it is not understood how miRNAs might contribute to different capacities of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes. Results We generated deep sequencing small RNA reads from two co...

  19. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped redundant clones together and illustrated that the SSHscreen plots are a useful tool for choosing anonymous clones for sequencing, since redundant clones cluster together on the enrichment ratio plots. Conclusions We developed the SSHscreen-SSHdb software pipeline, which greatly facilitates gene discovery using suppression subtractive hybridization by improving the selection of clones for sequencing after screening the library on a small number of microarrays. Annotation of the sequence information and collaboration was further enhanced through a web-based SSHdb database, and we illustrated this through identification of drought responsive genes from cowpea, which can now be investigated in gene function studies. SSH is a popular and powerful gene discovery tool, and therefore this pipeline will have application for gene discovery in any biological system, particularly non-model organisms. SSHscreen 2.0.1 and a link to SSHdb are available from http://microarray.up.ac.za/SSHscreen.

  20. Insecticidal Activity of the Aqueous Extracts of Four Under-utilized Tropical Plants as Protectant of Cowpea Seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kayode

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids.

  1. Insecticidal activity of the aqueous extracts of four under-utilized tropical plants as protectant of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obembe, O M; Kayode, J

    2013-02-15

    The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids. PMID:24171265

  2. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES / Resposta ao estresse hídrico na atividade enzimática dos nódulos de caupi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia do Vale B., Figueiredo; Egídio, Bezerra-Neto; Hélio A., Burity.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimento em casa de vegetação foi conduzido com objetivo de estudar os efeitos do estresse hídrico nas atividades metabólicas dos nódulos de caupi nos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da fixação de N2. As plantas de caupi foram crescidas em vasos com solo Latossolo amarelo sob diferentes po [...] tenciais matriciais: -7,0 (control-S1), -70,0 (S2) e Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1), -70.0 (S2 [...] ) and

  3. DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL / Efeitos da deficiência hídrica e recuperação sobre a assimilação de nitrato e atividade de nódulos de plantas de caupi inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium spp. sob um nível moderado de nitrato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da, Silveira; Roberto Cezar Lobo da, Costa; José Tadeu Abreu, Oliveira.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi feito com a finalidade de estabelecer efeitos comparativos da seca e da reidratação na assimilação do nitrato e atividade do nódulo relacionado com a fixação de N2 em planta de caupi [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] previamente inoculada com Bradyrhizobium spp., estirpe BR-3256 (CB-756 [...] ), na presença de NO-3 (5 mol m-3). Aos 28 dias após a emergência, as plantas noduladas foram submetidas à seca, durante 4 dias sucessivos e, depois, reidratadas com solução nutritiva durante 2 dias. A seca causou um aumento rápido no conteúdo de nitrato da raiz e uma acentuada redução na atividade da redutase do nitrato de folhas (NR). Em contraste, no nódulo esta atividade foi aumentada ligeiramente pelo déficit de água. Concomitantemente, nos nódulos das plantas estressadas, observou-se uma redução progressiva na concentração de leghemoglobina, atividade de glutamina sintetase (GS) e na concentração de ureídeos na seiva do xilema. A atividade da NR nas folhas aumentou rapidamente após a reidratação enquanto que o conteúdo de nitrato da mesma decresceu. Em contraste, a atividade de GS e a concentração de proteínas solúveis nos nódulos continuaram diminuindo nas plantas reidratadas. A concentração de leghemoglobina apresentou uma boa recuperação, enquanto que o conteúdo de ureídeos sofreu um leve aumento após a reidratação. Apesar da assimilação de nitrato em folhas e a atividade do nódulo terem sido severamente afetados pelo déficit de água, a rápida recuperação da atividade de redutase do nitrato nas folhas sugere que o primeiro processo seja menos susceptível ao ciclo de seca/reidratação quando plantas de caupi são noduladas em presença de nível moderado de nitrato. Abstract in english This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756) strain in the presence of 5 mol m [...] -3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

  4. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r?=?0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r?=?0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China. PMID:26429578

  5. Effects of promyelocytic leukemia protein on virus-host balance.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, WV; Pinschewer, DD; Klenerman, P.; Rousson, V; Gaboli, M.; Pandolfi, PP; Zinkernagel, RM; Salvato, MS; HENGARTNER, H

    2002-01-01

    The cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) associates with the proteins of several viruses and in some cases reduces viral propagation in cell culture. To examine the role of PML in vivo, we compared immune responses and virus loads of PML-deficient and control mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). PML(-/-) mice exhibited accelerated primary footpad swelling reactions to very-low-dose LCMV, higher swelling peaks upon high-dos...

  6. Effect of immune modulation on TT virus (TTV) and TTV-like-mini-virus (TLMV) viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Eva Merethe; Sagedal, Solbjørg; Bjøro, Kristian; Degré, Miklos; Opstad, Per Kristian; Grinde, Bjørn

    2003-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate how two chronically replicating viruses, TT virus (TTV) and TTV-like mini virus (TLMV), interact with host defence systems. Successive serum samples from three groups of subjects, undergoing modifications of their antiviral defence, were tested by real-time PCR to measure changes in viral titers, and by sequence analyses to indicate whether increases in viremia could be attributed to infection with an unfamiliar strain: 1) in patients receiving immunosuppressants subsequent to kidney transplantation, viral titers tended to increase; 2) in soldiers undergoing extreme training known to cause immunosuppression, insignificant increases in titers were observed; and 3) interferon treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus caused a temporary decrease in TTV and TLMV titers. Increases in viremia were associated only occasionally with the appearance of novel strains. The above results add to knowledge on how these viruses are influenced by the host. PMID:12629661

  7. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus and Achyranthus aspera were used against the post harvest fungal mycoflora. All the plants used were found to be antifungal. In particular Eucalyptus globulus, Argemone mexicana, Tridax procumbens and Parthenium hysterophorus were highly inhibitory. These plant extracts can be used for controlling fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes during post harvest as these are eco-friendly and do not cause environmental hazard.

  8. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15N sources included residual soil 15N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N2 fixed varied with the source of 15N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 15N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  9. The effects of viral load on pseudorabies virus gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takács Irma F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpesvirus genes are classified into distinct kinetic groups on the basis of their expression dynamics during lytic growth of the virus in cultured cells at a high, typically 10 plaque-forming units/cell multiplicity of infection (MOI. It has been shown that both the host response and the success of a pathogen are dependent on the quantity of particles infecting an organism. This work is a continuation of an earlier study 1, in which we characterized the overall expression of PRV genes following low-MOI infection. In the present study, we have addressed the question of whether viral gene expressions are dependent on the multiplicity of infection by comparing gene expressions under low and high-MOI conditions. Results In the present study, using a real-time RT-PCR assay, we address the question of whether the expression properties of the pseudorabies virus (PRV genes are dependent on the number of virion particles infecting a single cell in a culture. Our analysis revealed a significant dependence of the gene expression on the MOI in most of these genes. Specifically, we found that most of the examined viral genes were expressed at a lower level at a low MOI (0.1 than at a high MOI (10 experiment in the early stage of infection; however, this trend reversed by six hour post-infection in more than half of the genes. Furthermore, in the high-MOI infection, several PRV genes substantially declined within the 4 to 6-h infection period, which was not the case in the low-MOI infection. In the low-MOI infection, the level of antisense transcript (AST, transcribed from the antiparallel DNA strand of the immediate-early 180 (ie180 gene, was comparable to that of ie180 mRNA, while in the high-MOI experiment (despite the 10 times higher copy number of the viral genome in the infected cells the amount of AST dropped by more than two log values at the early phase of infection. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that adjacent PRV genes are under a common regulation. This is the first report on the effect of the multiplicity of infection on genome-wide gene expression of large DNA viruses, including herpesviruses. Conclusion Our results show a strong dependence of the global expression of PRV genes on the MOI. Furthermore, our data indicate a strong interrelation between the expressions of ie180 mRNA and AST, which determines the expression properties of the herpesvirus genome and possibly the replication strategy (lytic or latent infection of the virus in certain cell types.

  10. Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F. Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.Ajayi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP, West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L. Merril and Percy, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn. A. Rich, Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. Ex G. Donf. were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (p<=0.05 reduced oviposition by C. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (p<=0.05 suppressed compared with emergence in control. In the treatment after infestation, egg mortalities were highest in treatments with WABP, Clove and Ethiopian pepper. There were however significant differences (p<=0.05 between the EPPP and the control treatment at all dosage rates tested. The effectiveness of the EPPP in both studies was thus ranked as follows: WABP>Clove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

  11. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Moray; Game, E. T.; Maxted, N.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers...

  12. Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimoh, F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference for processed cowpea-based products, such as, boiled cowpea with cereals, fried cowpea paste, and cowpea fortified maize dough in selected communities of the coastal regions of Ghana. Using descriptive statistics, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance, and Logit Model, it was found that there was high preference for processed cowpea-based products in all the communities studied; and that processing cowpea into various food types was relatively profitable. Key socio-economic factors and consumer characteristics that influence preference include gender, marital status, income, education, product taste, sustainability of products (satisfying and product availability. The production of gas (flatulence after consumption of the products was the most pressing factor that influences preference. Unavailability of the products was identified as the least pressing factor. The researchers recommend that the production and utilization of cowpea in the study area and in other parts of Ghana should be encouraged as it would help to both improve the nutritional status of consumers and also help generate income to producers and processors. There should also be further research into the disliking intrinsic characteristics of the products considered.

  13. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  14. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  15. Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Akinrinde; L. Iroh; G.O. Obigbesan; Hilger, T; Neumann, G; V. Romheld

    2006-01-01

    Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al) toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0) with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contras...

  16. Extracellular accumulation of high specific-activity peroxidase by cell suspension cultures of cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, O A; Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Nolasco, H

    1990-07-01

    Cell suspension cultures of cowpea (Vigna sp.) were able to produce extracellular peroxidase. Different growth regulator concentrations induced different peroxidase activity in callus. The crude extracellular medium after four weeks of culture showed higher (6 times) specific peroxidase activity and higher thermo stability than commercial horse-radish peroxidase. The commercial production of peroxidase enzyme from cowpea by utilizing plant cell cultures is discussed. PMID:24226600

  17. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. PMID:26228563

  18. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  19. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas / Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de, Araújo; Romero Francisco Vieira, Carneiro; Antônio Aécio Carvalho, Bezerra; Fábio Fernando de, Araújo.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testem [...] unha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; [...] d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  20. Effect of caffeine on the ultraviolet light induction of SV40 virus from transformed hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of caffeine on the uv light induction of SV40 virus from two transformed hamster cell lines heterogeneous for the induction of infectious virus was studied. The amount of virus induced was significantly increased in both cell lines when exposure to uv light was followed by treatment with caffeine. Caffeine in the absence of uv irradiation did not stimulate virus induction, nor did it stimulate SV40 replication in a lytic infection. There was an apparent difference in the concentrations of caffeine which maximally stimulated SV40 virus induction in the two cell lines. This effect could not be explained by differences in cell survival after exposure to uv light and caffeine. Since caffeine is known to cause the accumulation of gaps formed in DNA during postreplication repair of uv-irradiated rodent cells, our results support the hypothesis that the formation of gaps or breaks in DNA is an important early step in virus induction

  1. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  2. Use of peanut and cowpea in wheat-based products containing composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWatters, K H; Resurreccion, A V; Beuchat, L R; Phillips, R D

    1995-01-01

    Cowpeas and peanuts are legumes of major dietary and economic importance. They are favored worldwide because of their palatability, contribution to nutritional status, and low cost as a protein source compared to animal protein. Flours processed from cowpeas and peanuts have unique physico-chemical and sensory properties when used in composite flour mixtures. Appropriate blends of cowpea and peanut flours to replace wheat flour in Chinese-type noodles, muffins, and tortillas were determined using modelling and optimization procedures. For noodles, 15% peanut flour and 8% cowpea flour supplementation produced an acceptable product with high protein content (21%). For wheat flour replacement in muffins, up to 43% cowpea and up to 44% peanut flours may be used. However, when wheat flour replacement is 50% or greater, cassava flour should comprise 56 to 72% of the blend with a few exceptions. In tortillas, 24% cowpea and 46% peanut flours produced products similar in quality characteristics to those made from 100% wheat flour. The systematic approach used in these studies is more efficient than the traditional substitution method to optimize sensory qualities of wheat-based products containing composite flours. PMID:7784400

  3. Cost-effective Method for Microbial Source Tracking Using Specific Human and Animal Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Calgua, Byron; Rusiñol, Marta; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Girones, Rosina

    2011-01-01

    Microbial contamination of the environment represents a significant health risk. Classical bacterial fecal indicators have shown to have significant limitations, viruses are more resistant to many inactivation processes and standard fecal indicators do not inform on the source of contamination. The development of cost-effective methods for the concentration of viruses from water and molecular assays facilitates the applicability of viruses as indicators of fecal contamination and as microbial...

  4. Effects of environmental variables and soil characteristics on virus survival in soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, C J; Gerba, C. P.; Cech, I

    1980-01-01

    Because of the increasing emphasis placed upon land application as a means of wastewater disposal, it is important to evaluate the influences of different factors upon virus survival in soil. The objective of this study was to measure the effects of various environmental variables on virus persistence. Test samples of soil were placed in vials, and the soil was wetted with suspensions of virus in either distilled water, unchlorinated secondary sewage effluent, or mixtures of effluent and wate...

  5. The effect of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's) virus infection on young mature boars and boar fertility.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, L. B.; Kluge, J P; Evans, L E; Hill, H T

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of experimental inoculation with pseudorabies virus on the reproductive tracts of young adult boars. Pseudorabies virus was inoculated intranasally into 12 boars and intrapreputially into four boars. All animals seroconverted after nasal or preputial inoculation. Semen abnormalities were observed 21 days postinoculation with partial recovery by 50 days postinoculation. Virus was isolated from the preputial sheath of two intrapreputially inocula...

  6. Molecular Characterization of Viruses from Clinical Respiratory Samples Producing Unidentified Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Boivin; Yacine Abed

    2009-01-01

    The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600-1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses). Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation w...

  7. Molecular Characterization of Viruses from Clinical Respiratory Samples Producing Unidentified Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Abed, Yacine; Boivin, Guy

    2009-01-01

    The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600–1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses). Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation w...

  8. Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin

    2015-10-01

    Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection.

  9. Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin

    2015-01-01

    Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection. PMID:26515898

  10. Quality of cowpea seeds treated with chemicals and stored in controlled and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucicléia Mendes de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea is a Fabaceae originated in Africa cultivated in the northern and northeastern of Brazil, where stands out as the main source of protein for the population. For the establishment of culture, seeds are treated to control and prevent pest attacks and diseases, can also attach nutrients to the seeds which will be available for plant development. The objective of the research was to evaluate the performance of cowpea seeds treated with chemical products and stored in controlled and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The following seeds treatments were applied: control (no treatment; micronutrient Comol 118, insecticide thiamethoxam, fipronil and pyraclostrobin+thiophanate-methyl and imidacloprid+thiodicarb were then stored in a cold environment and natural. The assessment of physiological seed quality was made initially and every 45 days through the germination and vigor. Among all products used, the imidacloprid + thiodicarb and fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl provides stimulating effect on seed performance; seeds treated with thiamethoxam were less affected by storage than the untreated seeds; seeds treated with micronutrients exhibits similar behavior to untreated seeds and storage in a controlled environment better preserves the seed physiological quality.

  11. Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus-antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus-antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus-antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus-antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus-antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles. PMID:26642822

  12. Characteristic properties of lipase from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase activity was assayed in 4 days old cowpea seedlings using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity was observed at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCI buffer and at 30 degree C. The pH stability was found in between 7.5-8.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 degree C and retaining 80% activity whereas, 26% lipase activity was remaining at 100 degree C within 15 minutes. Lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of MnC/sub 2/ and decreased by the addition of Triton X 100, Tween 80, ZnCI/sub 2/ and mercaptoethanol. (author)

  13. Development and performance evaluation of a cowpea harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ojomo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A cowpea harvester was designed, constructed and evaluated for its performance. The machine was fabricated with high carbon steel with an output capacity of 120kg/h. The performance of the harvester was evaluated at two crop moisture content 15.17% and 17.47% and two main shaft speeds of 540 rpm and 1000 rpm. At moisture content of 15.17% and machine speed 540rpm, the machine exhibits the highest functional efficiency of 93.75%, quality performance efficiency of 81.21%, field loss of 3.4% and shattered loss of 6.66%. The machine is statically and dynamically stable hence able to withstand vibration.

  14. Radiation enhaced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since caffeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation

  15. Radiation enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, K B; Lytle, C D; Bockstahler, L E

    1976-09-01

    Ultaviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since cafeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation. PMID:183108

  16. Isolation of protoplast from soybean, cowpea, and tobacco and their fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protoplast were isolated from leaf and callus. Young leaf of 3-4 weeks old plant of soybean T219 and A24, A27, C4, E1, and H6 of cowpeas strains (strains named by Prof. S. Sakamoto, University of Kyoto) were suspended in digestive medium containing cellulase 'Onuzuka' R-10, macerozyme R-10, mannitol, CaCl, and 2 (N-morpholilno) echane sulfonic acid (MES). For soybean leaf, the medium was enriched with driselase and pectolyase Y-23. They were incibated in full darkness at 27 Celcius centigrade by constant shaking at 50 rpm orbitor shaker. Callus wich has been two times resubcultured was suspended in the digestive medium without driselase, CaCl2, and MES and incubated in lowlight intensity by constant shaking at 100 rpm in reciprocal water shaker at 30 celcius centigrade. Leaf protoplast were releasaed in 10-14 h, soybean and tobacco callus protoplast in 3-4 h, and cowpeas callus protoplast in 4-6 h of incubation. Protoplast were collected by centrifugation of 400 g and a thin layer of the suspension was irradiated with ultraviolet light. Fusion was induced with PEG 6000 solution according to Uchimia and fused protoplasts were collected by centrifugation of 200 g. Protoplast were cultured on the medium of Ikeda and Uchimia. On both medium leaf protoplast, irradiated protoplasts and their fused do not regenerate cell wall and all cultured died out within four weeks incubation. Cell wall generation was observed. Regeneration of cell wall observed progessively in mother protoplast from tobacco, cowpea (A27, E1, and H6) and fused protoplast of soybean with tobacco, tobacco with cowpea (C4, E1, and H6), soybean with cowpea (C4) and between cowpea (C4) and cowpea (E1). (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  17. Effect of eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermelli, Claudio; Fabio, Anna; Fabio, Giuliana; Quaglio, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The activity of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was determined for 120 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 20 isolates of S. pneumoniae, 40 isolates of S. agalactiae, 20 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 40 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 30 isolates of H. parainfluenzae, 10 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 10 isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two viruses, a strain of adenovirus and a strain of mumps virus, all obtained from clinical specimens of patients with respiratory tract infections. The cytotoxicity was evaluated on VERO cells by the MTT test. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the Kirby Bauer paper method, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration. H. influenzae, parainfluenzae, and S. maltophilia were the most susceptible, followed by S. pneumoniae. The antiviral activity, assessed by means of virus yield experiments titered by the end-point dilution method for adenovirus, and by plaque reduction assay for mumps virus, disclosed only a mild activity on mumps virus. PMID:17972131

  18. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: Report of the deliberations of an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp. unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation -...

  19. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Foo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs and transcription associated factors (TAFs representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62 of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

  20. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 ?mol plant-1 week-1. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N2-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N2-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW showing large variation among lines. Most of the tolerance to P deficiency was due to increase in the nodule function rather than conservation of nodule mass. In conclusion, the screening in glasshouse hydroaeroponics made it possible to sort cowpea lines in SNF potential to fix N2, and in tolerance to P deficiency. (author)

  1. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tr?bicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production. PMID:26941044

  2. Effect of caffeine on induction of endogenous type C virus in mouse cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of caffeine on the expression of murine endogenous virus in mouse cells induced by radiation and chemicals was studied. Postirradiation treatment of K-BALB cells with caffeine enhanced cell killing as well as the induction of xenotropic virus after ultraviolet light irradiation. The degree of enhancement for the virus induction was comparable to that for cell killing. On the other hand, colony-forming ability and the expression of xenotropic virus of K-BALB cells after X-irradiation were unaffected by caffeine. These data suggest a linear relationship between the degree of endogenous virus expression and the amount of lethal damages after irradiation. For induction by halogenated pyrimidines, a 24-hr incubation of AKR2B cells with caffeine after 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine treatment resulted in marked suppression of the expression of ecotropic virus. On the contrary, in K-BALB cells, caffeine exerted only a small effect on 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-induced expression of ecotropic and xenotropic viruses. These results indicate that, although using the same inducing agent, the pathway of endogenous virus induction may be different for AKR2B cells and for K-BALB cells

  3. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Powell, Kevin S; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J; Yen, Alan L; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Luck, Jo E

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production. PMID:26941044

  4. Genetic structure and mating system of wild cowpea populations in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouam Eric B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea populations from West Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, 9 of them showing polymorphism. Results Outcrossing rates ranged from 1% to 9.5% (mean 3.4%, which classifies the wild cowpea breeding system as primarily selfing, though rare outcrossing events were detected in each population studied. Furthermore, the analyses of both the genetic structure of populations and the relationships between the wild and domesticated groups suggest possibilities of gene flow that are corroborated by field observations. Conclusions As expected in a predominantly inbred breeding system, wild cowpea shows high levels of genetic differentiation and low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Gene flow from domesticated to wild cowpea does occur, although the lack of strong genetic swamping and modified seed morphology in the wild populations suggest that these introgressions should be rare.

  5. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric

    2013-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species and breeds of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed ...

  6. Temperature effects on vaccine induced immunity to viruses in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Rasmussen, Jesper Skou; Christensen, Mikkel Black; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Veselý, T.; Poroková, D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In poikilothemic vertebrates such as teleost fishes, temperature affects all physiological processes including host-pathogen interactions like immune response and propagation of infection. Whether an infection with a pathogenic virus in fish results in development of clinical disease often depends on the balance between virus multiplication and anti viral immune reactions in the host. Water temperature is one of the most important factors influencing the balance between the fish and its...

  7. Effect of brefeldin A on Mayaro virus replication in Aedes albopictus and Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, L J; Rebello, M A

    1999-12-01

    Brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that blocks transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, was found to inhibit Mayaro virus replication. At the concentration of 0.05 microgram/ml, the yield of the virus was inhibited by 94% in Aedes albopictus cells and by 99.5% in Vero cells. Treatment of A. albopictus cells with BFA did not inhibit the virus protein synthesis. However, this compound drastically reduced viral protein synthesis in Vero cells. The inhibitory effect progressively declined when BFA was added at late times post infection (p.i.). The effect of BFA on protein glycosylation is discussed. PMID:10825924

  8. Efficacy of crude extracts of Andrographis paniculata nees. on Callosobruchus chinensis L. during post harvest storage of cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, A A; Babu, A; Ignacimuth, S; Dorn, S

    2001-07-01

    Bioefficacy of different solvent fractions of A. paniculata was tested against the cowpea weevil, C. chinensis in terms of its effect on adult mortality, total egg output and emergence of F1 adults. All the extracts were effective against the weevil, the efficacy was however more significant with respect to methanol and ethyl acetate extracts at the highest concentrations (1,000 ppm) which lead to 72.01 and 67.69% adult mortality respectively. The efficacy was dose dependent. Total egg and percent emergence of Fl adults were lowest for methanol followed by ethyl acetate fractions. Possible role of the principal chemical constituents of this plant in bringing about mortality of the pest, reduction in egg laying and adult emergence are discussed. PMID:12019768

  9. Potential of plant materials for the management of cowpea bruchid callosobruchus analis (coleoptera: bruchidae) in gram cicer arietinum during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present research was carried out to identify alternatives to synthetic insecticides to control cowpea weevil Callosobruchus analis (F.) population in gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.), during storage. The efficacies of three plant materials such as Nicotiana tabacum, Citrullus colocythis and Aloe vera were assessed to determine their insecticidal activities against survival of bruchid C. analis on seeds of gram varieties viz., CM-98 and Jubiha-1. These plant materials tested reduced weevil infestation and emergence as compared with untreated control seeds. Seeds treatment with A. vera followed by N. tabacum reduced maximum pest damage over C. colocythis, which proved least effective to control C. analis population. Consequently, the tested plant materials should be given due consideration for effective gram protection as a component of integrated pest management approach in storage. (author)

  10. In-Vitro Experiments on the Radiosensitivity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus and other Animal Viruses to the Direct Effect of X-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various in-vitro techniques have been used to observe the direct X-ray inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and the virus of Teschen disease. All these methods were intended to eliminate the indirect effects of the irradiation, and for each virus an upper limit to the radioresistance was observed, which was assumed to correspond to inactivation by the direct effect. Further confirmation of the absence of indirect effects was obtained by observing the dose-rate and the concentration-independent survival curves, and by direct observation of the inactivated virus in the electron microscope. Virus suffering only direct inactivation retained its morphological integrity at a much higher radiation dose level (relative to loss of infectivity) than virus which was exposed to some residual indirect effects. These results are of value since the radio resistances observed represent the upper limits which may have to be taken into account in, for example, the elimination of foot-and-mouth disease virus from frozen meat. (author)

  11. Effects of lysosomotropic weak bases on infection of BHK-21 cells by Sindbis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassell, S; Edwards, J.; Brown, D T

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the lysosomotropic weak bases chloroquine, ammonium chloride, and amantadine as well as dansylcadaverine (an inhibitor of receptor mediated endocytosis) on the replication of Sindbis virus in tissue-cultured cells was examined. Chloroquine had no effect on the expression of virus-induced homologous interference. None of these drugs significantly affected the ability of a complex of a cell and single virion to form an infectious center. Chloroquine and ammonium chloride were fou...

  12. Sepia 200cH at 1:1000 dilution ameliorates salt stress in cowpea seedlings but its medium 90% ethanol proves ineffective at the same dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhimita Mondal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1 control in sterile water, (2 in 50mM NaCl solution, (3 seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4 seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect.

  13. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.

  14. Fate and distribution of lindane and endosulfan in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative study is presented on linande and endosulfan residues in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively. Both pesticides were found to dissipate very fast under the tropical Ghanaian conditions. The high rate of dissipation in leaves is attributed to the fact that the leaves were exposed to sunshine and wind leading to increased volatilisation. Endosulfan was found to dissipate faster from the cowpea ecosystem than lindane did in the maize ecosystem. The mean residue levels of lindane in maize grains were 0.02 ?g g-1; whilst residue levels of endosulfan in cowpea seeds were 0.05 ?g g-1. These levels are lower than the maximum residue limits recognized as acceptable by the Codex Alimentarus Commission. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  15. Control of insect pests of cowpea in the savanna of Roraima, Brazil. = Controle de insetos-praga do feijão-caupi na savana de Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyse Cristina Oliveira da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the insecticides acephate, imidacloprid and neem oil to control major insect pests of cowpea in cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR. The planting of cowpea (c.v. BRS Guariba was carried out between the double rows of cassava (2.0 x 0.8 x 0.8 m. The rows of cowpea were spaced 0.5 m apart and 0.75 m double rows of cassava. We adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were as follows: T1 - control (without application of products, T2 - Neem oil ( applied to 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after planting - DAP, T3 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP + Acephate (30 DAP + Imidacloprid (40 DAP + Acephate (50 DAP, T4 - Acephate (20 DAP + Imidacloprid (30 DAP + Acephate (40 DAP + Imidacloprid (50 DAP T5 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP + Oil nim (30 DAP + Acephate (40 DAE + neem oil (50 DAP. It measured the number of plants located in the middle row with symptoms of pest attack, and the calculation of the percentage of plants attacked. It was found that all treatments were effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, the best treatments for control of Chalcodermus bimaculatus were those who had been cunning application of neem oil, that the treatment using only the neem oil was effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, Bemisia tabaci, Empoasca kraemeri and the Chalcodermus bimaculatus. The treatments used in this study were not effective to control the Cerotoma arcuatus.

  16. Toxicity Studies of Some Inert Dusts with the Cowpea Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Shah Hussain Ahmad Mahdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to find out the effectiveness of DE and some other inert dusts like, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and a dust formulation insecticide carbaryl on the cowpea beetles Callosobruchus maculates (F. . The bioassay of the dusts was done on adult beetles by applying them with normal food. The LD50 of C. maculatus after 24 h was 737.15, 73305.15, 1479.29, 11449.60, 117371.50, 5171.79 and 21.49 ppm for diatomaceous earth, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and carbaryl, respectively. The LD50 after 48 h was 385.24, 12078.10, 974.11, 7433.71, 10650.42, 1168.22 and 11.25 ppm for diatomaceous earth, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and carbaryl respectively. The order of toxicity of the insecticides was carbaryl > diatomaceous earth > paddy husk ash > china clay > coal ash > alluvial soil> kaolin powder.

  17. Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, E. R., III; Gong, W.-L.; Alleman, J.E.; Rose, J.B.; Huffman, D.E.; Otaki, M.; Lisle, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In most circumstances, the efficacy of a wastewater disinfection process is regulated and monitored based on measurements of the responses of indicator bacteria. However, inactivation of indicator bacteria does not guarantee an acceptable degree of inactivation among other waterborne microorganisms (e.g., microbial pathogens). Undisinfected effluent samples from several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale chlorination and dechlorination and UV irradiation under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. In general, (viable) bacterial populations showed an immediate decline as a result of disinfectant exposure; however, incubation of disinfected samples under conditions that were designed to mimic the conditions in a receiving stream resulted in substantial recovery of the total bacterial community. The bacterial groups that are commonly used as indicators do not provide an accurate representation of the response of the bacterial community to disinfectant exposure and subsequent recovery in the environment. UV irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination both accomplished measurable inactivation of indigenous phage; however, the extent of inactivation was fairly modest under the conditions of disinfection used in this study. UV irradiation was consistently more effective as a virucide than chlorination/dechlorination under the conditions of application, based on measurements of virus (phage) diversity and concentration. Taken together, and when considered in conjunction with previously published research, the results of these experiments illustrate several important limitations of common disinfection processes as applied in the treatment of municipal wastewaters. In general, it is not clear that conventional disinfection processes, as commonly implemented, are effective for control of the risks of disease transmission, particularly those associated with viral pathogens. Microbial quality in receiving streams may not be substantially improved by the application of these disinfection processes; under some circumstances, an argument can be made that disinfection may actually yield a decrease in effluent and receiving water quality. Decisions regarding the need for effluent disinfection must account for site-specific characteristics, but it is not clear that disinfection of municipal wastewater effluents is necessary or beneficial for all facilities. When direct human contact or ingestion of municipal wastewater effluents is likely, disinfection may be necessary. Under these circumstances, UV irradiation appears to be superior to chlorination in terms of microbial quality and chemistry and toxicology. This advantage is particularly evident in effluents that contain appreciable quantities of ammonia-nitrogen or organic nitrogen.

  18. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp, Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare.

    Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de fósforo de 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg de P205/ha sobre algumas características morfológicas do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., cv. 'TVX 1836 - 013 J’ de crescimento determinado. No início e no final de floração foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais, área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF e produção de matéria seca por planta e na colheita foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais. No início de floração somente o IAF foi afetado de maneira significativa pelo DP, cujo aumento de 40.000 para 320.000 plantas/ha, ocasionou um incremento no IAF da ordem de 531%. No final de floração foi observado efeito significativo da DP sobre o número de nós nos ramos laterais, número total de nós por planta e área foliar, que diminuíram com o aumento da DP. Por sua vez, o incremento das doses de P205 aumentou significativamente essas variáveis. Por outro lado o aumento da DP diminuiu a produção de matéria seca por planta e aumentou o índice de área foliar. Na colheita, o aumento da DP de 40.000 para 320.000 reduziu significativamente o número de nós na haste principal, nos ramos laterais e o número total de nós na planta.

  19. Effects of interferons on hepatitis C virus infection

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    Boji? Ivanko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of hepatitis C virus infections (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are one of the major problems in clinical medicine. The persistence of infection in spite of high specific antibody titre suggests that the virus has the ability to "escape" the immunological response. Interferon therapy. Interferons are important components of the early host response to infection. They have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities. Many viruses have developed the ability to "annul" or alleviate the action of interferon by preventing its synthesis or by interfering with signaling pathways in the cells. During acute infection some of the non-structural proteins of HCV block regulatory factors that are responsible for the synthesis of endogenous infection. Within a cell, interferon induces a number of genes to produce proteins that prevent virus replication. Among them, the most important are RNA-dependent protein kinase and the eukaryotic initiation factor. However, viral proteins, especially viral envelope proteins and nonstructural protein 5A, prevent their phosphorylation and activation which enhance virus replication. These are the facts that have to be considered when using IFN in chronic hepatitis C patients. .

  20. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection.

  1. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection

  2. Mathematical modeling of tumor therapy with oncolytic viruses: effects of parametric heterogeneity on cell dynamics

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    Koonin Eugene V

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: One of the mechanisms that ensure cancer robustness is tumor heterogeneity, and its effects on tumor cells dynamics have to be taken into account when studying cancer progression. There is no unifying theoretical framework in mathematical modeling of carcinogenesis that would account for parametric heterogeneity. Results: Here we formulate a modeling approach that naturally takes stock of inherent cancer cell heterogeneity and illustrate it with a model of interaction between a tumor and an oncolytic virus. We show that several phenomena that are absent in homogeneous models, such as cancer recurrence, tumor dormancy, and others, appear in heterogeneous setting. We also demonstrate that, within the applied modeling framework, to overcome the adverse effect of tumor cell heterogeneity on the outcome of cancer treatment, a heterogeneous population of an oncolytic virus must be used. Heterogeneity in parameters of the model, such as tumor cell susceptibility to virus infection and the ability of an oncolytic virus to infect tumor cells, can lead to complex, irregular evolution of the tumor. Thus, quasi-chaotic behavior of the tumor-virus system can be caused not only by random perturbations but also by the heterogeneity of the tumor and the virus. Conclusion: The modeling approach described here reveals the importance of tumor cell and virus heterogeneity for the outcome of cancer therapy. It should be straightforward to apply these techniques to mathematical modeling of other types of anticancer therapy. Reviewers: Leonid Hanin (nominated by Arcady Mushegian, Natalia Komarova (nominated by Orly Alter, and David Krakauer.

  3. Uso del cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) en mezclas con fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) en el desarrollo de nuevos productos alimenticios / Use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in mixtures with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for the development of new food products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Maritza, López Guerra; Ricardo, Bressani.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de evaluar el cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) como sustituto parcial del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) como pasta o como harina. El grado de sustitución sería aquel en el cual no se detecte el sabor del frijol cowpea alterando el sabor del frijol común. Para la [...] ejecución del estudio se utilizó la variedad Peruchin Negro del frijol cowpea y el ICTA Ligero del frijol común con un contenido de proteína de 24.4% y 18.7% respectivamente. No hubo diferencias significativas en otros nutrientes. Se postulo que el sabor característico a tierra del cowpea era debido al contenido de polifenoles, la cual se redujo con tratamientos de remojo, cocción y descascarado. Se estableció que los niveles de polifenoles logrados con 9 horas de remojo y 30 minutos de cocción eran iguales a los obtenidos con el descascarado. Con estos procedimientos previos en el cowpea se prepararon 2 pastas de frijol frito a base de una mezcla de frijol negro/cowpea (con y sin cáscara) en la relación 70/30 las cuales fueron enlatadas y una mezcla de harina precocida en las mismas proporciones. Estas pastas se sometieron a pruebas sensoriales de tipo triangular y de perfil descriptivo. En el perfil descriptivo se evaluó: color, textura, punto de sal y sabor, en una escala de 10 puntos. Las evaluaciones sensoriales de las 2 mezclas de frijol no mostraron diferencia significativa respecto al sabor del frijol común. El contenido de proteína en las mezclas fue más alto debido a la mayor concentración de este nutriente en el cowpea. Aunque las mezclas de frijol común con cowpea entero y sin cáscara dieron mayor valor proteico (NPR) que el de frijol solo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to evaluate cowpeas (V. unguiculata) as a partial substitute of common beans (P. vulgaris) as a paste or as cooked dry flour. The degree of substitution would be that in which the flavor of cowpeas is not detected in the mixture with common beans. The study was develop [...] ed utilizing the Black Peruchin variety of cowpea and the ICTA Ligero for common beans, the latter with 18.7% protein and cowpeas with of 24.4%. Other nutrients in the samples were similar. It was believed that the characteristic earth flavor of the cowpea was due to its content of polyphenolic compounds. To eliminate such compounds, the samples were soaked in water for various periods of time and cooked. Reduction was also achieved by dehulling. It was found that the polyphenolic levels obtained with 9 hrs. of soaking and 30 min. of cooking in water were equal to those measure with mechanical dehulling. Applying these process to cowpeas, two fried beans pastes were prepared with cowpeas (with and with out hulls) in a mixture of 70 common beans and 30 cowpeas. Likewise a precooked flour of the two legume grains in the same proportion was also tested. These samples were subjected to sensory trials using a triangular method, and by a descriptive profile. In these the following were evaluated: color, texture, salt level, and flavor, using a 10 point scale. The sensory evaluation of the two beans mixtures showed no significant differences with respect to common bean flavor. The protein content of the mixtures was high due to the high protein content of cowpeas. Even though the mixtures of common beans and cowpeas with and with out seed coat gave higher protein quality values as compared to common beans alone, the difference was not statistically significant.

  4. Ecology and management of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea in the Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, M

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Senegal/Niger/rotation/millet/isolate characterization/fonio/compost amendment / bioagent/ Clonostachysrosea /solarizationCowpea ( Vignaunguiculata Walp.) is the most important pulse crop in theSahelwith nearly 12.5 million hectares per year and is a valuable source of protein for human and animal nutrition. The most limiting factors for crop growth in the Sahelian zone of West Africa are water and nutrient stress. The average cowpea yields in farmers' fields are low (0.2-0.5 ton/ha...

  5. Differences Among Cowpea Rhizobia in Tolerance to High Temperature and Desiccation in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Osa-Afiana, L. O.; Alexander, Martin

    1982-01-01

    Strains of cowpea rhizobia grew in mannitol-amended, nonsterile soil at 29 to 35°C but not at 40°C. Little decline in numbers of these bacteria occurred in dry, nonsterile soil incubated at 42°C for 7 days. Strains of cowpea rhizobia differed widely in their tolerances to drying at 30°C in nonsterile and sterile soil, and from less than 1 to 50% of the bacteria were still viable after 11 days. No relation was evident between tolerance to desiccation and the degree of aridity of the site from ...

  6. Laboratory Assessment of Some Plants Latex as Biopesticide Against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. ILEKE; M.O. Oni; O. A. ADELEGAN

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evaluation of Calotropis procera, Alstonia boonei, Jatropha curcas and Argemone mexicana latex as biopesticide against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] were evaluated at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 28±2oC and 75±5% respectively. The plants latex was tested at rates of 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2 ml / 20 g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insects were investigated. Results showed that at rates of 1...

  7. Survival of Cowpea Rhizobia in Soil as Affected by Soil Temperature and Moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Weaver, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Successful inoculation of peanuts and cowpeas depends on the survival of rhizobia in soils which fluctuate between wide temperature and moisture extremes. Survival of two cowpea rhizobial strains (TAL309 and 3281) and two peanut rhizobial strains (T-1 and 201) was measured in two soils under three moisture conditions (air-dry, moist (?0.33 bar), and saturated soil) and at two temperatures (25 and 35°C) when soil was not sterilized and at 40°C when soil was sterilized. Populations of rhizobia ...

  8. Soil compaction and gamma radiation (60Co) in the development of the cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m-3 - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m-3 - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  9. Efecto del consumo de dietas con frijol blanco (Vigna unguiculata) con y sin cáscara sobre los lípidos plasmáticos en ratas hipercolesterolémicas / Effect of consumption of diets with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with and without hull on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mirla C, Morón T; Ana V, Ávila A; Pablo I, Hernández R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas constituyen un componente importante de la dieta regular del venezolano. Algunos estudios han demostrado que los granos de varias leguminosas tienen un efecto hipocolesterolémico. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del consumo de frijol blanco Vigna unguiculata con y sin cáscara sob [...] re los lípidos plasmáticas en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. Treinta ratas machos adultas, cepa Sprague Dawley, fueron estudiadas en dos etapas. Una primera de tres semanas en la que mediante manipulación dietética, se transformaron ratas normales en hipercolesterolémicas. En la segunda etapa se diseñaron 4 grupos, un control normocolesterolémico sin dieta experimental, un hipercolesterolémico sin dieta experimental, un hipercolesterolémico alimentado con frijol con cáscara y uno hipercolesterolémico alimentado con frijol sin cáscara durante tres semanas. Las dietas con frijol blanco Vigna unguiculata produjeron una disminución significativa de colesterol total y triglicéridos de un 35.01% y 39.48% respectivamente, en comparación con el grupo hipercolesterolémico sin frijol. Para la fracción del colesterol-LDL la disminución fue de 59%, sin encontrarse diferencias significativas entre los grupos alimentados con frijol con y sin cáscara. Un hallazgo interesante fue el incremento significativo del colesterol-HDL de 29.66% en el grupo alimentado con frijol con cáscara, lo cual es un factor de prevención para la aparición de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares. Los resultados de este estudio señalan que el consumo de frijol blanco con o sin cáscara tuvo efecto beneficioso en el perfil lipídico, en este modelo experimental. En estudios futuros podría considerarse su uso en la dietoterapia de las hiperlipidemias. Abstract in english Legumes are important components of Venezuelan diet. Several studies have shown that grains of legumes have a hypocholesterolemic effect. This study evaluated the effect of consumption of white beans Vigna unguiculata with and without hull on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty adult [...] male Sprague-Dawley rats, were studied in two stages. The first of three weeks, by means of dietary manipulation, normal rats became hypercholesterolemic. In the second stage, 4 groups were designed, one normocholesterolemic control without experimental diet, one hypercholesterolemic without experimental diet, one hypercholesterolemic fed with bean with hull and one hypercholesterolemic fed with bean without hull for three weeks. Diets with white beans Vigna unguiculata produced a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides of 35.01% and 39.48% respectively, compared with the hypercholesterolemic group without beans. The fraction of LDL-cholesterol showed a reduction of 59%, without significant differences between the groups fed with beans with and without hull. An interesting finding was the significant increase of HDL-cholesterol of 29.66% in the group fed with bean with hull, which is a preventive factor for cardiovascular diseases. The results of this study indicate that consumption of white beans with or without hull had beneficial effect on lipid profile, in this experimental model. In future studies it could be considered for using in diet therapy of human hyperlipidemia.

  10. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virucidal effect of 60Co ?-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P 10 TCID 50, both in cell culture medium and in liquid manure and this value corresponded to the international effectiveness demand for a disinfectant. The results showed that the safe disinfection virus in liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  11. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS. Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

  12. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF MILK KEFIR IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Basant M Morsy, Ayman M Mahmoud* Mohamed I Zanaty, Adel Abdel-Moneim and Mohamed A Abo-Seif

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of milk kefir in Egyptian hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Thirty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Th...

  13. Modeling the indirect effect of Wolbachia on the infection dynamics of horizontally transmitted viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Strauß, Jakob F.; Telschow, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widely distributed in arthropods. There is growing empirical evidence that Wolbachia directly interacts with viruses and other parasites inside the arthropod host, sometimes resulting in low or no pathogen replication. Previous theoretical studies showed that this direct effect of Wolbachia can result in a reduced virus prevalence (within the population), suggesting that Wolbachia could be used in the biological control of vector-borne disease...

  14. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on structural components of enveloped RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro R.; Couceiro, Jose N.S.S.; Brito, Sieberth N.; Cabral, Maulori C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Microbiologia

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of ultraviolet radiation and virus particles of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (WEE) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) which have respectively RNA of positive (RNA+) and negative (RNA-) polarity as genomes, was studied using purified particles. The purified virus preparations were irradiated at a range of 1,000 to 6,000 joules per m{sup 2} with posterior analysis of their propagation in primary cells cultures of chicken embryos. It could be observed that a radiation dose of 4,500 joules per m{sup 2} could induce 10{sup 9} TCID50 per ml as minimal loss of titer for WEE virus and NDV. The hemagglutination assay was used as a tool for evaluate the alterations caused by UV radiation on the molecular arrangement of virus proteins. Alterations of the virus hemagglutinating activity were only observed when radiation levels higher than 6,000 joules per m{sup 2} were used. The results from hemolysis assays showed the importance of the loss of the envelope integrity and the damages to nucleoprotein structures during the inactivation process, when we use radiation doses higher than 6,000 joules per m{sup 2}. This model of study can increase our comprehension of the radiation effects on the cell physiology and biological components of the cell membranes. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on structural components of enveloped RNA viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of ultraviolet radiation and virus particles of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (WEE) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) which have respectively RNA of positive (RNA+) and negative (RNA-) polarity as genomes, was studied using purified particles. The purified virus preparations were irradiated at a range of 1,000 to 6,000 joules per m2 with posterior analysis of their propagation in primary cells cultures of chicken embryos. It could be observed that a radiation dose of 4,500 joules per m2 could induce 109 TCID50 per ml as minimal loss of titer for WEE virus and NDV. The hemagglutination assay was used as a tool for evaluate the alterations caused by UV radiation on the molecular arrangement of virus proteins. Alterations of the virus hemagglutinating activity were only observed when radiation levels higher than 6,000 joules per m2 were used. The results from hemolysis assays showed the importance of the loss of the envelope integrity and the damages to nucleoprotein structures during the inactivation process, when we use radiation doses higher than 6,000 joules per m2. This model of study can increase our comprehension of the radiation effects on the cell physiology and biological components of the cell membranes. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) / Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola, Garzón; Marina, García.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ‘I [...] -484’ (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ‘I-490’ (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ‘I-484’. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ‘I-490’ se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares. Abstract in english The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ‘I-484’ (moderate sensibility to sa [...] linity) and ‘I-490’ (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after sown, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ‘I-484’. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ‘I-490’ the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

  17. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function

  18. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalime, Erin N.; Pekosz, Andrew, E-mail: apekosz@jhsph.edu

    2014-06-15

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function.

  19. N2O Emission and Mineral N Release in a Tropical Acrisol Incorporated with Mixed Cowpea and Maize Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Kofi Agyarko; David O. Yawson; Kwame A. Frimpong

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm incubation was conducted to study the influence of mixed cowpea-maize residues on N2O emission and N mineralization in a tropical acrisol. The soils were incorporated with different ratios of cowpea:maize mixtures on weight basis: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, and a control treatment in which there was no residue incorporation. The results show that N2O and CO2 emissions were higher in the sole cowpea treatment (100:0) than the sole maize treatment (0:100) and t...

  20. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Junzeng

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001 and cowpea (2004 crop evapotranspiration (ETc in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the temperature inside the greenhouse and 20-cm pan evaporation outside, reaching its maximum value at the stage when plants’ growth was most active. Differences between the variation of crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation inside the greenhouse were caused by shading of the pan in the later period when the crops were taller than the location where the pan was installed, 70 cm above ground. The ratio of crop evapotranspiration to pan evaporation was not constant as reported in previous studies, and the variation of the inside ratio ?in lagged behind that of the outside ratio ?out. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration based on 20-cm pan evaporation inside the greenhouse is more reasonable than that based on 20-cm pan evaporation outside, although pan evaporation outside is more consistent with ETc than that inside. The value of ?in, calculated based on air temperature, relative humidity, and ground temperature inside, plays a dominant role in the calculation of ETc. As the crop height increases, altering the location of the inside pan and placing it above the canopy, out of the shade, would help to achieve more reasonable values of crop evapotranspiration.

  1. Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical specimens from patients infected with Lassa, Ebola, or Marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. The authors have examined the effects of heat, alteration of pH, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. Heating serum at 60 degrees C for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without altering the serum levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and electrolytes. Dilution of blood in 3% acetic acid, diluent for a leukocyte count, inactivated all of these viruses. All of the methods tested for viral inactivation markedly altered certain serum proteins, making these methods unsuitable for samples that are to be tested for certain enzyme levels and coagulation factors

  2. Effects of a pressure release on virus retention with the Ultipor DV20 membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Melissa A; Zydney, Andrew L

    2014-03-01

    Recent data have shown that a temporary release in the transmembrane pressure can cause a significant increase in virus transmission through a number of commercial virus filters. The objective of this work was to study the effect of a pressure release on retention of the bacteriophage ?X174 by the Ultipor DV20 membrane, with phage capture within the membrane visualized by confocal microscopy. Phage challenge tests showed a significant transient increase in phage transmission (typically by an order of magnitude) immediately after a pressure release. This transient increase was not due to any damage to the filter or to the presence of a back-flow (from permeate to feed). Confocal images demonstrated that the pressure release caused the migration of previously captured bacteriophage further into the depth of the filter. Data were analyzed using a modified internal polarization model, with the results providing important insights into the factors controlling virus retention during virus filtration. PMID:24018957

  3. Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. after tannery sludge compost amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia Marçal Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with tannery sludge compost (TSC. Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%. Only Cr accumulation was significant (P < 0.05 in the cowpea shoots after 3 yr of TSC amendment; accumulation increased as TSC rates were applied. However, there was no significant Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb accumulation in grains. After 3 yr of consecutive TSC soil amendments, Cr accumulated in the shoots, but it was not translocated to the grains.

  4. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  5. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  6. Systemic transport of Alfalfa mosaic virus can be mediated by the movement proteins of several viruses assigned to five genera of the 30K family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Thor V M; Peiró, Ana; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that the movement protein (MP) gene of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is functionally exchangeable for the cell-to-cell transport of the corresponding genes of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Brome mosaic virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Cowpea mosaic virus. We have analysed the capacity of the heterologous MPs to systemically transport the corresponding chimeric AMV genome. All MPs were competent in systemic transport but required the fusion at their C terminus of the coat protein-interacting C-terminal 44 aa (A44) of the AMV MP. Except for the TMV MP, the presence of the hybrid virus in upper leaves correlated with the capacity to move locally. These results suggest that all the MPs assigned to the 30K superfamily should be exchangeable not only for local virus movement but also for systemic transport when the A44 fragment is present. PMID:23136366

  7. Compositional evaluation of some cowpea varieties and some under-utilized edible legumes in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletor, V A; Aladetimi, O O

    1989-01-01

    The nutritive potentials of some cowpea varieties such as Ife Brown, Ife Bimpe, IT84E-124, K59 and TVX716 and some under-utilized edible legumes grown in Nigeria such as pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), lablab bean (Dolichos lablab), mucuna bean (Mucuna sp.) and Sphenostilis sternocarpa have been evaluated with respect to their proximate chemical composition, mineral content and some endogenous toxic constituents. The cowpea varieties contained on the average 22.5 g crude protein (CP), 2.60 g crude fibre (CF), 5.89 g either extract (EE) and 3.36 g ash/100 g DM while the under-utilized legumes contained 21.7, 6.10, 2.86, and 3.56 g/100 g DM for CP, CF, EE and ash respectively. Distinct varietal differences were observed for EE values as indicated by the coefficients of variation (CV) of 102% for cowpea and 60.8% for the under-utilized legumes. The CF content of the under-utilized legumes were generally higher than those of the cowpea varieties. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in both the cowpea varieties and the under-utilized legumes with mean values of 1.45 and 1.66% respectively, while P was the least abundant with 13.1 and 8.50 ppm, respectively. There were marked intra-varietal differences in the P content as shown by the high CV of 84.0 and 73.9% for the cowpea varieties and the other legumes. The cowpea varieties generally had higher levels of thioglucosides, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and lower haemagglutinating activity (mean values of thioglucosides: 3.86%, of TIA: 13.9 mg/g protein and of haemagglutinating activity: 13.0 HU/mg N respectively), than the under-utilized legumes with mean respective values of 1.22%, 9.84 mg/g protein and 22.7 HU/mg N. The nutritional implications of these anti-nutritional components were discussed and some reasons adduced for the under-utilization of some of these legumes inspite of their apparent similarity in nutritional quality to the more commonly consumed grain legumes. PMID:2561305

  8. Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WM, Cardoso; JLC, Aguiar Filho; JM, Romão; WF, Oliveira; RPR, Salles; RSC, Teixeira; MHR, Sobral.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the i [...] nterference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or polyvalent vaccinations against IBV and NDV, except for the non-vaccinated control group (CG). Sera were collected at 35 and 45 days of age and submitted to serologic tests to assess antibody levels. It was observed the occurrence of interference in the immune response against NDV by the use of associated vaccines to NDV and IBV; however, the group that was immunized with commercial combined vaccines (IBV+NDV) presented antibody titers to NDV similar to the group that was given only vaccine against NDV. We concluded based on these preliminary studies that the interference of IBV on the immune response against NDV depends also whether the association between the two vaccines is done just before vaccination or in the manufacturing laboratory.

  9. Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Cardoso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or polyvalent vaccinations against IBV and NDV, except for the non-vaccinated control group (CG. Sera were collected at 35 and 45 days of age and submitted to serologic tests to assess antibody levels. It was observed the occurrence of interference in the immune response against NDV by the use of associated vaccines to NDV and IBV; however, the group that was immunized with commercial combined vaccines (IBV+NDV presented antibody titers to NDV similar to the group that was given only vaccine against NDV. We concluded based on these preliminary studies that the interference of IBV on the immune response against NDV depends also whether the association between the two vaccines is done just before vaccination or in the manufacturing laboratory.

  10. Avian influenza virus (H5N1; effects of physico-chemical factors on its survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Sajid

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present study was performed to determine the effects of physical and chemical agents on infective potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 (local strain virus recently isolated in Pakistan during 2006 outbreak. H5N1 virus having titer 108.3 ELD50/ml was mixed with sterilized peptone water to get final dilution of 4HA units and then exposed to physical (temperature, pH and ultraviolet light and chemical (formalin, phenol crystals, iodine crystals, CID 20, virkon®-S, zeptin 10%, KEPCIDE 300, KEPCIDE 400, lifebuoy, surf excel and caustic soda agents. Harvested amnio-allantoic fluid (AAF from embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H5N1 treated virus (0.2 ml/egg was subjected to haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI tests. H5N1 virus lost infectivity after 30 min at 56°C, after 1 day at 28°C but remained viable for more than 100 days at 4°C. Acidic pH (1, 3 and basic pH (11, 13 were virucidal after 6 h contact time; however virus retained infectivity at pH 5 (18 h, 7 and 9 (more than 24 h. UV light was proved ineffectual in inactivating virus completely even after 60 min. Soap (lifebuoy®, detergent (surf excel® and alkali (caustic soda destroyed infectivity after 5 min at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% dilution. All commercially available disinfectants inactivated virus at recommended concentrations. Results of present study would be helpful in implementing bio-security measures at farms/hatcheries levels in the wake of avian influenza virus (AIV outbreak.

  11. Avian influenza virus (H5N1); effects of physico-chemical factors on its survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad Akbar; Abubakar, Muhammad; Hameed, Sajid; Hassan, Shamsul

    2009-01-01

    Present study was performed to determine the effects of physical and chemical agents on infective potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 (local strain) virus recently isolated in Pakistan during 2006 outbreak. H5N1 virus having titer 10(8.3) ELD(50)/ml was mixed with sterilized peptone water to get final dilution of 4HA units and then exposed to physical (temperature, pH and ultraviolet light) and chemical (formalin, phenol crystals, iodine crystals, CID 20, virkon-S, zeptin 10%, KEPCIDE 300, KEPCIDE 400, lifebuoy, surf excel and caustic soda) agents. Harvested amnio-allantoic fluid (AAF) from embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H5N1 treated virus (0.2 ml/egg) was subjected to haemagglutination (HA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. H5N1 virus lost infectivity after 30 min at 56 degrees C, after 1 day at 28 degrees C but remained viable for more than 100 days at 4 degrees C. Acidic pH (1, 3) and basic pH (11, 13) were virucidal after 6 h contact time; however virus retained infectivity at pH 5 (18 h), 7 and 9 (more than 24 h). UV light was proved ineffectual in inactivating virus completely even after 60 min. Soap (lifebuoy), detergent (surf excel) and alkali (caustic soda) destroyed infectivity after 5 min at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% dilution. All commercially available disinfectants inactivated virus at recommended concentrations. Results of present study would be helpful in implementing bio-security measures at farms/hatcheries levels in the wake of avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak. PMID:19327163

  12. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  13. Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons. [on cells of mammals, bacteria and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, N. I.; Vorozhtsova, S. V.; Krasavin, Y. A.; Mashinskaya, T. Y.; Savchenko, N. Y.; Fedorov, B. S.; Khlaponina, V. F.; Shelegedin, V. N.; Gut, L.; Sabo, L.

    1974-01-01

    Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons are studied on cells of mammals, bacteria, viruses and DNA of bacteria. Results show that the dose effect dependence bears an exponential character; the reduction of RBE as LET of particle increases reflects the different character of microdistribution of absorbed energy in biological objects with different levels of biological organization.

  14. Effects of fluctuations in river water level on virus removal by bank filtration and aquifer passage — A scenario analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, J.; Blaschke, A. P.; Farnleitner, A. H.; Pang, L.; Blöschl, G.; Schijven, J. F.

    2013-04-01

    Riverbank filtration is an effective process for removing pathogenic viruses from river water. Despite indications that changing hydraulic conditions during floods can affect the efficacy of riverbank filtration to remove viruses, the impact on advection and dispersion of viruses in the riverbank is not well understood. We investigated the effects of fluctuations in river water level on virus transport during riverbank filtration, considering 3-D transient groundwater flow and virus transport. Using constant removal rates from published field experiments with bacteriophages, removal of viruses with distance from the riverbank was simulated for coarse gravel, fine gravel and fine sandy gravel. Our simulations showed that, in comparison with steady flow conditions, fluctuations in river water level cause viruses to be transported further at higher concentrations into the riverbank. A 1-5 m increase in river water levels led to a 2- to 4-log (log10 reduction in concentration relative to the initial concentration in the river) increase in virus concentration and to up to 30 % shorter travel times. For particular cases during the receding flood, changing groundwater flow conditions caused that pristine groundwater was carried from further inland and that simulated virus concentrations were more diluted in groundwater. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of water level fluctuations on virus transport should be considered in the simulation of safe setback distances for drinking water supplies.

  15. Effects of fluctuations in river water level on virus removal by bank filtration and aquifer passage--a scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, J; Blaschke, A P; Farnleitner, A H; Pang, L; Blöschl, G; Schijven, J F

    2013-04-01

    Riverbank filtration is an effective process for removing pathogenic viruses from river water. Despite indications that changing hydraulic conditions during floods can affect the efficacy of riverbank filtration to remove viruses, the impact on advection and dispersion of viruses in the riverbank is not well understood. We investigated the effects of fluctuations in river water level on virus transport during riverbank filtration, considering 3-D transient groundwater flow and virus transport. Using constant removal rates from published field experiments with bacteriophages, removal of viruses with distance from the riverbank was simulated for coarse gravel, fine gravel and fine sandy gravel. Our simulations showed that, in comparison with steady flow conditions, fluctuations in river water level cause viruses to be transported further at higher concentrations into the riverbank. A 1-5 m increase in river water levels led to a 2- to 4-log (log10 reduction in concentration relative to the initial concentration in the river) increase in virus concentration and to up to 30% shorter travel times. For particular cases during the receding flood, changing groundwater flow conditions caused that pristine groundwater was carried from further inland and that simulated virus concentrations were more diluted in groundwater. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of water level fluctuations on virus transport should be considered in the simulation of safe setback distances for drinking water supplies. PMID:23500839

  16. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Oelofse Dean; Gazendam Inge; Coetzer Nanette; Berger Dave K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the p...

  17. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Ã… resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Ã… resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  18. MODELING THE CYTOTOXIC IMMUNE RESPONSE EFFECTS ON HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeimy Lorena Pérez Ibarra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is responsible for the body defense against strange organisms. This type of control is performed by molecules and cells in an organized way. The proposed model consists in a system of ordinary deferential equations intended to resemble the interaction between HIV and the immune response when considering cytotoxic cells. Standard local stability analysis at the virus free equilibrium is carried out to determine the theoretical conditions that avoid infection. Simulations were run to obtain results for particular immunological conditions and also to describe the dynamics of the system when facing infection states

  19. Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Jerri Édson Zilli; Romano Roberto Valisheski; Francisco Rodrigues Freire Filho; Maria Cristina Prata Neves; Norma Gouvêa Rumjanek

    2004-01-01

    In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphological traits (mucous production and colony morphology), genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S) and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as...

  20. Susceptibility of Six Local and Four Improved Cowpea Cultivars to Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Infestation in North Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina, Y. T.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of seeds of six local (Banjara, Borno brown, Gwallam, Kanannado brown, Kanannado white and Saddam and four improved (189KD-288, IT89KD-391, IT90K-82-2 and IT97K-499-35 cowpea cultivars that were commonly grown in north eastern Nigeria to infestation by the cowpea storage bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae was evaluated in the laboratory at 30oC - 35oC and 60% - 65% RH. Parameters tested include the number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged, percentage seed damage, severity of seed damage, seed susceptibility index and bruchid developmental period. All parameters collected were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The mean number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged, percentage seed damage, severity of seed damage and seed susceptibility index were generally significantly different amongst the ten different cowpea cultivars. Mean bruchid developmental period, was however, not significantly different amongst the cowpea cultivars tested. The seeds of all ten cowpea cultivars (local and improved were either moderately or highly susceptible to infestation by C. maculatus. Results obtained in this study indicated the need for breeders to develop high-yielding cowpea cultivars that are well adapted to cultivation in the north eastern region of Nigeria, with relatively high resistance to attack by the bruchid beetle.

  1. Effect of anti-virus software on infectious nodes in computer network: A mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Bimal Kumar, E-mail: drbimalmishra@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835 215 (India); Pandey, Samir Kumar, E-mail: samir.phd2009@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, ITER, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 030 (India)

    2012-07-16

    An e-epidemic model of malicious codes in the computer network through vertical transmission is formulated. We have observed that if the basic reproduction number is less than unity, the infected proportion of computer nodes disappear and malicious codes die out and also the malicious codes-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable which leads to its eradication. Effect of anti-virus software on the removal of the malicious codes from the computer network is critically analyzed. Analysis and simulation results show some managerial insights that are helpful for the practice of anti-virus in information sharing networks. -- Highlights: ? An e-epidemic model SS{sub ?}IP for the transmission of malicious codes is developed. ? Equilibria and its stability is discussed under different conditions. ? Effect of anti-virus software on the nodes is critically analyzed.

  2. Natural Infection of Datura stramonium L. By an Unusual Strain of Pepper veinal mottle virus Genus Potyvirus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Taiwo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease causing mosaic and leaf distortion was observed in 80% of Datura stramonium L. plants in a garden in Ibadan, Nigeria. The causal agent had flexuous rod-shaped particles of about 750-800 nm length. The virus was readily mechanically transmissible but was not seed borne in the natural host. The virus was not transmissible to any other host genera and was restricted to D. stramonium and D. metel. In serological tests using protein A-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PAS-ELISA and antisera to ten members of the family Potyviridae, the virus from D. stramonium reacted only with the antiserum to Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV genus Potyvirus. Optical density readings of 3.564 and 0.466 at 405 nm were obtained in reactions between PVMV antiserum and virus infected and healthy Datura sp. samples respectively. No serological relationship was detected between the virus from D. stramonium and Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV genus Potyvirus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV genus Potyvirus and Yam mosaic virus (YMV genus Potyvirus in double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM tests. Although some of the data on symptomatology, host range and serological relatedness could implicate Datura shoestring virus (DSV genus Potyvirus, the virus may actually be an unusual strain of PVMV.

  3. Genetic variability, evolution, and biological effects of Grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottula, J; Lapato, D; Cantilina, K; Saito, S; Bartlett, B; Fuchs, M

    2013-11-01

    Large satellite RNAs (type B satRNAs) of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) from the genus Nepovirus, family Secoviridae were identified in a naturally infected vineyard and a grapevine germplasm collection. These GFLV satRNA variants had a higher nucleotide sequence identity with satRNAs of Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) strains NW and J86 (93.8 to 94.6%) than with the satRNA of GFLV strain F13 and those of other ArMV strains (68.3 to 75.0%). Phylogenetic analyses showed no distinction of GFLV and ArMV satRNAs with respect to the identity of the helper virus. Seven stretches of 8 to 15 conserved nucleotides (I-VII) were identified in the 5' region of subgroup A nepovirus genomic RNAs GFLV, ArMV, and Grapevine deformation virus) and nepovirus type B satRNAs, including previously reported motif I, suggesting that large satRNAs might have originated from recombination between an ancestral subgroup A nepovirus RNA and an unknown RNA sequence with the 5' region acting as a putative cis-replication element. A comparative analysis of two GFLV strains carrying or absent of satRNAs showed no discernable effect on virus accumulation and symptom expression in Chenopodium quinoa, a systemic herbaceous host. This work sheds light on the origin and biological effects of large satRNAs associated with subgroup A nepoviruses. PMID:23718838

  4. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado no estudo. As seis populações (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 foram avaliadas num experimento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, em Teresina - PI; o plantio foi realizado em março de 1998. Os parâmetros genéticos estimados foram variâncias fenotípica, genética total, genética aditiva e dos desvios de dominância e devido aos efeitos do ambiente, herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito, grau médio de dominância e número dos genes que controlam o caráter. O modelo aditivo - dominante ajustou-se aos dados do peso de 100 sementes, visto que a média e o efeito gênico aditivo foram os parâmetros genéticos mais importantes na determinação desse caráter. O número dos genes que controlam sua expressão é cinco. A ocorrência de alto valor para a herdabilidade no sentido restrito indicou que a seleção para o tamanho da semente pode ser realizada em gerações segregantes iniciais.

  5. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.; Kpodo, K.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed...... of toxin are often detected in naturally infected samples, the current results indicate that cowpea is less susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. A low susceptibility could be due to the presence in cowpea of substances that inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis. Further investigations are underway to...

  6. Bioactivity of Anacardium occidentale (L) and Allium sativum (L) Powders and Oils Extracts against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. ILEKE; Olotuah, O.F

    2011-01-01

    The powders and oils extracts of Anacardium occidentale (L.) seeds and Allium sativum (L.) bulbs were tested as contact insecticides against the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) in cowpea seeds. The powders were incorporated at rates 1, 2.5 and 5/20g of cowpea seeds and acetone extracts of the plants were also applied at 0.5, 1 and 1.5ml per 20g of cowpea seeds to assess contact mortality of adult insect, oviposition, adult emergence and damage assessment. The results obtained ...

  7. Viruses disrupt functions of human lymphocytes. Effects of measles virus and influenza virus on lymphocyte-mediated killing and antibody production

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    We present experimental data that offer, in part, a better understanding of the immunosuppression that accompanies measles virus infection. We note that measles virus "silently" infects human lymphocytes and that the infection does not alter lymphocyte survival in vitro. Yet such infected lymphocytes fail to generate natural killer (NK) cell activity or synthesize immunoglobulins (Ig). Thus, the presence of virus within lymphocytes impairs their specific immune functions in the absence of cyt...

  8. Evidence that maturation of the N-linked glycans of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) glycoproteins is required for virus-mediated cell fusion: The effect of ?-mannosidase inhibitors on RSV infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycan heterogeneity of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein was demonstrated by proteomics. The effect of maturation of the virus glycoproteins-associated glycans on virus infectivity was therefore examined using the ?-mannosidase inhibitors deoxymannojirimycin (DMJ) and swainsonine (SW). In the presence of SW the N-linked glycans on the F protein appeared in a partially mature form, whereas in the presence of DMJ no maturation of the glycans was observed. Neither inhibitor had a significant effect on G protein processing or on the formation of progeny virus. Although the level of infectious virus and syncytia formation was not significantly affected by SW-treatment, DMJ-treatment correlated with a one hundred-fold reduction in virus infectivity. Our data suggest that glycan maturation of the RSV glycoproteins, in particular those on the F protein, is an important step in virus maturation and is required for virus infectivity

  9. Sorghum-cowpea composite porridge as a functional food, Part II: Antioxidant properties as affected by simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Minnaar, Amanda; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2016-04-15

    The effect of compositing red non-tannin sorghum with brownish-cream cowpea and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge was studied. Maize-soybean composite porridge was used as a reference sample. Antioxidant properties were studied using radical scavenging activities against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), peroxyl and NO radicals as well as inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidative damage of vector DNA. Hydroperoxide content of the samples was also measured. All the samples demonstrated radical scavenging activity. Simulated duodenal digests of the porridges had hydroperoxides and therefore caused LDL oxidation. The undigested porridges and simulated gastric digests inhibited LDL oxidation. Compositing the cereals with legumes increased total phenolic and flavonoid contents and NO scavenging activity of their porridges. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the porridges increased their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, radical scavenging activities and LDL oxidation inhibitory activity. PMID:26616954

  10. Gut microbiota modulate the immune effect against hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Huang, Y; Wang, J

    2015-11-01

    The immunological mechanisms by which hepatitis B virus (HBV) initiates and maintains acute or chronic infection, even the formation of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, are still undefined. An increasing number of studies have shown that intestinal flora regulate immune homeostasis, and, thus, protect the immunologic function against hepatitis virus infection. In this article, we discuss gut microbiota and its potential immune effects against HBV infection. It may provide a novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBV infection, as well as a potential therapeutic target to HBV-related disease. PMID:26272175

  11. Avian influenza virus (H5N1); effects of physico-chemical factors on its survival

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed Sajid; Abubakar Muhammad; Shahid Muhammad; Hassan Shamsul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Present study was performed to determine the effects of physical and chemical agents on infective potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 (local strain) virus recently isolated in Pakistan during 2006 outbreak. H5N1 virus having titer 108.3 ELD50/ml was mixed with sterilized peptone water to get final dilution of 4HA units and then exposed to physical (temperature, pH and ultraviolet light) and chemical (formalin, phenol crystals, iodine crystals, CID 20, virkon®-S...

  12. Effect of low dose gamma-radiation upon Newcastle disease virus antibody level in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific antibody response against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs exposed to low dose gamma-radiation was studied. Materials and methods: Two groups of eggs of commercial meat chicken lines were irradiated with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19th day of incubation, respectively. The same number of eggs unexposed to gamma-radiation served as controls. After hatching the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation was not vaccinated while the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation was vaccinated on the 14 day. Specific serum anti-Newcastle disease virus antibodies were quantified by the hemagglutination inhibition assay with 4 HA units of Newcastle disease virus La Sota strain. Result: Specific antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation and vaccinated on the 14th day significantly increased on the 28th day. Specific antibody titre against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation and non-vaccinated was significantly higher on the 1st and 14th day. Conclusion: Acute irradiation of heavy breeding chicken eggs with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19th day of incubation could have a stimulative effect on humoral immunity in chickens.

  13. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCarthy Kathleen A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus vaccine, Raboral V-RG® (V-RG, to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor. The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful V-RG vaccination in raccoons is the focus of this study. Results Overall, raccoons pre-immunized (n = 10 with a recombinant raccoonpox virus vaccine (RCN-F1 responded to vaccination with V-RG with lower rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA titers than those which were not pre-immunized (n = 10 and some failed to seroconvert for rabies VNA to detectable levels. Conclusion These results suggest that the success of some ORV campaigns may be hindered where raccoonpox virus or possibly other orthopoxvirus antibodies are common in wildlife species targeted for ORV. If these areas are identified, different vaccination strategies may be warranted.

  14. Effects of glycosylation on antigenicity and immunogenicity of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) harbors three envelope glycoproteins (E(rns), E1 and E2). Previous studies have demonstrated that removal of specific glycosylation sites within these proteins yielded attenuated and immunogenic CSFV mutants. Here we analyzed the effects of lack of glycosylation of...

  15. The effects of pesticides on queen rearing and virus titers in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine® (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colo...

  16. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Rosalind M.; Watson, Conall H.; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W. John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease. PMID:26691346

  17. OZONE EFFECT ON RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIVITY AND CYTOKINE PRODUCTION BY HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of ozone (O3) exposure at 1 ppm for 2 hours, on the susceptibility/resistance of adult human alveolar macrophages (AM) to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vitro, and RSV-induced cytokine production by the AM. M we...

  18. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease. PMID:26691346

  19. EFFECT OF PARTICULATES ON OZONE DISINFECTION OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research was initiated in order to determine the effect of particulates on ozone disinfection of enteric bacteria and viruses adsorbed to or incorporated into particulate materials such as fecal material, HEp-2 cells, aluminum oxide floc and bentonite clay. Microorganisms use...

  20. Mekabu fucoidan: Structural complexity and defensive effects against avian influenza A viruses.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Bleha, R.; Synytsya, Al.; Pohl, Radek; Hayashi, K.; Yoshinaga, K.; Nakano, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 111, Oct 13 (2014), s. 633-644. ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Mekabu fucoidan * sporophyll Undaria pinnatifida * spectroscopic methods * avian influenza A virus * immunostimulating effect Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.074, year: 2014

  1. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Cowpea Using Nitrogen 15-isotope: The Role of Water and Improved Crop Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by low productivity and is associated with variable and irregular rainfall, infertile soils, and inadequate application of organic and inorganic fertilizers (Fatokun et al., 2002). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) is a major source of dietary protein for the people, and occupies about eight million hectares of agricultural land, a majority being in Niger and Nigeria (Singh et al., 1997). The major uses include (1) food grain, (2) animal feed, and (3) source of organic N fertilizer. In Niger, cowpea production increased from 4 000 tons year-1 in the mid-fifties to a maximum of 775 000 tons year-1 in 1997, and its cultivated area is still increasing. Despite its importance, cowpea yields in Niger are very low (approximately 300 kg ha-1) relative to the production potential of between 1.5-3.0 t ha-1 (Ball et al., 2000). Yield can be substantially increased by using improved cowpea varieties and overcoming water stress. With adequate soil moisture cowpea flowers over a long period produce more seeds and yield loss is limited. On the contrary, under water deficit conditions the flowering period is cut short and the seed matures earlier, reducing yield. Overcoming water stress can also improve nutrient use efficiency of cowpea. This article summarizes the results of a field study carried out in Niger to assess the use of improved cowpea varieties and water management on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of cowpea using stable isotopes of nitrogen-15 (15N). The field experiment was carried out in the Sahelian zone of Sadore located 45 km south of Niamey, capital of Niger. Six varieties of cowpea cultivars including three widely used varieties in Niger (TN3-78, TN5-78 and KVX) improved the variety obtained from IATA, Nigeria (V499). One variety imported from Ghana (Ghana) and a non-fixing variety obtained from ICRISAAT, Niger (IC10), were used in the study. The water application includes: (a) control in which the treatment is irrigated at field capacity (I1), (b) irrigation every three days (I2), (c) irrigation every five days (I3), and (d) irrigation every seven days (I4). Each treatment received a basal application of 10 kg ha-1 as 15N-labelled urea and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 as single superphosphate. Crop yield, N uptake and 15N in plant were measured and fertilizer N use and biological nitrogen fixation were estimated. Results showed that keeping the soil water content at field capacity through regular application of water increased cowpea grain yield in all five varieties

  2. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalime, Erin N; Pekosz, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. PMID:24928037

  3. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalime, Erin N.; Pekosz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. PMID:24928037

  4. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brennan, F.R.; Bellaby, T.; Helliwell, S.M.; Jones, T.D.; Kamstrup, Søren; Dalsgaard, Kristian; Flock, J.I.; Hamilton, W.D.O.

    1999-01-01

    The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone or in the presence of ISCOM matrix, primed CPMV-specific T cells and generated high titers of CPMV- and FnBP-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in sera. Furthermore, CPMV- and FnBP-specific IgA and IgG could...

  5. Structure-based rationale for the rescue of systemic movement of brome mosaic virus by spontaneous second-site mutations in the coat protein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Flasinski, S; Dzianott, A; Speir, J A; Johnson, J.E.; Bujarski, J J

    1997-01-01

    We describe spontaneous second-site reversions within the coat protein open reading frame that rescue the systemic-spread phenotype and increase virion stability of a mutant of brome mosaic virus. Based on the crystal structure of the related cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, we show that the modified residues are spatially clustered to affect the formation of hexamers and pentamers and therefore virion stability.

  6. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, t...

  7. FY04 LDRD Final Report: Interaction of Viruses with Membranes and Soil Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaldach, C M

    2005-02-08

    The influence of ionic strength on the electrostatic interaction of viruses with environmentally relevant surfaces was determined for three viruses, MS2, Q{beta} and Norwalk. The environmental surface is modeled as charged Gouy-Chapman plane with and without a finite atomistic region (patch) of opposite charge. The virus is modeled as a particle comprised of ionizable amino acid residues in a shell surrounding a spherical RNA core of negative charge, these charges being compensated for by a Coulomb screening due to intercalated ions. Surface potential calculations for each of the viruses show excellent agreement with electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential measurements as a function of pH. The results indicate that the electrostatic interaction between the virus and the planar surface, mitigated by the ionic strength of the solute, is dependent upon the spatial distribution of the amino acid residues in the different viruses. Specifically, the order of interaction energies with the patch (MS2 greatest at 5 mM; Norwalk greatest at 20 mM) is dependent upon the ionic strength of the fluid as a direct result of the viral coat amino acid distributions. We have developed an atomistic-scale method of calculation of the binding energy of viruses to surfaces including electrostatic, van der Waals, electron-overlap repulsion, surface charge polarization (images), and hydrophobic effects. The surface is treated as a Gouy-Chapman plane allowing inclusion of pH and ionic strength effects on the electrostatic potential at each amino acid charge. Van der Waals parameters are obtained from the DREIDING force field and from Hamaker constant measurements. We applied this method to the calculation of the Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV), a negatively charged virus at a pH of 7.0, and find that the viral-gold surface interaction is very long range for both signs of surface potential, a result due to the electrostatic forces. For a negative (Au) surface potential of -0.05 volts, a nearly 4 eV barrier must be overcome to reach 1 nm from the surface.

  8. Yield trials of cowpea mutant lines targeted for resistance to bacterial leaf blight Xanthomonas Vignicolar Burk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During dry season in 1992, 12 cowpea mutant lines selected from 20 kr, 40 kr, 60 kr and 80 kr radiation treatments along with the original parents (Red Cowpea 6-1 U.S.) and KKU 264-1-3-2 by planting KKU 402-6 as a check. They were tested for yield and resistance to bacterial blight and found that mutant line KKM 40-5-2-1-1-1 gave the highest yield. In comparison to the original parents, all the mutants yielded higher ranging from 7.6 to 32%. High yields were attributed to number of pod per plant, 100 seed weight, number of seed per pod and shelling percentage. Under natural field condition, no bacterial blight symptom was observed on all tested lines

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR THAT AFFECT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimjel Zalkuwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 250 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule .The result of the stochastic frontier production 2 function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (? and the gamma (? were statistically significant at 1 % level for cowpea production. The coefficient of farm size, labour, seed and chemical were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, labour, quantity of seed and chemical, and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency were 0.73, Farmers operate at 27% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, family size and farming experience have negative apriori sign and in consonance with the apriori expectation

  10. Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators – spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) – which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses. - Highlights: • This paper discusses the effect of electron beam on inactivation of bacterial spores and viruses. • Clostridium spp. and the BPV required application of high doses of high energy electron beam to be eliminated. • The lethal dose of electron beam for BPV was significantly higher than for Clostridium sporogenes spores

  11. Exploring Possibilities to Enhance Food Sovereignty within the Cowpea Production-Consumption Network in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, W.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last years an important focus in the combat of hunger and malnutrition,particularly in Africa has been food security. This article explores possibilities for enhancing food sovereignty, as an alternative concept to food security and an alternative strategy for reversing hunger and malnutrition trends in developing countries. A combination of literature review, participatory appraisal and conventional survey methodologies are used to investigate the relevance of local cowpea (Vigna un...

  12. Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nimoh, F.; Asuming-Brempong, S.; Sarpong, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference fo...

  13. Studies on some cowpea cultivars: II - suitability for aspergillus flavus growth and Aflatoxin production

    OpenAIRE

    Zohri, A. A. [??? ?????? ???? ????

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen mycotoxin-free seed cultivar samples of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were inoculated with spores* of Aspergillus flavus Link (IMI 89717) to determine varietal differences in terms of aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analyses of chloroform extracts of the colonized seeds revealed that three cultivars were highly resistant and not shown aflatoxin accumulation while 8 cultivars showed partial resistance. The remaining 5 samples were highly susceptible to the esta...

  14. Optimisation of a parametric land evaluation method for cowpea and pearl millet production in semiarid regions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiser, Thomas; Graef,Frieder

    2001-01-01

    Crop-specific land evaluation as proposed by FAO and refined by the International Training Centre (ITC-Ghent) requires the detailed definition of crop requirements with respect to climate and soil conditions and an optimisation of the evaluation approach. To evaluate the suitability of semiarid regions in NE-Brazil for cowpea production and of SW-Niger for millet production, the parametric ITC-Ghent method was applied after carrying out some modifications. When the modified evaluation method ...

  15. Early defence responses of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) induced by non-pathogenic rust fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Werner; Haug, M; Deising, Holger; Mendgen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    In cowpea (Vigna s&ensis L.) leaves the pathogenic rust fungus Uromyces vignae and the non-pathogens U. appendiculatus and U. viciae-fabae developed similarly to give rise to more than 80% haustorial mother cells. Whereas U. vignae was able to sporulate, the nonpathogens were stopped either after formation of some haustoria (U. appendiculatus) or immediately after formation of haustorial mother cells (U. viciae-fabae). Approximately 30% of the cells in contact with haustorial mother cells of ...

  16. Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases from roots, stem and leaves of cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCO OCTÁVIO LUIZ; GONDIM LORRANCE ABREU; BEZERRA KÁTIA REGINA; GUERRA MARIA ELANE DE CARVALHO; LIMA CARMEM ROGÉLIA FARIAS MACHADO; ENÉAS-FILHO JOAQUIM; PRISCO JOSÉ TARQUÍNIO; GOMES-FILHO ENÉAS

    2001-01-01

    Partial purification and characterization of ribonucleases (RNase; EC 3.1.27.1) present in roots, stem and leaves of 5 day-old Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] seedlings are described. Crude extracts from the different tissues were precipitated with ammonium sulfate followed by ionic exchange chromatography (CM-Cellulose) resulting in purification factors of 48-fold for roots, 21 for stem and 42 for leaves. No deoxyribonuclease activity was practically observed. The molecular mas...

  17. Comparison Of Neural Network And Multivariate Discriminant Analysis In Selecting New Cowpea Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Adewole, Adetunji Philip; Sofoluwe, A. B.; Agwuegbo , Samuel Obi-Nnamdi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, neural networks (NN) algorithm and multivariate discriminant (MDA) based model were developed to classify ten (10) varieties of cowpea which were widely planted in Kano. . In order to demonstrate the validity of our model, we use the case study to build a neural network model using Multilayer Feedforward Neural Network, and compare its classification performance against theMultivariate discriminant analysis. Two groups of data (Spray and Nospray) were used. Twenty kernels were ...

  18. A drug-disease model describing the effect of oseltamivir neuraminidase inhibition on influenza virus progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mohamed A; Gieschke, Ronald; Lemenuel-Diot, Annabelle; Beauchemin, Catherine A A; Smith, Patrick F; Rayner, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    A population drug-disease model was developed to describe the time course of influenza virus with and without oseltamivir treatment and to investigate opportunities for antiviral combination therapy. Data included viral titers from 208 subjects, across 4 studies, receiving placebo and oseltamivir at 20 to 200 mg twice daily for 5 days. A 3-compartment mathematical model, comprising target cells infected at rate ?, free virus produced at rate p and cleared at rate c, and infected cells cleared at rate ?, was implemented in NONMEM with an inhibitory Hill function on virus production (p), accounting for the oseltamivir effect. In congruence with clinical data, the model predicts that the standard 75-mg regimen initiated 2 days after infection decreased viral shedding duration by 1.5 days versus placebo; the 150-mg regimen decreased shedding by an additional average 0.25 day. The model also predicts that initiation of oseltamivir sooner postinfection, specifically at day 0.5 or 1, results in proportionally greater decreases in viral shedding duration of 5 and 3.5 days, respectively. Furthermore, the model suggests that combining oseltamivir (acting to subdue virus production rate) with an antiviral whose activity decreases viral infectivity (?) results in a moderate additive effect dependent on therapy initiation time. In contrast, the combination of oseltamivir with an antiviral whose activity increases viral clearance (c) shows significant additive effects independent of therapy initiation time. The utility of the model for investigating the pharmacodynamic effects of novel antivirals alone or in combination on emergent influenza virus strains warrants further investigation. PMID:26100715

  19. Effect of climatological factors on respiratory syncytial virus epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, D E; Mandeville, P B

    2008-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) presents as yearly epidemics in temperate climates. We analysed the association of atmospheric conditions to RSV epidemics in San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., Mexico. The weekly number of RSV detections from October 2002 and May 2006 were correlated to ambient temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, vapour tension, dew point, precipitation, and hours of light using time-series and regression analyses. Of the variation in RSV cases, 49.8% was explained by the study variables. Of the explained variation in RSV cases, 32.5% was explained by the study week and 17.3% was explained by meteorological variables (average daily temperature, maximum daily temperature, temperature at 08:00 hours, and relative humidity at 08:00 hours). We concluded that atmospheric conditions, particularly temperature, partly explain the year to year variability in RSV activity. Identification of additional factors that affect RSV seasonality may help develop a model to predict the onset of RSV epidemics. PMID:18177520

  20. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies reputedly minimize losses of stored cowpea grain to bruchid beetles on low resource farms in Africa. Side by side comparison of these different postharvest storage methods can provide the basis for deciding which performs best. We compared six different technologies for cowpea storage: (1) grain mixed with ash; (2) mixed with sand; (3) fumigated with phostoxin; (4) admixed with the stems and leaves of . Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir, a potential botanical insecticide; (5) disinfested using a solar heater, and; (6) hermetically sealed in triple-layer plastic bags. Sampling was done at thirty-day intervals over five months of storage. Counts were made of (i) adult emergence holes, (ii) dead larvae and (iii) surviving bruchid larvae and adults. Controls, which consisted of infested cowpea grain stored in cloth bags, were damaged extensively. . Boscia senegalensis-treated grain suffered similar severe damage. All other treatments suppressed bruchid population increases as was evident from the much lower counts of emergence holes and lower numbers of surviving or dead insects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr, which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS. Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis. These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  2. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COWPEA GERMPLASMS DIVERSITY FROM GHANA AND MALI USING MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Z. Doumbia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea improvement can be enhanced by knowledge of genetic diversity available between and within local and regional gene banks. This variability is the foundation of all cowpea improvement programs. A total of 94 accessions (47 from Ghana and 47 from Mali was used for this study. Twelve qualitative and twenty quantitative traits such as flower color, growth habit, raceme position, seed shape, day 50% flowering, day 50% maturity, plant height, seed length and seed weight were used to assess collections. Data collected from different morphological traits were analyzed using XLSTAT 2013. Principal component analysis, scatter plot matrix and clustering separated the accessions according to some qualitative and quantitative traits. Accessions were classified based on their morphological relationships using un-weighted pair-group average Cluster Analysis. Results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity between and within both germplasm; levels of similarity ranged between 0.95 to 0.069 for combined qualitative and quantitative data. However, some morphological traits discriminated more efficiently between the accessions than others. Few groups of the accessions were different from other accessions for some important traits. Implications of the variability in cowpea improvement are discussed.

  4. Carotenoids retention and in vitro iron bioavailability of traditional cowpea leaf dishes of rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mduma, I; Msuya, J; Mwanri, A W; Yang, R Y

    2012-05-01

    Food preparation methods play a role in micronutrient retention and ultimately intake. Analyses for carotenoids retention and in vitro iron bioavailability of five cowpea leaf dishes prepared according to the traditional methods of rural Tanzania were carried out. All the five dishes are commonly eaten as relishes for staple meals of maize or rice. Laboratory analyses were carried out at the Nutrition Laboratory of the World Vegetable Centre in Taiwan. Carotenoids were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography while iron bioavailability was analysed by an in vitro method. Results showed that traditional cowpea leaf dish consisting of sunflower oil, onion, tomatoes and coconut milk cooked for 30 min had the highest retention of ?-carotene (40.83 ± 7.00%) and lutein (34.60 ± 3.30%) compared to other traditional recipes (p < 0.05). The highest iron bioavailability (10.04 ± 0.49%) was observed in the traditional recipe which involved boiling fresh cowpea leaves for 15 min. Although recipe variation can affect carotenoids retention and iron bioavailability, simple practices such as reduced cooking time and avoiding direct sun drying also need to be promoted. PMID:21942714

  5. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of ?-esterase, ?-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments. PMID:21732069

  6. The effect of interferon on the receptor sites to rabies virus on mouse neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of rabies virus to mouse neuroblastoma cells (MNA) primed with alpha interferon (IFN-?), beta interferon (IFN-?), or alpha bungarotoxin (BTX) was examined. A saturable number of receptor sites to rabies virus was calculated by increasing the amount of 3H-CVS added to a constant number of untreated MNA cells. MNA cells were then exposed to 20 I.U. of IFN-?, IFN-?, or 1 ?g of BTX and assayed to determine if these treatments had an effect on the number of receptor sites to rabies virus. Total amount of 3H-CVS bound to MNA cells was determined during a three hour incubation period. Cold competition assays using 1,000 fold excess unlabeled CVS were used to determine non-specific binding for each treatment. Specific binding was then calculated by subtracting non-specific binding from the total amount of CVS bound to MNA cells. A similar amount of total viral protein bound to untreated and IFN-?, and BTX treated cells after 180 minutes of incubation. The bound protein varied by only 0.07 ?g. However, the amount of specific and non-specific binding varied a great deal between treatments. BTX caused an increase in non-specific and a decrease in specific binding of rabies virus. IFN-? produced variable results in non-specific and specific binding while IFN-? caused mainly specific binding to occur. The most significant change brought about by IFN-? was an increase in the rate of viral attachment. At 30 minutes post-infection, IFN-? treated cells had bound 90% of the total amount of virus bound to untreated cells after 180 minutes. The increased binding rate did not cause a productive infection of rabies virus. No viral production was evident after an incubation period of 48 hours in either IFN-? or IFN-? treated cells

  7. Effectiveness of commercial disinfectants for inactivating hepatitis A virus on agri-food surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, J; Vachon, J F; Moroni, O; Darveau, A; Kukavica-Ibrulj, I; Fliss, I

    2003-01-01

    Six commercial disinfectants were tested for their efficacy in inactivating hepatitis A virus in solution or attached to agri-food surfaces. Disinfectant I contains 10% quaternary ammonium plus 5% glutaraldehyde; disinfectant II contains 12% sodium hypochlorite; disinfectant III contains 2.9% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid plus 16% phosphoric acid; disinfectant IV contains 10% quaternary ammonium; disinfectant V contains 2% iodide; and disinfectant VI contains 2% stabilized chlorine dioxide. Among these, disinfectants I and II were shown to be the most effective in inactivating hepatitis A virus in solution. The efficacy of these disinfectants was further tested against hepatitis A virus attached to common agri-food surfaces, including polyvinyl chlorine, high-density polyethylene, aluminum, stainless steel, and copper. Disinfectant II was shown to be the most effective, with a maximum inactivation level of about 3 log10. The inactivation efficacy was shown to be affected by the concentration of the active ingredient, the contact time between the disinfectant and the contaminated surfaces, and the incubation temperature. In general, hepatitis A virus was shown to be highly resistant to most disinfectants tested, and high concentrations of active ingredient were needed to achieve acceptable inactivation levels. PMID:12540190

  8. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Joshua S; Stock, Charles A; Wilhelm, Steven W; Bourouiba, Lydia; Coleman, Maureen L; Buchan, Alison; Follows, Michael J; Fuhrman, Jed A; Jover, Luis F; Lennon, Jay T; Middelboe, Mathias; Sonderegger, Derek L; Suttle, Curtis A; Taylor, Bradford P; Frede Thingstad, T; Wilson, William H; Eric Wommack, K

    2015-06-01

    Viral lysis of microbial hosts releases organic matter that can then be assimilated by nontargeted microorganisms. Quantitative estimates of virus-mediated recycling of carbon in marine waters, first established in the late 1990s, were originally extrapolated from marine host and virus densities, host carbon content and inferred viral lysis rates. Yet, these estimates did not explicitly incorporate the cascade of complex feedbacks associated with virus-mediated lysis. To evaluate the role of viruses in shaping community structure and ecosystem functioning, we extend dynamic multitrophic ecosystem models to include a virus component, specifically parameterized for processes taking place in the ocean euphotic zone. Crucially, we are able to solve this model analytically, facilitating evaluation of model behavior under many alternative parameterizations. Analyses reveal that the addition of a virus component promotes the emergence of complex communities. In addition, biomass partitioning of the emergent multitrophic community is consistent with well-established empirical norms in the surface oceans. At steady state, ecosystem fluxes can be probed to characterize the effects that viruses have when compared with putative marine surface ecosystems without viruses. The model suggests that ecosystems with viruses will have (1) increased organic matter recycling, (2) reduced transfer to higher trophic levels and (3) increased net primary productivity. These model findings support hypotheses that viruses can have significant stimulatory effects across whole-ecosystem scales. We suggest that existing efforts to predict carbon and nutrient cycling without considering virus effects are likely to miss essential features of marine food webs that regulate global biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25635642

  9. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitz, Joshua S.; Stock, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Viral lysis of microbial hosts releases organic matter that can then be assimilated by nontargeted microorganisms. Quantitative estimates of virus-mediated recycling of carbon in marine waters, first established in the late 1990s, were originally extrapolated from marine host and virus densities, host carbon content and inferred viral lysis rates. Yet, these estimates did not explicitly incorporate the cascade of complex feedbacks associated with virus-mediated lysis. To evaluate the role of viruses in shaping community structure and ecosystem functioning, we extend dynamic multitrophic ecosystem models to include a virus component, specifically parameterized for processes taking place in the ocean euphotic zone. Crucially, we are able to solve this model analytically, facilitating evaluation of model behavior under many alternative parameterizations. Analyses reveal that the addition of a virus component promotes the emergence of complex communities. In addition, biomass partitioning of the emergent multitrophic community is consistent with well-established empirical norms in the surface oceans. At steady state, ecosystem fluxes can be probed to characterize the effects that viruses have when compared with putative marine surface ecosystems without viruses. The model suggests that ecosystems with viruses will have (1) increased organic matter recycling, (2) reduced transfer to higher trophic levels and (3) increased net primary productivity. These model findings support hypotheses that viruses can have significant stimulatory effects across whole-ecosystem scales. We suggest that existing efforts to predict carbon and nutrient cycling without considering virus effects are likely to miss essential features of marine food webs that regulate global biogeochemical cycles.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 30 January 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.220.

  10. Ação do radium sôbre o vírus da poliomielite Radium effect upon the poliomyelitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guilherme Lacorte

    1959-10-01

    Full Text Available Em prosseguimento a trabalhos anteriores referentes à ação dos raios X e radium sôbre os vírus, especialmente o da gripe, verificaram os A.A. que o radium exerce, em certas doses, ação excitante sôbre o vírus da poliomielite, como acontecera com as doses fracas de raios X sôbre o vírus da gripe. As experiências que levaram a essas conclusões foram feitas ocm a aplicação de 4 mg de radim contidos em 4 tubinhos verificando-se que, após 127 e 159 dias o vírus testemunho tinha perdido tôda a atividade, que antes já se mostrara diminuida, ao passo que o submetido à ação do radium mostrou-se sempre mais ativo, assim se conservando integralmente após aquêlo prazo. Na prática, essa observação poderá conduzir a um meio destinado a aumentar a virulência do referido vírus.The authors refered the previous publication of the results obtained when the influenza virus in saline suspensios of mice lungs was irradiated with small doses of X rays. The irradiated vírus was more virulent for mice than the control one. The effect of the exposition to 1 mg of radium was not significant. In the present paper the authors refered the experiments made with the poliomyelits virus, MEF1 strain, after exposition to 1 needle of 1 mg of radium and to 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium. The virus suspension was put into the Carrel flask in a fluid layer of 0,1 cm. The titulations of the irradiated virus suspension activity were made in the first case (exposition to the radium needle after 7, 13, 20 and 30 days and, in other experiments, after 90, 120, 150 and 182 days of exposition. The results were not statistically significant. In the second case (exposition to the 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium each, after 60 and 90 days of exposition showed more activity than was shown in the control. After 127 and 139 days the control suspension completely lost the activity and the irradiated virus maintained the same infective title. In conclusion, the poliomyelitis virus, MEF1 strain, after radium exposition, in the described experimental conditions, showed higher infective title than the control. This property can be used to increase the virulence of that virus and, possibly of other viruses.

  11. Ação do radium sôbre o vírus da poliomielite / Radium effect upon the poliomyelitis virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Guilherme, Lacorte; Estácio, Monteiro; J. Carvalho, Loures.

    1959-10-01

    Full Text Available Em prosseguimento a trabalhos anteriores referentes à ação dos raios X e radium sôbre os vírus, especialmente o da gripe, verificaram os A.A. que o radium exerce, em certas doses, ação excitante sôbre o vírus da poliomielite, como acontecera com as doses fracas de raios X sôbre o vírus da gripe. As [...] experiências que levaram a essas conclusões foram feitas ocm a aplicação de 4 mg de radim contidos em 4 tubinhos verificando-se que, após 127 e 159 dias o vírus testemunho tinha perdido tôda a atividade, que antes já se mostrara diminuida, ao passo que o submetido à ação do radium mostrou-se sempre mais ativo, assim se conservando integralmente após aquêlo prazo. Na prática, essa observação poderá conduzir a um meio destinado a aumentar a virulência do referido vírus. Abstract in english The authors refered the previous publication of the results obtained when the influenza virus in saline suspensios of mice lungs was irradiated with small doses of X rays. The irradiated vírus was more virulent for mice than the control one. The effect of the exposition to 1 mg of radium was not sig [...] nificant. In the present paper the authors refered the experiments made with the poliomyelits virus, MEF1 strain, after exposition to 1 needle of 1 mg of radium and to 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium. The virus suspension was put into the Carrel flask in a fluid layer of 0,1 cm. The titulations of the irradiated virus suspension activity were made in the first case (exposition to the radium needle) after 7, 13, 20 and 30 days and, in other experiments, after 90, 120, 150 and 182 days of exposition. The results were not statistically significant. In the second case (exposition to the 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium each), after 60 and 90 days of exposition showed more activity than was shown in the control. After 127 and 139 days the control suspension completely lost the activity and the irradiated virus maintained the same infective title. In conclusion, the poliomyelitis virus, MEF1 strain, after radium exposition, in the described experimental conditions, showed higher infective title than the control. This property can be used to increase the virulence of that virus and, possibly of other viruses.

  12. Effect of Antiviral Therapy on Hepatitis C Virus Related Glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ghulam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus associated glome-rulopathy, we studied 30 patients with HCV-associated glomerulopathy at Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan from June 2004 to February 2007. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN was the commonest kidney lesion, being reported in 25/30 (83%, followed by membra-nous glomerulonephritis (MGN in 3/30 (10% and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MesGN in 2/30 (7%. Cryoglobulinaemia was positive in 8/20 (40% cases. Most common HCV genotype was 3a. All the patients received interferon alpha combined with ribavirin therapy for 6-12 months based on viral genotypes and doses were adjusted according to renal function. Anti-viral response was achieved in the form of aviremia at completion of 6 months treatment in 8/30 (26.6%, decreased transaminases levels from a mean of 96.4 ± 72.2 to 60.1 ± 44.3 IU/L, p= 0.005, 24-hour proteinuria decreased significantly from a mean of 4.8 g to 1.20 g, p= 0.001, and complement C3 and C4 concentrations returned to normal in those subjects who responded to treatment. The rate of relapse was 50%. We conclude that though the overall antiviral response of HCV was not high, there was a significant reduction in proteinuria suggesting indirectly an improvement in renal patho-logy. Further studies with large number of patients with follow-up renal biopsies are warranted.

  13. Contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio, fertilizante nitrogenado e nitrogênio do solo no desenvolvimento de feijão e caupi / Contribuition of nitrogen from biological nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fertilizer and soil nitrogen on the growth of the common bean and cowpea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira, Brito; Takashi, Muraoka; Edson Cabral da, Silva.

    Full Text Available A fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN) constitui-se em uma valiosa fonte deste nutriente para o feijão comum e, sobretudo, para o feijão-caupi, tendo sua magnitude influenciada pela disponibilidade de N mineral na solução do solo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar os efeitos de doses de ni [...] trogênio, na forma de uréia, sobre a fixação simbiótica de N2 em feijão comum e caupi, pela técnica isotópica, e quantificar as contribuições relativas das fontes N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-uréia no desenvolvimento do feijão comum e caupi, usando como controle a soja não nodulante. O estudo foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra, coletada de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5x3x2 e três repetições. Os tratamentos compreenderam cinco doses de N, na forma de uréia: 2, 15, 30, 45 e 60 mg kg-1 de N; três épocas de amostragens de plantas: 23, 40 e 76 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e duas culturas: feijão comum e feijão caupi. A FBN decresceu com o incremento da dose de N, variando de 81,5% a 55,6% para o caupi e de 71,9% a 55,1% para o feijão comum. A FBN em caupi submetido à inoculação pode substituir totalmente a adubação nitrogenada, inclusive a dose de arranque. A absorção do N do solo não é influenciada pela dose de fertilizante nitrogenado. O aproveitamento do N do fertilizante, aos 76 DAS, foi, em média, de 60,7% pelo feijão comum e 57,1% pelo caupi. O feijão comum necessita de dose de arranque (40 kg ha-1 de N) para a obtenção de produtividade economicamente aceitável. Abstract in english Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) constitutes a valuable source of this nutrient for the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., being its avaibility affected by mineral N in the soil solution. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of nitrogen r [...] ate, as urea, on symbiotic fixation of N2 in common bean and cowpea plants, using the isotopic technique, and quantifying the relative contributions of N sources symbiotic N2 fixation, soil native nitrogen and urea N on the growth of the common bean and cowpea. Non nodulating soybean plants were used as standard. The research was carried out in greenhouse, using pots with 5 kg of soil from a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol). The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 30 treatments and three replications, arranged in 5x3x2 factorial outline. The treatments consisted of five N rates: 2, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg N kg-1 soil; three sampling times: 23, 40 and 76 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. The BNF decreased with increase N rates, varying from 81.5% to 55.6% for cowpea, and from 71.9% to 55.1% for common bean. The symbiotic N2 fixation in cowpea can substitute totally the nitrogen fertilization. The nitrogen absorption from soil is not affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate. The N recovery from fertilizer at 76 DAS was of 60.7% by common bean, and 57.1% by cowpea. The symbiotic association in common bean needs the application of a starting dose (40 kg N ha-1) for economically acceptable yields.

  14. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.; Kpodo, K.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Natural infection of cowpea by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa were studied. Cowpea samples were collected at harvest (T0) and after three months of storage (T3) from the four agro-ecological zones of the country. A total of 92 representative samples were analysed...

  15. Transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 confer resistance to storage pests, bruchid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solleti, Siva Kumar; Bakshi, Souvika; Purkayastha, Jubilee; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2008-12-01

    Cowpea is one of the important grain legumes. Storage pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis cause severe damage to the cowpea seeds during storage. We employ a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated cowpea transformation method for introduction of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI-1) gene into a commercially important Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal and generated fertile transgenic plants. The use of constitutive expression of additional vir genes in resident pSB1 vector in Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, thiol compounds during cocultivation and a geneticin based selection system resulted in twofold increase in stable transformation frequency. Expression of alphaAI-1 gene under bean phytohemagglutinin promoter results in accumulation of alphaAI-1 in transgenic seeds. The transgenic protein was active as an inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase in vitro. Transgenic cowpeas expressing alphaAI-1 strongly inhibited the development of C. maculatus and C. chinensis in insect bioassays. PMID:18784925

  16. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  17. Combined effect of acyclovir and amphotericin B on the replication of pseudorabies virus in BHK-21 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Malewicz, B; Momsen, M; Jenkin, H M

    1983-01-01

    Acyclovir, known as an antiherpetic agent, showed an inhibitory effect on the propagation of pseudorabies virus in BHK-21 cells. The antiviral effect of acyclovir was observed by plaque reduction, as well as by the inhibition of the virus-stimulated uptake of thymidine by BHK-21 cells. Amphotericin B potentiated the antiviral activity of acyclovir. The optimal concentrations of polyene antibiotic expressing the potentiating effect were lower than required for the induction of K+ leakage from ...

  18. Interação entre salinidade e bioestimulante na cultura do feijão caupi Interaction between water salinity and biostimulant in the cowpea plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. de Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a interação entre salinidade e o uso de bioestimulante (Stimulate® sobre o desenvolvimento do feijão caupi. A semeadura foi feita em vasos utilizando-se, como substrato, um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo. O experimento obedeceu a um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 7. Os tratamentos se constituíram da combinação de dois níveis de sais da água de irrigação e seis formas de aplicação de bioestimulante (Ausência, Tratamento de sementes, Foliar aos 20 dias após semeadura (DAS, Foliar aos 40 DAS, Tratamentos de sementes + Foliar aos 20 DAS, Tratamento de sementes + foliar aos 40 DAS e Aplicação foliar aos 20 e 40 DAS. Foram realizadas duas avaliações não destrutivas (20 e 40 DAS e uma destrutiva (60 DAS e avaliados a altura, o número de folhas, a área foliar e a massa seca de folhas, de caule e da parte aérea. Todos os parâmetros fisiológicos avaliados foram afetados pela salinidade. Nas formas de aplicação adotadas o bioestimulante não proporcionou melhorias no desenvolvimento das plantas quando submetidas ao estresse salino; a salinidade inibiu o efeito benéfico do bioestimulante sobre o desenvolvimento do feijão caupi; enfim, o uso de bioestimulante não é viável em plantas cultivadas sob estresse salino.The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between salinity levels of the water and the use of biostimulant (Stimulate® in the initial development stage of cowpea plants. The sowing of seeds was done in pots, using as a substrate Alfissol and two plants per pot. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 7 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of combination of two salinity levels (0.5 and 5.0 dS m-1 with seven biostimulant application forms (without application, seed treatment, sprinkled 20 days after sowing (DAS, sprinkled 40 DAS, seed treatment + sprinkled 20 DAS, seed treatment + sprinkled 40 DAS and sprinkled 20 and 40 DAS. Two non destructive evaluations (20 and 40 DAS and one destructive evaluation (60 DAS were performed. Plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, and dry mater of leaves, stem and aerial parts were evaluated. All parameters were influenced by salinity. The biostimulant in the adopted forms of application did not render any improvement on plant development when submitted to saline stress. The salinity inhibited the beneficial effects of the biostimulant on the growth of the cowpea plants therefore, the use of plant growth regulator is not feasible in plants grown under salt stress.

  19. Interação entre salinidade e bioestimulante na cultura do feijão caupi / Interaction between water salinity and biostimulant in the cowpea plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco de A. de, Oliveira; José F. de, Medeiros; Mychelle K. T. de, Oliveira; Antônia A. T., Souza; José A., Ferreira; Mateus S., Souza.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a interação entre salinidade e o uso de bioestimulante (Stimulate®) sobre o desenvolvimento do feijão caupi. A semeadura foi feita em vasos utilizando-se, como substrato, um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo. O experimento obedeceu a um delineamento inteiramente casual [...] izado em esquema fatorial 2 x 7. Os tratamentos se constituíram da combinação de dois níveis de sais da água de irrigação e seis formas de aplicação de bioestimulante (Ausência, Tratamento de sementes, Foliar aos 20 dias após semeadura (DAS), Foliar aos 40 DAS, Tratamentos de sementes + Foliar aos 20 DAS, Tratamento de sementes + foliar aos 40 DAS e Aplicação foliar aos 20 e 40 DAS). Foram realizadas duas avaliações não destrutivas (20 e 40 DAS) e uma destrutiva (60 DAS) e avaliados a altura, o número de folhas, a área foliar e a massa seca de folhas, de caule e da parte aérea. Todos os parâmetros fisiológicos avaliados foram afetados pela salinidade. Nas formas de aplicação adotadas o bioestimulante não proporcionou melhorias no desenvolvimento das plantas quando submetidas ao estresse salino; a salinidade inibiu o efeito benéfico do bioestimulante sobre o desenvolvimento do feijão caupi; enfim, o uso de bioestimulante não é viável em plantas cultivadas sob estresse salino. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between salinity levels of the water and the use of biostimulant (Stimulate®) in the initial development stage of cowpea plants. The sowing of seeds was done in pots, using as a substrate Alfissol and two plants per pot. The experimental de [...] sign was completely randomized in a 2 x 7 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of combination of two salinity levels (0.5 and 5.0 dS m-1) with seven biostimulant application forms (without application, seed treatment, sprinkled 20 days after sowing (DAS), sprinkled 40 DAS, seed treatment + sprinkled 20 DAS, seed treatment + sprinkled 40 DAS and sprinkled 20 and 40 DAS). Two non destructive evaluations (20 and 40 DAS) and one destructive evaluation (60 DAS) were performed. Plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, and dry mater of leaves, stem and aerial parts were evaluated. All parameters were influenced by salinity. The biostimulant in the adopted forms of application did not render any improvement on plant development when submitted to saline stress. The salinity inhibited the beneficial effects of the biostimulant on the growth of the cowpea plants therefore, the use of plant growth regulator is not feasible in plants grown under salt stress.

  20. Positive and Negative Effects of Adenovirus Type 5 Helper Functions on Adeno-Associated Virus Type 5 (AAV5) Protein Accumulation Govern AAV5 Virus Production?

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Ramnath; PINTEL, DAVID J.

    2006-01-01

    Full replication of adeno-associated virus type 5 (AAV5) is sustained by adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) helper functions E1a, E1b, E2a, E4Orf6, and virus-associated (VA) RNA; however, their combined net enhancement of AAV5 replication was comprised of both positive and negative individual effects. Although Ad5 E4Orf6 was required for AAV5 genomic DNA replication, it also functioned together with E1b to degrade de novo-expressed, preassembled AAV5 capsid proteins and Rep52 in a proteosome-dependent m...

  1. Resistência de genótipos de caupi ao caruncho / Resistance of cowpea genotypes to the Callosobruchus maculatus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PAULO DIÓGENES, BARRETO; MARY ANN WEYNE, QUINDERÉ.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de resistência genética ao ataque de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) tem sido alvo de investigação científica, especialmente no que diz respeito à identificação de fontes de resistência. O presente trabalho objetivou incorporar, ao grupo de caracteres desejáveis para o cultivo de caupi [...] (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), resistência genética ao caruncho (C. maculatus). Foram realizadas hibridações dos genótipos IT81D-1045 e IT81D-1064 (portadores de resistência ao inseto) com CNCx 252-1E/FB, CNCx 187-22D-1 e BR 1-Poty (capazes de transferir resistência a viroses, tolerância à seca, formação de grãos com padrão comercial, elevado potencial de produção e adaptabilidade a diferentes condições ambientais). Populações segregantes obtidas destes cruzamentos foram conduzidas pelo método SPD (descendência de uma única vagem), e na geração F5 foram realizadas seleções individuais. As linhagens obtidas foram avaliadas em conjunto com materiais de origens diferentes, utilizando-se parâmetros associados à infestação da praga. Foi constatado que os genótipos avaliados apresentaram variabilidade quanto à preferência à postura, número de insetos emergidos e número de sementes danificadas; as linhas EVx 37-15E e EVx 37-2E foram as que sofreram menor dano causado pelo caruncho; as variáveis número de ovos, número de insetos emergidos e número de sementes danificadas mostraram-se positiva e significativamente correlacionadas entre si; o grupo das linhagens que descendem de genitores resistentes apresenta valores significativamente inferiores aos obtidos pelas demais, o que indica que a resistência ao inseto se transmite geneticamente. Abstract in english The use of genetic resistance to the weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.)) has been investigated to identify sources of resistance. The main purpose of the present work was to incorporate the genetic resistance to this insect into cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) with other already d [...] esirable. Hybridization was carried out among the genotypes IT81D-1045 and IT81D-1064 (identified in International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria, as resistant to the insect) and CNCx 252-1E/FB, CNCx 187-22D-1 and BR 1-Poty, all of them able to transfer resistance to viruses, drought tolerance, desirable commercial quality of grains, high production potential and adaptability to different environments. Segregating populations were obtained from these crossings and so driven by the SPD method (single pod descendent) with individual selections being made in the F5 generation. The obtained lineages were assessed together with materials of different origins, using associated parameters to the pest infestation. Results revealed that the genotypes showed differences concerned to the eggs number laid by, number of insects hatched and the number of damaged seeds; these variables were positive by and significantly correlated among them; the EVx 37-15E and EVx 37-2E lineages were the less damaged by the weevil; the lineages group that descends from the resistant parents presented values significantly inferior to those obtained by the others, indicating that the resistance to the insect is genetically transmitted.

  2. Evolution of 2014/15 H3N2 Influenza Viruses Circulating in US: Consequences for Vaccine Effectiveness and Possible New Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljkovic, Veljko; Paessler, Slobodan; Glisic, Sanja; Prljic, Jelena; Perovic, Vladimir R.; Veljkovic, Nevena; Scotch, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    A key factor in the effectiveness of the seasonal influenza vaccine is its immunological compatibility with the circulating viruses during the season. Here we propose a new bioinformatics approach for analysis of influenza viruses which could be used as an efficient tool for selection of vaccine viruses, assessment of the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines, and prediction of the epidemic/pandemic potential of novel influenza viruses. PMID:26733989

  3. The study of side-effects caused by ?-ray inactivation of influenza virus in producing an influenza virus vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inactivation of influenza virus by 60Co-?-rays in producing an influenza virus vaccine leads to yellowing of the pre-- paration and a decrease in its opalescence. The change in optic properties was only observed at a dose of 5 Gy and higher with sucrose and protein stabilizer simultaneosly present in the solution. It was established that the formation of stained compounds is the result of a radiochemical interaction between intermediate products of radiolysis of these components

  4. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection. Conclusion Effective sources of host resistance were identified in this study. QTL mapping and synteny analysis identified genomic loci harboring resistance factors and revealed candidate genes with potential for further functional genomics analysis.

  5. Effect of Antibodies Raised in Bovine and Guineapigs on The Genetic Characters of Seroytpe Asia1 FMD Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanyal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of antibodies (raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97 on foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 63/72 was compared by analyzing the data obtained in nucleotide sequencing. The Nr viruses (neutralization resistant viruses which were selected by growing them in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS showed certain characteristic features like common changes in the structural protein coding P1 region of this virus. This shows that the virus responds equally to the antibodies raised in both bovine (natural host and guineapig (experimental host. The result hereIn extends the finding that selection exerted by host antibody also plays a major role in the rapid evolution of FMD Virus serotype Asia1.

  6. [Effects of global climate change on the ecological characteristics and biogeochemical significance of marine viruses--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunlan; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Rui

    2015-09-01

    As the most abundance biological agents in the oceans, viruses can influence the physiological and ecological characteristics of host cells through viral infections and lysis, and affect the nutrient and energy cycles of the marine food chain. Thus, they are the major players in the ocean biogeochemical processes. The problems caused by global climate changes, such as sea-surface warming, acidification, nutrients availability, and deoxygenation, have the potential effects on marine viruses and subsequently their ecological and biogeochemical function in the ocean. Here, we reviewed the potential impacts of global climate change on the ecological characteristics (e. g. abundance, distribution, life cycle and the host-virus interactions) and biogeochemical significance (e. g. carbon cycling) of marine viruses. We proposed that marine viruses should not be ignored in the global climate change study. PMID:26762022

  7. Effects of Pyrimidine and Purine Analog Combinations in the Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection Model

    OpenAIRE

    Seignères, Béatrice; Martin, Perrine; Werle, Bettina; Schorr, Olivier; Jamard, Catherine; Rimsky, Laurence; Trépo, Christian; Zoulim, Fabien

    2003-01-01

    To design new strategies of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B, we have evaluated the antiviral activity of the combination of amdoxovir (DAPD), emtricitabine [(−)FTC], and clevudine (l-FMAU) in the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) model. Using their triphosphate (TP) derivatives in a cell-free system expressing a wild-type active DHBV reverse transcriptase (RT), the three dual combinations exhibited a greater additive inhibitory effect on viral minus-strand DNA synthesis than the single ...

  8. Effects of Immunosuppression on Circulating Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid-Specific T cells in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Parzych, Elizabeth M.; Li, Hua; Yin, Xiangfan; LIU, Qin; Wu, Te-Lang; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; High, Katherine A.; Levine, Matthew H.; Ertl, Hildegund C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In humans adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer is followed by expansion of AAV capsid-specific T cells, evidence of cell damage, and loss of transgene product expression, implicating immunological rejection of vector-transduced cells, which may be prevented by immunosuppressive drugs. We undertook this study to assess the effect of immunosuppression (IS) used for organ transplantation on immune responses to AAV capsid antigens. Recipients of liver or kidney transplants were tes...

  9. Effects of Cucumber mosaic virus infection on vector and non-vector herbivores of squash

    OpenAIRE

    Mauck, Kerry E.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    Plant chemicals mediating interactions with insect herbivores seem a likely target for manipulation by insectvectored plant pathogens. Yet, little is currently known about the chemical ecology of insect-vectored diseases or their effects on the ecology of vector and nonvector insects. We recently reported that a widespread plant pathogen, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), greatly reduces the quality of host-plants (squash) for aphid vectors, but that aphids are nevertheless attracted to the odors ...

  10. Larval Temperature-Food Effects on Adult Mosquito Infection and Vertical Transmission of Dengue-1 Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Eva A; Alto, Barry W; Lounibos, L Philip

    2016-01-01

    Temperature-food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history and population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus life history and DENV-1 infection and vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16-24% were observed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny and DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature and food affected number of progeny and DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24°C) yielded the most progeny and this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low and high food led to the highest (∼90%) and lowest (∼65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (∼75-80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature and food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission and a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have consequences for dengue virus epidemiology. PMID:26489999

  11. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on production and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollari, F L; Wangsuphachart, V L; DiGiacomo, R F; Evermann, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on production, reproduction and longevity in dairy cattle. The study population was a commercial Holstein dairy herd of approximately 400 milking cows. Cattle were tested for antibodies to BLV at least annually for three years and when culled. Four groups of culled cows were compared: seronegative cows (n = 79), seropositive cows without lymphocytosis (n = 176), seropositive cows with lymphocytosis...

  12. Autophagy and the Effects of Its Inhibition on Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein Biosynthesis and Infectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Buckingham, Erin M.; Carpenter, John E.; Jackson, Wallen; Grose, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy and the effects of its inhibition or induction were investigated during the entire infectious cycle of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a human herpesvirus. As a baseline, we first enumerated the number of autophagosomes per cell after VZV infection compared with the number after induction of autophagy following serum starvation or treatment with tunicamycin or trehalose. Punctum induction by VZV was similar in degree to punctum induction by trehalose in uninfected cells. Treatment of ...

  13. Effect of Freezing Treatment on Colostrum to Prevent the Transmission of Bovine Leukemia Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; HATAMA, Shinichi; OUE, Yasuhiro; EDAMATSU, Hiroki; KONNO, Yasuhiro; TACHIBANA, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not beco...

  14. Effect of treatment with a cationic antiviral compound on acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Marley, M. Shonda; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Riddell, Kay P; Boykin, David W.; Kumar, Arvind; Kuhnt, Leah A.; Gard, Julie A.; Givens, M Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a widespread bovine pathogen capable of causing disease affecting multiple body systems. Previous studies have shown 2-(2-benzimidazolyl)-5-[4-(2-imidazolino)phenyl]furan dihydrochloride (DB772) effectively prevents BVDV infection in cell culture. The aim of this project was to assess the efficacy of DB772 for the prevention of acute BVDV infection. Four calves seronegative to BVDV were treated with DB772 and another 4 calves were treated with diluent onl...

  15. In vitro effect of antisense oligonucleotides on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription.

    OpenAIRE

    Bordier, B; Hélène, C.; Barr, P J; Litvak, S.; Sarih-Cottin, L

    1992-01-01

    The molecular events involved in antisense-mediated inhibition of retroviral transcription were studied by analyzing the in vitro effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides on reverse transcription by Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). Oligonucleotides have been designed to be complementary to three targets located in the 5' region of the HIV-1 RNA genome: the transactivating response element (TAR), the U5 region and a sequence contiguous to the primer bind...

  16. Effects of lectins on peripheral infections by herpes simplex virus of rat sensory neurons in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, R J; Pozos, R S

    1981-01-01

    Concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin are capable of preventing a productive peripheral infection of dissociated rat sensory neurons in culture by herpes simplex virus type 1. Concanavalin A binds to the herpes simplex virion, rendering it inactive, whereas wheat germ agglutinin binds to the peripheral neuritic extensions of the sensory neurons, rendering them incapable of initiating a productive viral infection. This latter effect (i) seems to be specific for wheat germ agglutinin since o...

  17. Modelling the Effects of Seasonality and Socioeconomic Impact on the Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yanyu; BEIER, JOHN C.; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Cosner, Chris; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important mosquito-borne viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that causes human deaths and significant economic losses due to huge incidences of death and abortion among infected livestock. Outbreaks of RVF are sporadic and associated with both seasonal and socioeconomic effects. Here we propose an almost periodic three-patch model to investigate the transmission dynamics of RVF virus (RVFV) among ruminants with spatial movements. Our findings indicate th...

  18. Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Damme

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

  19. AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME COWPEA ECOTYPES (VIGNA UNGUILATA L. GROWN IN TURKEY; VEGETATION TIME, SEED AND POD CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. VURAL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to observe the yield and yield components of cowpea cultivars available and cowpea lines, which are grown in nine local areas in Turkey. The study including two cultivars and nine ecotypes, was carried out with randomizes block design with three replications in 1996-1997. Significant differences were observed between the cultivars as in the seed yield, biological yield and vegetation time, according to the two years' combined results. The data indicate great variation within the cowpea, regarding all characters. Factor analysis based principal component (PCA showed two factors, representing 99.13 % of the total variation. PC1 explaining 98.69 % of the total variance is highly correlated with seed and pod size factors. PC2 may be considered as the time of vegetation time and yield per plant. Eleven examined cultivars were separated in two groups by factor analysis and cluster analysis.

  20. Screening and secretomic analysis of enthomopatogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates in response to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Mehta, Angela; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octávio L

    2007-04-01

    The production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an important self-sustained crop in Latin America and Africa, is severely affected by damage by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. The presence of a single larva in stored seeds can lead to losses of almost 40%. Control of C. maculatus currently relies on the inefficient use of chemical insecticides and post-harvest treatments. The use of entomopathogenic fungus became a reliable alternative for coleopteran pest control and has been extensively investigated. Among them, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were widely evaluated in order to measure their virulence toward many insects. In this report, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of ten strains of B. bassiana and the most lethal fungi strains were analyzed for proteinaceous secretions by two dimensional electrophoresis and for enzyme activities, including chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities. This study could, in the near future, help to establish novel biotechnological tools to use for cowpea weevil control. PMID:17350346

  1. Water temperature effects on virus and DOC transport during riverbank infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, J.; Farnleitner, A. H.; Zessner, M.; Blaschke, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    In the view of global warming and the increase in world population, the demand for efficient treatment methods for drinking water has increased. The potential capacity of riverbank filtration to effectively remove contaminants has been proven. However, during floods river water was found to infiltrate more quickly and at a higher rate into the riverbank, posing an increased risk for groundwater contamination (e.g. Shankar et al. 2009). The effect of seasonal variations in groundwater temperature on virus and DOC removal during passage from a flooding river towards a drinking water well was investigated by numerical simulations. Contaminant removal was estimated for each season using a 3D flow and transport model of a large river and a shallow unconfined aquifer. Water viscosity, density and DOC decay rate were considered to be dependent on water temperature. Groundwater temperatures at respective sites of the Austrian Danube were continuously measured during 2010/2011, when the river water level increased by 5 m twice in summer and winter. Even though no floods occurred in autumn nor spring, the water temperature in the near-river aquifer and in the river were very similar during these seasons and could therefore be also used for our scenarios. Based on published removal rates from respective field experiments under defined hydrological conditions, virus and DOC reduction was studied for i) highly permeable gravel (scenario 1), ii) fine gravel (scenario 2) and iii) fine sandy gravel (scenario 3). Variations in groundwater temperature caused the virus and DOC reductions to differ significantly within the seasons according to our scenario simulations. For scenario 1 and 3 smaller virus reductions were estimated in autumn than in spring because of a higher flow gradient during the flood. In contrast, higher virus reductions were estimated in summer than in winter for scenario 2 due to groundwater back flow into the river and more dilution at higher water temperatures. Less DOC breakthrough was estimated in warmer seasons due to accelerated microbial degradation. Results indicate to consider variations in water viscosity, density and decay rates induced by seasonal water temperature fluctuations, as they are additional effects on virus and DOC reduction.

  2. Metais pesados e patógenos em milho e feijão caupi consorciados, adubados com lodo de esgoto Heavy metals and pathogens in maize - cowpea intercropping system fertilized with sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago A. R. Nogueira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, buscou-se avaliar o efeito da adubação com lodo de esgoto submetido a diferentes processos de higienização, sobre os teores de metais pesados e densidade de patógenos no solo e em grãos de milho e feijão caupi consorciados. Os tratamentos no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, corresponderam a: Solo sem adubação; Calagem e adubação química; Lodo não higienizado; Lodo higienizado com nim; Lodo higienizado com cal; Composto de lodo e ipomoea; Composto de lodo e ipomoea com fosfato; Lodo não higienizado e fosfato no solo; Lodo higienizado com nim e fosfato no solo; Lodo higienizado com cal e fosfato no solo; Composto de lodo e ipomoea e fosfato no solo. As densidades de patógenos no solo foram extremamente baixas e não diferiram entre tratamentos. As concentrações de metais pesados no solo, mesmo com uso do lodo de esgoto, não extrapolaram os limites máximos de adição anual nem os limites máximos permitidos para solos; apesar disso, as concentrações de Pb em grãos de milho, e de Pb e Cr em grãos de feijão, atingiram valores acima dos limites permitidos para produtos agrícolas, independente da adição de lodo ao solo. Em geral, não houve influência dos tipos de lodo de esgoto em relação aos teores de metais pesados, em grãos de milho e feijão.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with sewage sludge submitted to different treatments of sanitization on contamination with heavy metals and pathogens in soil and grains of maize - cowpea intercropping system. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with three replicates, corresponding to: soil without fertilization; liming and chemical fertilization; sewage sludge; sewage sludge sanitized with nim; sewage sludge sanitized with lime; composted sewage sludge and ipomoea; sewage sludge and ipomoea composted with rock phosphate; sewage sludge with rock phosphate incorporated in the soil; sewage sludge sanitized with nim and rock phosphate incorporated in the soil; sewage sludge sanitized with lime and rock phosphate incorporated in the soil; sewage sludge and ipomoea composted with rock phosphate incorporated in the soil. The pathogen density in the soil was extremely low and there were no differences between treatments. The heavy metal concentrations in the soil, including sewage sludge, did not surpass the maximum limits of annual addition and the permissible maximum limits for soils. In spite of this, the concentrations of Pb in maize grains, and Pb and Cr in cowpea grains, reached values above the limits permitted for agricultural products, independent of the addition of sewage sludge in the soil. In general, no influence of type of sewage sludge in relation to content of heavy metals in grains of corn and cowpea was observed.

  3. Transstadial Effects of Bti on Traits of Aedes aegypti and Infection with Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Barry W; Lord, Cynthia C

    2016-02-01

    Most mosquito control efforts are primarily focused on reducing the adult population size mediated by reductions in the larval population, which should lower risk of disease transmission. Although the aim of larviciding is to reduce larval abundance and thus recruitment of adults, nonlethal effects on adults are possible, including transstadial effects on phenotypes of adults such as survival and pathogen infection and transmission. In addition, the mortality induced by control efforts may act in conjunction with other sources of mosquito mortality in nature. The consequences of these effects and interactions may alter the potential of the population to transmit pathogens. We tested experimentally the combined effects of a larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, Bti) and competition during the larval stages on subsequent Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) traits, population performance, and susceptibility to dengue-1 virus infection. Ae. aegypti that survived exposure to Bti experienced accelerated development, were larger, and produced more eggs with increasing amounts of Bti, consistent with competitive release among surviving mosquitoes. Changing larval density had no significant interactive effect with Bti treatment on development and growth to adulthood. Larval density, but not Bti or treatment interaction, had a strong effect on survival of adult Ae. aegypti females. There were sharper declines in cumulative daily survival of adults from crowded than uncrowded larval conditions, suggesting that high competition conditions of larvae may be an impediment to transmission of dengue viruses. Rates of infection and dengue-1 virus disseminated infections were found to be 87±13% and 88±12%, respectively. There were no significant treatment effects on infection measurements. Our findings suggest that larvicide campaigns using Bti may reduce the number of emerged adults, but survivors will have a fitness advantage (growth, development, enhanced production of eggs) relative to conspecifics that are not under larvicide pressure. However, under most circumstances, these transstadial effects are unlikely to outweigh reductions in the adult population by Bti and altered risk of disease transmission. PMID:26871951

  4. Transstadial Effects of Bti on Traits of Aedes aegypti and Infection with Dengue Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Barry W.; Lord, Cynthia C.

    2016-01-01

    Most mosquito control efforts are primarily focused on reducing the adult population size mediated by reductions in the larval population, which should lower risk of disease transmission. Although the aim of larviciding is to reduce larval abundance and thus recruitment of adults, nonlethal effects on adults are possible, including transstadial effects on phenotypes of adults such as survival and pathogen infection and transmission. In addition, the mortality induced by control efforts may act in conjunction with other sources of mosquito mortality in nature. The consequences of these effects and interactions may alter the potential of the population to transmit pathogens. We tested experimentally the combined effects of a larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, Bti) and competition during the larval stages on subsequent Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) traits, population performance, and susceptibility to dengue-1 virus infection. Ae. aegypti that survived exposure to Bti experienced accelerated development, were larger, and produced more eggs with increasing amounts of Bti, consistent with competitive release among surviving mosquitoes. Changing larval density had no significant interactive effect with Bti treatment on development and growth to adulthood. Larval density, but not Bti or treatment interaction, had a strong effect on survival of adult Ae. aegypti females. There were sharper declines in cumulative daily survival of adults from crowded than uncrowded larval conditions, suggesting that high competition conditions of larvae may be an impediment to transmission of dengue viruses. Rates of infection and dengue-1 virus disseminated infections were found to be 87±13% and 88±12%, respectively. There were no significant treatment effects on infection measurements. Our findings suggest that larvicide campaigns using Bti may reduce the number of emerged adults, but survivors will have a fitness advantage (growth, development, enhanced production of eggs) relative to conspecifics that are not under larvicide pressure. However, under most circumstances, these transstadial effects are unlikely to outweigh reductions in the adult population by Bti and altered risk of disease transmission. PMID:26871951

  5. Susceptibility of Six Local and Four Improved Cowpea Cultivars to Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Infestation in North Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, Y. T.; Mbaya, A. M.; Mailafiya, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The susceptibility of seeds of six local (Banjara, Borno brown, Gwallam, Kanannado brown, Kanannado white and Saddam) and four improved (189KD-288, IT89KD-391, IT90K-82-2 and IT97K-499-35) cowpea cultivars that were commonly grown in north eastern Nigeria to infestation by the cowpea storage bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was evaluated in the laboratory at 30oC - 35oC and 60% - 65% RH. Parameters tested include the number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged...

  6. Insecticidal Efficacy of Castor and Hazelnut Oils in Stored Cowpea Against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Haghtalab; Shayesteh, N.; S. Aramideh

    2009-01-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is a primary pest of cowpea and other legumes worldwide, both in fields and in stored seeds. Castor oil at 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 mL kg-1 and Hazelnut at 2.8, 4.4, 6, 7.6 and 9.2 mL kg-1 were tested against C. maculatus in cowpea. All bioassays were conducted at 27±1°C and 65±5% r.h and mortality was counted after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. After the 72 h mortality count, all adults were removed and the vials were left at the same condi...

  7. Functional analysis of brome mosaic virus coat protein RNA-interacting domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, S L; Rao, A L N

    2008-01-01

    The coat proteins (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle (CCMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), two members of the genus Bromovirus, share 70% identity at the amino acid (aa) level and contain four highly conserved regions, identified as putative RNA-interacting domains (RIDs). To assess the contribution of the conserved aa sequence within each RID and the structural features contained therein toward virion assembly and RNA packaging, we engineered a set of fourteen independent mutations (deletions and substitutions) encompassing all four RIDs. The effect of each mutation on viral biology, pathogenesis, and RNA packaging was analyzed in whole-plant infection assays. Among the four RIDs, two mutations engineered into the N-proximal domain (RID I) and two of the four mutations engineered into the C-proximal domain (RID IV) proved to be more debilitating (compared to wild-type) while only selected regions in the central domains (RID II or III) showed a detectable effect. Neutral effects were observed when aa residues that are predicted to affect calcium binding were mutated. To further analyze the importance of N and C terminal interactions leading to virus assembly and RNA packaging, four CP hybrids were constructed by precisely exchanging either the N-terminal 77 or the C-terminal 113/112aa between BMV and CCMV. Despite the fact that the CP composition of the hybrid viruses is distinct from either of the parents, the symptom phenotype in Chenopodium quinoa, migration pattern of CP in Western blots and virion mobility in agarose gels was indistinguishable from the respective parent providing the genetic background. Collectively, the data provide insight for assessing the relative importance of each RID during genome packaging and in molecular processes regulating the overall architecture of the assembled virions. PMID:18066637

  8. Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.P., Sales; P.P., Pimenta; N.S., Paes; M.F., Grossi-de-Sá; J., Xavier-Filho.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicil [...] ins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  9. Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Sales

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  10. Effective nonvaccine interventions to be considered alongside human papilloma virus vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindin, Michelle J; Bloem, Paul; Ferguson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization recommends that girls, ages 9-13 years, get the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative, which provides low-cost vaccine to eligible countries, requires that an additional intervention to be offered alongside the vaccine. We systematically searched and assessed the published literature in lower- and middle-income countries to identify effective interventions. We conducted systematic searches of four databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Global Index Medicus Regional Databases, and Cochrane Reviews for effective adolescent health interventions that could be delivered with the HPV vaccine in the following areas: (1) iron and folic acid supplementation (iron alone or with folic acid); (2) voucher delivery and cash transfer programs; (3) hand washing and soap provision; (4) vision screening; (5) promotion of physical activity/exercise; (6) menstrual hygiene education; (7) sexual and reproductive health education; (8) human immunodeficiency virus prevention activities; and (9) condom promotion, condom use skill building, and demonstration. We found limited evidence of consistent positive impact. Iron supplementation reduced iron-deficiency anemia and raised serum ferritin levels. Promotion of physical activity lowered blood pressure and reduced weight gain. Sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus interventions improved adolescent communication with adults but did not influence behavioral outcomes. Countries should consider locally relevant and proven interventions to be offered alongside the HPV vaccine. PMID:25287988

  11. Effect of freezing treatment on colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi; Oue, Yasuhiro; Edamatsu, Hiroki; Konno, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes. PMID:24067450

  12. Effects of water matrix on virus inactivation using common virucidal techniques for condensate urine disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Chu, Xiaona; Hu, Jiangyong

    2015-10-01

    Three common virucidal techniques (chlorine, UV and UV/TiO2) were applied to inactivate virus (MS2 and Phi X174) in condensate water after the evaporation of source-separated urine for reclaimed water. The inactivation efficiencies were compared with the results of previous studies, with the emphasis on the analysis of water matrix effects. Results showed that all virus inactivation in condensate water were lower than the control (in sterilized DI water). As for UV/TiO2 disinfection, both nitrate and ammonia nitrogen could promote slightly viral inactivation, while the inhibition by urea was dominant. Similarly, ammonia nitrogen had greater impacts on chlorine disinfection than urea and nitrate. In contrast, all water matrices (urea, nitrate and ammonia nitrogen) had little influence on UV disinfection. Based on the findings in this study, UV disinfection could be recommended for disinfecting the reclaimed water from the evaporation of source-separated urine. PMID:25966330

  13. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-09-01

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  14. Immunomodulatory and Protective Effects of a Polyherbal Formulation (Immon Against Infectious Anemia Virus Infection in Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to assess the role of a polyherbal immunomodulator with additional elements (Immon against the chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV infection. A total of 60 broiler chicks (day old age were divided into three groups (n= 20 and vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND. The group I chicks were kept as healthy control while group II and III chicks were infected with 1 ml CIAV (104.5 TCID50/0.1 ml per chicken intramuscularly. Group III chicks were supplemented with Immon (1 ml / 10 birds in the drinking water for 21 days. Subsequently, chicks of all three groups were monitored for hematological (Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC and DLC and biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP and uric acid along with ND antibody titers, organ: body weight ratios, and mean live body weight at on 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day of the experiment. At 7 - 24 days of CIAV infection, the group II birds showed a significantly lower count of erythroid and myeloid cells; increase in enzyme activities and uric acid; decline in mean live body weight and organ: body weight ratios of lymphoid organs, and decline in ND antibody titers. However, at these day intervals the CIAV immunosuppression was less severe in Immon supplemented chicks which showed significantly (P<0.05 higher values of all the test parameters as compared to virus control group II chicks. Thus, the present findings support that Immon is an effective immunomodulating agent in CIAV affected birds, reduces pathogenicity of the virus, ameliorate the depressed immune responses and protects the virus induced adverse effects on growth performances.

  15. Effects of intercropping on maize stemborers and their natural enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Päts, Peeter

    1996-01-01

    The effects of maize-cowpea intercropping on three lepidopteran stemborers (Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) C. orichalcociliellus (Strand) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson) and their natural enemies were studied in Kenya. Oviposition was not affected by intercropping, but significantly fewer larvae and...... and wandering spiders, were not augmented by intercropping, but an inverse relationship in abundance was found between these two predator groups. It is concluded that maize intercropped with cowpea has only limited potential as a method of controlling the key pests in maize....

  16. Antitumor effect and biological pathways of a recombinant adeno-associated virus as a human renal cell carcinoma suppressor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie; Ruan, Xiyun; Wang, Shaomei; ZHANG, BIN; Liu, Bo; Sun, Zeqiang; Liu, Qingyong

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work are to study the antitumor effect of the adeno-associated virus on the xenografted tumors of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and predict potential genes and biological pathways which are associated with renal cell carcinoma. The adeno-associated virus NT4-TAT-6?×?His-VHLbeta was constructed and identified. Then, chick embryos with xenografted tumor were divided into three groups and respectively inoculated with rAAV/NT4-TAT-6?×?His-VHLbeta (group A), empty virus (g...

  17. Yield and biological nitrogen fixation of cowpea varieties in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea is an important crop in small properties of the Brazilian semi-arid region, where it is cultivated without fertilizer application. In spite of the fundamental role played by biological Nitrogen fixation (BNF), little is known of the symbiosis between cowpea varieties and native rhizobia or recommended rhizobia strains. A field experiment was conducted aiming to estimate BNF and productivities of local varieties, in association with two previously described bradyrhizobial inoculant strains and native rhizobia (no inoculation). The plants received 20 kg ha?1 of enriched 15N fertilizer to allow the use of the isotopic dilution method. After harvest (80 days) straw and grain biomass was determined. The varieties differed in grain and straw productivity and in N and N derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa). Corujinha had the highest grain productivity (1147 kg ha?1), followed by Sempre Verde (920 kg ha?1), Azul (912 kg ha?1) and Cariri (889 kg ha?1). Costela de Vaca had the highest straw productivity (2258 kg ha?1), highest N content in the straw (28 g ha?1) and highest BNF (79 %Ndfa, corresponding to 45 kg ha?1 of N for total aboveground biomass and 39 kg ha?1 for the straw), but the lowest grain productivity (381 kg ha?1) and the lowest harvest index (0.14). The inoculations did not significantly alter productivities, N contents or %Ndfa but there was a tendency of lower grain productivities in the non-inoculated plants, which was reflected in lower total and biologically fixed N quantities, indicating that the native strains may be slightly less efficient. -- Highlights: ? We estimate N fixation and productivities of local cowpea varieties in Brazil. ? Plants were inoculated or not with two recommended rhizobia strains. ? All local varieties had high proportions of their N derived from the air (%Ndfa). ? They differed in BNF in grain and straw productivity. ? Inoculation did not alter productivities or %Ndfa but decreased fixed N amounts.

  18. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  19. Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Akinrinde

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0 with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genotypic differences in cowpea growth and development might be negatively affected by P limitation, particularly in Al-susceptible genotypes. Root growth responses of two contrasting (Al-resistant and Al-susceptible cowpea genotypes, Epace 10 (E10 and Santo Inacio (SI were studied at 0 and 0 ?M Al. Root elongation was followed over the first 96 h of Al treatment and during the initial 48 hours elongation was determined daily. In addition, exudation of carboxylates in apical root zone and modifications of rhizoplane pH by the two genotypes were compared in hydroponics` culture experiments that involved +/-Al treatments at mild (14 days and severe (21 days phosphorus (P limitation stages. Differential genotypic responses were further evaluated in a rhizobox experiment, using an acidic Aerenosol from West Africa (Niger with low expression of Al toxicity. Strong Al-induced inhibition of root growth occurred at 20 ?M Al without genotypic difference, suggesting the need to further test genotypic differences at lower concentrations. Under P limitation, E10 exhibited a stronger expression (relative to SI of root induced chemical changes (increased rhizoplane pH and citrate exudation in apical root zone to counteract Al toxicity. Therefore, genotypic differences in performance of E10 and SI on acid mineral soils may be associated with different expression of Al tolerance mechanisms, particularly under conditions of limited P supply.

  20. Improvement of pigenonpea and cowpea for drought, disease and insect pest tolerance through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeonpea and cowpea are widely grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of Kenya by small scale farmers. The average yields are usually low due to insect pests, diseases and long growth duration of the local land races. Little success has been achieved through conventional breeding methods for tolerance to insect pests and diseases despite the development of high yielding and early maturing lines. Therefore, mutation induction was initiated to widen the genetic variability in the improved lines. Seeds of three promising pigeonpea cultivars KAT 60/8, KAT 777 and KAT E31/4 and of cowpea KAT 419, K80 and M66 were subjected to three doses of gamma rays; 80, 120 and 150 Gy for pigeonpea and 160, 200 and 250 Gy for cowpea. In M1 generation, doses of 150 Gy and 250 Gy reduced emergence by about 50% and increased seedling deformities in both crops. In M2 generation of KAT 60/8, high yielding mutants with oval shaped seeds (T1 P58) and branching (T3 P28) were identified. Two progenies of KAT 777 (T1 P7 and T1 P11) had small slender leaves. Selected plant progenies in M3, M4 and M5 generation gave some promising high yielding variants. Although, the difference in days to flower and maturity of mutant progenies and untreated bulk were small, some mutant progenies of KAT 777 and KAT 60/8 showed tolerance to Fusarium wilt. None of the progenies of KAT E31/4 gave better score for Cercospora leaf-spot compared to the check. (author). 2 refs, 4 tabs

  1. Evaluation and characterisation of mutant cowpea plants for enhanced abiotic stress tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to use the radiation induced mutations in cowpea to improve cowpea varieties grown by resource-poor farmers in South Africa. The first aim project was to select cowpea plants with improved levels of drought tolerance without alteration to the colour of the testa or the growth form. It was demonstrated that it was possible to examine mutant lines at seedling stage in wooden boxes. Mature plants were screened in rain out shelters and physiological traits for drought stress were identified among the lines tested. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variation observed could be correlated with drought tolerance. The data demonstrated that physiological methods can be used to screen mutants. The yield performance of some mutant lines proved to be outstanding under well watered, as well as under drought stress conditions. The second aim was to further characterise the most promising mutant lines using molecular and physiologically techniques. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed differential gene expression at different time points of drought stress.The sequenced transcript derived fragments (TDF) showed high homology to expressed sequence tags of soybean, with a possible function in cell defence/resistance and most importantly, signal transduction. Reverse transcription PCR using a number of primers from published sequences, as well as from the TDF sequences, validated the differential gene expression obtained from the cDNA-AFLP display. The third aim was to evaluate selected mutants on station and at different communities. On station field trials were conducted at the ARC-VOPI's research farm under dryland as well as irrigation conditions for the last two seasons. The long term plan is to introgress the drought tolerance trait from the best mutant line into drought susceptible South African cultivars grown by resource-poor farmers. (author)

  2. Evaluation and Characterization of Mutant Cowpea Plants for Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to use the radiation-induced mutations in cowpea to improve cowpea varieties grown by resource-poor farmers in South Africa. The first aim of the project was to select mutant cowpea plants with improved levels of drought tolerance without alteration to the color of the testa or the growth form. It was demonstrated that it was possible to examine mutant lines at seedling stage in wooden boxes. Mature plants were screened in rain out shelters and physiological traits for drought stress were identified among the lines tested. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variations observed could be correlated with drought tolerance. The data demonstrated that physiological methods can be used to screen mutants. The yield performance of some mutant lines proved to be outstanding under well-watered, as well as under drought stress conditions. The second aim was to further characterize the most promising mutant lines using molecular and physiological techniques. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed differential gene expression at different time points of drought stress. The sequenced transcript derived fragments (TDF) showed high homology to expressed sequence tags of soybean, with a possible function in cell defense/resistance and most importantly, signal transduction. Reverse transcription PCR using a number of primers from published sequences, as well as from the TDF sequences, validated the differential gene expression obtained from the cDNA-AFLP display. The third aim was to evaluate selected mutants on station and at different communities. On station field trials were conducted at the ARC-VOPI's research farm under dry land as well as irrigation conditions for the last two seasons. The long term plan is to introgress the drought tolerance trait from the best mutant line into drought susceptible South African cultivars grown by resource-poor farmers. (author)

  3. Insecticidal Efficacy of Castor and Hazelnut Oils in Stored Cowpea Against Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Haghtalab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is a primary pest of cowpea and other legumes worldwide, both in fields and in stored seeds. Castor oil at 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 mL kg-1 and Hazelnut at 2.8, 4.4, 6, 7.6 and 9.2 mL kg-1 were tested against C. maculatus in cowpea. All bioassays were conducted at 27±1°C and 65±5% r.h and mortality was counted after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. After the 72 h mortality count, all adults were removed and the vials were left at the same conditions for further 35 days to assess progeny production. The increase of dose and exposure interval increased mortality. After 72 h of exposure, mortality received to 80.83% on Hazelnut oil at high rate (9.2 mL kg-1. Mortality in the case of Castor oil was higher than Hazelnut and received to 86.66% at 9 mL kg-1. The lowest LC50 value on 72 h was observed in the Hazelnut (6.57 mL kg-1. In contrast, the lowest LC95 value on 72 h was observed in the Castor (l0.94 mL kg-1. Complete suppression in progeny production was achieved on cowpea treated with Castor oil at 9 mL kg-1 but in the all case, the percentage of reduced progeny received up to 90%. In conclusion, treatment of grain with vegetable oil could have important practical implications for parts of the world where pesticides are expensive or in short supply.

  4. Early defence responses of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) induced by non-pathogenic rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, W; Haug, M; Deising, H; Mendgen, K

    1991-09-01

    In cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) leaves the pathogenic rust fungus Uromyces vignae and the non-pathogens U. appendiculatus and U. viciae-fabae developed similarly to give rise to more than 80% haustorial mother cells. Whereas U. vignae was able to sporulate, the non-pathogens were stopped either after formation of some haustoria (U. appendiculatus) or immediately after formation of haustorial mother cells (U. viciae-fabae). Approximately 30% of the cells in contact with haustorial mother cells of the two non-pathogens showed autofluorescence and deposition of phloroglucinol/HCl-positive material. The early defence reactions of V. sinensis include induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and extracellular peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity as early as 10 h and 24 h after inoculation, respectively. Probing Western blots with heterologous monospecific anti-PAL serum showed that pathogenesis-induced increases in enzyme activity are the result of de novo synthesis. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the specific induction of two extracellular acidic POD forms in cowpea inoculated with the non-pathogens. Both PAL and apoplasmic POD activities were highest in U. viciae-fabae-, intermediate in U. appendiculatus- and low in U. vignae-inoculated or talcum-treated control plants. The timing of increasing PAL and extracellular POD activities in relation to deposition of lignin or lignin-like material in mesophyll cell walls indicates the involvement of lignification in the early defence of V. sinensis against biotrophic fungal parasites. Analysis of the substrate specificity of the inducible POD forms, separated and partially purified by chromatofocusing, showed that apoplasmic PODs preferentially oxidize the naturally occurring substrate coniferyl alcohol. These results support the assumption that POD-mediated lignification is involved in the expression of non-host resistance of cowpea to rust fungi. PMID:24186348

  5. Evaluation of the effects of acyclovir and/or human amniotic membrane on herpes virus culture and quantitative virus inactivity by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Aylin Kantarci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the permeability of amniotic membrane in herpes virus cell culture to acyclovir with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.METHODS: Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK cell culture and Bovine Herpes Virus (BHV1 type 1 were used in the study. Cell cultures were grouped into two on the basis of herpes virus inoculation. Each group was sub-grouped into three. Amniotic membrane (V-HAM, acyclovir (V-A, and amniotic membrane and acyclovir (V-HAM-A were applied to these subgroup cultures, respectively. After the application of the membrane and the drug, the cultures were evaluated at 24 and 48h for cytopathic effect positive (CPE+ with a tissue culture microscope. In the CPE (+ samples, the DNA was extracted for viral DNA analysis by RT-PCR.RESULTS: In control cultures without herpes virus CPE was not detected. Besides, amniotic membrane and acyclovir did not have cytotoxic effect on cell cultures. CPE were detected in Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 inoculated cell cultures after amniotic membrane and/or acyclovir application. DNA analysis with RT-PCR indicated that Cycle threshold (Ct values were lower in the BHV1 and membrane applied group (amniotic membrane group< acyclovir group< membrane and acyclovir group. This showed that membrane did not have antiviral effect. The membrane and acyclovir cell culture groups with high Ct values indicated that membrane was permeable and had a low barrier effect to drug,CONCLUSION: In our in-vitro study, we found that amniotic membrane, which can be used in the treatment of corneal diseases, did not have antiviral effect. Besides, we detected that amniotic membrane was permeable to acyclovir in BHV-1 inoculated MDBK cell culture. However, more studies are necessary to investigate the quantitative effects of amniotic membrane and acyclovir.

  6. Viruses and the Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Christopher M; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Every surface of the human body is colonized by a diverse microbial community called the microbiota, yet the impact of microbiota on viruses is unclear. Recent research has advanced our understanding of how microbiota influence viral infection. Microbiota inhibit infection of some viruses and promote infection of other viruses. These effects can occur through direct and/or indirect effects on the host and/or virus. This review examines the known effects and mechanisms by which the microbiota ...

  7. Significant increase in titer of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus when present in combination with Raspberry leaf mottle virus and its effect on raspberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit is a virus-induced disease widespread in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, the identification of two new viruses: Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV) and Raspberry latent virus (RpL...

  8. Controlled encapsulation of multiple proteins in virus capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minten, Inge J; Hendriks, Linda J A; Nolte, Roeland J M; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2009-12-16

    Multiple proteins can be bound within the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid shell in an efficient and controlled manner by using heterodimeric coiled-coil peptide oligomers. Through genetic modification, these oligomers can be attached to the capsid protein and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). In this way, the capsid proteins can be noncovalently bound to EGFP prior to the induction of the capsid assembly. Up to 15 EGFP proteins can be encapsulated per capsid in a controlled and efficient manner. PMID:19995072

  9. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araujo; Wanderley José de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr), which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS). Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m) and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm) at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0,...

  10. Response of Cowpea Breeding Lines and Cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, T L; Moreflock, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four cowpea breeding lines and four cultivars were tested for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Gall and egg mass ratings indicated a range of responses from susceptible to highly resistant. Five breeding lines - VS84-2, VS84-8, VS84-12, VS84-14, and VS84-22 - and the cultivar Erectset had gall and egg mass ratings comparable to the M. incognita-resistant cultivar Mississippi Silver. All of these were also resistant to M. arenaria. Significantly fewer M. incognita ...

  11. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  12. Physiological Characteristics of Cowpea Rhizobia: Evaluation of Symbiotic Efficiency in Vigna unguiculata†

    OpenAIRE

    Zablotowicz, R. M.; Focht, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    One fast-growing and three slow-growing strains of Rhizobium (isolated from cowpeas) were evaluated for symbiotic performance on Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cultivar California no. 5 blackeyes. Plants inoculated with slow-growing strains 176A22, 176A30, and 176A32 developed a maximum acetylene reduction activity of 24.6, 27.0, and 32 ?mol of ethylene formed per plant per h, respectively, versus 6.4 ?mol per plant per h in plants inoculated with the fast-growing strain 176A28. When inoculated...

  13. Invalidity of the Concept of Slow Growth and Alkali Production in Cowpea Rhizobia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Blanca S.; Focht, Dennis D.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 103 rhizobial strains representing the cowpea miscellany and Rhizobium japonicum were studied with regard to growth rate, glucose metabolic pathways, and pH change in culture medium. Doubling times ranged from 1.4 ± 0.04 to 44.1 ± 5.2 h; although two populations of “fast-growing” and “slow-growing” rhizobia were noted, they overlapped and were not distinctly separated. Twenty-four strains which had doubling times of less than 8 h all showed NADP-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogen...

  14. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) seed coat phaseolin is detrimental to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes R.A.; Sales M.P.; Pinto M.S.P.; Silva L.B.; Oliveira A.E.A.; Machado O.L.T.; Fernandes K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho J.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of phaseolin (a vicilin-like 7S storage globulin) peptides in the seed coat of the legume Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean) was demonstrated by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Utilizing an artificial seed system assay we showed that phaseolin, isolated from both cotyledon and testa tissues of P. lunatus, is detrimental to the nonhost bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (cowpea weevil) with ED50 of 1.7 and 3.5%, respectively. The level of phaseolin in the seed coat (16.7%) was f...

  15. Effector pathway of the antiviral effect of interferons in Hepatitis B Virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Having been used in hepatitis B therapy for more than 20 years, interferon-alpha (IFN-?) is still the only medication that may lead to virus clearance. Although the effect of IFN-? has been widely studied, its definite mode of action is still unclear. In the first part of the thesis, I investigated antiviral effect of murine IFN-? on HBV. mIFN-? restricts HBV replication at the level of HBV-RNA transcription and translation in vitro and in vivo. Different mIFN-? subtypes varied largely in ...

  16. Inhibitory effect of essential oils obtained from plants grown in Colombia on yellow fever virus replication in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Jairo R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An antiviral drug is needed for the treatment of patients suffering from yellow fever. Several compounds present in plants can inactive in vitro a wide spectrum of animal viruses. Aim In the present study the inhibitory effect of essential oils of Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Oreganum vulgare and Artemisia vulgaris on yellow fever virus (YFV replication was investigated. Methods The cytotoxicity (CC50 on Vero cells was evaluated by the MTT reduction method. The minimum concentration of the essential oil that inhibited virus titer by more than 50% (MIC was determined by virus yield reduction assay. YFV was incubated 24 h at 4°C with essential oil before adsorption on Vero cell, and viral replication was carried out in the absence or presence of essential oil. Vero cells were exposed to essential oil 24 h at 37°C before the adsorption of untreated-virus. Results The CC50 values were less than 100 ?g/mL and the MIC values were 3.7 and 11.1 ?g/mL. The CC50/MIC ratio was of 22.9, 26.4, 26.5 and 8.8 for L. alba, L origanoides, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris, respectively. The presence of essential oil in the culture medium enhances the antiviral effect: L. origanoides oil at 11.1 ?g/mLproduced a 100% reduction of virus yield, and the same result was observed with L. alba, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris oils at100 ?g/mL. No reduction of virus yield was observed when Vero cells were treated with essential oil before the adsorption of untreated-virus. Conclusion The essential oils evaluated in the study showed antiviral activities against YFV. The mode of action seems to be direct virus inactivation.

  17. Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 expression on influenza A virus infection kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Amber M [UNIV OF UTAH; Adler, Frederick R [UNIV OF UTAH; Mcauley, Julie L [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH; Mccullers, Jonathan A [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the viral factors contributing to the lethality of the 1918 pandemic, although its unparalleled virulence was likely due in part to the newly discovered PB1-F2 protein. This protein, while unnecessary for replication, increases apoptosis in monocytes, alters viral polymerase activity in vitro, and produces enhanced inflammation and increased secondary pneumonia in vivo. However, the effects the PB1-F2 protein have in vivo remain unclear. To address the mechanisms involved, we intranasally infected groups of mice with either influenza A virus PR8 or a genetically engineered virus that expresses the 1918 PB1-F2 protein on a PR8 background, PR8-PB1-F2(1918). Mice inoculated with PR8 had viral concentrations peaking at 72 hours, while those infected with PR8-PB1-F2(1918) reached peak concentrations earlier, 48 hours. Mice given PR8-PB1-F2(1918) also showed a faster decline in viral loads. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate parameter values and select the best model. This model supports a lower viral clearance rate and higher infected cell death rate with the PR8-PB1-F2(1918) virus, although the viral production rate may also be higher. We hypothesize that the higher PR8-PB1-F2(1918) viral titers early in an infection are due to both an increase in viral production with decreased viral clearance, and that the faster decline in the later stages of infection result from elevated cell death rates. We discuss the implications these mechanisms have during an infection with a virus expressing a virulent PBI-F2 on the possibility of a pandemic and on the importance of antiviral treatments.

  18. Effective Thermophilic Composting of Crop Residues for Inactivation of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective thermophilic composting bioreactor, in which a homogenous distribution of temperature was maintained at