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Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

2008-01-01

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Effect of Cowpea Seeds Contamination Rate by the Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus on Epidemics Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CABMV) diseased seeds provide at seedling, virus infected plants which are the only source of primary inoculum. Secondary infections are bequeathed by aphids. The objective of this research is to study the development of the secondary infection in field. Therefore, eight cowpea varieties with different seed contamination rate (0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5%) were used over consecutive four years. The infected plants were recorded every week from the tenth day after sowing and over seven weeks. In the same way, aphids` population were evaluated in plots 30 days after sowing. There was no difference for the incidence rate between the average of plots sown with virus free-seeds and those sown with infected seeds with a rate of 0, 5%. In any case, the disease progressed lowly leading to incidences less than 50% at the post-flowering period in spite of a relatively high initial contamination rate of seed. For this group of varieties, the low progression of the disease indicated a high level of resistance to the infection. The high levels of infection especially observed with the varieties with high level of virus transmission to seed, translated the need to reduce aphids` population density notably by the use of insecticides during cowpea growing cycle. The high number of aphids and inoculum availability in the neighbouring plots were undoubtedly at the source of this result. This situation laid out the problematic of the use of seeds then little or not contaminated by the virus.

B.J. Neya; J. Zabre; R.J. Millogo; S. Ginko; G. Konate

2007-01-01

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Cowpea viruses: effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI) and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm) of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP) apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.

Taiwo MA; Kareem KT; Nsa IY; D'A Hughes J

2007-01-01

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Cowpea viruses: effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI) and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm) of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP) apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control. PMID:17900355

Taiwo, Moni A; Kareem, Kehinde T; Nsa, Imade Y; D'A Hughes, Jackies

2007-09-27

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Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI) and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm) of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP) apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.

Taiwo Moni A; Kareem Kehinde T; Nsa Imade Y; D'A Hughes Jackies

2007-01-01

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Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inoculating three cowpea cultivars: "OLO II", "OLOYIN" and IT86D-719 with three unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars at 10 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Generally, the growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were significantly higher than those of the virus inoculated plants. Inoculation of plants at an early age of 10 DAP resulted in more severe effect than inoculations at a later stage of 30 DAP. The average values of plant height and number of leaves produced by plants inoculated 30 DAP were higher than those produced by plants inoculated 10 DAP. Most of the plants inoculated 10 DAP died and did not produce seeds. However, " OLOYIN" cultivar was most tolerant and produced reasonable yields when infected 30 DAP. The effect of single viruses on growth and yield of cultivars showed that CABMV caused more severe effects in IT86D-719, SBMV had the greatest effect on "OLO II" while CMeV induced the greatest effect on "OLOYIN". Yield was greatly reduced in double infections involving CABMV in combination with either CMeV or SBMV in "OLOYIN" and "OLO II", however, there was complete loss in yield of IT86D-719. Triple infection led to complete yield loss in all the three cultivars.

Kareem KT; Taiwo MA

2007-01-01

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Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

1980-01-01

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Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor.

Robson Marcelo Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de Novaes; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2010-01-01

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Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indu? (more) ?ão de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechani (more) cally with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.

Di Piero, Robson Marcelo; Novaes, Quelmo Silva de; Pascholati, Sérgio Florentino

2010-04-01

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Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus/ Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV). Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples p (more) elo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento. Abstract in english Many factors can affect the yield of cowpea, especially viruses. The main species of viruses infecting cowpea in Brazil are Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV). This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of cowpea genotypes for resistance to CMV in single or in co-infections (CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I and CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I), which was accomplished in two steps. Firstly, (more) 57 genotypes were evaluated in four evaluations: three in aphid proof cages with infection under controlled conditions, and one in field-grown plants under natural infection. To perform the second step, we selected 18 genotypes to be conducted in nine trials, with eight under aphid proof cages control infection, and one under natural infection. The qualitative and quantitative effects resulting from infections were evaluated. In the field trial, we assessed the number of asymptomatic plants, pod length, number of grains per pod, 100-grain mass and yield. Mixed infections reduced the plant height and dry weight, and premature death of some genotypes was observed in infections involving the three viruses. The genotypes BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 and Patativa showed the best behavior in relation to the mixed viral infections, presenting seeds with appropriate commercial standard and with potential for using in breeding programs.

Oliveira, Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro da Rocha; Barros, Gislanne Brito; Eiras, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Valdenir Queiroz; Lopes, Ângela Celis de Almeida

2012-01-01

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Seedborne viruses in preintroduction cowpea seed lots and establishment of virus-free accessions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seeds from 60 cowpea preintroductions from Botswana, India, and Kenya were increased at the University of California Riverside. Second generation seed were planted in insect-free greenhouses at two locations and resulting seedlings were assayed by direct antigen coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) for the presence of eight seedborne viruses. By visual selection and DAC-ELISA, 10 virus-free mother plants for each of the 60 accessions were established. The seedlots from these mother plants were subsequently planted in isolation plots at St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Seedlings from the St. Croix seed increase were observed and tested by DAC-ELISA and were found to have remained free from viruses during this field exposure. One or more of the following viruses were detected in 40 of the 60 preintroductions: 32 containing cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (possibly blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus in some cases); 23 with cowpea severe mosaic comovirus; 22 with southern bean mosaic sobemovirus; seven with cucumber mosaic cucumovirus; and seven with cowpea mottle carmovirus. None were found to contain ELISA-detectable cowpea mosaic comovirus or cowpea mild mottle carlavirus. Twenty preintroductions were free of ELISA-detectable seedborne viruses. Virus-free experimental seed lots were produced for limited use by interested cowpea breeders.

Gillaspie AGJr; Hopkins MS; Pinnow DL; Hampton RO

1995-04-01

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Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus/ Obtaining cowpea plants resistant to Cowpea severe mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos (more) de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste ?² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas. Abstract in english Among the viruses that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) are highlighted for their severity and widespread occurrence, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate cowpea plants showing resistance to CPSMV and CABMV in order to develop new and essentially derived cultivars. Eight crosses were performed, followed by backcrosses, using the line TE 97-309G-9 (more) and the cultivar Patativa as resistant parental donors, and the cultivars BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba and Pretinho as susceptible parents. Generations F2 and F2RC1 were challenged for resistance by mechanically inoculating CPSMV and CABMV isolates. In F2RC1 generations, besides resistance, other traits were evaluated: number of days to the beginning of flowering, pod length, number of seeds.pod-1, weight of 100 seeds, and yield of seeds.plant-1. All F2 and F2RC1 individuals were analyzed by the ?² test and fit to the expected frequency of 15 susceptible plants: 1 plant resistant to both viruses. The means of resistant F2RC1 plants, from each backcross, were compared with the mean of their respective recurrent parent by the t-test and means of backcrosses were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic variability among backcrosses was detected for all traits. All backcrosses were considered promising for obtaining essentially derived cultivars resistant to CPSMV and CABMV, and the selected plants have characteristics that allow the selection of lines with highly productive grains of good commercial quality.

Barros, Gislanne Brito; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro da Rocha; Oliveira, Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Valdenir Queiroz; Veiga, Carlos Frederico de Menezes; Brioso, Paulo Sérgio Torres; Eiras, Marcelo

2013-06-01

13

Redox-active ferrocene-modified Cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A naturally occurring nanoparticle, the plant virus Cowpea mosaic virus, can be decorated with ferrocene derivatives, of various linker lengths with amine and carboxylate groups, on the external surface using a range of conjugation strategies. The multiple, organometallic, redox-active ferrocene moieties on the outer surface of the virus are electrochemically independent with reduction potentials that span a potential window of 0.16 V that are dependent on the site of modification and the nature of the ferrocene derivative. The number of ferrocenes coupled to each virus ranges from about 100 to 240 depending upon the conjugation site and the linker length and these redox active units can provide multielectron reservoirs.

Aljabali AA; Barclay JE; Butt JN; Lomonossoff GP; Evans DJ

2010-08-01

14

Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

15

Genes diferentes podem conferir resistência ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus em caupi/ Different genes can confer resistance to Cowpea severe mosaic virus in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma importante leguminosa cultivada principlamente por pequenos agricultores da região Nordeste. Doenças ocasionadas por vírus podem constituir o principal fator limitante da produção do caupi, destacando-se, nesse aspecto, o mosaico severo, causado pelo Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV), família Comoviridae, gênero Comovirus. A resistência tem sido considerada como a melhor alternativa no controle dessa virose e diversas fontes pro (more) missoras têm sido relatadas, como as cultivares Macaibo e CNC 0434, e a linhagem L254.008. As investigações sobre a base genética da resistência ao CpSMV nesses materiais têm conduzido a resultados semelhantes, sendo a resistência herdada como uma característica monogênica recessiva. No entanto, até então, nenhum trabalho havia investigado o alelismo dos genes de resistência dessas fontes. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos visando esclarecer essa questão nas três fontes de resistência; 'Macaibo', 'CNC0434' e L254.008. Plantas dos referidos genótipos foram cruzadas de maneira direta e recíproca originando seis populações F1 e F2. Inoculações controladas dessas populações com o isolado CpSMV-Re1 permitiram concluir que o gene de resistência de 'Macaibo' é o mesmo de 'CNC-0434', distinto daquele encontrado na linhagem L254.008. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in Northeast Brazil and has been traditionally cultivated by small farmers. Virus diseases are considered to be the main factor in yield limiting cowpea yield in the region. The severe mosaic disease caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CpSMV), family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, seems to be one of the most prevalent diseases responsible for high losses. Resistant cultivars may be considered the best alternative (more) for disease control, and several promising sources of resistance such as Macaibo, CNC 0434 cultivars, and the line L 254.008 have been reported. More recent investigations into the genetic basis of these resistant plant genotypes have pointed to similar results, and the inheritance of this resistance has been recognized as monogenic recessive. On the other hand, any research aimed to investigate if the resistance genes are alleles or not. In the present investigation a test was conducted to elucidate this question. Plants of the genotypes Macaibo, CNC 0434 and L 254.008 were bred in reciprocal and direct ways producing six populations. Evaluation of those cowpea genotypes using one isolate of CpSMV indicated that the resistance gene of Macaibo is the same as that for CNC 0434 and distinct from the gene L 254.008 found in that line.

Assunção, Iraildes P.; M.-Filho, Liliane R.; Resende, Luciane V.; Barros, Márcia C. S.; Lima, Gaus S. A.; Coelho, Rildo Sartori B.; Lima, J. Albérsio A.

2005-06-01

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EFFECT OF EFFLUENT WATER ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF COWPEA APHID, APHIS CRACCIVORA KOCH (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE), ON COWPEA PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) is an important legume grown in Botswana and the main yield losses incurred are from cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch). Agriculture in Botswana is hampered by limitation in water resources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of effluent water on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth. This was randomized completely block design pot experiment conducted under net shade environment. Four treatments of 100%, 60%, 30% of effluent dilution and the control being clean tap water were used. This study revealed that the presence of N and K in the effluent water did not affect the population growth of aphids on cowpea plants. There was no significant difference among the effluent water treatments and the clean tap water. Therefore, effluent water in this study did not show any effect on cowpea aphid reproduction and population growth.

TIROESELE B.; NKETSO T.H.; TSHWENYANE S.O.

2013-01-01

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Two new serotypes of cowpea severe mosaic virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two cowpea severe mosaic virus isolates, V-1 and one from bean, were identified as new serotypes III and IV, respectively. Serotype III differed from the other serotypes by infecting Nicotiana tabacum ' TNN.' Serotype IV was unable to infect Chenopodium amaranticolor, a known diagnostic host for this virus. Two beetle species, Cerotoma arcuata and Diabrotica speciosa, transmitted serotype IV from beans to beans. Cytological alterations induced in plants infected by these four serotypes were similar, except the fibrous inclusions appeared to be induced less frequently by serotypes III and IV than by the other two. Two major proteins with apparent molecular weights of 40,300- 41,800 daltons (d) and 20,100- 21,400 d were detected in the middle components of the four serotypes. A minor protein of about 22,400- 23,300 d was detected in serotypes I, III, and IV, but not in serotype II. Serological analysis showed that cross reactivity among the four serotypes was due to the common antigenic determinant A. Serotypes I, III, and IV share an additional common determinant designated as B. Serotypes I and IV also have the common determinant designated C. Each serotype also has a specific antigenic determinant D, E, F, and G for serotypes I, II, III, and IV, respectively, which contribute to their serological distinction.

Lin MT; Hill JH; Kitajima EW; Costa CL

1984-05-01

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Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV)/ Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa) e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada). As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua forma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua (more) forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88) do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas. Abstract in english SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa) and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved). The capsid proteins, in their native form, were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were used for subcutaneous immuni (more) zation. The mucosal immune response was detected by the cellular proliferation of the Peyer's patches of mice immunized by oral route with CPSMV. It was demonstrated that CPSMV induces immune response, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies, when administered in the native form by the oral and nasal routes or with two denatured capsid proteins by the subcutaneous route. The use of adjuvants in the oral and nasal immunizations was not necessary. The 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were responsible for the immunogenicity of the virus, evidenced by the synthesis of specific antibodies detected by ELISA test. The cellular proliferation analysis of the Peyer's patches revealed an increase (r=0.88) of leucocytes along 42 days after immunization. The results reinforce the possibility of the use of CPSMV as a safe vector of antigens for human/animal diseases of low immunogenicity for the production of vaccines.

Beserra Júnior, José Evando Aguiar; Marques, Márcia Maria Mendes; Barguil, Beatriz Meireles; Lopes Junior, Carlos Alberto Furtado; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo

2009-02-01

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Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years/ Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) é uma cultura do sistema tradicional do Nordeste do Brasil, que pode ser infetada por mais de 20 espécies de vírus, sendo o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CPSMV) um dos mais importantes patógenos que infeta naturalmente essa leguminosa no Brasil. Vários isolados do CPSMV foram obtidos e caracterizados no Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC: CPSMV-CE - o primeiro isolado do vírus obtido no Cear? (more) ?; isolados obtidos de feijão-caupi: CPSMV-AL (Alagoas) and CPSMV-PE (Pernambuco); CPSMV-PR - isolado de soja (Glycine max) no Paraná e CPSMV-CROT - isolado de Crotalaria paulinea no Maranhão. Um isolado de CPSMV capaz de infetar o cv. Macaibo, cultivar de ffeijão-caupi imune a todos os demais isolados de CPSMV foi biológica e sorologicamente caracterizado e designado de CPSMV-MC. O CPSMV-MC obtido em janeiro de 1990 vem sendo avaliado através de estudos de gama de hospedeiro e mantido in vivo através de inoculações periódicas em feijão-caupi. Os resultados dessas avaliações revelaram que a integridade biológica e as propriedades sorológicas do CPSMV-MC foram preservadas ao longo dos anos, indicando que a preservação das propriedades genéticas de uma estirpe viral pode acontecer através dos anos. Estudos moleculares adicionais revelaram que a seqüência de nucleotídeos correspondente a parte do gene da capa protéica de cinco isolados de CPSMV, incluindo o CPSMV-MC, possui elevado grau de conservação, com 92-100% da seqüência de nucleotídeos idêntica entre os isolados. Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cow (more) pea in the State of Ceará; CPSMV-AL - isolated from cowpea in Alagoas; CPSMV-PE - isolated from cowpea in Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - obtained from soybean (Glycine max) in Paraná and CPSMV-CROT - isolated from Crotalaria paulinea, in Maranhão. An isolate of CPSMV with the property to infect the cv. Macaibo, a cowpea cultivar immune to most of CPSMV isolates was also biologically and serologically characterized as a new strain of the virus (CPSMV-MC). The CPSMV-MC was isolated in January 1990 and has been evaluated over 20 years by host range studies and maintenance in vivo by periodical mechanical inoculations in cowpea. The results of this periodical evaluation revealed that the biological integrity and the serological properties of CPSMV-MC were preserved over 20 years, indicating that the genetic preservation of a virus strain could occur over the years. Molecular studies involving part of the coat protein (CP) gene of CPSMV-MC and five other Brazilian CPSMV isolates indicated a high degree of conservation, with 92-100% nucleotide sequence identity among the isolates.

Lima, José Albersio Araujo; Nascimento, Aline Kelly Queiroz do; Silva, Ana Kelly Firmino da; Aragão, Maria do Livramento

2012-03-01

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The effect of cropping history and the role of cowpea debris in the epidemiology of cowpea scab.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) debris as a primary source of inoculum for Sphaceloma sp., the pathogen of cowpea scab, was studied in field experiments. Three fields were selected in 1993 and three in 1994, in which cowpea had been grown 1, 2 or 3 years previously as part of a crop rotation. Polyethylene mulch was spread over the soil to prevent soil/debris splash in half of the plots. No scab symptoms were observed on the primary leaves. It took an average of 25 days for primary symptoms to be observed in each field, irrespective of mulching. Mulching had a significant effect on disease severity only in the two sites where cowpeas were last grown a year before the trial (sites 1a and 1b). In both years, interaction between time (days after sowing) and site (fields in which cowpea had been grown 1–3 years earlier) had a significant effect on disease incidence while in 1994, interaction between time, site and mulching was also significant (P < 0.05). Higher disease incidence was observed in 1994 than in 1993. In all fields, there were increases in disease incidence over time. Rain splashing may have contributed to higher disease incidence in plots without mulch. The presence of scab in the mulched plots in fields last sown to cowpea 3 years before the trial suggests that the pathogen may survive on infected cowpea debris, which acts as one of the sources of primary inoculum. Hence longer periods of crop rotation with nonhosts may be required to control the disease.

Mungo CM; Emerchebe AM; Emechebe AM; Florini DA

1998-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Biological and molecular diagnosis of seedborne viruses in cowpea germplasm of geographically diverse sub-Saharan origins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 983 cowpea accessions obtained from the University of California, Riverside (UCR) Cowpea Repository were analysed for seedborne viruses. A majority of the accessions originated from 11 countries representing different agroclimatic zones in sub-Saharan Africa, and included landraces, local cultivars and breeding lines. Following the initial grow-out tests, 69 cowpea accessions, mostly with symptoms of virus infection, were selected for further evaluation using a combination of host range, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analyses. The analyses revealed that samples from 46 (67%) accessions harboured one or more known seedborne viruses of cowpea. These included seed samples of accessions originating from Botswana (13 accessions), Ghana (6), Nigeria (6), Mali (1), Kenya (5), Cameroon (7), Niger (4), Côte d'lvoire (1), Benin (1), India (1) and China (1). Viruses were identified by RT-PCR analysis of total RNAs extracted from suspected virus-infected samples using virus species-specific primers, as well as the cloning and sequencing of RT-PCR products amplified using virus genus- and family-specific degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The viruses identified included Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV). Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced coat protein (CP) amino acid sequences of selected CMV isolates recovered from five agroclimatically distinct locations confirmed their affiliations as new members of CMV subgroup IB. This is the first time that seedborne viruses of cowpea accessions in a major collection (UCR) have been identified using RT-PCR and sequencing approaches.

Salem NM; Ehlers JD; Roberts PA; Ng JCK

2010-08-01

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Inheritance and molecular mapping of an allele providing resistance to Cowpea mild mottle virus-like symptoms in soybean  

Science.gov (United States)

Damage to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from Cowpea mild mottle virus-like (CPMMV-L) symptoms (family: Betaflexiviridae, genus: Carlavirus) has been of increasing concern in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Soybean cultivars and lines differing in their reaction to the virus have been ...

23

Transmissão do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feijão e soja/ Transmission of the Cowpea mild mottle virus by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B for plants of beans and soy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A necrose da haste da soja é causada por um vírus do gênero Carlavirus transmitido pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci, também infectante de feijão e identificado como Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV). Neste trabalho foram realizados testes para determinação do número de moscas-brancas B. tabaci biótipo B necessários para transmissão do vírus em feijoeiro e soja. Na sequência foram realizados dois outros testes, com 10 insetos por planta. Avaliaram-se períodos (more) de acesso à aquisição (PAA) de 'Jalo' para 'Jalo', e o efeito de períodos de acesso à inoculação (PAI). Foram visualmente constatados sintomas típicos do carlavírus como mosaico, clareamento de nervuras, necrose sistêmica e redução de crescimento. Houve transmissão do vírus para 'BT-2' de feijão e 'BRS-132' de soja com apenas um inseto por planta, sendo mais eficaz nesta última espécie. A taxa de transmissão do vírus foi maior com o aumento do número de insetos por planta. E o PAA foi determinado após 15' de tempo para aquisição, e o PAI com 5 min e aumentando os períodos de acesso a aquisição e inoculação aumentou-se a taxa de transmissão. Abstract in english The stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the Carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV). In this work biotype B for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys B. tabaci. In the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. Periods of access to the acquisi (more) tion (PAA) of 'Jalo' for 'Jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (PAI) had been evaluated increase. Visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. It had transmission of the virus for 'BT-2' of beans and 'BRS-132' of soy with only one insect for plant, being more efficient in this last species. The tax of transmission of the virus was bigger with the increase of the number of insects for plant. The PAA was after determined 15 min of time for acquisition, and the increase with 5 min and increasing the period of access the acquisition and inoculation increased it transmission tax.

Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Wutke, Elaine Bahia

2010-06-01

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Transmissão do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feijão e soja Transmission of the Cowpea mild mottle virus by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B for plants of beans and soy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A necrose da haste da soja é causada por um vírus do gênero Carlavirus transmitido pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci, também infectante de feijão e identificado como Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV). Neste trabalho foram realizados testes para determinação do número de moscas-brancas B. tabaci biótipo B necessários para transmissão do vírus em feijoeiro e soja. Na sequência foram realizados dois outros testes, com 10 insetos por planta. Avaliaram-se períodos de acesso à aquisição (PAA) de 'Jalo' para 'Jalo', e o efeito de períodos de acesso à inoculação (PAI). Foram visualmente constatados sintomas típicos do carlavírus como mosaico, clareamento de nervuras, necrose sistêmica e redução de crescimento. Houve transmissão do vírus para 'BT-2' de feijão e 'BRS-132' de soja com apenas um inseto por planta, sendo mais eficaz nesta última espécie. A taxa de transmissão do vírus foi maior com o aumento do número de insetos por planta. E o PAA foi determinado após 15' de tempo para aquisição, e o PAI com 5 min e aumentando os períodos de acesso a aquisição e inoculação aumentou-se a taxa de transmissão.The stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the Carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV). In this work biotype B for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys B. tabaci. In the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. Periods of access to the acquisition (PAA) of 'Jalo' for 'Jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (PAI) had been evaluated increase. Visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. It had transmission of the virus for 'BT-2' of beans and 'BRS-132' of soy with only one insect for plant, being more efficient in this last species. The tax of transmission of the virus was bigger with the increase of the number of insects for plant. The PAA was after determined 15 min of time for acquisition, and the increase with 5 min and increasing the period of access the acquisition and inoculation increased it transmission tax.

Julio Massaharu Marubayashi; Valdir Atsushi Yuki; Elaine Bahia Wutke

2010-01-01

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Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

1998-01-01

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Folic acid-mediated targeting of cowpea mosaic virus particles to tumor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a well-characterized nanoparticle that has been used for a variety of nanobiotechnology applications. CPMV interacts with several mammalian cell lines and tissues in vivo. To overcome natural CPMV targeting and redirect CPMV particles to cells of interest, we attached a folic acid-PEG conjugate by using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. PEGylation of CPMV completely eliminated background binding of the virus to tumor cells. The PEG-folate moiety allowed CPMV-specific recognition of tumor cells bearing the folate receptor. In addition, by testing CPMV formulations with different amounts of the PEG-FA moiety displayed on the surface, we show that higher-density loading of targeting ligands on CPMV may not be necessary for efficient targeting to tumor cells. These studies help to define the requirements for efficiently targeting nanoparticles and protein cages to tumors. PMID:17961827

Destito, Giuseppe; Yeh, Robert; Rae, Chris S; Finn, M G; Manchester, Marianne

2007-10-01

27

Folic acid-mediated targeting of cowpea mosaic virus particles to tumor cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a well-characterized nanoparticle that has been used for a variety of nanobiotechnology applications. CPMV interacts with several mammalian cell lines and tissues in vivo. To overcome natural CPMV targeting and redirect CPMV particles to cells of interest, we attached a folic acid-PEG conjugate by using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. PEGylation of CPMV completely eliminated background binding of the virus to tumor cells. The PEG-folate moiety allowed CPMV-specific recognition of tumor cells bearing the folate receptor. In addition, by testing CPMV formulations with different amounts of the PEG-FA moiety displayed on the surface, we show that higher-density loading of targeting ligands on CPMV may not be necessary for efficient targeting to tumor cells. These studies help to define the requirements for efficiently targeting nanoparticles and protein cages to tumors.

Destito G; Yeh R; Rae CS; Finn MG; Manchester M

2007-10-01

28

Possible Host Adaptation as an Evolution Factor of Cowpea aphid?borne mosaic virus Deduced by Coat Protein Gene Analysis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cowpea aphid?borne mosaic virus (CABMV) causes major diseases in cowpea and passion flower plants in Brazil and also in other countries. CABMV has also been isolated from leguminous species including, Cassia hoffmannseggii, Canavalia rosea, Crotalaria juncea and Arachis hypogaea in Brazil. The virus seems to be adapted to two distinct families, the Passifloraceae and Fabaceae. Aiming to identify CABMV and elucidate a possible host adaptation of this virus species, isolates from cowpea, passion flower and C. hoffmannseggii collected in the states of Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte were analysed by sequencing the complete coat protein genes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the obtained sequences and those available in public databases. Major Brazilian isolates from passion flower, independently of the geographical distances among them, were grouped in three different clusters. The possible host adaptation was also observed in fabaceous?infecting CABMV Brazilian isolates. These host adaptations possibly occurred independently within Brazil, so all these clusters belong to a bigger Brazilian cluster. Nevertheless, African passion flower or cowpea?infecting isolates formed totally different clusters. These results showed that host adaptation could be one factor for CABMV evolution, although geographical isolation is a stronger factor.

Nicolini C; Rabelo Filho FAC; Resende RO; Andrade GP; Kitajima EW; Pio?Ribeiro G; Nagata T

2012-02-01

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NEW METHOD FOR SCREENING COWPEA GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV)  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Germplasm line, GC-86L-98, a greenhouse screening method was developed to find potential sources of CMV resistance in the USDA cowpea germplasm collection. GC-86L-98, the first CMV-resistant cowpea germplasm line, was released by ARS in August 2001. A...

30

Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 A. The structures and sequences of three Carmoviruses, CPMoV, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) have been compared to TBSV from the Tombusvirus genus. CPMoV, TCV, and CarMV all have a deletion in ?C strand in the S domain relative to TBSV that may be distinctive to the genus. Although CPMoV has an elongated C-terminus like TBSV, it does not interact with the icosahedrally related P domain as observed in TBSV. In CPMoV, the termini of A and B interact with the icosahedrally related shell domains of A and C, respectively, to form a chain of interactions around the 5-fold axes. The C subunit terminus does not, however, interact with the B subunit because of quasi-equivalent differences in the P domain orientations.

2004-04-10

31

Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, all inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeira inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV.

José Albersio Araujo Lima; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão; Nádia Rutielly de Araújo Ferreira; Elizita Maria Teófilo

2011-01-01

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Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Fumigant Effect of Some Medicinal Plant and Pirimiphos Methyl Powders against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contact toxicity and fumigant effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Anacardium occidentale (L), Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn seeds powders and Pirimiphos methyl (Actellic) dust were evaluated against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Contact toxicity assay show that A. indica and P. guineense powders have a comparative effect to synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl. Both were able to cause 100% mortality of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8g/20g of cowpea seeds) within 7 days of post treatment. However, in the fumigation assay, none of the plant powders was suitable as a fumigant since A. indica and P. guineense powders could only cause 23.3% and 20% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid respectively after 7 days of application. Pirimiphos methyl powder was good as a fumigant causing 100% mortality of C. maculatus after 7 days of application at all tested concentrations.

K. D. Ileke; D. S. Bulus

2012-01-01

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Sequence variability in the coat protein gene of Cowpea severe mosaic virus isolates from northeastern Brazil/ Variabilidade de sequências do gene da proteína do capsídeo de isolados do Cowpea severe mosaic virus do Nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O comovírus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causa a doença em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) conhecida como mosaico severo, mas, apesar de sua importância, não há estudos de diversidade genética de populações virais. Foram determinadas as sequências nucleotídicas de parte do gene da proteína do capsídeo (CP) de seis isolados brasileiros de CPSMV. Os fragmentos genômicos (521 nucleotídeos) foram amplificados por RT-PCR, clonados e suas sequências foram (more) comparadas entre si e com as sequências de outros comovírus. As comparações de sequências indicaram um elevado grau de conservação para o gene CP, com identidade de 92-100% (nucleotídeos) e 97-100% (aminoácidos) entre os isolados. Não houve correlação entre origem geográfica e identidade de sequência ou filogenia entre os isolados. Abstract in english The comovirus Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes a disease in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) but, despite its importance, there are no studies on the genetic diversity of viral populations. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of six Brazilian isolates of CPSMV. Genomic fragments (521 nucleotides) were RT-PCR amplified, cloned, and their sequences were compared with each other and with other comoviruses. Sequence comparisons (more) indicated a high degree of conservation for the CP gene, with 92-100% nucleotide and 97-100% amino acid sequence identity among the isolates. There was no correlation between geographical origin and sequence identity or phylogeny among the isolates.

Beserra Jr., José Evando A.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Camarço, Rosa F.R. Araújo; Nascimento, Aline K.Q.; Lima, José Albérsio A.

2011-04-01

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Evidence that whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus belongs to the genus Carlavirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two strains of whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) causing severe (CPMMV-S) and mild (CPMMV-M) disease symptoms in peanuts were collected from two distinct agro-ecological zones in India. The host-range of these strains was restricted to Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae, and each could be distinguished on the basis of symptoms incited in different hosts. The 3'-terminal 2500 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of both the strains was 70% identical and contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The first three (P25, P12 and P7) overlap to form a triple gene block of proteins, P32 encodes the coat protein, followed by P12 protein located at the 3' end of the genome. Genome organization and pair-wise comparisons of amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these ORFs with corresponding proteins of known carlaviruses and potexviruses suggest that CPMMV-S and CPMMV-M are closely related to viruses in the genus Carlavirus. Based on the data, it is concluded that CPMMV is a distinct species in the genus Carlavirus.

Naidu RA; Gowda S; Satyanarayana T; Boyko V; Reddy AS; Dawson WO; Reddy DV

1998-01-01

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Evidence that whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus belongs to the genus Carlavirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two strains of whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) causing severe (CPMMV-S) and mild (CPMMV-M) disease symptoms in peanuts were collected from two distinct agro-ecological zones in India. The host-range of these strains was restricted to Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae, and each could be distinguished on the basis of symptoms incited in different hosts. The 3'-terminal 2500 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of both the strains was 70% identical and contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The first three (P25, P12 and P7) overlap to form a triple gene block of proteins, P32 encodes the coat protein, followed by P12 protein located at the 3' end of the genome. Genome organization and pair-wise comparisons of amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these ORFs with corresponding proteins of known carlaviruses and potexviruses suggest that CPMMV-S and CPMMV-M are closely related to viruses in the genus Carlavirus. Based on the data, it is concluded that CPMMV is a distinct species in the genus Carlavirus. PMID:9638146

Naidu, R A; Gowda, S; Satyanarayana, T; Boyko, V; Reddy, A S; Dawson, W O; Reddy, D V

1998-01-01

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Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which change with the depth of indentation and depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Under large deformations, the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state ?Hind = 11.5-12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending; the entropy change T?Sind = 5.1-5.8 MJ/mol is due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which mediate the capsid stiffening. Direct coupling of these modes defines the extent of (ir)reversibility of capsid indentation dynamics correlated with its (in)elastic mechanical response to the compressive force. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses' biological function. PMID:24138865

Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

2013-10-15

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Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and...

Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI

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Simple and multiple resistances to viruses in cowpea genotypes/ Resistência simples e múltipla a vírus em genótipos de caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novas fontes de resistência simples e múltiplas em genótipos de feijoeiro caupi (Vigna unguiculata) a isolados de Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Trinta e três genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram classificados quanto a sua resistência a quatro isolados de CPSMV, dois de CABMV e um de CMV.Após 25 dias da primeir (more) a inoculação dos isolados, todas as plantas que sofreram inoculação, incluindo as assintomáticas, foram testadas por meio de sorologia. Os genótipos foram classificados como: imune, plantas assintomáticas e sorologia negativa; resistentes, plantas com mosaico leve e sorologia positiva; suscetível, plantas com mosaico e sorologia positiva; altamente suscetível, plantas com mosaico severo, outros sintomas sistêmicos, como necrose sistêmica, e sorologia positiva. Foram identificadas fontes de resistência simples e múltipla às viroses, nos genótipos avaliados; no entanto, nenhum deles apresentou imunidade múltipla aos três vírus. Quatro genótipos apresentaram imunidade aos isolados de CPSMV, dois aos isolados de CABMV e dois ao CMV. Onze genótipos apresentaram resistência múltipla a dois vírus, o que possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares com resistência mais abrangente e estável. Os genótipos Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 e CNCx284-66E mostram resistência ao CABMV, mesmo após a inoculação do CMV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify new sources of simple and multiple resistances to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Thirty-three genotypes from the germplasm bank of Universidade Federal do Ceará were tested as to their resistance to four CPSMV isolates, two CABMV isolates and one CMV isolate. Twenty-five days after the first virus inoculations, al (more) l inoculated plants, including the asymptomatic ones, were tested by serology. Genotypes were classified as: immune, plants without symptoms and negative serology; resistant, plants with mild mosaic and positive serology; susceptible, plants with mosaic and positive serology; and highly susceptible, plants with severe mosaic, other systemic symptoms, including systemic necrosis, and positive serology. Simple and multiple resistances to viruses were identified among the evaluated genotypes, but none of them showed multiple immunities to all isolates. Four genotypes showed immunity to all CPSMV isolates, two were immune to CABMV and two showed immunity to CMV. Eleven genotypes showed multiple resistances to two viruses, allowing for the development of new cultivars with more stable and broader resistance. Genotypes Purple Knuckle Hull-55, MNC-03-731C-21 and CNCx284-66E show resistance to CABMV, even when inoculated with CMV.

Lima, José Albersio Araujo; Silva, Ana Kelly Firmino da; Aragão, Maria do Livramento; Ferreira, Nádia Rutielly de Araújo; Teófilo, Elizita Maria

2011-11-01

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Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

40

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin.

Sanon A; Ba NM; Binso-Dabire CL; Pittendrigh BR

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
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Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration) and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl) on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI

2011-01-01

42

A note on outbreak of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) in common bean in the River Nile State, Sudan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An outbreak of a devastating virus disease occurred in common ben (phaseolus vulgaris) in Berber area, the River Nile State, during the 2004/2005 cropping season, with symptoms of stunting and yellowing. The disease incidence reached a level of more than 85% in all visited fields. One hundred fifty symptomatic samples, collected from different fields at Hudeiba, Berber and Shendi were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes and tested for the presence of different viruses, using the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) technique. The results of the serological tests revealed that 95% of the samples were positive for cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV). Among the common bean genotypes screened for resistance to CPMMV, only RO/2/1 and Giza 3 were resistant to the disease.(Author)

2010-01-01

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Production of polyclonal antiserum against Cowpea mild mottle virus coat protein and its application in virus detection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV), the causal agent of stem necrosis disease, has drawn attention of soybean producers in recent years due to yield losses in the main producing regions of Brazil. Serological methods for viral detection require the use of an antiserum of good quality to achieve specificity and sensitivity. The entire coat protein gene of a Brazilian CpMMV isolate was cloned into a bacterial expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21::DE3 f (more) or in vitro expression. The coat protein, fused to a His-tag, was purified under denaturing conditions by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA resin. After renaturation, the integrity and identity of the purified recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-Page and MALDI-ToF/ToF mass spectrometer analyses. A rabbit was immunized with increasing amounts of the recombinant protein. The specificity and sensitivity of the antiserum was demonstrated by Western blot and indirect ELISA assays. The polyclonal antisera raised against recombinant coat protein proved to be a reliable tool for CpMMV detection.

Carvalho, Silvia L. de; Silva, Fábio N. da; Zanardo, Larissa G.; Almeida, Álvaro M.R.; Zerbini, F. Murilo; Carvalho, Claudine M.

2013-02-01

44

Production of polyclonal antiserum against Cowpea mild mottle virus coat protein and its application in virus detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV), the causal agent of stem necrosis disease, has drawn attention of soybean producers in recent years due to yield losses in the main producing regions of Brazil. Serological methods for viral detection require the use of an antiserum of good quality to achieve specificity and sensitivity. The entire coat protein gene of a Brazilian CpMMV isolate was cloned into a bacterial expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21::DE3 for in vitro expression. The coat protein, fused to a His-tag, was purified under denaturing conditions by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA resin. After renaturation, the integrity and identity of the purified recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-Page and MALDI-ToF/ToF mass spectrometer analyses. A rabbit was immunized with increasing amounts of the recombinant protein. The specificity and sensitivity of the antiserum was demonstrated by Western blot and indirect ELISA assays. The polyclonal antisera raised against recombinant coat protein proved to be a reliable tool for CpMMV detection.

Silvia L. de Carvalho; Fábio N. da Silva; Larissa G. Zanardo; Álvaro M.R. Almeida; F. Murilo Zerbini; Claudine M. Carvalho

2013-01-01

45

Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is widespread in passionfruit in Brazil and causes passionfruit woodiness disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf samples of yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) displaying fruit woodiness symptoms were collected in seven Brazilian states and the Federal District. Viral infection was confirmed by host range and ELISA, and fourteen viral isolates were obtained. All isolates were capable of infecting several leguminous host species, although differences in symptom severity were noticeable. Woodiness symptoms were reproduced in yellow passionfruit, and mosaic symptoms were induced in common bean. All isolates infected cowpea, reported as a non-host of passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV). Indirect ELISA demonstrated that all isolates were serologically related to each other and also to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). The complete sequence of the capsid protein was determined for all isolates. Comparison of these sequences with those of other potyviruses indicated the highest identity with CABMV isolates (85 to 94%). Identity with PWV isolates ranged from 54 to 70%. Phylogenetic analysis grouped all of the Brazilian isolates in a monophyletic cluster with the CABMV isolates, clearly distinct from the PWV isolates. Furthermore, this analysis demonstrated that a group of previously characterized isolates from Brazil that had been designated as PWV should be reclassified as CABMV. Together, these results provide unequivocal evidence that, in Brazil, passionfruit woodiness disease is primarily caused by CABMV. The presence of PWV in Brazil has yet to be confirmed. PMID:16596328

Nascimento, A V S; Santana, E N; Braz, A S K; Alfenas, P F; Pio-Ribeiro, G; Andrade, G P; de Carvalho, M G; Murilo Zerbini, F

2006-04-07

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Effect of Sowing Dates on Yield and Yield Components of Cowpea Infected with Scab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of cowpea scab infections on yield and yieldcomponents of three cowpea varieties, TVx 3236, SAMPEA-6 and IT93K452-1. Fields experiments werecarried out during three consecutive cropping seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2006 at the Institute for AgriculturalResearch Farms at Samaru and Shika, Nigeria. Four different plantings were made at 7-day interval startingfrom late July and ending in mid August of each year. Scab disease incidence ratings were taken at 42 and 49days after sowing, during each season. Crop yields and yield components were estimated at the end of eachseason. The design used was a factorial concept in a randomized complete block design with three replicationsconsisting of single row plots, each 75 cm wide, 6 m long, and 75 cm apart. For all the 3 seasons, the earlysown cowpeas had higher- scab incidences and the yield and yield components of this early sown cowpea werelower than those from late sown crops. The grain yields from the early sown crops were of poor quality, withlots of shrivelling, while those from late sown crops were of good quality. The disease reduced grain yieldthrough scab’s deleterious effect on yield components. The correlation of scab infected plant parts with yieldand yield components was positive and significant for SAMPEA-6 and IT93K452-1 but IT93k452-1 showedsome variations in correlations. The correlation of scab on the yield and yield components of TVx 3236 wasnegative and not significant.

Dr. Chrys N. Akem

2010-01-01

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Effect of Sowing Date on the Incidence, Apparent Infection Rate and Severity of Scab on Cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sowing dates on the incidences, apparentinfection rates and severities of cowpea scab, caused by Sphaceloma sp. on three varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguilata L. Walp). The varieties were: TVx 3236, SAMPEA-6 and IT93K452-1. The investigationswere undertaken during the 2004, 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons at Samaru and Shika in Zaria, Nigeria. Foursowings were done at 7-day interval starting from late July and ending in mid August of each year. Scab diseaseincidence and severity ratings were taken every seven days starting from the first visible symptoms of infectionon the plant parts. The design used was a factorial concept in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)with three replications consisting of single row plots, each 75 cm wide, 6 m long, and 75 cm apart. For all the3 seasons, the early sown cowpeas had higher scab incidences, apparent infection rates and severities than thelate sown crops, even though not significantly higher in all cases or parameters. No scab symptoms wereobserved on the leaves of the more resistant cultivar, TVx 3236, in all 3 years of the investigation. Undernorthern Nigerian conditions, early cow pea plantings would result in higher infections from scab, unless moreresistant cultivars are used in such early plantings.

Dr. Chrys N. Akem

2010-01-01

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Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba/ Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra ant (more) i-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados. Abstract in english Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (C (more) ABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Freitas, Aurivan Soares de; Cezar, Márcia Aparecida; Ambrósio, Márcia Michelle de Queiróz; Silva, Ana Kelly Firmino da; Aragão, Maria do Livramento; Lima, José Albérsio de Araújo

2012-08-01

49

Ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi no Sertão da Paraíba Occurrence of viruses in cowpea in the State of Paraíba, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando verificar a ocorrência de vírus em cultivos de feijoeiro-caupi (Vigna unguiculata), foram realizadas visitas de inspeção a campos de produção dos municípios de Bom Sucesso, Paulista e Pombal, no estado da Paraíba, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2009 e de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Amostras foliares com sintomas típicos de mosaico e deformação foliar foram coletadas e analisadas por "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) indireto contra anti-soros específicos para Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) e por dupla difusão em ágar contra anti-soro para Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV). Cinco amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico dourado no município de Pombal na época chuvosa foram submetidas à detecção molecular por meio de "Polymerase Chain Reaction" (PCR) para Begomovirus. A ocorrência de CPSMV e CABMV foi observada nos campos de produção dos três municípios visitados nas duas épocas de cultivo analisadas, em infecções simples e mistas. A presença de vírus do gênero Begomovirus foi confirmada em amostras foliares com sintomas de mosaico dourado. Entretanto, estudos adicionais serão necessários para a identificação da espécie. CMV não foi detectado em nenhum dos municípios analisados.Visiting inspections were made in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields in the counties Bom Sucesso, Paulista and Pombal, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period of August to December 2009 and February to May 2010 in order to verify the occurrence of virus. Leaf samples with typical symptoms of mosaic and leaf distortion were collected and tested by indirect "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA) against antisera specific to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and by double immune diffusion test to Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) antiserum. Five samples collected in Pombal county during the rainy season showing golden mosaic were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with primers to virus from the genus Begomovirus. The occurrence of CPSMV and CABMV was observed in the three counties in the two growing seasons in single and mixed infections. The presence of a virus from the genus Begomovirus was confirmed in leaf samples with golden mosaic, but further studies will be required to identify the species involved. The presence of CMV was not detected in any of the counties.

Aurivan Soares de Freitas; Márcia Aparecida Cezar; Márcia Michelle de Queiróz Ambrósio; Ana Kelly Firmino da Silva; Maria do Livramento Aragão; José Albérsio de Araújo Lima

2012-01-01

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Integrated soil fertility management enhances population and effectiveness of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in semi-arid eastern Kenya  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Legume biological nitrogen fixation is an environmentally friendly and economical means that can reduce low resource farmer dependence on expensive chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizers. We investigated the effect of two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) varieties (IT95K-52-34, an international variety from IITA and Kang'au, a local variety) under an integrated soil fertility management trial on indigenous symbiotic rhizobia in a semi-arid farmer's field in eastern Kenya. The ox-ploughed field trial had the following treatments: an unamended control, manure applied at 2.5tha?¹, triple superphosphate (TSP as (P?O?, 0:46:0) at 15kgha?¹; and a combination of manure and TSP applied at the single rates. Soil samples were collected from each treatment during planting and harvesting of the cowpea crop and used in most probable number (MPN) plant infection assays with the two cowpea varieties as traphosts in Leonard jar growth systems and grown under glasshouse conditions. Generally, soil amendments enhanced cowpea rhizobial populations which varied from 4.89×10² rhizobiag?¹ soil to 1.074×10³ rhizobiag?¹ soil. The highest shoot biomass accumulation occurred on cowpea variety IT95K-52-34 plants inoculated with soils from the manure applied plots. We isolated 150 fast- and slow-growing cowpea rhizobia. Contrary to most previous studies, the bulk (97%) of the isolates was fast growing which grouped into 9 types on the growth characteristics on yeast extract agar (YEMA). The study indicated that ISFM was important for rhizobia population build up over a cowpea-growing season.

Kimiti JacintaM; Odee DavidW

2010-07-01

51

Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F) Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus) infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditi...

A. Olonisakin; M.O. Oladimeji; L. Lajide

52

Effects of Intercropping Pattern and Planting Date on the Performance of Two Cowpea Varieties in Dalwa, Maiduguri, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out in Dalwa, Maiduguri to investigate the effects of intercropping pattern and planting date on the performance of two cowpea varieties with sorghum. The experiment was laid in split-plot design each replicated three times including control. The factorial experiment consisted of two varieties of cowpea (Borno brown and Banjiram), two planting dates (early and late planting) and three intercrop patterns (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3). The results showed that cowpea flower count per plant were significantly higher (p<0.05) in Borno brown cowpea variety, late planting and 1:1 intercrop pattern. It further showed that cowpea pods count per plant was significantly higher in varieties, early planting date and 1:1 intercrop pattern. Grain yields were significantly higher in both varieties and not significantly different from one another, but higher in early planting date and higher in 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns. Farmers in the Maiduguri Northern eastern region of Nigeria could therefore adopt early planting of the two varieties at 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns.

Degri, M. M.; Sharah, H. A.; Dauda, Z.

2012-01-01

53

Separating multiple, short-term, deleterious effects of saline solutions on the growth of cowpea seedlings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

• Reductions in plant growth as a result of salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. • Short-term (48-h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) or potassium (K). • Growth was poorly related to the ion activities in the bulk solution, but was closely related to the calculated activities at the outer surface of the plasma membrane, {I(z)}?°. The addition of Mg, Na or K may induce Ca deficiency in roots by driving {Ca²+}?° to < 1.6 mM. Shoots were more sensitive than roots to osmolarity. Specific ion toxicities reduced root elongation in the order Ca²+ > Mg²+ > Na+ > K+. The addition of K and, to a lesser extent, Ca alleviated the toxic effects of Na. Thus, Ca is essential but may also be intoxicating or ameliorative. • The data demonstrate that the short-term growth of cowpea seedlings in saline solutions may be limited by Ca deficiency, osmotic effects and specific ion toxicities, and K and Ca alleviate Na toxicity. A multiple regression model related root growth to osmolarity and {I(z)}?° (R²=0.924), allowing the quantification of their effects.

Kopittke PM; Blamey FP; Kinraide TB; Wang P; Reichman SM; Menzies NW

2011-03-01

54

Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s-1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

1992-01-01

55

Pre-exposure to gamma rays alleviates the harmful effect of salinity on cowpea plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In this study, the low concentrations of NaCl (25mM) increased plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA), lipid peroxidation, non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol), number of legumes per plant, number of seeds per legume, number of seeds per plants, legume length, fresh and dry weight of legumes and weight of 1000 seeds and total soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents in harvested seeds as compared to control. On the other hand, the high concentrations of NaCl (50, 100 and 200 mM) caused reduction in plant growth, photosynthetic pigments content, total soluble protein content, nucleic acids contents (DNA and RNA), all yield attributes and harvested seeds components but increased lipid peroxidation and non enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanin, ascorbic acids and ?-tocopherol). Electrophoretic studies of proteins showed three types of modifications are observed in the protein patterns of cowpea seeds, some protein bands were disappeared, other proteins were selectively increased and synthesis of new set of protein was induced. Some of these responses were observed under gamma rays and salinity treatments, while others were induced by either gamma rays or salinity. Seeds irradiation with gamma rays alleviates the adverse effect of salt stress compared to non irradiated seeds.

Mohammed A. H. M. A.; Mohamed H. I.; Zaki L. M.; Mogazy A. M.

2012-01-01

56

Effect of Germination, Boiling and Co-fermentation on the Viscosity of Maize/cowpea Mixture as Complementary Infant Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally prepared cereal based complementary food are too dilute for adequate energy and nutrient density as infant complementary food. The consistency of complementary food is of particular importance for infants who cannot masticate and therefore, depend on liquid or semi solid foods. In Nigeria mothers regard cereal malting and supplementation with legume as extra-labor. Increase of gruel energy density is important to improve the energy intake of young children in developing countries. This study investigated the effect of malting and co-fermentation bi-component flour (co-fermented maize/cowpea70:30w/w) on the consistency of the gruel product. Five processes in which either of the grain is germinated, un-germinated, un-germinated and boiled, un-germinated boiled, wet-milled and sieved before co-fermentation were explored. Consistency of the gruel of the products with concentration ranging from 4-18%; was measured using Bostwick Consistometer. The dry matter of the gruel was determined according to standard method. It was observed that boiling and milling of un-germinated maize and cowpea before co-fermentation was more effective in viscosity reduction at 12% flour concentration. At 12% flour concentration that boiling and milling of un-germinated maize and cowpea before co-fermentation can enhance the consistency and by implication reduce the viscosity of co-fermented maize/cowpea as infant complementary food.

Oyarekua Mojisola Adenike

2012-01-01

57

Cowpea mosaic virus VPg: sequencing of radiochemically modified protein allows mapping of the gene on B RNA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A partial amino acid sequence of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) VPg radiochemically modified by chloramine-T and Bolton-Hunter reagent has been determined. VPg covalently bound to viral RNA chains (VPg-RNA) was iodinated at the tyrosine and lysine residues. (/sup 125/I)VPg-RNA was digested with nuclease P1 and the resulting (/sup 125/I)Vpg-pU was purified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subjected to automated Edman degradation. Analysis of CPMV (/sup 125/I)VPg-pU revealed the presence of tyrosine residues at position 12 and 14, and of lysine residues at position 3 and 20, respectively. In combination with Edman degradation of unlabeled CPMV VPg, which showed serine and arginine residues to be present at position 1 and 2, respectively, the data obtained allow the precise positioning of VPg within the 200 000 dalton (200 K) polyprotein encoded by CPMV B RNA and the prediction of its entire amino acid sequence. VPg is located at the COOH terminus of its 60 K, membrane-bound, precursor and proximal to the amino terminus of the protease-polymerase domain of the polyprotein. A processing scheme for the 200 K polyprotein is discussed in which Gln-Ser amino acid pairs act as the major signal for proteolytic cleavage.

Zabel, P.; Moerman, M. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Molecular Biology); Lomonossoff, G.; Shanks, M. (John Innes Inst., Norwich (UK)); Beyreuther, K. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Genetik)

1984-01-01

58

Cowpea mosaic virus VPg: sequencing of radiochemically modified protein allows mapping of the gene on B RNA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A partial amino acid sequence of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) VPg radiochemically modified by chloramine-T and Bolton-Hunter reagent has been determined. VPg covalently bound to viral RNA chains (VPg-RNA) was iodinated at the tyrosine and lysine residues. [125I]VPg-RNA was digested with nuclease P1 and the resulting [125I]Vpg-pU was purified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subjected to automated Edman degradation. Analysis of CPMV [125I]VPg-pU revealed the presence of tyrosine residues at position 12 and 14, and of lysine residues at position 3 and 20, respectively. In combination with Edman degradation of unlabeled CPMV VPg, which showed serine and arginine residues to be present at position 1 and 2, respectively, the data obtained allow the precise positioning of VPg within the 200 000 dalton (200 K) polyprotein encoded by CPMV B RNA and the prediction of its entire amino acid sequence. VPg is located at the COOH terminus of its 60 K, membrane-bound, precursor and proximal to the amino terminus of the protease-polymerase domain of the polyprotein. A processing scheme for the 200 K polyprotein is discussed in which Gln-Ser amino acid pairs act as the major signal for proteolytic cleavage. (author)

1984-01-01

59

The effects of soaking and cooking time on the cooking properties of two cowpea varieties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of soaking and cooking time on water absorption capacity, cookability, percent split, and texture of two varieties of cowpea, IITA-2246 and IFE-BPC, were investigated. Soaking prior to cooking had an effect only on the cookability, while the amount of water absorbed and the penetration depth (a measure of texture) of a penetrometer head in the seeds increased with cooking time. The properties were found to differ notably for the two varieties with IITA-2246 having a softer texture than IFE-BPC. Splitting in cooked beans increased with cooking time with maximum of 92% split in IITA-2246 and 63% split for IFE-BPC. Higher temperature soaking reduced the cooking time of both varieties.

Taiwo KA; Akanbi C; Ajibola OO

1997-09-01

60

Cowpea plant architecture in relation to infestation and damage by the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). 2. Effect of pod angle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of pod angle on the resistance of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. to the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer, was investigated under field conditions at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), lbadan, Nigeria, using two cowpea cultivars: IT82D-716 (susceptible to borer damage) and TVu 946 (resistant to borer damage). Three different pod angles were used in the study -- a normal angle, a decreased angle and an increased angle. Negative and highly significant (P < 0.01) relationships were found between pod angle and per cent pod damage, as well as the seed damage index in the two cowpea cultivars. Pods with wide angles (greater than or equal to 89 degrees) were damaged on only one and rarely on both pods. Apart from biochemical and other bio-physical factors, selection and breeding for wide pod angle is suggested as a strategy for reducing M. testulalis damage to cowpea pods.

Oghiakhe S; Jackal LEN; Makanjuola WA

1992-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. GROWTH AND SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS WITH PIGEONPEA AND COWPEA  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature is a limiting factor on legume-Bradyrhizobium symbiosis of subtropical plants in the temperate region. Twelve strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp], and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], were evaluated for tolerance to three temperature re...

62

Reduced tillage, mulching and rotational effects on maize (Zea mays L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (Walp) L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)) yields under semi-arid conditions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proponents of conservation agriculture (CA) argue that the CA approach offers the greatest opportunity to increase the productivity in smallholder agro-ecosystems. This study was designed to assess (1) first year maize, cowpea and sorghum yield responses to a combination of reduced tillage and mulching and (2) maize yield responses to rotation with cowpea and sorghum in reduced tillage systems. Two conservation tillage methods (ripping and planting basins) combined factorially with seven mulch levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10tha?1) were compared with conventional mouldboard ploughing. The experiment was run for four consecutive growing seasons allowing for a rotation of maize, cowpea, sorghum and maize in some fields used in the study. Crop yields were determined across all tillage and mulch combinations in each year. Tillage system had no significant effect on maize yield while maize grain yield increased with increase in mulch cover in seasons that had below average rainfall. Mulching at 2–4tha?1 gave optimum yields in seasons with below average rainfall. Tillage system and mulching had no significant effect on cowpea yield when soil moisture was not limiting. However, the ripper and basin systems had 142 and 102% more cowpea grain than the conventional system in 2006/2007 because of differences in planting dates used in three systems and poor rainfall distribution. The conventional and ripper systems gave 26 and 38% more sorghum grain than the basin system. Rotating maize with cowpea and sorghum resulted in 114, 123 and 9% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize in the conventional system. In the ripper system, maize–cowpea–sorghum–maize rotation gave 98, 153 and 39% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize rotation. In the basin system, maize–cowpea–sorghum–maize rotation gave 274, 240 and 43% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize rotation. However, long term studies under different soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions still need to be conducted to substantiate the observations made in the reported study.

Mupangwa W; Twomlow S; Walker S

2012-06-01

63

Detection and some properties of cowpea mild mottle virus isolated from soybean in Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey were carried to identify a virus disease causing mosaic of soybean in the field in Southern region (Khozestan Province) of Iran. To detect the viral infection, diseased leaf samples showing mild mosaic and leaf malformation were collected from soybean fields in Dezful, located in Khozestan Province. Infected samples were carried to the lab in a proper condition on ice packages. TPIA and DAS-ELISA serological tests were applied to identify the viral agent. To investigate the host-range, several indicator plants were mechanically inoculated under green-house condition. Seed transmission of CPMMV was examined using the seeds obtained from infected plants. The virus isolate was not found to be seed-borne in Clark variety of soybean. Different steps of ultracentrifugation including sucrose density gradient (10-40%) were carried out in order to obtain partial purified virus. On the basis of biological, serological and EM results, CPMMV-Carla virus was identified in the infected soybean samples. This is the first report of CPMMV infection of soybean in Iran.

Tavassoli M; Shahraeen N; Ghorbani S

2008-12-01

64

Detection and Some Properties of Cowpea mild mottle virus Isolated from Soybean in Iran  

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Full Text Available During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey were carried to identify a virus disease causing mosaic of soybean in the field in Southern region (Khozestan Province) of Iran. To detect the viral infection, diseased leaf samples showing mild mosaic and leaf malformation were collected from soybean fields in Dezful, located in Khozestan Province. Infected samples were carried to the lab in a proper condition on ice packages. TPIA and DAS-ELISA serological tests were applied to identify the viral agent. To investigate the host-range, several indicator plants were mechanically inoculated under green-house condition. Seed transmission of CPMMV was examined using the seeds obtained from infected plants. The virus isolate was not found to be seed-borne in Clark variety of soybean. Different steps of ultracentrifugation including sucrose density gradient (10-40%) were carried out in order to obtain partial purified virus. On the basis of biological, serological and EM results, CPMMV-Carla virus was identified in the infected soybean samples. This is the first report of CPMMV infection of soybean in Iran.

M. Tavassoli; N. Shahraeen; S. Ghorbani

2008-01-01

65

Detection and some properties of cowpea mild mottle virus isolated from soybean in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey were carried to identify a virus disease causing mosaic of soybean in the field in Southern region (Khozestan Province) of Iran. To detect the viral infection, diseased leaf samples showing mild mosaic and leaf malformation were collected from soybean fields in Dezful, located in Khozestan Province. Infected samples were carried to the lab in a proper condition on ice packages. TPIA and DAS-ELISA serological tests were applied to identify the viral agent. To investigate the host-range, several indicator plants were mechanically inoculated under green-house condition. Seed transmission of CPMMV was examined using the seeds obtained from infected plants. The virus isolate was not found to be seed-borne in Clark variety of soybean. Different steps of ultracentrifugation including sucrose density gradient (10-40%) were carried out in order to obtain partial purified virus. On the basis of biological, serological and EM results, CPMMV-Carla virus was identified in the infected soybean samples. This is the first report of CPMMV infection of soybean in Iran. PMID:19630214

Tavassoli, M; Shahraeen, N; Ghorbani, S

2008-12-01

66

The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha-1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha-1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha-1. Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

1995-12-01

67

Antagonistic regulation, yet synergistic defense: effect of bergapten and protease inhibitor on development of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10(-6)) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917

Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-08-21

68

Antagonistic regulation, yet synergistic defense: effect of bergapten and protease inhibitor on development of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10(-6)) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules.

Guo F; Lei J; Sun Y; Chi YH; Ge F; Patil BS; Koiwa H; Zeng R; Zhu-Salzman K

2012-01-01

69

Phosphorus Response Efficiency in Cowpea Genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorus is important for cowpea production and is inherently low in many tropical soils. Selection of cowpea genotypes that produce good yield under low soil P or those with high P response efficiency can be a low input approach in solving this problem. Therefore, the effect of root architecture and P application on the yield of cowpea and its P uptake were investigated. A screen house experiment was conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria. Three hundred cowpea genotypes obtained from the germplasm collection Unit of IITA were screened for number of root whorls and total number of roots using a completely randomized design with 12 replicates. Ten cowpea genotypes were further selected from the initial screening to determine the effect of three levels of P (0, 20 and 40 mg P kg-1 soil) application on their growth and nutrient uptake. The experiment was replicated three times. Phosphorus application significantly (p

Oladiran Olaleye; Fagbola Olajire; Abaidoo Robert C.; Ikeorah Nnenna

2012-01-01

70

Infusion of imaging and therapeutic molecules into the plant virus-based carrier cowpea mosaic virus: Cargo-loading and delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work is focused on the development of a plant virus-based carrier system for cargo delivery, specifically 30nm-sized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Whereas previous reports described the engineering of CPMV through genetic or chemical modification, we report a non-covalent infusion technique that facilitates efficient cargo loading. Infusion and retention of 130-155 fluorescent dye molecules per CPMV using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride), propidium iodide (3,8-diamino-5-[3-(diethylmethylammonio)propyl]-6-phenylphenanthridinium diiodide), and acridine orange (3,6-bis(dimethylamino)acridinium chloride), as well as 140 copies of therapeutic payload proflavine (PF, acridine-3,6-diamine hydrochloride), is reported. Loading is achieved through interaction of the cargo with the CPMV's encapsidated RNA molecules. The loading mechanism is specific; empty RNA-free eCPMV nanoparticles could not be loaded. Cargo-infused CPMV nanoparticles remain chemically active, and surface lysine residues were covalent modified with dyes leading to the development of dual-functional CPMV carrier systems. We demonstrate cargo-delivery to a panel of cancer cells (cervical, breast, and colon): CPMV nanoparticles enter cells via the surface marker vimentin, the nanoparticles target the endolysosome, where the carrier is degraded and the cargo is released allowing imaging and/or cell killing. In conclusion, we demonstrate cargo-infusion and delivery to cells; the methods discussed provide a useful means for functionalization of CPMV toward its application as drug and/or contrast agent delivery vehicle.

Yildiz I; Lee KL; Chen K; Shukla S; Steinmetz NF

2013-05-01

71

Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum ...

Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, A.H.C., van

72

Persistence and effects of processing on reduction of chlorantraniliprole residues on cowpea fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field trial was conducted to study the dissipation kinetics of chlorantraniliprole 18.5 % SC on cowpea fruits. The fruit samples drawn periodically were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass detection (LC-MS/MS). The initial residues of chlorantraniliprole in cowpea fruits were found to be 0.55 mg kg(-1) which dissipated rapidly, with a half-life of 1.31 days and a waiting period of 0.62 days following first order kinetics. Processing of the fruits with solutions commonly used in households reduced the insecticide residues on cowpea fruits harvested 2 h after spraying by 47.19 %-91.70 % and 44.56 %-91.25 % on fruits plucked on the third day.

Vijayasree V; Bai H; Naseema Beevi S; Mathew TB; Kumar V; George T; Xavier G

2013-04-01

73

Crop growth and development effects on surface albedo for maize and cowpea fields in Ghana, West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The albedo (alpha) of vegetated land surfaces is a key regulatory factor in atmospheric circulation and plays an important role in mechanistic accounting of many ecological processes. This paper examines the influence of the phenological stages of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields on observed albedo at a tropical site in Ghana. The crops were studied for the first and second planting dates in the year 2002. Crop management was similar for both seasons and measurements were taken from 10 mx10-m plots within crop fields. Four phenological stages were distinguished: (1) emergence, (2) vegetative, (3) flowering, and (4) maturity. alpha measured from two reference surfaces, short grass and bare soil, were used to study the change over the growing seasons. Surface alpha was measured and simulated at sun angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees . Leaf area index (LAI) and crop height (CH) were also monitored. Generally, alpha increases from emergence to maturity for both planting dates in the maize field but slightly decreases after flowering in the cowpea field. For maize, the correlation coefficient ( R) between alpha and LAI equals 0.970, and the R between alpha and CH equals 0.969. Similarly, for cowpea these Rs are 0.988 and 0.943, respectively. A modified albedo model adequately predicted the observed alphas with an overall R>0.860. The relative difference in surface alpha with respect to the alpha values measured from the two reference surfaces is discussed. Data presented are expected to be a valuable input in agricultural water management, crop production models, eco-hydrological models and in the study of climate effects of agricultural production, and for the parameterization of land-surface schemes in regional weather and climate models. PMID:15278686

Oguntunde, Philip G; van de Giesen, Nick

2004-07-20

74

Crop growth and development effects on surface albedo for maize and cowpea fields in Ghana, West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The albedo (alpha) of vegetated land surfaces is a key regulatory factor in atmospheric circulation and plays an important role in mechanistic accounting of many ecological processes. This paper examines the influence of the phenological stages of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fields on observed albedo at a tropical site in Ghana. The crops were studied for the first and second planting dates in the year 2002. Crop management was similar for both seasons and measurements were taken from 10 mx10-m plots within crop fields. Four phenological stages were distinguished: (1) emergence, (2) vegetative, (3) flowering, and (4) maturity. alpha measured from two reference surfaces, short grass and bare soil, were used to study the change over the growing seasons. Surface alpha was measured and simulated at sun angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees . Leaf area index (LAI) and crop height (CH) were also monitored. Generally, alpha increases from emergence to maturity for both planting dates in the maize field but slightly decreases after flowering in the cowpea field. For maize, the correlation coefficient ( R) between alpha and LAI equals 0.970, and the R between alpha and CH equals 0.969. Similarly, for cowpea these Rs are 0.988 and 0.943, respectively. A modified albedo model adequately predicted the observed alphas with an overall R>0.860. The relative difference in surface alpha with respect to the alpha values measured from the two reference surfaces is discussed. Data presented are expected to be a valuable input in agricultural water management, crop production models, eco-hydrological models and in the study of climate effects of agricultural production, and for the parameterization of land-surface schemes in regional weather and climate models.

Oguntunde PG; van de Giesen N

2004-11-01

75

CO2 enhances effects of hypoxia on mortality, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2.

Cheng W; Lei J; Ahn JE; Wang Y; Lei C; Zhu-Salzman K

2013-08-01

76

Effects of decreased O2 and elevated CO2 on survival, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of modified atmospheres with depleted O(2) and/or elevated CO(2) is an environmentally friendly alternative to currently used fumigants for control of stored grain insect pests. In the present study, we examined the impact of hypoxia and hypercapnia on cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Two O(2)/CO(2) combinations were used; (i) 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), (ii) 2% O(2)+18% CO(2). In both cases, N(2) was maintained at 80%, equivalent to normal atmospheric concentration. In ambient atmosphere, the rate of O(2) consumption and CO(2) output at different stages (from low to high) was: eggs?1st instar<2nd instar?pupae?adults<3rd instar<4th instar. When exposed to 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), eggs, larvae and pupae were able to complete development and successfully enter the next developmental stage, although developmental time and mortality varied at different stages. In contrast, more severe hypoxic/hypercapnic treatment, i.e. 2% O(2)+18% CO(2), led to cessation of development of all stages. Effects on eggs and adults were most dramatic as they could only withstand 2-3 days exposure. Further, eggs at early (4-6h old) and later stages (102-104 h old, black-headed) were more susceptible compared to those at intermediate stage (52-54 h old). The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were least sensitive and could survive up to 20 days treatment. To gain some insight into molecular mechanisms underpinning the hypoxic/hypercarpnic response, we performed qPCR reactions on selected metabolic genes involved in TCA cycle and in protein digestion, as well as genes encoding stress-responsive heat shock proteins. Patterns of gene expression and proteolysis suggest that cowpea bruchids suppress their metabolic activity and increase stress tolerance when challenged by O(2) deprivation. Transcript abundance as well as proteolytic activity recovered once normoxic conditions resumed. Taken together, cowpea bruchids were found able to cope with hypoxic and hypercapnic stress. This ability was particularly strong in the late larval stage. PMID:22387498

Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-03-03

77

Effects of decreased O2 and elevated CO2 on survival, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Use of modified atmospheres with depleted O(2) and/or elevated CO(2) is an environmentally friendly alternative to currently used fumigants for control of stored grain insect pests. In the present study, we examined the impact of hypoxia and hypercapnia on cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Two O(2)/CO(2) combinations were used; (i) 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), (ii) 2% O(2)+18% CO(2). In both cases, N(2) was maintained at 80%, equivalent to normal atmospheric concentration. In ambient atmosphere, the rate of O(2) consumption and CO(2) output at different stages (from low to high) was: eggs?1st instar<2nd instar?pupae?adults<3rd instar<4th instar. When exposed to 10% O(2)+10% CO(2), eggs, larvae and pupae were able to complete development and successfully enter the next developmental stage, although developmental time and mortality varied at different stages. In contrast, more severe hypoxic/hypercapnic treatment, i.e. 2% O(2)+18% CO(2), led to cessation of development of all stages. Effects on eggs and adults were most dramatic as they could only withstand 2-3 days exposure. Further, eggs at early (4-6h old) and later stages (102-104 h old, black-headed) were more susceptible compared to those at intermediate stage (52-54 h old). The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were least sensitive and could survive up to 20 days treatment. To gain some insight into molecular mechanisms underpinning the hypoxic/hypercarpnic response, we performed qPCR reactions on selected metabolic genes involved in TCA cycle and in protein digestion, as well as genes encoding stress-responsive heat shock proteins. Patterns of gene expression and proteolysis suggest that cowpea bruchids suppress their metabolic activity and increase stress tolerance when challenged by O(2) deprivation. Transcript abundance as well as proteolytic activity recovered once normoxic conditions resumed. Taken together, cowpea bruchids were found able to cope with hypoxic and hypercapnic stress. This ability was particularly strong in the late larval stage.

Cheng W; Lei J; Ahn JE; Liu TX; Zhu-Salzman K

2012-06-01

78

Effects of gamma radiation on the reproductive organs of the southern cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pupae of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. exposed to the sterilizing dose (3000 rad) from 60Co gamma radiation gave rise to adults in which the first mature oocyte was retarded. The first mature oocyte began to appear after 31 hours. Exposure to the dose 10000 rad prevented egg formation in the resulting weevils. Soon after emergence normal weevils had a mature oocyte in each ovariole. Doses of gamma rays tested decreased the size of testes treated in the pupal stage

1976-01-01

79

Effect of sulphur inoculated with Thiobacillus on saline soils amendment and growth of cowpea and yam bean legumes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A greenhouse experiment was carried out from January-May 2001, to evaluate the effects of elemental sulphur inoculated with Thiobacillus, compared with gypsum, in the amendment of two saline sodic soils (Neosol Fluvic Salic sodic) from the Brazilian semi-arid region, and on growth of the tropical legumes cowpea and yam bean, inoculated with specific rhizobia strains. The treatments consisted of sulphur rates (0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 t/ha) and gypsum (1.8 and 3.6 t/ha), and irrigation water containing the salts NaHCO3, MgCl2, CaCl2, NaCl and KCl, with electrical conductivity 0.2 dS/m at 25 degrees C. There was a treatment with no sulphur or gypsum applied. The correctives increased Na(+) and electrical conductivity on leached solution, and decreased soil pH and exchangeable cations, especially Na(+). Sulphur inoculated with Thiobacillus was more efficient than gypsum, reducing soil-exchangeable sodium. Sulphur with Thiobacillus in Soil 1 reduced pH (8.2 to 4.7) and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract (15.3 to 1.7 mS/cm) to values below those used for classification as saline and sodic soil. The growth of the tropical legumes cowpea and yam bean was increased by rhizobia inoculation when soil ameliorants were used, especially sulphur in combination with Thiobacillus.

Stamford NP; Freitas ADS; Ferraz DS; Santos CERS

2002-11-01

80

Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En Venezuela desde 1980 se ha señalado la presencia de microorganismos patógenos como bacteria, hongos y virus en la mayoría de las semillas de leguminosas estudiadas, incluye: comercial, registrada, fundación, experimental; y los métodos empleados para garantizar la sanidad de la semilla, no incluyen pruebas que permitan extraer los virus, no existen registros ni conocimiento en general de la introducción de enfermedades virales vía semilla en nuestro país, a pesar de la relevancia de esta forma de transmisión. Más del 50% de las enfermedades importantes en caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y en fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) más de 15 virus, se trasmiten por semillas. Por ello, se tomó un volumen de 53 muestras de semillas de caraota y fríjol tipo experimental, certificada y común provenientes de los Estados Aragua, Falcón, Guarico, Lara, Portuguesa, y Sucre así como de Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canadá y USA; para ser procesadas en la extracción de virus. Empleando dos protocolos, el primero, la observación de síntomas virales en la primera hoja trifoliada plenamente expandida y el segundo, la inoculación mecánica de plantas indicadoras con harina de semillas; ambos confirmaron la presencia de virus. En caraota tipo experimental el 25% resultaron con infección viral, en caraota certificada el 28,6%, en caraota común el 23,1% y en semilla importada en el 16,6% presentó infección viral. En cuanto a fríjol, se detectó infección viral en semilla común (55,5 %). Las metodologías comprueban el porcentaje de infección viral del material de siembra de diferentes áreas del país y su aplicación conducirá a establecer controles que impidan la diseminación y uso de material con un alto grado de contaminación viral.In Venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. More of 50% of the important diseases in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. For that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the States Aragua, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Portuguesa, and Sucre as well as of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Canada and the USA; to be processed in the extraction of virus. Two protocols were used for virus extraction: The first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. Both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. For bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. In cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%). The methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

Z.M. Peña P.; G. Trujillo

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Antagonistic Regulation, Yet Synergistic Defense: Effect of Bergapten and Protease Inhibitor on Development of Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid ...

Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen

82

Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

1988-06-01

83

Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

2007-11-15

84

Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A concentration as low as 1 ?M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb2+ activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and at a Pb2+ activity of 0.06 ?M for the roots. The primary site of Pb2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb2+ ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 ?M for the shoots and 0.06 ?M for the roots

2007-01-01

85

Effect of cerium on growth, dry matter production, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activities of cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of various concentrations of cerium provided as cerium nitrate (0.713, 3.568, 17.841, 89.206 and 446.030 ¼ M) on the growth performance, dry matter production, biochemical constituents and enzymatic activity of cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Low concentrations of cerium were observed to be beneficial for the test plants. A positive correlation was observed between a lower level of cerium (0.713-17. (more) 841 ¼ M) and foliar chlorophyll content, relative yield (dry matter) and nitrate reductase activity. Higher levels of cerium (89.206-446.030 ¼ M) significantly increased the proline content and polyphenol oxidase activity of the test plants. Root growth was more adversely affected than shoot growth.

Shyam, R; Aery, N.C

2012-01-01

86

Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A...

Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, J.J.A., van; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, A., van; Dicke, M.

87

Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A concentration as low as 1 microM lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb2+ activity of 0.2 microM for the shoots and at a Pb2+ activity of 0.06 microM for the roots. The primary site of Pb2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. PMID:17379363

Kopittke, Peter M; Asher, Colin J; Kopittke, Rosemary A; Menzies, Neal W

2007-03-26

88

Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L.) Grains using Botanicals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted during September 2004-January 2005. The test materials consisted of two commercial cultivars of cowpea namely Fahari and Tumaini; 8 botanical protectants and their combinations and two controls viz., no protectant and standard actellic super dust, making a total of 13 treatments. A split plot experiment in which the two commercial cultivars were the main plots while the 13 protectant treatments comprised the subplots was used as a Randomized Complete Design with four replications. Cultured pest weevils were placed in vials containing cowpea seeds and the respective sub-plot treatments including the two controls; ashes of rice husks, kitchen and cow dung; powders of dried leaves of Tephrosia vogelii, neem, pyrethrum flowers, tobacco snuff, black pepper fruit and their various combinations. Data were recorded after 10 weeks of storage on number of bruchids after treatment, number of holes per seed, numbers of damaged and undamaged seeds. Protectants had varying degrees of effectiveness in controlling the cowpea weevil. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff, actellic super dust and combination of leaf powders of neem and Tephrosia vogelii significantly excelled the control of no protectant in controlling the cowpea weevil. Black pepper powder gave significantly better results than the control in suppressing bruchid survival, higher numbers of undamaged seeds and fewer holes per seed. The cowpea cultivars did not differ significantly on the studied traits. Leaf powders of Tephrosia vogelii, tobacco snuff and combination of neem and Tephrosia are effective in controlling stored grain of cowpeas. Black pepper powder can as well be used for cowpea grain storage particularly where the aforementioned botanicals are not available.

Shazia O.W.M. Reuben; Minza Masunga; Rhodes Makundi; Robert N. Misangu; Bukheti Kilonzo; Maulid Mwatawala; Herman F. Lyimo; Christine G. Ishengoma; Dastun G. Msuya; Loth S. Mulungu

2006-01-01

89

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates obtained from simulated gastrointestinal digestion of cowpea proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment of cowpea proteins (CP) on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates (CPH) obtained from in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of CP was evaluated. Hydrolysis of native and treated CP with gastrointestinal pepsin and pancreatin yielded CPH that displayed antioxidant activities based on oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SRSA). CPH derived from the treated CP yielded higher ORAC values than CPH from untreated proteins. However, lower significant FRAP and SRSA values were observed for these samples compared to untreated CPH (p?ORAC. The results indicated that thermal and ultrasonic processing of CP can reduce the radical scavenging and reducing potential of the enzymatic hydrolysates possibly due to the decreased amounts of cysteine. Since the hydrolysates were generated with gastrointestinal enzymes, it is possible that the resulting compounds are produced to exert some health functions during normal consumption of cowpea. PMID:23354934

Quansah, Joycelyn K; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Saalia, Firibu K; Yada, Rickey Y

2013-03-01

90

Efectividad de cepas rizobianas de frijol bajo diferentes regímenes de fósforo/ Effectiveness of cowpea rhizobial strains under different phosphorus regimes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En Venezuela, el frijol representa una alternativa a la proteína animal, debido a su alto consumo y valor nutritivo, por ello se ha estimulado la implementación de programas para reactivar la economía de los pequeños y medianos productores, a fin de incrementar su producción y así tener mayor disponibilidad de proteína de alta calidad a bajo costo; de manera que, los estudios encaminados a mejorar su cultivo, son acertados. Se evaluó la efectividad de cepas rizobi (more) anas de crecimiento lento (cl) y rápido (cr) en frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cultivar TC9-6 en varios regímenes de fósforo (0, 20, 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial. Las plantas se cultivaron en 4 kg de suelo de sabana 45 días y las cepas en caldo de levadura y manitol: 5 (cr: JV91) y 10 (cl: JV94) días. La inoculación (2 ml cada vez) fue aplicada a la siembra y 6 días más tarde. La utilización de fósforo (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) incrementó la nodulación (número, peso seco total e individual de nódulos) y favoreció la aparición de nódulos rojos; así mismo, acrecentó el peso de la materia seca, la altura, el número de hojas y la concentración de nitrógeno del vástago. Los valores fueron similares con ambos tipos de cepas (efectividad similar) y para las dos concentraciones (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), con las menores estimaciones para 0 y 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . De acuerdo con los resultados las concentraciones de 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 fueron las más favorables para el crecimiento y la nodulación de frijol. Abstract in english In Venezuela, cowpea is an alternative to animal protein due to its high consumption and nutritious value, so it has stimulated the implementation of programs to reactivate the small and medium producers economy, in order to increase its production and to have major high quality protein availability at low cost; so that, the studies carry on to improve its cultivation, are well-aimed. The effectiveness of slow (sg) and fast (fg) growing rhizobial strains was evaluated in (more) cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) cultivar TC9-6 at various phosphorus regimes (0, 20, 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ): randomized block design with factorial arrangement. Plants were cultivated in 4 kg savannah soil: 45 days, and the strains in yeast and mannitol broth: 5 (fg: JV91) and 10 (sg: JV94) days. The inoculation (2 ml each time) was applied at sowing time and 6 days later. Phosphorus utilization (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ) increa- sed nodulation (nodule number, total and individual dry weight) and favoured nodule red colour appearance; also, incremented shoot dry matter weight, height, leaves number and nitrogen concentration. Values were similar with both strain types (similar effectiveness) and to the two doses (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 ), with lower estimations to 0 and 20 kgP2O5 ha-1 . Accordingly with the results, the doses of 40 and 80 kgP2O5 ha-1 were the most favourable to cowpea growth and nodulation.

Mayz Figueroa, Juliana

2011-12-01

91

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

T.L. Rose; V.M. Gomes; M. Da Cunha; K.V.S. Fernandes; J. Xavier-Filho

2003-01-01

92

Effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7S storage proteins) and fungal cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. In the present work vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and Fusarium oxysporum conidia. Helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and Ule (more) x europaeus lectin were used to identify differences in the binding of the vicilins to the surface of cells of S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum treated with this protein. After the growth period, the material in suspension (yeast cells) was centrifuged and the final pellet was also treated with different sugar (glucose, sucrose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine) concentrations and 0.1 M HCl for extraction of vicilins associated to chitinous structures present in yeast cells. Our results showed that vicilin sub-units were present in the different sugar extracts of yeast cells pre-treated with the vicilins and these proteins were eluted by 0.5 M solutions of sugars in the following order of efficiency of elution: N-acetyl-glucosamine, sucrose/glucose and glucosamine.

Rose, T.L.; Gomes, V.M.; Da Cunha, M.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.

2003-08-01

93

Screening of Passiflora species for reaction to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus reveals an immune wild species/ Seleção de espécies de Passiflora inoculadas com o vírus do mosaico do caupi revela a imunidade de uma espécie selvagem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O vírus do mosaico do caupi (Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus - CABMV) é um potyvirus que causa uma das mais importantes doenças do maracujazeiro no Brasil. O vírus é transmitido por diversas espécies de afídeos de maneira não persistente, não circulativa. A reação de 16 espécies de Passiflora à infecção com quatro isolados brasileiros do CABMV, por meio de inoculação mecânica foi avaliada em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Somente a espécie selvagem (more) P. suberosa foi resistente à infecção com todos os isolados do CABMV, em dois ensaios independentes. Plantas de P. suberosa enxertadas em plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa infectadas com o CABMV também não desenvolveram sintomas da doença. O vírus também não foi detectado por RT-PCR nas folhas superiores das plantas, sugerindo que essa espécie é imune ao CABMV. Abstract in english Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is a potyvirus that causes the most serious virus disease of passion fruit crops in Brazil. It is transmitted by several species of aphids in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner. The reaction of 16 species of Passiflora to infection by mechanical inoculation with four Brazilian isolates of CABMV was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Only P. suberosa, a wild species, was resistant to infection by all virus isolates, in two (more) independent assays. P. suberosa grafted onto infected P. edulis f. flavicarpa did not develop symptoms; neither was the virus detected by RT-PCR in the upper leaves, suggesting that this species is immune to CABMV.

Maciel, Scheila da Conceição; Nakano, Daniel Hiroshi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Vieira, Maria Lúcia Carneiro

2009-06-01

94

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Mota Antônio Chagas; Fernandes Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales Maurício Pereira; Flores Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho José

2002-01-01

95

Effects of processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) haulms as a feed supplement on voluntary intake, utilization and blood profile of West African dwarf sheep fed a basal diet of Pennisetum purpureum in the dry season  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, digestibility, growth performance and haematological variables of West African dwarf (WAD) sheep fed commercial and improved cowpea haulm diets. Thirty WAD sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 8.9±0.12kg and aged 10±1.3 months were balanced as closely as possible for BW and randomly allotted to one of six dietary treatments. The six dietary treatments consisted of milled haulms from six varieties of cowpea. The haulms were fed as supplements to a basal diet of Pennisetum purpureum. A metabolic study was conducted after 106 days and balances of nutrients were determined. Dry matter intake was higher (P=0.005) in sheep fed improved cowpea haulm diets (467g/day) than those on commercial haulm diets (430g/day), but there was no difference in intake of crude protein (CP) in sheep fed improved versus commercial haulm diets. Digestibility of nutrients was not affected in sheep fed commercial versus improved haulms. Sheep fed commercial cowpea haulm diets gained more (P=0.007) BW and had a lower (P<0.001) feed conversion ratio of 7.1 compared with 30g/day and 9.2 for sheep on improved haulm diets. All sheep were in positive N balance. Results show that cowpea haulms can be utilized as a supplement for livestock production and its inclusion in the diet of sheep had no deleterious effects while improving the haematological and serum biochemical variables.

Anele UY; Arigbede OM; Su?dekum K-H; Ike KA; Oni AO; Olanite JA; Amole GA; Dele PA; Jolaosho AO

2010-07-01

96

Effect of Native Soap on Insect Pests and Grain Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) in Asaba and Abraka during the Late Cropping Season in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Studies were conducted to test the effectiveness of native soap against cowpea insect pests during the late cowpea cropping season in two agro-ecological zones-Asaba and Abraka, Delta State. Four major insect pests, namely the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, the legume flower bud thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Tryb, the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fab and pod sucking bugs were studied. The experiment was made up of five treatments-1, 2 and 3 percent concentrations of native soap, cypermethrin (as conventional chemical and check) and a control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment was arranged into a randomised complete block design (RCBD). The results showed that all the major insect pests occurred in the study areas but were more at Asaba compared to Abraka. Native soap was effective against A. craccivora and flower bud thrips population at Asaba. Maruca vitrata was not affected by soap application. Grain yield was high at Abraka and significantly (P

E. O. Egho; E. C. Enujeke

2012-01-01

97

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (PM. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

2001-04-01

98

In vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flour: effect of processing and incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out to determine the effect of germination and drying temperature on the in vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean flours. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment with two treatments (germination and nongermination) and three drying temperatures was used for this purpose. The effect of particle size on water absorption capacity of bean flour was investigated. In addition, the effect of incorporating soybean and cowpea into the red bean flour on functional properties was equally investigated. Results reveal that protein digestibility increased with germination and also with drying temperature. Drying at 60 degrees C produced flours of optimum functional characteristics, although the hydrophilic/lipophilic index was high and the solubility index reduced. Germination and particle size as well as drying temperature all affected the water uptake properties of bean flours. Incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour into germinated bean flour at levels of 10 and 30%, respectively, produced a composite with higher functional properties. PMID:11368621

Njintang, N Y; Mbofung, C M; Waldron, K W

2001-05-01

99

Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICM), genus Potyvirus, were detected from 25 common bean and 14 black gram seeds among 142 seed samples collected from different legume-growing regions of India. The samples were subjected to a growing-on test, an indicator plant test, an electron microscopic observations, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and an immunocapture RT-PCR. The incidence of the two tested viruses in common bean and black gram seed samples was 1–6% and 0.5–3.5%, respectively in growing-on test evaluations. Electron microscopic observations revealed filamentous virion particles from the leaves of plants showing characteristic virus disease symptoms in growing-on and host inoculation tests. The identity of the strains was confirmed by immunocapture RT-PCR, with a final amplification product of approximately 700 bp for BCMV and BCMV–BICM. The complete identity of the two viruses was further confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the partial coat protein and 3'-UTR regions. The sequences of the four BCMV and BCMV–BICM isolates each consisted of 583–622 and 550–577 nucleotides. The present report confirms the widespread nature of these two serious potyviruses in the two most important legume crops in India.

Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra

2012-01-01

100

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates obtained from simulated gastrointestinal digestion of cowpea proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment of cowpea proteins (CP) on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates (CPH) obtained from in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of CP was evaluated. Hydrolysis of native and treated CP with gastrointestinal pepsin and pancreatin yielded CPH that displayed antioxidant activities based on oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SRSA). CPH derived from the treated CP yielded higher ORAC values than CPH from untreated proteins. However, lower significant FRAP and SRSA values were observed for these samples compared to untreated CPH (p?cowpea.

Quansah JK; Udenigwe CC; Saalia FK; Yada RY

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756) strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da; Costa Roberto Cezar Lobo da; Oliveira José Tadeu Abreu

2001-01-01

102

Control of Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L.) Grains using Botanicals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An investigation to assess the effectiveness of locally available botanicals in the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) was done in the Department of Crop Science and Production laboratory of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. The trial was conducted dur...

Shazia O.W.M. Reuben; Minza Masunga; Rhodes Makundi; Robert N. Misangu; Bukheti Kilonzo; Maulid Mwatawala

103

TENTATIVAS DE TRANSMISSÃO DE UM ISOLADO DO VÍRUS DO MOSAICO SEVERO DO CAUPI (CpSMV-SP) POR ARTRÓPODOS, EM LABORATÓRIO TRANSMISSION TRIALS OF A COWPEA SEVERE MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATE (CpSMV-SP) BY ARTHROPODS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

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Full Text Available O coleóptero Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791), "vaquinha-preta-e-amarela-da-soja", é descrito no Brasil como vetor de diversos vírus que infectam leguminosas, entre eles o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi ("cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus" - CpSMV). Em 1991, detectou-se uma infecção viral em plantas de Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae), coletadas no município de Praia Grande, no litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo e, posteriormente, o vírus foi identificado como um isolado deste Comovirus. Visando fornecer subsídios a uma melhor compreensão do processo de transmissão do fitovírus isolado de V. luteola (CpSMV-SP), foram feitas tentativas de transmissão por diferentes artrópodos, incluindo sete espécies de insetos e uma de ácaro. Determinaram-se altas taxas de transmissão (46,6, 50,0 e 70,0%) do CpSMV-SP em plantas de feijão, por adultos de C. arcuata. O vírus foi transmitido ainda por larvas de 1° ínstar, com taxas de 10,0% (caupi) e 40,0% (feijoeiro). Ausência de transmissão foi constatada nos ensaios por artrópodos pertencentes a outras ordens (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) e outras espécies de coleópteros (Diabrotica bivittula, D. speciosa e Epicauta atomaria).The beetle Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. (1791) is a vector of the cowpea severe mosaic Comovirus (CpSMV) and of several leguminous viruses in Brazil. In 1991, an isolate of CpSMV, later designed as CpSMV-SP, was found on plants of Vigna luteola Jacq. (Leguminosae) from the region of Praia Grande, in the South coastal area of the São Paulo State, Brazil. In order to obtain a better understanding of the CpSMV-SP transmission, different arthropod species, including seven insects species and one mite, species were studied as vectors. The transmission rates by adults of C. arcuata were high (46.6, 50.0 and 70.0%) on bean and by 1st instar larvae were 40.0% on bean and 10.0% on cowpea. Transmission by other arthropod orders (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Acari: Tetranychidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and by other Coleoptera species failed.

Fernando Javier Sanhueza Salas; Maria Mércia Barradas; José Roberto Postali Parra

1999-01-01

104

Effect of Supplementation of Ogi a Pearl Millet Based Nigerian Weaning Food, With Cowpea, on Chemical Composition, Sensory and in vitro Protein Digestibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on the supplementation of ogi a weaning food produced from different pearl millet varieties with cowpea was carried out. The proximate composition of the ogi/cowpea blends shows that, the moisture content within the ogis blends ranged from 8.48 ± 0.58 for GB 8735 to 9.31 ± 0.35 for Zango, re...

Modu S.H. Zanna; M.A. Milala

105

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (P<0.05) and results with different parameters were generally parallel. Significant differences for at least some time/parameters combinations indicated an order of potency of M. spicata>M. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus.

Raja N; Albert S; Ignacimuthu S; Dorn S

2001-04-01

106

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

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Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

Antônio Chagas Mota; Kátia Valevski Sales Fernandes; Maurício Pereira Sales; Victor Martin Quintana Flores; José Xavier-Filho

2002-01-01

107

Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S) isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.), susceptíveis (S) e resistentes (R) ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimen (more) to e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes. Abstract in english Vicilins (7S storage globulins) isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds which were susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar) and resistant (IT81D-1045 line) s (more) eeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.

Mota, Antônio Chagas; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Sales, Maurício Pereira; Flores, Victor Martin Quintana; Xavier-Filho, José

2002-03-01

108

Effect Of Chlorine Water On Some Vital Process Of Vigna Unguiculata L. (cowpea)  

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Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with 0.01%0.1% and 0.2 % (v/v) chlorine water during germination upto 10 days. The control is treated with distilled water. The germination percentage is affected by chlorine water treatment. The effect is seviour as concentration of chlorine water goes on increasing. Chlorine water treated seeds shows less number of leaves over control. The length of seedling is affected by chlorine water treatment. More the concentration of chlorine water, less is the length of seedling in vigna unguiculata . The chlorine water has inhibitory effect on root growth ( radical length and number of rootlets) in Vigna unguiculata . The fresh weight and dry weight goes on decreasing in chlorine water treatment of Vigna unuiculata over control.Chlorine is essential micronutrient in plant vital processes. However, higher concentration of chlorine inhibits the plant vital process during seed germination of Vigna uguiculata. The higher concentration of chlorine affects the seed germination percentage, leaves number, seedling growth, radical length with rootlets, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling

Sharad Phulari

2013-01-01

109

Effect of Temperature, Air Relative Humidity and Water Presence on Some Biological Parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal (Hemiptera:Coreidae), the Pod Sucking Bug of Cowpea  

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Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted on the influence of temperature, air relative humidity and water presence on some biological parameters of Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal, a major pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walpers, in West Africa. The feeding of the first-instar larvae was also studied. The aim was to provide some indicators on the insect adaptation to hot and dry conditions in Sahelian zone. Results show that increased temperature reduced embryo and larvae development length and female fertility and lifespan. Temperature fluctuations had little effect on egg viability to the extent of hatching limit around 38 ° C. A full larval development and adult reproductive activity were possible at a constant temperature of 40 ° C. Increased air relative humidity (80%) improved larval survival especially under high temperatures. The presence of water was necessary for first-instar larvae development. The insect showed good adaptation to Sahelian hot and dry environment, which enables it to go through the long dry season.

C. Dabir?; M.N. Ba; A. Sanon; K. Foua-Bi

2005-01-01

110

The Effect of Animal Manures on Susceptibility of Cowpea VAR. Moussa Local to Infection by Root-knot Nematode; Meloidogyne javanica Treub  

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Full Text Available The effect of three different types of animal manures namely; poultry, goat and cow dung on the susceptibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Var moussa local to root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne javanica was tested in a replicated pot experiment. Manured plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs of M. javanica while uninoculated manured plants served as control for each manure type and unmanured but inoculated plants as general control. The result showed that unmanured and inoculated plants were susceptible to M. javanica to varying degrees. Plants applied with poultry manure were more resistant to root-knot nematode infection followed by those applied with cow dung and goat dropping in that order. The most susceptible plants were those inoculated but not applied with manure. Gall index and resistance rating showed that plants fertilized with poultry manure, cow dung and goat droppings were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible, respectively.

A.O. Ogaraku

2007-01-01

111

Estimating the broad-sense heritability of early growth of cowpea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a total of 5000 cowpea accessions maintained in the cowpea breeding facility at the University of California, Riverside to examine the genetic determination of early growth of cowpea (measured as the height at day five after seeding). The estimated broad-sense heritability on the individual plant basis is 0.2190. However, the corresponding estimate on the plant mean basis (average of four plants) is 0.5198, which is very high for a quantitative trait. The high heritability may explain why traditional breeding for cowpea growth is so effective. Since the design of experiment and method of data analysis are novel, this report can serve as an educational note for students in the area of quantitative genetics and plant breeding.

Xu NW; Xu S; Ehlers J

2009-01-01

112

Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P2O5/ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

1993-01-01

113

Effect of cowpea intercropping on weed control and corn yieid/ Efeito da consorciação do feijão-caupi no controle de plantas daninhas e no rendimento do milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os herbicidas têm simplificado o controle de plantas daninhas, mas, além de caros, têm causado o surgimento de biótipos de plantas daninhas a eles resistentes e se tornado fator de contaminação ambiental. A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos objetivos da agricultura moderna, e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas, incluindo a consorciação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da consorciação de cultivares de feijão-caupi com cultivar (more) es de milho sobre o controle de plantas daninhas e os rendimentos de espigas verdes (espigas imaturas com grãos com teor de umidade de 80%) e de grãos do milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os cultivares de milho AG 1051, AG 2060 e PL 6880 (atribuídos às parcelas) foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos: sem capina, duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura) e milho consorciado com feijão-caupi (cultivares BR 14 e IPA 206, com crescimento indeterminado). O feijão-caupi foi semeado (por ocasião da semeadura do milho) entre as fileiras do milho, em covas distanciadas de 1,0 m, com duas plantas/cova. Os cultivares de milho não diferiram entre si quanto à densidade e biomassa fresca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas, bem como quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e grãos. As médias mais elevadas da densidade e da biomassa de plantas daninhas foram encontradas em subparcelas sem controle de plantas daninhas (sem capinas); as menores médias, em subparcelas com controle de plantas daninhas (duas capinas); e as médias intermediárias, nas subparcelas consorciadas, indicando que os cultivares de feijão-caupi exerceram, em certa extensão, controle das plantas daninhas. As subparcelas sem controle de plantas daninhas e as subparcelas consorciadas apresentaram os menores rendimentos de espigas verdes e grãos. Embora os cultivares de feijão-caupi tenham tido certo controle sobre as plantas daninhas (reduções médias de 22,5 e de 18,3%, em termos de densidade e peso da matéria fresca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas, respectivamente), elas também competiram com o milho, causando redução nos rendimentos (reduções médias de 17,0 e 32%, nos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, respectivamente). Os cultivares de feijão-caupi não produziram grãos devido, certamente, à forte competição exercida pelo milho e plantas daninhas sobre as plantas do feijão-caupi. Abstract in english Herbicides have simplified weed control, but the use of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes and has become an environmental contamination factor. Herbicide use reduction is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several alternatives being investigated, including intercropping. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cowpea and corn cultivar intercropping on weed control and corn green-ea (more) r (immature ears with 80% humidity grains) and grain yield. A completely randomized block design with split-plots and four replications was used. AG 1051, AG 2060 and PL 6880 corn cultivars (assigned to plots) were submitted to the four treatments: no weeding, two hoe-weeding (22 and 41 days after planting), and intercropping with cowpea (BR 14 and IPA 206 cultivars, with indeterminate growth). The cowpea was planted (with corn planting) between the corn rows, in pits 1.0 m apart, with two plants per pit. The corn cultivars did not differ from each other as to weed density (WD), fresh above-ground weed biomass (WB), green-ear yield and grain yields. Higher WD and WB mean values were found in no weeding subplots; lower mean values in two hoe-weeding subplots; and intermediate mean values in intercropped subplots, indicating that cowpea plants had, to a certain extent, control over weeds. The no-weeded plots and the intercropped plots had lower green-ear and grain yields. Although the cowpea cultivars had a certain control over weeds (mean reductions of 22.5

Silva, P.S.L.; Oliveira, O.F.; Silva, P.I.B.; Silva, K.M.B.; Braga, J.D.

2009-01-01

114

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

2006-01-01

115

Bioactivity of Steam Distilled Oils Against the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobrochus maculates (F) Infesting Stored Cowpea Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The toxicity and repellent effects of steam distilled oils of Ocimum suave, Piper guineese, Syzgium aromaticum and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated against the cowpea bruchid (Callosobrochus maculatus) infesting stored cowpea seeds under prevailing storage conditions in middle belt of Nigeria. In toxicity test C. maculatus adults were exposed to 10 g of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculate) admixed with five dosages of each oil. While in the repellency tests adult bruchids were introduced onto test arenas (filter paper discs) treated with different dosages of each of the oil. Insecticidal oil were ranked in the order of decreasing toxicity as Syzgium aromaticum oil (LC50 = Xylopia aethopica oil (LC50 = 0.485 mg/10 g seed > Piper guineese oil (LC50 = 0.510 mg/100 g seed) > Ocimum shave oil (LC50 0.660 mg/10 g seed). Significantly higher proportion of C. maculates adults were repelled from filter paper discs treated with all plant oils with average means repellent order of 60.24, 77.87, 80.23 and 86.66% for Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineese, Syzguim aromaticum and Ocimum suare, respectively.

A. Olonisakin; M.O. Oladimeji; L. Lajide

2006-01-01

116

Resistance to cowpea mottle carmovirus in Vigna vexillata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cowpea mottle carmovirus (CPMoV) causes grain yield losses of up to 75% in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.). There is no resistance to this virus among cultivated cowpea lines, but a high level of resistance exists in Vigna vexillata, a wild Vigna species. Fifty-four accessions of V. vexillata germplasm collection at IITA were tested for resistance to CPMoV. Seedlings were mechanically inoculated with the virus and susceptibility or resistance was assessed by visual scoring of disease symptoms and serological analysis using antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). All but three V. vexillata lines belonging to the variety angustifolia were resistant to CPMoV. Crosses were made between two resistant V. vexillata lines and the three susceptible lines. Segregation patterns observed in the F2 and the backcross populations of all the crosses showed that resistance to CPMoV in V. vexillata is controlled by a single dominant gene, and the level of resistance conferred by this gene in V. vexillata is very high.

Ogundiwin EA; Thottappilly G; Aken'Ova ME; Ekpo EJA; Fatokun CA

2002-12-01

117

Effects of Salinity Stress on Growth, Ions Partitioning and Yield of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Cultivars  

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Full Text Available In this study, twenty one cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were tested for their salt tolerance at different degrees of salinity; 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM of NaCl, in both the laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, Na+, K+, K/Na ratio, plant height, roots dry weights, stems and leaves were investigated. In the field conditions, yield components (weight of 1000 seeds, number of pods per plant, total chlorophyll and grains yield) were determined in harvesting phase. Results showed that K+ concentration, K/Na ratio, seedlings height and total chlorophyll were significantly decreased by salt solutions, especially by 200 mM and the magnitude of reduction varied according to cultivars. Na+ was significantly increased with increasing NaCl concentrations in all plant organs. Roots dry weights as well as stems and leaves decreased significantly in all cultivars with increasing salinity except in organs of Bambey 21 (V11), IT97K-556-4 (V3) and IT04K-332-1 (V10) cultivars. Under field conditions, the weight of 1000 seeds, the number of pods per plant and grains yield were affected by soil salinity at 50 mM of all cultivars except in Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1. The results obtained during vegetative growth and harvesting phase suggested that Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1 cultivars were relatively tolerant to salinity than others. Bambey 21, IT97K-556-4 and IT04K-332-1 cultivars could be grown in environments with varying salinity.

Victor Desire Taffouo; Joseph Kemdem Kouamou; Louis Marie Tchiengue Ngalangue; Bop Alain Nandjou Ndjeudji; Amougou Akoa

2009-01-01

118

Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes  

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Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC) were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.

Lopes Francisco Cláudio da Conceição; Gomes Regina Lúcia Ferreira; Freire Filho Francisco Rodrigues

2003-01-01

119

A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments conducted in Maroua, Cameroon, demonstrated that a large 50-kg-capacity solar heater can be used to successfully eradicate infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus from cowpea seeds kept in small, transparent Minigrip zip lock plastic bags. Temperatures produced inside the heater were sufficient to kill all developing insects living within infested cowpea seeds. Small, transparent ziplock plastic bags are useful seed storage containers for short-term cowpea germplasm collections and are easily inspected during storage following solar disinfestation. Published reports indicate that temperatures of up to 85{sup o}C do not adversely affect seed germination, germination rates, or seeding viability. These temperature and biological experiments provide evidence that the solar heater technique can serve as an effective and practical means to improve the short-term storage of cowpea seeds in developing country national agricultural research programs. (author)

Ntoukam, G.; Kitch, L.W.; Shade, R.E.; Murdock, L.L. [Purdue Univ., Entomology Dept., Lafayette, IN (United States)

1997-10-01

120

Effect of Supplementation of Ogi a Pearl Millet Based Nigerian Weaning Food, With Cowpea, on Chemical Composition, Sensory and in vitro Protein Digestibility  

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Full Text Available Studies on the supplementation of ogi a weaning food produced from different pearl millet varieties with cowpea was carried out. The proximate composition of the ogi/cowpea blends shows that, the moisture content within the ogis blends ranged from 8.48 ± 0.58 for GB 8735 to 9.31 ± 0.35 for Zango, respectively. The crude protein of the ogi/cowpea blends ranged from 8.60 ± 0.36 for GB 8735 to 9.27 ± 0.10 for Gwagwa. GB 8735 ogi blend, an improved variety had the higher carbohydrate content compared to the two local varieties, Gwagwa and Zango, respectively. The digestibility at 2 h ranged from 52.6 ± 1.1 for Gwagwa to 59.4 ± 7.8 for Zango both being local cultivars, with the improved variety GB-8735 recording 53.7 ± 1.5. The same pattern was observed at the 4th h for the three varieties. But at 6th h of incubation, GB-8735 recorded the highest digestibility of 89.0 ± 9.1 followed by Zango 69.8 ± 8.1 and Gwagwa recording 60.0 ± 0.8. The result for the sensory evaluation test for the ogi/cowpea blends revealed that, all the parameters evaluated gave a statistically significant (p<0.05) differences, except for overall acceptability. GB 8735, an improved variety recorded the highest score in colour, taste and overall acceptability, while Gwagwa a local variety recorded highest in texture and is next to GB 8735 in terms of taste. The viscosity characteristics of the cowpea flour and their ogi blends shows that, the pure ogi product recorded higher viscosity values compared to their respective blends. The cowpea blend alone had the least viscosity compared to the pure ogi and their blends. This shows that, ogi from any one of the cereals blends is acceptable and can be use as a weaning complementary food.

Modu S.H. Zanna; M.A. Milala

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

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Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

J. Xavier Filho

1991-01-01

122

The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.

Xavier Filho, J.

1991-01-01

123

Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Var. Moussa-Local  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

A.O. Ogaraku

2008-01-01

124

Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin ?1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin ?1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin ?1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin ?1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin ?1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin ?1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin ?1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea.

2004-01-01

125

Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 ?M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 ?M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

1995-11-03

126

WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES  

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Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1), -70.0 (S2) and <-85.0 KPa (S3). The experimental design was randomized blocks with sub-divided plots, each plot containing a different degree of water stress, divided in sub-plots for the four different developmental stages: E1 (0-15), E2 (15-30), E3 (20-35) and E4 (30-45) days after emmergence. Water stress treatments were applied by monitoring soil water potential using a set of porous cups. The effect of water stress was most harmful to cowpea when it was applied at E2 than at other symbiotic process stages. Shoot/root ratio decreased from 2.61 to 2.14 when matric potential treatment was <-85.0 and -70.0 KPa respectively. There was a reduction in the glutamine synthetase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxilase activity with increased stress, while glutamine synthase activity was the enzyme most sensitive to water stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased in more negative matric potential, indicating that this enzyme is sufficiently activitye under water stress.

Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.; Bezerra-Neto Egídio; Burity Hélio A.

2001-01-01

127

Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

2000-01-01

128

Bioactivity of Anacardium occidentale (L) and Allium sativum (L) Powders and Oils Extracts against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae  

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Full Text Available The powders and oils extracts of Anacardium occidentale (L.) seeds and Allium sativum (L.) bulbs were tested as contact insecticides against the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) in cowpea seeds. The powders were incorporated at rates 1, 2.5 and 5/20g of cowpea seeds and acetone extracts of the plants were also applied at 0.5, 1 and 1.5ml per 20g of cowpea seeds to assess contact mortality of adult insect, oviposition, adult emergence and damage assessment. The results obtained showed that at 72 hours; 1, 2.5 and 5/20g of cowpea seeds evoked 63.3, 80 and 100% adult mortality of the cowpea bruchid while the corresponding results for A. sativum were 60.7, 73.3 and 100% mortality respectively. All concentration of acetone extracts that were used evoked 100% mortality of C. maculatus after 72 hours of post treatment. Complete protection of seeds and complete inhibition of adult emergence in both powders and extracts of A. occidentale and A. sativum were achieved. The results obtained from this research revealed that powders and extracts of A. occidentale seeds and A. sativum bulbs were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus in stored cowpea seeds.

K. D. Ileke; O. F. Olotuah

2011-01-01

129

Impact of ?AI-1 expressed in genetically modified cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing ?AI-1, an ?-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are ?AI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that ?AI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing ?AI-1 on the ?AI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. ?AI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of ?AI-1. Thus, ?AI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests.

Lüthi C; Alvarez-Alfageme F; Romeis J

2013-01-01

130

Impact of ?AI-1 Expressed in Genetically Modified Cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Its Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing ?AI-1, an ?-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are ?AI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that ?AI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing ?AI-1 on the ?AI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. ?AI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of ?AI-1. Thus, ?AI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests.

Luthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jorg

2013-01-01

131

Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250?m and stored at 4 oC for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p oC. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p

2010-01-01

132

Greenhouse effect and revivfication on variolous virus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CO_(2) consistence of atmosphere is increasing since the Industrial Revolution. Glaciers melting caused by grenhouse effect is strengthening and the temperature is rising. Viruses in the glaciers can probably revivie and maybe cause large-scale epibemic disease. Relationships between greenhouse effect and extinct virus are discussed. Some efforts must be made to protect out environment for persistent developing.

Zhang Jinbao

2002-01-01

133

First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

2012-12-14

134

First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

Brito M; Fernández-Rodríguez T; Garrido MJ; Mejías A; Romano M; Marys E

2012-12-01

135

First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

Miriam Brito; Thaly Fernández-Rodríguez; Mario José Garrido; Alexander Mejías; Mirtha Romano; Edgloris Marys

2012-01-01

136

Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodis...

G. Moravvej; S. Abbar

137

Assessment of nematophagous fungi and neem cake compatibility against Heterodera cajani on cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A significant reduction in disease incidence was observed when either Paecilomyces lilacinus or Verticillium chlamydosporium (@ 4 or 8 g) were applied against Heterodera cajani on cowpeas in pot tests. The addition of 4 g neem cake to the lower doseof the fungi helped improve the control effect.

PREETI BHARADWAJ and P.c. TRIVEDI

2012-01-01

138

Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi/ Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida qu (more) ímico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL). As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas. Abstract in english Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L), compared to chemical fungici (more) de effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter) made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL) was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

Silva, Jandiê Araújo da; Pegado, Claúdia Maria Alves; Ribeiro, Valéria Veras; Brito, Noelma Miranda de; Nascimento, Luciana Cordeiro do

2009-04-01

139

Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds  

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Full Text Available A fusariose é uma doença de grande importância para a cultura do feijoeiro em virtude da redução da produtividade. O controle da doença vem sendo realizado com aplicações indiscriminadas de fungicidas químicos, acarretando problemas ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum, proveniente de sementes de caupi, comparando-se com o efeito do fungicida químico. Utilizaram-se extratos de alho, angico e manjericão, isolados ou combinados entre si e ou em associação ao fungicida Mancozeb. Uma alíquota de 50 µL de cada tratamento foi adicionada em orifício feito no centro das placas de Petri com BDA, sobre o qual depositou-se um disco de micélio do fungo. Avaliou-se durante sete dias, medindo-se o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Sementes de caupi foram desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio a 4,0%, semeadas em sacos de polietileno contendo solo autoclavado. Oito dias após germinação, efetuaram-se ferimentos no colo das plântulas, aplicando-se suspensão de esporos do fungo (1,4 x 10-5 con/mL). As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se escala de notas. Os extratos combinados de alho + manjericão e angico + manjericão não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, enquanto o extrato de manjericão isoladamente, proporcionou o menor crescimento micelial, indicando a ação fungicida e inibitória desse tratamento sobre o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum nas condições analisadas. O fungicida Mancozeb + o extrato de angico proporcionou menor média de severidade nas plantas avaliadas.Wilt caused by Fusarium sp. in cowpea crop is a disease of great importance because it causes yield decrease. The control of this disease has been accomplished with uncontrolled applications of chemical fungicides causing problems for humans and environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L), compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter) made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL) was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

Jandiê Araújo da Silva; Claúdia Maria Alves Pegado; Valéria Veras Ribeiro; Noelma Miranda de Brito; Luciana Cordeiro do Nascimento

2009-01-01

140

Purification of a lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata and its effect on the development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa when submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The native molecular mass of GOL determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column was 17.4 kDa and its carbohydrate content was estimated to be 2.9%. Therefore, GOL is a monomeric glycoprotein. The purified lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated erythrocytes from rabbit and chicken but not from human. Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- and disaccharides tested but by the complex glycoproteins porcine stomach mucin, lactotransferrin, asialofetuin and bovine and porcine thyroglobulins. Isoelectric focusing showed that GOL is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.4 with analysis of its amino acid composition revealing high contents of Asx, Glx, Ser, Glu, Ala and Cys. When incorporated in artificial seeds, GOL significantly affected the development of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, indicating the possibility of using this lectin in a biotechnological strategy for insect management of stored cowpea seeds. PMID:15869843

Leite, Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques; Silva, Luana Maria Castelo Melo; Amorim, Rodrigo César das Neves; Freire, Eder Almeida; de Melo Jorge, Daniel Macedo; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

2005-04-13

 
 
 
 
141

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from non-rhizospheric soil and their effect on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seedling growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of four potential phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter isolated from non-rhizospheric soil in Western ghat forest in India. Plant growth promoting ability of these isolates was evaluated in cowpea. All are gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8-1.6 mm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature, grow from 5 to 40°C (optimum temp. 28 ± 2°C). All isolates exhibits growth at a wide range of pH 6-12, optimum at pH 7.0 and tolerates up to 7% (w/v) salt concentration. 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals the confirmation of isolates to Enterobacter aerogenes sp. (NII-0907 and NII-0929), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae sp. (NII-0931) and Enterobacter asburiae sp. (NII-0934) with which they share >99% sequence similarity. Under in vitro conditions, all the four isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid, P-solubilization and hydrogen cyanide. The P-solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium (pH 7.0-<3.0). The plant growth promotion properties were demonstrated through a cow pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp) based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in root, shoot and biomass and it stimulated bacterial counts in the rhizosphere. Hence, these isolates can further formulated and used for field application.

Deepa CK; Dastager SG; Pandey A

2010-07-01

142

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS) of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

Abba M. Wakili

2013-01-01

143

Environmentally benign synthesis of virus-templated, monodisperse, iron-platinum nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of an engineered variant of a plant virus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), as a template for directed mineralization provides an environmentally benign route to monodisperse iron-platinum nanoparticles of approximately 30 nm diameter.

Shah SN; Steinmetz NF; Aljabali AA; Lomonossoff GP; Evans DJ

2009-10-01

144

Germination Studies in Some Varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (Cowpea) from Northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12) in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%), seedling weight change (1.52 g), shoot length (25.81 cm), root length (23.12 cm) was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties.

B.Y. Wada; B.Y. Abubakar

2013-01-01

145

Genetic architecture of delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress in cowpea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes. PMID:23936140

Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye N; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D

2013-07-30

146

Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

de Lima AS; Xavier TF; de Lima CE; de Paula Oliveira J; Mergulhão AC; Figueiredo FM

2011-07-01

147

Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs. PMID:24031707

de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo Márcia do Vale Barreto

2011-09-01

148

Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments i (more) ncluded inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

Lima, André Suêldo Tavares de; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreira; Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de; Oliveira, José de Paula; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Márcia do Vale Barreto

2011-09-01

149

Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

André Suêldo Tavares de Lima; Terezinha Ferreira Xavier; Cláudia Elizabete Pereira de Lima; José de Paula Oliveira; Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo Mergulhão; Márcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo

2011-01-01

150

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus)/ Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tra (more) tamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão. Abstract in english Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a fac (more) torial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Almeida, Francisco de A. C.; Almeida, Silvana A. de; Santos, Nilene R. dos; Gomes, Josivanda P.; Araújo, Maria E. R.

2005-12-01

151

Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus) Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo) com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg) with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%). A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

Francisco de A. C. Almeida; Silvana A. de Almeida; Nilene R. dos Santos; Josivanda P. Gomes; Maria E. R. Araújo

2005-01-01

152

Genetic Architecture of Delayed Senescence, Biomass, and Grain Yield under Drought Stress in Cowpea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34< r <0.87) and allele effects (0.07< r <0.86) for delayed senescence and grain yield across three African environments. Three of the five putative stay-green QTLs, Dro-1, 3, and 7 were identified in both RILs and diverse germplasm with resolutions of 3.2 cM or less for each of the three loci, suggesting that these may be valuable targets for marker-assisted breeding in cowpea. Also, the co-location of early vegetative delayed senescence with biomass and grain yield QTLs suggests the possibility of using delayed senescence at the seedling stage as a rapid screening tool for post-flowering drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes.

Muchero W; Roberts PA; Diop NN; Drabo I; Cisse N; Close TJ; Muranaka S; Boukar O; Ehlers JD

2013-01-01

153

Genetic Architecture of Delayed Senescence, Biomass, and Grain Yield under Drought Stress in Cowpea  

Science.gov (United States)

The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34< r <0.87) and allele effects (0.07< r <0.86) for delayed senescence and grain yield across three African environments. Three of the five putative stay-green QTLs, Dro-1, 3, and 7 were identified in both RILs and diverse germplasm with resolutions of 3.2 cM or less for each of the three loci, suggesting that these may be valuable targets for marker-assisted breeding in cowpea. Also, the co-location of early vegetative delayed senescence with biomass and grain yield QTLs suggests the possibility of using delayed senescence at the seedling stage as a rapid screening tool for post-flowering drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes.

Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye N.; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J.; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.

2013-01-01

154

Inhibitory effects of antifungal proteins on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A variety of antifungal proteins were isolated from seeds of leguminous plants including French bean, cowpea, field bean, mung bean, peanut and red kidney bean. They were assayed for ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase, enzymes essential to the life cycle of HIV-1 . It was found that the cowpea beta-antifungal protein had a high potency in inhibiting HIV-1 protease and HIV-1 integrase. Cowpea alpha-antifungal protein was potent in inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 integrase. Peanut antifungal protein was characterized by a high inhibitory activity against HIV-1 integrase and an intermediate potency in inhibiting HIV- I reverse transcriptase and HIV- I protease. French bean thaumatin-like protein expressed low HIV- I protease inhibitory activity and red kidney bean lectin inhibited HIV- I integrase by only a very small extent. Antifungal proteins from the field bean and mung bean had an intermediate potency in inhibitory HIV-1 protease and integrase. However, mung bean antifungal protein was not capable of inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The results indicate that nearly all leguminous antifungal proteins examined were able to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase to some extent.

Ng TB; Au TK; Lam TL; Ye XY; Wan DC

2002-01-01

155

Supplemental Ca2+ does not improve growth but it affects nutrient uptake in NaCl-stressed cowpea plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The growth and nutrient assimilation was evaluated in CaCl2- and CaSO4-supplemented cowpea plants subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). The salinity significantly reduced the cowpea vegetative growth. The addition of CaCl2 in the growth medium did not significantly affect plant growth, while for the CaSO4, the beneficial effects of Ca2+ were moderate. Salinity increased the Na+, K+, Cl-, N and P content in the plants, however it decreased the content of Ca2+ and Mg2+. In (more) creases in Ca2+ concentration in the nutrient solution caused decreases in the Na+ and Mg2+ contents and increases in Ca2+, K+, P, and Cl- contents. The supplemental Ca2+ may alleviate the Na+ toxicity and may improve nutritional and ionic balance in cowpea, but it cannot overcome the osmotic effects associated with the increased total salt concentration.

Guimarães, Francisco Valderez Augusto; Lacerda, Claudivan Feitosa de; Marques, Elton Camelo; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Braga de; Aquino, Boanerges Freire de; Prisco, José Tarquinio; Gomes-Filho, Enéas

2012-01-01

156

Óleo essencial de Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. sobre o potencial fisiológico de sementes de feijão caupi/ The essential oil effects of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. on the physiological potential of cowpea bean seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito alelopático do óleo essencial de plantas de carqueja, Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de B. trimera sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 ?L, 15 ?L, 10 ?L, 5 ?L e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergênci (more) a e índice de velocidade de emergência. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. Não foi observado efeito inibidor do óleo essencial de B. trimera na germinação de sementes de feijão caupi, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, o óleo essencial de B. trimera revelou-se eficiente na manutenção da viabilidade dessas sementes. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate the allellopathic effect of essential oils of the Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. plants on the seeds germination of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. The effect of B. trimera essential oil on V. unguiculata was evaluated at levels of 20 ?L, 15 ?L, 10 ?L, 5 ?L and control. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, the rate of speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis (more) was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. An inhibitory effect of B. trimera essential oil on bean seeds germination was not observed, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect. Based on the results, the B. trimera essential oil proved efficient in the viability maintenance of these seeds.

Xavier, M.V.A.; Brito, S.S.S.; Oliveira, C.R.F.; Matos, C.H.C.; Pinto, M.A.D.S.C.

2012-01-01

157

Óleo essencial de Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. sobre o potencial fisiológico de sementes de feijão caupi The essential oil effects of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. on the physiological potential of cowpea bean seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito alelopático do óleo essencial de plantas de carqueja, Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de B. trimera sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 ?L, 15 ?L, 10 ?L, 5 ?L e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. Não foi observado efeito inibidor do óleo essencial de B. trimera na germinação de sementes de feijão caupi, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, o óleo essencial de B. trimera revelou-se eficiente na manutenção da viabilidade dessas sementes.This research aimed to evaluate the allellopathic effect of essential oils of the Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. plants on the seeds germination of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. The effect of B. trimera essential oil on V. unguiculata was evaluated at levels of 20 ?L, 15 ?L, 10 ?L, 5 ?L and control. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, the rate of speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. An inhibitory effect of B. trimera essential oil on bean seeds germination was not observed, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect. Based on the results, the B. trimera essential oil proved efficient in the viability maintenance of these seeds.

M.V.A. Xavier; S.S.S. Brito; C.R.F. Oliveira; C.H.C. Matos; M.A.D.S.C. Pinto

2012-01-01

158

Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

Mbofung CM; Rigby N; Waldron K

1999-01-01

159

Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).  

Science.gov (United States)

Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used. PMID:10646560

Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

1999-01-01

160

N2O Emission and Mineral N Release in a Tropical Acrisol Incorporated with Mixed Cowpea and Maize Residues  

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Full Text Available A laboratory microcosm incubation was conducted to study the influence of mixed cowpea-maize residues on N2O emission and N mineralization in a tropical acrisol. The soils were incorporated with different ratios of cowpea:maize mixtures on weight basis: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, and a control treatment in which there was no residue incorporation. The results show that N2O and CO2 emissions were higher in the sole cowpea treatment (100:0) than the sole maize treatment (0:100) and the control. However, cowpea-maize residue mixtures increased the proportion of N lost as N2O compared to the sole treatments. This interactive effect was highest in the 75:25 treatment. The 50:50 treatment showed moderate N2O emission compared to the 100:0, 75:25 and 25:75 treatments but with corresponding steady N mineralization and appreciable mineral N concentration. It is concluded that mixing cowpea-maize residues might increase the proportion of N lost as N2O in a tropical acrisol. However, compared to the other residue mixture treatments, mixing cowpea-maize residues in equal proportions on weight basis might offer a path to reducing N2O emissions while maintaining a steady N mineralization without risking good N supply in acrisols. The study therefore offers potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining soil fertility in tropical acrisols. However, further studies under both laboratory and field conditions will be required to verify and validate this claim.

Kwame A. Frimpong; David O. Yawson; Kofi Agyarko; Elizabeth M. Baggs

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effect of Virus Input Multiplicity and Tissue Cell Concentration on Growth of Rift Valley Fever Virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of virus input multiplicity and of tissue cell concentration upon the growth of Rift Valley fever virus in L cells (Earle) were determined. The titers obtained in suspension cultures with cells obtained from two separate laboratories were sign...

M. D. Orlando R. D. DeLauter J. M. Riley

1966-01-01

162

Indução de resistência a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Tracheiphilum em Caupi: eficiência de indutores abióticos e atividade enzimática elicitada/ Induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum in cowpea plants: effectiveness of abiotic inducers and elicited enzymatic activity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos de indutores abióticos em cultivares de caupi inoculadas com Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum quanto à severidade, controle da doença e atividade enzimática. Para isso, plantas das cultivares IPA-206 e BR-17 Gurguéia com cinco dias de idade foram pulverizadas com soluções aquosas de ASM (5,0 g do i.a./100 L de água), BABA (1,5 mM) e quitosana (2,0 mg/mL), no primeiro par de folhas e inoculadas, após sete dias da germinação, com (more) 20 mL de uma suspensão de 1 x 10(6) conídios/mL do isolado ISO-PE. A avaliação da severidade da doença foi realizada aos 25 dias após a germinação, através de escala de notas e índice de doença. As atividades das enzimas beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL) foram determinadas em plantas submetidas aos tratamentos anteriores, coletadas aos cinco e 10 dias após a inoculação. Foi observada diferença significativa entre os indutores e a testemunha, nas duas cultivares testadas, aos cinco e 10 dias, destacando-se o indutor ASM, proporcionando um controle da doença de 68,90% e 71,59% nas cultivares BR-17 Gurguéia e IPA-206, respectivamente. O indutor ASM apresentou melhores resultados nas atividades de beta-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase e PAL, destacando-se na cultivar IPA-206 nos dois períodos analisados. Os indutores BABA e quitosana diferiram da testemunha, na atividade de PAL e beta-1,3-glucanase, nessa mesma cultivar, aos cinco dias após a inoculação. Abstract in english The effect of abiotic inducers in two cowpea cultivars inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (E. F. Smith) Snyder & Hansen was evaluated in relation to severity, disease control and enzyme activity. Aqueous solution of ASM (5.0 mg/mL), BABA (1.5 mM) or chitosan (2.0 mg/mL) was sprayed on the first pair of leaves of five-day-old cowpea plants, cultivars BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206. After seven days of elicitor application, inoculation was carried out with (more) 20 mL of a 1 x 10(6) conidia/mL suspension of the ISO-PE isolate. Plants were harvested at five and 10 days after inoculation, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), beta-1.3-glucanase and peroxidase was analyzed. Significant difference between treatment with inducers and control was verified, mainly for ASM which provided a disease control of 68.9% and 71.59% for BR-17 Gurguéia and IPA-206 cultivars, respectively. ASM showed the best results related to beta-1.3-glucanase, peroxidase and PAL and activities, especially for the cultivar IPA-206 five or 10 days. BABA and chitosan differed from the control for PAL and beta-1.3-glucanase activity on cultivar IPA-206, five days after inoculation.

Rodrigues, Antonia Alice C.; Bezerra Neto, Egídio; Coelho, Rildo S.B.

2006-10-01

163

(Restriction of virus infection by plants: Annual report, 1986)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research concerns the strong resistance, or even immunity, against a specific virus that is exhibited by one or a few lines of a plant species, in contrast to the general susceptibility of most lines of that species. The contrast between the reactions to virus inoculation of different lines of one species implies that a single gene or a very few genes may mediate the resistance or immunity. The prospects for isolating, studying and transferring such a gene should be good for a system with these characteristics. Seedlings of a line Arlington of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fail to support the replication of cowpea mosaic virus strain SB (CPMV-SB). Genetic crosses of Arlington cowpea to the systemic host Blackeye 5 cowpea show that the immunity is inherited as a simple dominant gene. In contrast to the seedlings, the protoplasts of the Arlington cowpea support CPMV-SB replication, but only to a very low level compared to protoplasts of Blackeye 5 cowpeas. From evidence reported earlier we concluded that Arlington cowpea protoplasts restrict the production of CPMV-SB proteins. We postulated, and obtained evidence for, a proteinase inhibitor that is specific for a CPMV-SB proteinase. This proteinase inhibitor is our prime candidate for the mediator of the resistance of Arlington protoplasts to CPMV-SB. Progress to date is described.

Bruening, G.

1986-12-05

164

[Restriction of virus infection by plants: Annual report, 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research concerns the strong resistance, or even immunity, against a specific virus that is exhibited by one or a few lines of a plant species, in contrast to the general susceptibility of most lines of that species. The contrast between the reactions to virus inoculation of different lines of one species implies that a single gene or a very few genes may mediate the resistance or immunity. The prospects for isolating, studying and transferring such a gene should be good for a system with these characteristics. Seedlings of a line Arlington of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fail to support the replication of cowpea mosaic virus strain SB (CPMV-SB). Genetic crosses of Arlington cowpea to the systemic host Blackeye 5 cowpea show that the immunity is inherited as a simple dominant gene. In contrast to the seedlings, the protoplasts of the Arlington cowpea support CPMV-SB replication, but only to a very low level compared to protoplasts of Blackeye 5 cowpeas. From evidence reported earlier we concluded that Arlington cowpea protoplasts restrict the production of CPMV-SB proteins. We postulated, and obtained evidence for, a proteinase inhibitor that is specific for a CPMV-SB proteinase. This proteinase inhibitor is our prime candidate for the mediator of the resistance of Arlington protoplasts to CPMV-SB. Progress to date is described.

Bruening, G.

1986-12-05

165

Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 ±1 L-1 at 24 h exposure, respectively). The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 ±1 L-1). The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles.

G. Moravvej; S. Abbar

2008-01-01

166

Fumigant toxicity of citrus oils against cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 microl L(-1) at 24 h exposure, respectively). The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 microl L(-1). The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles. PMID:18819592

Moravvej, G; Abbar, S

2008-01-01

167

Fumigant toxicity of citrus oils against cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 microl L(-1) at 24 h exposure, respectively). The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 microl L(-1). The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles.

Moravvej G; Abbar S

2008-01-01

168

Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food bean and cowpea in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Progress is being reported on a project aiming at genetic improvement of cowpea and Phaseolus bean for better disease resistance using induced mutations. The diseases of concern are anthracnose, angular leaf spot, halo blight and bean rust. Selection was effective in M3 and M4 generations and provided some lines with different resistance and yield levels, which will have to be examined further. (author)

1983-01-01

169

Induced mutations for insect resistance in cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy losses in grain yield are caused by pests in cowpea. Aphids, flower thrips, pod sucking bugs and pod borers are major constraints. Genetic resistance against these pests is scanty in the germplasm screened so far, therefore, a mutation breeding programme was initiated. Seeds of two locally adapted cultivars Katuli-107 and Emma-60 will be irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR of gamma rays. Screening of M1, M2 and further generations for resistance to aphids and Maruca pod borer will be carried out both under field and screenhouse conditions. An outline of the proposed programme is given. (author).

1983-01-01

170

Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a n...

Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, J.J.A., van; Huis, A., van; Dicke, M.; Kossou, D.K.

171

Impacts of Certain Biofertilizers on Cowpea Plants in Sludge Amended Sandy Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sludge from El-Gabal El-Asfer treatment plant was taken to minimize the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the treatments of gamma radiation and lime. Ten kGy dose level of gamma radiation and 20 per cent lime were the optimum treatments to reduce the microbial load of sludge namely, total bacterial counts, total sporeformers, Enterococcus faecalis, total coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila and total fungi. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological agent in controlling certain soil borne diseases and reducing the toxicity of heavy metals comparing with 20 per cent lime and 10 kGy gamma radiation using 4 per cent sludge application and its effect on yield of cowpea components. treatments with gamma radiation, liming and biofertilizers reduced certain soil borne diseases, moreover liming and biofertilizers reduced the concentration of heavy metals in shoots and grains of cowpea plants. However, the application of lime at the rate of 20 per cent with sludge exerted negative effect in all studied parameters as compared to control (NPK) or sludge alone. The greatest values of number and fresh weight of nodules were observed under biofertilizers and gamma radiation treatments. Results revealed that significant effects on dry weight of roots and shoots as well as grain yield production of cowpea plants treated biofertilizers and gamma radiation at dose level 10 kGy under sludge application.

H. Abdel Karem; S.M.A. Radwan; M. Attia

2000-01-01

172

Integrating host plant resistance and chemical control in the management of Cowpea pests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were conducted at Manga in the Sudan Savanna zone of Ghana to evaluate the potential of integrating host plant resistance with chemical control in the management of key insect pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. None of the improved varieties tested showed significant and consistent resistance to the key pests and there were no significant interaction effects between varieties and spray regime. The local varieties, Omondaw and Bengsogla however supported relatively fewer Megalurothrips sjostedti and pod sucking bug (PSB) populations and thus suffered significantly lower damage (shriveled pods) and produced better yields under no insecticide protection than the improved varieties. This was particularly evident in 2005 when the pest population was very high. Spraying the crop with Karate during the reproductive phase produced better results than with neem extracts. Nevertheless, applying neem seed extracts twice and four times increased grain yield by 45 - 54 % and 126 - 144 % respectively over the control, confirming their potential in cowpea Integrated Pest Management.

Paul B Tanzubil; M Zakariah; A Alem

2008-01-01

173

Toxicity of metals to roots of cowpea in relation to their binding strength.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metal phytotoxicity is important in both environmental and agricultural systems. A solution culture study examined the toxicity of 26 metals to roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.); new data were collected for 15 metals and published data for 11 metals. Metal toxicity, calculated as causing a 50% reduction in root elongation rate, was determined based on either the measured concentration in the bulk solution (EC50(b)) or the calculated activity at the outer surface of the plasma membrane (EA50(0)°). The EC50(b) values ranged from 0.007?µM for Tl to 98,000?µM for K, with the order of rhizotoxicity to cowpea, from most to least toxic, being Tl?=?Ag?>?Cu?>?Hg?=?Ni?=?Ga?=?Ru?=?In?>?Sc?=?Cd?=?Gd?=?La?=?Co?=?Cs?=?Pb?>?Zn?=?Al?=?H?>?Mn?>?Ba?=?Sr?>?Li?>?Mg?>?Ca?=?Na?>?K. The EA50(0)° values suggest that the binding of metals to hard ligands is an important, general, nonspecific mechanism of toxicity, a hypothesis supported by the similar toxicity symptoms to roots of cowpea by many metals. However, additional mechanisms, such as strong binding to soft ligands, substantially increase rhizotoxicity of some metals, especially Tl, Ag, and Cs. Besides direct toxic effects, osmotic effects or reduced activity of Ca(2+) at the outer surface of the root plasma membrane (and resultant Ca deficiency) may decrease short-term root growth.

Kopittke PM; Blamey FP; McKenna BA; Wang P; Menzies NW

2011-08-01

174

Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) to Water Stress and Phosphorus Fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in the experimental college of agriculture and forestry, in Maputo-Mozambique, in order to evaluate the response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) to irrigation and phosphorus and test the hypothesis that high levels of phosphorus improves the tolerance of plants to water stress. We used a variety IT 18 of cowpea, short cycle and ended. The experiment was subdivided into building plots complete block design with five repetitions, the irrigation factor was fixed at the main plot with two levels (with irrigation and without irrigation) and phosphorus factor in sub-plots with 3 levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of phosphorus). The fertilization strongly influenced the yield and the number of pods per plant in both irrigation conditions. The effect of fertilizing phosphorus was higher under irrigation. The interaction was significant only for grain yield and number of pods, which means that the effect of phosphorus in these two variables has not been the same for the two levels of irrigation, high levels of phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) have improved the tolerance of cowpea when not irrigated.

V.G. Uarrota

2010-01-01

175

Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

2000-01-01

176

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity.

Braga YF; Grangeiro TB; Freire EA; Lopes HL; Bezerra JN; Andrade-Neto M; Lima MA

2007-03-01

177

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

2007-03-01

178

Effect of ribavirin on hepatitis A virus replication in vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of ribavirin on fetal Rhesus monkey kidney cells (FRhK-4) acutely or chronically infected with hepatitis A virus was studied. The effect of ribavirin on hepatitis A virus yield as detected by radioimmunoassay in acutely infected FRhK-4 cells was dependent on hepatitis A virus inoculum dos...

Chaudhary, Rabindra K; Andonov, Anton P

179

Compositional and nutritional properties of selected newly developed lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compositional and nutritional properties of raw, boiled and steamed samples of selected advanced breeding lines of cowpea (IT8ID-699, IT82E-18, IT84S-2246-4 and TVx3236) were investigated. These lines were part of a larger collection developed by the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and evaluated in agronomic field trials in Nigeria. Protein quality was evaluated using weanling albino rats fed diets which were formulated to supply 10% protein using cowpea samples, with casein as a control. Raw seeds contained 20.1-25.8% crude protein, 0.99-1.96 mg polyphenol and 1.15-2.10 mg phytic acid g(-1) seed flour. IT 81D-699 and TVx 3236 possessed higher crude protein contents and lower amounts of phytic acid compared with IT82E-18 and IT84S-2246-4. Boiling was shown to be more effective than steaming for reducing the levels of antinutrients and improving the protein quality of the seeds, as shown by the higher values for weight gain, protein-efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR) and true digestibility (TD) of the boiled samples. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the values obtained for PER, NPR and TD of diets containing boiled samples of IT8ID-699 and TVx 3236 and casein, indicating the nutritional superiority of these cowpea lines compared with IT82E-18 and IT84S-2246-4.

Giami SY

2005-11-01

180

Farmers Resource – Use and Technical Efficiency in Cowpea Production in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria, the use of stochastic frontier to estimate farm level efficiency effects is still at the rudimentary level and is beginning to build up. Few studies have been undertaken but there is dearth need for more empirical studies on this important issue. This paper presents the analysis of technical efficiency of cowpea production in Osun state southwest Nigeria, using the stochastic production frontier, budgetary and resource-use efficiency analyses. The marginal value products of all the resources used are less than their prices (MVPcowpea production, 17 kobo was realized as profit. The farmers’ average technical efficiency is 87%, which suggest an appreciable use of inputs in productivity. Analysis efficiency using stochastic production frontier shows that farm size, seed, hired labour, family labour, fertilizer and pesticides are significant at 1% and some socio-economic variables using tobit regression model is found to be significantly different from zero at 1% for cooperative membership and farming experience. It is recommended that farmers should be encouraged to join cooperative society and extension services agents should intensify their efforts in training and mobilizing farmers for improved production of cowpea. Also, farmers should cut down the use of resources (quantity) for optimum production and economic benefit.

Omononona B.T.; A.T. Akanbi; O.A. Egbetokun

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The Use of Vegetable Oils in the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Three Cowpea Varieties  

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Full Text Available The use of some of vegetable oils (rubber seed oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil) was evaluated against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus in three cowpea varieties (Ife white, Ife brown and Kano white). The trial involved exposing adult weevils to various levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mL kg-1 of the oil admixed with cowpea seeds. All studies were undertaken under laboratory temperature of 28?3?C and 70?3% r.h. The results showed that all the plant oils tested have toxic effect on weevils in all cowpea varieties. The oil treatments showed significantly high (p<0.001) mortality of adult weevils (72-100%) at 10 Days after Treatment (DAT). Mean percentage adult weevils mortality in the treated grain (82.5%) was significantly higher than in the untreated control (0%). The treated grains gave adequate protection by recording lower oviposition (10.3%) than the untreated control (96.3%). Lower adult weevils` emergence (6.3%) was also associated with the treated grains as against untreated grains (88.2%). The plant oil treatments also significantly (p<0.001) reduced weight loss (2.1%) and grain damaged (9.1%) as compared with untreated control of (48.2%) and (93.2%) in weight loss and grain damaged, respectively. There was no adverse effect of the oils on grains quality. Of the three plant oils used, rubber seed oil was the most effective. Among the varieties used in this study, Ife brown was more resistant to cowpea weevil infestation than Ife white and Kano white in that order.

K.E. Law-Ogbomo; R.K.A. Egharevba

2006-01-01

182

Effect of Visible Light on Canine Distemper Virus1  

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Nemo, George J. (The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.), and Ernest C. Cutchins. Effect of visible light on canine distemper virus. J. Bacteriol. 91:798–802. 1966.—Canine distemper virus (CDV) was inactivated by visible light. The virus was light-sensitive in fluid suspension (in vitr...

Nemo, George J.; Cutchins, Ernest C.

183

Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae)  

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Full Text Available Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth tests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

P.G.C. Odeigah; A.O. Osanyinpeju; G.O. Myers

1998-01-01

184

Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. RESULTS: Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. CONCLUSIONS: Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts.

Mellor KE; Hoffman AM; Timko MP

2012-01-01

185

Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. Results Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. Conclusions Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts.

Mellor Karolina E; Hoffman Ava M; Timko Michael P

2012-01-01

186

Evaluation of native and collected Germplasm for earliness Seed traits and resistance to rust, CMV and leaf spot in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].  

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Full Text Available In the present study, 225 germplasm collections of cowpea including local types were evaluated in augmented design alongwith C152 (check) for high test weight, desirable seed and pod features, earliness and resistance to Cowpea rust (Uromycesvignae), Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CMV) and Cercospora leaf spot for two years ( kharif 2008 and kharif 2009) at Dharwad. Theresults of the investigation revealed that fifteen of the accessions showed bold seeds (test weight > 10g). Accession numberIC202932 and IC247435 showed extra bold seeds (test weight >14g) and also bold pods. About 15 germplasm accessions werefound to be highly resistant to rust; 10 accessions displayed HR reaction to CMV and about 5 accessions showed highlyresistant reaction against leafspot. With respect to Multiple Disease Resistance, accession numbers IC201095, IC257406,IC257435 showed highly resistant reaction against leaf spot and CMV and accessions IC257410 and IC214753 showedresistance against rust and leaf spot. Some of the accessions identified against earliness are IC201087, IC201099,IC202707and IC202709 (68-75 days maturity). Such of the superior germplasm lines identified for earliness, multiple diseaseresistance, bold seed (100 seed weight > 12g) and desirable seed features would be further useful in Cowpea breeding programas parents.

K Sanjeev. Deshpand, B.R.Patil, P. M. Salimath , J.M. Nidagundi and S. Karthigeyan

2010-01-01

187

Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)/ Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com cinco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem d (more) e insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, during seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged (more) insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

Costa, Nivânia P. da; Boiça Júnior, Arlindo L.

2004-02-01

188

Efeito de genótipos de caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., sobre o desenvolvimento de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Effect of cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar o grau e os tipos de resistência em 21 genótipos de caupi ao caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), em teste sem chance de escolha. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de 10 g de grãos por genótipo, que foram infestados por um período de sete dias com cinco insetos adultos coletados ao acaso. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de ovos viáveis e inviáveis por recipiente, número de insetos e porcentagem de insetos emergidos, ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto, massa de semente consumida e massa de semente consumida por inseto. Os genótipos TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F e TE 87 108 6G apresentaram resistência do tipo não preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose, sendo que os dois últimos também apresentam não preferência para oviposição; os genótipos de caupi IPA 206, Canapu e Corujinha mostraram-se suscetíveis a C. maculatus.The objective of this research was to determine the level and types of resistance in 21 cowpea genotypes to the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), in a no-choice oviposition test. Tem grams of grains, per each genotype, were infested with five adult insects collected at random, during seven days. Five replicates were used. The following variables were evaluated: number of viable and unviable eggs per recipient, number of insects and percentage of emerged insects, biological cycle from egg to adult, mass of seed consumed and mass of seed consumed by insect . TE 90 170 29F, TE 90 170 76F, CNCX 405 17F and TE 87 108 6G genotypes showed non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis; the two last genotypes also showed non-preference for oviposition; IPA 206, Canapu and Corujinha cowpea genotypes were susceptible to C. maculatus.

Nivânia P. da Costa; Arlindo L. Boiça Júnior

2004-01-01

189

The Sucrose Starvation Signal Mediates Induction of Autophagy- and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Cowpea Seedling  

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Full Text Available In higher plants, autophagy is bulk degradation process in vacuole necessary for survival under nutrient-limited conditions and plays important roles in senescence, development and pathogenic response, etc. Cowpea is one of the most important legume crops in semi-aride region, which is highly tolerant to drought stress. Changes of photoassimilate status by drought stress and/or sink-source balance appeared to affect autophagy and senescence of leaf in cowpea. Accordingly, we focused on roles of sucrose signal in autophagy and amino acid recycling in cowpea. Effects of starvation stress on the expression of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) and amino acid catabolism-related genes in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] were examined by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and anti-ATG8i specific antibody. Sucrose starvation stress enhanced the expression levels of VuATG8i, VuATG8c and VuATG4 incowpea seedlings. The expressions of amino acid catabolism related genes, such as asparagine synthase (VuASN1), proline dehydrogenase1 (VuProDH) and branched chain amino acid transaminase (VuBCAT2), are also up-regulated under the sucrose starvation. In contrast, high sucrose condition suppressed autophagy and the expressions of ATGs. These results indicate that sucrose starvation stress stimulates both autophagy and amino acid catabolism by regulation of ATGs and VuBCAT2. It is conceivable that sucrose starvation stress enhances autophagy in cowpea, possibly via branched chain amino acid level regulated by the starvation-induced BCAT.

Ayami Kaneko; Eri Noguchi; Yushi Ishibashi; Takashi Yuasa; Mari Iwaya-Inoue

2013-01-01

190

Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação  

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Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.Estudou-se, na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA) em Petrolina, PE, o efeito do plantio consorciado sobre o comportamento hídrico, trocas gasosas e produtividade do milho (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, e do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba, em condições semi-áridas. Os tratamentos foram: milho e caupi em cultivos isolados na população de 40.000 plantas ha-1, e consorciados na população de 20.000 plantas ha-1. No sistema de consórcio, o milho obteve valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, condutância estomática, transpiração e fotossíntese, em relação ao cultivo isolado. Com o caupi, observaram-se valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, porém menor condutância, transpiração e fotossíntese em relação ao cultivo isolado. Observou-se incremento de 18% na produtividade do milho, enquanto a do caupi foi reduzida em 5%, em relação aos respectivos sistemas de monocultivo. Entretanto, o índice de equivalência da terra obtido foi de 1,13, o que indica vantagens do consórcio sobre os sistemas isolados. O maior índice parcial de equivalência de terra foi obtido com o milho, sugerindo que esta espécie foi o principal componente a influenciar a produtividade final do sistema estudado.

JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO LIMA FILHO

2000-01-01

191

Effects of Six Common Plant Seed Oils on Survival, Eggs Lying and Development of the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera:Bruchidae)  

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This research reported the effects of 6 common plants extracts including neem and some others which have been never tested on the longevity of adults, the number of eggs laid and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus. Six seed oils extracted by methylene chloride were tested: Aza...

Mbailao Mbaiguinam; Nanadoum Maoura; Automne Bianpambe; Gabra Bono; Emmanuel Alladoumbaye

192

Effects of Six Common Plant Seed Oils on Survival, Eggs Lying and Development of the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera:Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available This research reported the effects of 6 common plants extracts including neem and some others which have been never tested on the longevity of adults, the number of eggs laid and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus. Six seed oils extracted by methylene chloride were tested: Azadirachta indica, Ricinus communis, Thevetia nerifolia, Balanites eagyptiaca, Moringa oleifera and Kaya senegalensis. All these oils reduce significantly survival of adults, oviposition and total emergence of adults. The most efficient is that of Thevetia nerifolia. At higher concentrations the treatment affects slightly the germination of seeds which remains over 50%. Seed oil of Thevetia nerifolia can be used as a good alternative to pesticides against Callosobruchus maculatus in addition with that of Azadirachta indica which effects are well established by many former works.

Mbailao Mbaiguinam; Nanadoum Maoura; Automne Bianpambe; Gabra Bono; Emmanuel Alladoumbaye

2006-01-01

193

Effect of virus input multiplicity and tissue cell concentration on growth of Rift Valley fever virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of virus input multiplicity and of tissue cell concentration upon the growth of Rift Valley fever virus in L cells (Earle) were determined. The titers obtained in suspension cultures with cells obtained from two separate laboratories were significantly different. With both monolayer culture and suspension culture systems, a virus input multiplicity of 2.5 resulted in the greatest proliferation of virus. Optimal viral yields were obtained in suspension cultures containing 4 x 10(5) tissue cells per ml of suspension.

Orlando MD; DeLauter RD; Riley JM

1967-05-01

194

Genetic evaluation of two aphid resistant cowpea mutants in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Africa. It feeds on young shoots by sucking sap, resulting in the stunting and killing of the plant. Several insecticides are effective against aphids, but resistant cultivars offer the most effective and cheapest means of control. Two aphid resistant mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, were developed from the M2 population of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. Both mutants showed monogenic dominant inheritance of resistance. Crosses between these mutants and two other cultivars, ICV10 and TVu310, indicated that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant resistance gene which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and TVu310. The genes were designated Racl (in ICV10 and TVu310) and Rac2 (in ICV11 and ICV12). Both antixenosis and antibiosis types of resistance mechanism were found to be operating in the mutant cultivars. The improved attributes of the mutant cultivars ICV11 and ICV12 were a high level of resistance to aphid, an increased pod length, an increased number of seeds per pod, a semi-erect plant type and higher grain yields. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

195

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

Singh SK; Kakani VG; Surabhi GK; Reddy KR

2010-09-01

196

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:20605100

Singh, Shardendu K; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Reddy, K Raja

2010-06-17

197

Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds  

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Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

R Márquez; T Córdova; L Castejón; A Higuera

2003-01-01

198

Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than 10 ppb. The results showed the biomass of ozone-fumigated plants was significantly lower and leaf injury of ozone fumigated plants was significantly greater compared to the control group. The major visible-injury symptom appeared as chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves. Antioxidant levels in the charcoal filtered (CF) plants and ozoned plants had significant differences because of their detoxification role in removing ozone and its derivatives. The ozone treatment of 7-day-old plants showed superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) levels significantly higher than in 21-day-old plants and total ascorbate concentrations significantly lower than 21-day-old plants. These results showed that different ozone concentrations exhibit different effects on antioxidant production. Analysis of antioxidants daily for 7 days found that antioxidant levels rapidly changed. Notably, SOD and total ascorbate could be selected as indicators for ozone-effect monitoring in plants. This indicates that cowpea is sensitive to ozone and may be usable as an ozone bioindicator. In conclusion, plant age, ozone concentration and the duration to exposure to ozone were the main physiological or biochemical responses of cowpea. An efficient defense system was generated from a combination of antioxidants.

Chanin Umponstira; Warin Pimpa; Suckaluck Nanegrungsun

2006-01-01

199

Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sources that included (1) uninfested, (2) Maruca vitrata-infested, and (3) mechanically damaged cowpea flowers, as well as (4) stem portions of peabush plants carrying leaves and flowers, (5) healthy M. vitrata larvae, and moribund (6), and live (7) virus-infected M. vitrata larvae. Responses of naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps did not differ for any of the odor source combinations. Wasps were significantly attracted to floral volatiles produced by cowpea flowers that had been infested with M. vitrata larvae and from which the larvae had been removed. Apanteles taragamae females also were attracted to Maruca vitrata-infested flowers after removal of both the larvae and their feces. Female wasps discriminated between volatiles from previously infested flowers and mechanically damaged flowers. Uninfested cowpea flowers attracted only oviposition-experienced wasps that had received a rewarding experience (i.e. the parasitization of two M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea flowers) before the olfactometer test. Wasps also were attracted to uninfested leaves and flowers of peabush. Moreover, they were also attracted to healthy and live virus-infected M. vitrata larvae, but not when the latter were moribund. Our data show that, similarly to what has been extensively been reported for foliar volatiles, flowers of plants also emit parasitoid-attracting volatiles in response to being infested with an herbivore.

Dannon EA; Tamò M; Van Huis A; Dicke M

2010-10-01

200

Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sources that included (1) uninfested, (2) Maruca vitrata-infested, and (3) mechanically damaged cowpea flowers, as well as (4) stem portions of peabush plants carrying leaves and flowers, (5) healthy M. vitrata larvae, and moribund (6), and live (7) virus-infected M. vitrata larvae. Responses of naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps did not differ for any of the odor source combinations. Wasps were significantly attracted to floral volatiles produced by cowpea flowers that had been infested with M. vitrata larvae and from which the larvae had been removed. Apanteles taragamae females also were attracted to Maruca vitrata-infested flowers after removal of both the larvae and their feces. Female wasps discriminated between volatiles from previously infested flowers and mechanically damaged flowers. Uninfested cowpea flowers attracted only oviposition-experienced wasps that had received a rewarding experience (i.e. the parasitization of two M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea flowers) before the olfactometer test. Wasps also were attracted to uninfested leaves and flowers of peabush. Moreover, they were also attracted to healthy and live virus-infected M. vitrata larvae, but not when the latter were moribund. Our data show that, similarly to what has been extensively been reported for foliar volatiles, flowers of plants also emit parasitoid-attracting volatiles in response to being infested with an herbivore. PMID:20842412

Dannon, Elie A; Tamò, Manuele; Van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
201

Field Occurrence of Bruchid Pests of Cowpea and Associated Parasitoids in a Sub Humid Zone of Burkina Faso: Importance on the Infestation of Two Cowpea Varieties at Harvest  

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Full Text Available The cowpea is a very important legume for peasant farmers in West Africa but this crop is very sensitive to bruchid attacks during storage. A study was carried out in a sub humid zone of Burkina Faso to determine the relation between the dynamic of bruchid and parasitoid populations in the fields and cowpea infestation at harvest. The variations in insect numbers were weekly estimated by net captures during the growth of an early and a late cowpea variety. Adults of two bruchid species, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic) appeared early in the fields before cowpea flowering and their population regularly increased over time and from early to late cowpea variety. The Pteromalid Dinarmus basalis Rond was the only larval parasitoid encountered. Its adults appeared later than bruchids and their parasitism activity increased over time. At harvest, 35% of the early cowpea pods and 74.5% of the late cowpea pods were infested by bruchid eggs. 58.5 and 72% of the bruchid eggs laid respectively on the early and the late cowpea variety were parasitized by Uscana sp. The level of cowpea seed infestation by bruchids at the beginning of storage was estimated to be 1 and 2.7% for the early and late cowpea variety respectively. The parasitism rate of bruchid larvae by D. basalis was estimated at this period to be 7.8% for early cowpea variety and 18.2% for the late variety. These results are discussed in view of developing an integrated control method based on the enhancement of the pest natural enemies in the fields and/or into storage systems in combination with beneficial farming practices.

Sanon Antoine; Dabir? Cl?mentine; Ouedraogo Albert Patoin; Huignard Jacques

2005-01-01

202

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus) foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v). Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05) entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05) o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

Yussef F.B. Braga; Thalles B. Grangeiro; Eder A. Freire; Helano L. Lopes; José N. S. Bezerra; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Mary Anne S. Lima

2007-01-01

203

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus) foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v). Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decresc (more) entes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P Abstract in english The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were ana (more) lyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P

Braga, Yussef F.B.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Freire, Eder A.; Lopes, Helano L.; Bezerra, José N. S.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S.

2007-03-01

204

Chemical composition, rumen degradability and crude protein fractionation of some commercial and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) haulm varieties  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonal chemical composition, in sacco organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities and CP fractions of haulms of three improved (ITA2, ITA6 and ITA8) and three commercial (Oloyin, Peu and Sokoto) cowpea varieties harvested in wet and dry seasons were evaluated in a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Effective degradation of OM and CP was estimated at assumed outflow rates of 2 and 4%?h?1. Commercial haulms (all the other parts of the cowpea minus the grains) had greater (P?effective degradation of OM at an outflow rate of 2%. The proportion of substrate degraded in the samples harvested in the wet season was generally less (P?Effective degradability values of OM at the assumed passage rates were greater (P?cowpea haulms. Interactions between group and season were observed for all but one of the CP fractions. Seasonal differences in the quality of haulms showed that attention must be given to handling of haulms to minimize the amount of leaves lost during the wet season.

Anele UY; Südekum K?; Arigbede OM; Lüttgenau H; Oni AO; Bolaji OJ; Galyean ML

2012-06-01

205

Estimation of N-fixed by cowpea as influenced by two phosphorus sources using N-15 dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non conventional phosphorus fertilizers have the potential to be used under different soils. Their effect on the biological nitrogen fixation by legumes is not clear. This greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate two p -sources, namely super phosphate (SSP), and the partially acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR) on nitrogen fixed by Cowpea, using N-15 isotopic dilution technique. Acid soil was limed with Ca C O3, treated with P(as SSP or PAPR), at rates of 0, 50, and 150 mg P/Kg soil, and planted with Cowpea. Results showed that, application of P as PAPR or SSP significantly increased the dry matter content of the whole plant, as well as the total nitrogen uptake. Significant biological nitrogen fixation was found as result of P application. Percentage Ndfa ranged from 28.3 to 70.1 depending on the rate and type of P source, also most of Ndfa was translocated to the seeds. 3 tab

1993-01-01

206

Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

207

Development of transgenic imazapyr-tolerant cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

KEY MESSAGE : Here we present the development of cowpea lines tolerant to a herbicide from imidazoline class (imazapyr). Plants presented tolerance to fourfold the commercial recommended dose for weed control. Cowpea is one of the most important and widely cultivated legumes in many parts of the world. Its cultivation is drastically affected by weeds, causing damages during growth and development of plants, competing for light, nutrients and water. Consequently, weed control is critical, especially using no-tillage farming systems. In tropical regions, no-till farming is much easier with the use of herbicides to control weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of obtaining transgenic cowpea plants resistant to imidazolinone, which would facilitate weed control during the summer season. The biolistic process was used to insert a mutated acetohydroxyacid synthase coding gene (Atahas) which confers tolerance to imazapyr. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Out of ten lines tested for tolerance to 100 g ha(-1) imazapyr, eight presented some tolerance. One line (named 59) revealed high herbicide tolerance and developmental growth comparable to non-transgenic plants. This line was further tested for tolerance to higher herbicide concentrations and presented tolerance to 400 g ha(-1) imazapyr (fourfold the commercial recommended dose) with no visible symptoms. Line 59 will be the foundation for generating imidazolinone-tolerant cowpea varieties, which will facilitate cultivation of this crop in large areas.

Citadin CT; Cruz AR; Aragão FJ

2013-04-01

208

Minimization of oxidative stress in cowpea nodules by the interrelationship between Bradyrhizobium sp. and plant growth-promoting bacteria  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oxidative damage can result in various degenerative processes, including membrane lipid peroxidation, a process promoted by chain reactions initiated by reactive oxygen species that can rapidly affect many lipid molecules, resulting in damage to cellular structures. This study aimed to evaluate the symbiotic performance of cowpea plants inoculated and co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. and different combinations of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), Paenibacillus graminis or P. durus, based on biochemical variables related to protection/oxidative stress and senescence during and after the establishment of symbiosis. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Cowpea seeds were disinfected and inoculated as follows: Bradyrhizobium sp.; co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. and P. graminis or Bradyrhizobium sp. and P. durus; or co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. and the two PGPB (P. graminis and P. durus). The plants were grown in Leonard jars containing washed and autoclaved sand. Uninoculated plants were used as an absolute control. The cowpea nodules were harvested at flowering point and the beginning of senescence. The results showed significant differences in the variables related to antioxidant metabolism in response to the treatments and harvest times. Although there was reduced ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and phenol peroxidase activities were observed in the plants co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. and P. graminis and Bradyrhizobium sp. and P. durus at flowering point, no accumulation of hydrogen peroxide or increase in lipid peroxidation was observed, indicating that the enzymatic activity was effective in controlling the possible oxidative damage in these plants. The cowpeas co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. and the two PGPB (P. graminis and P. durus) showed a delay of the deleterious effects of senescence and, therefore, a better symbiotic performance.

Rodrigues AC; Bonifacio A; Antunes JEL; da Silveira JAG; Figueiredo MdVB

2013-02-01

209

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management.

Appleby JH; Credland PF

2003-04-01

210

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management. PMID:14994820

Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

2003-04-01

211

Antiviral effect of flavonoids on the dengue virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study we analysed the possible antiviral effect on dengue viruses of different flavonoids extracted and identified at the Chemistry Institute, UNAM, from the Mexican plants Tephrosia madrensis, Tephrosia viridiflora and Tephrosia crassifolia. The flavonoids glabranine and 7-O-methyl-glabranine presented 70% inhibition on the dengue virus at a concentration of 25 microM, while methyl-hildgardtol A, hildgardtol A and elongatine had no effect on viral growth. Our results show that glabranine and 7-O-methyl-glabranine isolated from Tephrosia s.p. exert a dose-dependent inhibitory effect in vitro on the dengue virus.

Sánchez I; Gómez-Garibay F; Taboada J; Ruiz BH

2000-03-01

212

[Effect of Panavir on influenza A virus reproduction].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitogenic properties of panavir, as well as its effect on the grippe virus reproduction in cell systems in vitro and the effect on the survival of mice with the experimental grippe infection were studied. It was shown that panavir had no cytotoxic action whereas it was characterized by pronounced mitogenic activity and subsequently could be considered as a perspective immunomodulator. Under in vitro conditions with the use of relatively high doses for the cell contamination with the grippe virus, panavir lowered the virus production in the cell systems. When the contaminating doses were low, panavir inhibited the virus production detected at the early stages of the infection. In the in vivo studies on mice with the experimental grippe infection panavir showed antigrippe activity against both the romantadine resistant and the remantadine nonresistant populations of the grippe A virus. PMID:17523415

Prokudina, E N; Galegov, G A; Semenova, N P; Grigor'eva, T A; Kalinina, T S; Litvin, A A; Stovbun, S V; Sergienko, V I

2006-01-01

213

[Effect of Panavir on influenza A virus reproduction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mitogenic properties of panavir, as well as its effect on the grippe virus reproduction in cell systems in vitro and the effect on the survival of mice with the experimental grippe infection were studied. It was shown that panavir had no cytotoxic action whereas it was characterized by pronounced mitogenic activity and subsequently could be considered as a perspective immunomodulator. Under in vitro conditions with the use of relatively high doses for the cell contamination with the grippe virus, panavir lowered the virus production in the cell systems. When the contaminating doses were low, panavir inhibited the virus production detected at the early stages of the infection. In the in vivo studies on mice with the experimental grippe infection panavir showed antigrippe activity against both the romantadine resistant and the remantadine nonresistant populations of the grippe A virus.

Prokudina EN; Galegov GA; Semenova NP; Grigor'eva TA; Kalinina TS; Litvin AA; Stovbun SV; Sergienko VI

2006-01-01

214

STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE) DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.)}  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986). The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus) (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984). The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978).

RENNIE ROESLI; PHIL DOBIE

1991-01-01

215

Identification of resistance to Cercospora leaf spot of cowpea  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve selected cowpea cultivars were screened for resistance to Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) disease caused by Pseudocercospora cruenta and Cercospora apii s. lat. under artificial epiphytotic conditions in a replicated field trial, with the objective of developing a quantitative measure of disease resistance. CLS incidence, leaf spotting score, lesion density, lesion size, proportion of nodes infected, diseased leaf area, conidia number mg-¹ and fascicle density were assessed in 12 cowpea genotypes at crop maturity. Proportion of nodes infected and leaf spotting score were best able to quantitatively differentiate between the levels of resistance, and allow the exploitation of quantitative resistance to the disease. Both lesion density and lesion size were important in determining the final leaf spotting score but the former was epidemiologically more important than the latter, indicated by its correlation to most of the CLS symptom measures. There was differential resistance to the P. cruenta and C. apii s. lat. among the cowpea varieties screened. Among the cowpea lines screened, resistance to P. cruenta was more common than resistance to C. apii s. lat. Nevertheless, P. cruenta was considered the more aggressive and epidemiologically more important than C. apii s. lat. on the varieties tested evidenced by the strong correlation of P. cruenta incidence with acropetal spread of CLS, intensity of leaf spotting, conidia number mg-¹ and fascicle density. The highly susceptible varieties namely VRB7, Los Banos Bush Sitao no.1 and CB27 were susceptible to both Cercospora pathogens. The cowpea variety VRB-10 was completely resistant to both pathogens and is a useful source of resistance in CLS breeding programmes.

Booker HelenM; Umaharan Pathmanathan

2007-08-01

216

Feijão-caupi autoclavado na nutrição de juvenis de tambaqui/ Autoclaved cowpea in the nutrition of juvenile tambaqui  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da inclusão de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) na ração sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 20 juvenis de tambaqui (10 g), alocados em caixas d'água de 310 L. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações isonitrogenadas e isoenergéticas, com seis níveis de inclusão de feijão-caupi: (more) 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%. Foram determinadas as relações corporais e de desempenho produtivo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Juvenis de tambaqui podem ser alimentados com inclusão de até 25% de feijão-caupi na ração. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in diets on the performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates of 20 juvenile tambaqui (10 g), allocated in 310-L water tanks. The fish were fed for 60 days with isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, with six inclusion levels of cowpea: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Body and prod (more) uctive performance relations were determined. There was no significant difference between treatments. Juvenile tambaqui can be fed with the inclusion of up to 25% cowpea in the diet.

Dairiki, Jony Koji; Correa, Rafaella Barbosa; Inoue, Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki; Morais, Irani da Silva de

2013-04-01

217

Influence of phosphorus on the performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) varieties in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Savanna regions of Nigeria are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus, which retard the growth and yield of crops. Therefore, a study was conducted in the wet season of 2006 at the Dry Land Teaching and Research Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto to evaluate the effect of phosphorus on the growth and yield of two cowpea varieties sourced from Republic of Niger. Treatment consisted of four (4) rates of phosphorus (0, 20, 40, 60 kg.ha–1) factorialy combined with (2) varieties of cowpea (kvx303096G and TN5-78) and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three (3) times. Results showed significant response to applied P on pods per plant, grain and stover yield and 100-seed weight with highest response to the application of 60 kg.P.ha–1. From this study it can be concluded that KVX303096G and TN5-78 could both be sown under Sokoto condition to obtain reasonable yield of about 1 t.ha–1 of grain and 1.6 t.ha–1 of stover. Irrespective of the varieties, application of 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 could be recommended for higher yield of cowpea (1.4 t.ha–1) relative to 0 kg.P.ha–1 that yielded 1.0 t.ha–1.

A. Singh; A. L. Baoule; H. G Ahmed; A. U. Dikko; U. Aliyu; M. B. Sokoto; J. Alhassan; M. Musa; B. Haliru

2011-01-01

218

Protectant Ability Of Xylopia aethiopica And Piper guineense Leaves Against The Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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Full Text Available Certain plant parts used as spices possess insecticidal potential against insect pest of crops and homes.  The effect of Xylopia aethiopica (Negro pepper) and Piper guineense (West African black pepper) at 0.5g (2.5%) and 1g (5%) powdery formulations were employed as contact against 10 pairs male and female Callosobruchus maculatus introduced seperately into rearing jars containing 20g each of Ife Brown and ITB45-2246-4 cowpea cultivars under laboratory conditions, 25-300C and 80-98% R.H. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design and data was analysed using analysis of variance. All rate of treatments showed significant difference in oviposition, hatchability, larval and pupal mortalities when compared to the untreated seeds. Leaf powder of Xylopia aethiopica and Piper guineense at 1g/20g caused significant reduction (P IT845-2246-4 (37.25) and Ife Brown (44.25) when compared to control (59.87). Developmental rates of C. maculatus also differed significantly between treated and untreated seeds and between Ife Brown and ITB45-2246-4 cowpea cultivars.  The result of this work showed that P. guineense is preferable to Xylopia aethiopica at all rates of formulation by the bruchid. The use of these botanicals will assist peasant farmers in overcoming the menace of C. maculatus to stored cowpea.  Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

G A Arong; E E Oku; A A Obhiokhenan; B A Adetunji; D A Mowang

2011-01-01

219

Toxicity Potentials of Leaf Powders of Wild Lemon (Afreagle paniculate) and African Rock Fig (Ficus congensis Engl.) Against the Cowpea Seed Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.)  

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Full Text Available The toxicity potentials of the wild lemon (Afreagle paniculate) and the African rock fig (Ficcus congensis Engl.) leaf powder as an alternative source of control against the cowpea seed bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.) on stored cowpea was evaluated. The results obtained shows that, these plant material powdered leaves had remarkable effects on all the parameters measured. There were 76.34% and 77.20% undamaged seeds recorded respectively, when cowpea seeds were stored with these plant material powdered leaves compared to the control, 7.50%. High mortality of 84.61% and 85.51% respectively, was obtained in these plant material powdered leaves and the least was in the control, 16.84%. Likewise, there was only 7.67 and 6.01 number of adults that emerged while the control had 23.85. High number of eggs laid was recorded in the control. It was also found out that, these plant material powdered leaves are promising candidates for developing botanical, biodegradable and ecologically friendly insecticides which can be integrated with other pest management procedures and could replace the use of synthetic insecticides on small farmers holding. Therefore, the leaf powders are recommended for storing cowpea seeds for at least 12 weeks giving the grains perfect state of wholesomeness.

C. S. Oaya; A. E. Samaila

2013-01-01

220

Role of calcium in signal transduction during the hypersensitive response caused by basidiospore-derived infection of the cowpea rust fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hypersensitive response (HR) of disease-resistant plant cells to fungal invasion is a rapid cell death that has some features in common with programmed cell death (apoptosis) in animals. We investigated the role of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the HR of cowpea to the cowpea rust fungus. By using confocal laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with a calcium reporter dye, we found a slow, prolonged elevation of [Ca2+]i in epidermal cells of resistant but not susceptible plants as the fungus grew through the cell wall. [Ca2+]i levels declined to normal levels as the fungus entered and grew within the cell lumen. This elevation was related to the stage of fungal growth and not to the speed of initiation of subsequent cell death. Elevated [Ca2+]i levels also represent the first sign of the HR detectable in this cowpea-cowpea rust fungus system. The increase in [Ca2+]i was prevented by calcium channnel inhibitors. This effect was consistent with pharmacological tests in which these inhibitors delayed the HR. The data suggest that elevation of [Ca2+]i is involved in signal transduction leading to the HR during rust fungal infection.

Xu H; Heath MC

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Role of calcium in signal transduction during the hypersensitive response caused by basidiospore-derived infection of the cowpea rust fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypersensitive response (HR) of disease-resistant plant cells to fungal invasion is a rapid cell death that has some features in common with programmed cell death (apoptosis) in animals. We investigated the role of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the HR of cowpea to the cowpea rust fungus. By using confocal laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with a calcium reporter dye, we found a slow, prolonged elevation of [Ca2+]i in epidermal cells of resistant but not susceptible plants as the fungus grew through the cell wall. [Ca2+]i levels declined to normal levels as the fungus entered and grew within the cell lumen. This elevation was related to the stage of fungal growth and not to the speed of initiation of subsequent cell death. Elevated [Ca2+]i levels also represent the first sign of the HR detectable in this cowpea-cowpea rust fungus system. The increase in [Ca2+]i was prevented by calcium channnel inhibitors. This effect was consistent with pharmacological tests in which these inhibitors delayed the HR. The data suggest that elevation of [Ca2+]i is involved in signal transduction leading to the HR during rust fungal infection. PMID:9548984

Xu; Heath

1998-04-01

222

Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. RESULTS: In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using a F2 population (n?=?150) from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

Kamphuis LG; Gao L; Singh KB

2012-01-01

223

Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S) and resistant (R), on the biology of (C. maculatus) was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS) and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S) only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de; Oliveira José Vargas de; Barros Reginaldo; Torres Jorge Braz

2004-01-01

224

Root N turnover in cowpea-millet rotation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of N from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to a succeeding millet crop grown in rotation was studied in 15 kg soil pot culture using the 15N isotope. The proportion of N in the roots differed significantly between cowpea varieties, ranging between 19.4 and 31.6%, but was not related to the N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa), which ranged between 885.4 and 1346.2 mg N/pot. Of the four varieties of cowpea, TN7575-80 and KVX309-66 had a positive N balance of 73.3 and 25.5 mg/pot, respectively, and TN3-78 and TN88-63 had a negative N balance of 15 and 108 mg/pot, respectively. The N balance was not related to the N yield or Ndfa, but was related to the proportion of N found in the roots - varieties with a high proportion of N in their roots had a positive N balance and varieties with a low proportion of N in their roots had a negative N balance. Fallowed soil gave the highest millet shoot dry weight (50.7 g/pot) and N yield (437.7 mg/pot). The soil planted with the four cowpea varieties had a significantly higher shoot dry matter and N yield in the subsequent millet crop than the soil planted with millet. The percentage and amount of N derived from the roots (Ndfr) or the preceding crop was higher for cowpea than for millet, and was positively correlated with Ndfa, indicating the importance of fixing legumes in crop rotations. The percentage recovery of root N was quite low, ranging between 3.9 for millet and 23.2 for the cowpea variety TN3-78. It is concluded that residual root N is not important as a source of N for a succeeding cereal crop in a rotation but it is maintaining a favourable soil N balance. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

1995-01-01

225

Suppression of the Cowpea Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Infesting Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Seeds with Some Edible Plant Product Powders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Edible Plant Product Powders (EPPP), West African black pepper (Piper guineense Schum and Thonn), clove (Syzgium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Percy), Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunn.) A. Rich), Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta Schum) and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. Ex G. Donf.) were studies for their effectiveness in suppressing oviposition, egg hatch and progeny emergence against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Pulverized EPPP at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/20 g cowpea seeds were applied as pre-treated and treatment after infestation. All the plant product powders significantly (pC. maculatus when tested as pre-treated application, compared with oviposition in control treatments. Consequently, F1 progeny emergence was significantly (pClove>Ethiopian pepper>Alligator pepper>African locust bean.

F.A.Ajayi; H.U. Wintola

2006-01-01

226

Efeito da variação de níveis de água disponível no solo sobre o crescimento e produção de feijão caupi, vagens e grãos verdes Effect of different levels of available water in the soil on the growth and production of cowpea bean pods and green grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da variação de níveis de água disponível no solo, sobre o crescimento e produção de vagens e grãos verdes de feijão caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], cv. IPA 206. A produção de vagens e de grãos verdes desta espécie é uma excelente alternativa de comercialização para os agricultores do Nordeste do Brasil, visto que o seu consumo é bastante significativo na região. Instalou-se o experimento em vasos de 13 kg, em casa de vegetação na UFPB em Areia (PB), de agosto a dezembro de 2000. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 4 tratamentos correspondentes aos níveis de água disponível do solo (40; 60; 80 e 100%), logo após as irrigações, com 6 repetições. Os resultados observados mostraram que o nível crescente de déficit hídrico afetou drasticamente o desempenho desta cultivar em estudo em comparação à testemunha. As maiores reduções estimadas foram constatadas no comprimento da haste principal, 26 e 48%, no número de folha por planta, 23 e 35%, no número de vagens por planta, 32 e 49%, e na massa de vagens por planta, 23 e 30%, respectivamente para os níveis de 60 e 40% de água disponível do solo. Nas condições do experimento a cultivar de feijão caupi IPA 206 não tolera déficit hídrico acentuado.The effect of different levels of available water in the soil was evaluated on the growth and production of green pod and green beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) of cowpea, cv. IPA 206. Both forms of commercialization are excellent alternatives for farmers from the Northeast of Brazil. Plants were cultivated in 13 kg soil pots under green house conditions in Areia, Paraiba State, from August to December/2000. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with six replications and four treatments corresponding to 40; 60; 80 and 100% of available water in the soil, just after irrigations. The production was significantly affected by the deficit of water. Great reduction was observed in the length of the main stem (26 and 48%), in the number of leaves per plant (23 and 35%), in the number of pods per plant (32 and 49%) and in the mass of pods per plant (23 and 30%), respectively, for the levels of 60 and 40% of available water in the soil. The production of green pod and green beans of cowpea cv. IPA 206 is greatly affected by deficit of water of 40 and 60%.

João Tavares Nascimento; Murilo Barros Pedrosa; José Tavares Sobrinho

2004-01-01

227

Restriction of virus infection by plants. Final report, July 1, 1987--June 30, 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basis of genotypic resistance of the Arlington line of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) against cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been attributed, to an inhibitor of the processing of CPMV polyproteins. We sought to purify the protein that is postulated to be the inhibitor of polyprotein processing and to characterize the inhibitor and its gene. Such information can be the basis for engineering resistance to specific viruses in plants. In studies with cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) we sought understanding of the biochemical basis of the resistance.

Bruening, G.

1992-12-31

228

ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

Jeane de Oliveira Moura; Maurisrael de Moura Rocha; Regina Lúcia Ferreira Gomes; Francisco Rodrigues Freire Filho; Kaesel Jackson Damasceno e Silva; Valdenir Queiroz Ribeiro

2012-01-01

229

In Vitro Antiviral Effect of "Nanosilver" on Influenza Virus  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered by world health authorities. Small particles of silver have a long history as general antiseptic and disinfectant. Silver does not induce resistance in microorganisms and this ability in Nano-size is stronger. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to determine antiviral effects of Nanosilver against influenza virus. TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose) of the virus as well as CC50 (50% Cytotoxic Concentration) of Nanosilver was obtained by MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Sigma) method. This compound was non-toxic to MDCK (Madin-Darbey Canin Kidney) cells at concentration up to 1 µg/ml.  Effective minimal cytotoxic concentration and 100 TCID50 of the virus were added to the confluent cells.  Inhibitory effects of Nanosilver on the virus and its cytotoxicity were assessed at different temperatures using Hemagglutination (HA) assay, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction), and DIF (Direct Immunofluorescent). RT-PCR and free band densitometry software were used to compare the volume of the PCR product bands on the gel. Results and Discussion:  In this study it was found that Nanosilver has destructive effect on the virus membrane glycoprotein knobs as well as the cells.

P Mehrbod; N Motamed; M Tabatabaian; R Soleimani Estyar; E Amini; M Shahidi; M.T Kheiri

2009-01-01

230

Effect of oncogenic virus on muscle differentiation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chick muscle cultures infected with wild-type Rous sarcoma virus form myotubes, but these myotubes vacuolate and by day 6 most have degenerated, leaving only large numbers of transformed mononucleated, replicating cells. Muscle cultures infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant (TS) at permissive...

Holtzer, H; Biehl, J; Yeoh, G; Meganathan, R; Kaji, A

231

Physical properties of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) seed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The physical properties of cowpea seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and thickness were 9.92 mm, 6.87 mm and 6.06 mm, respectively, at 12.01% d.b. moisture content. In the moisture range from 12.01% to 38.90% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted cowpea seed showed that 1000 seed mass increased from 209.23 g to 256.88 g, the projected area from 22.59 to 32.72 mm2, the sphericity from 0.781 to 0.799, the porosity from 50.64% to 51.49% and the terminal velocity from 9.31 m s-1 to 9.61 m s-1. The static coefficient of friction of cowpea seed increased the linearly against surfaces of four structural materials, namely, rubber (0.364-0.394), aluminium (0.212-0.296), stainless steel (0.176-0.238) and galvanised iron (0.324-0.36) as the moisture content increased from 12.01% to 38.90% d.b. The bulk density decreased from 569.9 to 535.6 kg m-3 and the true density from 1154.8 to 1104.1 kg m-3, respectively, with an increase in moisture content from 12.01% to 39.90% d.b.

Yalcin I

2007-03-01

232

PRICE INTEGRATION OF COWPEA RETAIL MARKETS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The study investigated cowpea market integration inNiger State, Nigeria. Data was sourced secondarily. Multistage stratified random sampling was employed to select markets, a total of six (6) markets comprising Kontagora and Salka markets (from production strata); Minna and Bida markets (from consumption strata) and Sabon wuse and Mokwa markets (from transitory strata) were selected for the market integration study.. Data was analysed variously through the use of the Augmented Dicky Fuller unit root test, Johansen co-integration test, Error correction model and Granger causality tests. Results from the market integration study revealed that markets in Niger State present a relatively long run integration in cowpea prices. A strong spatial price linkage exists between Kontagora vs. Sabonwuse and Bida vs. Sabonwuse markets. This was adduced to the ease, flow and use of market information, competition among market participants and the presence of arbitrage. Results from the Granger causality tests indicated both bidirectional and unidirectional causation. Recommendations from thisstudy included the need for the provision of adequate market information on currentprice dissemination to market participants through government agencies. Creating an environment for competition amongst market participants to enhance integration of cowpea prices. Improve infrastructures, such as good and accessible roads and telecommunication network.

Ibrahim Faith Debaniyu

2013-01-01

233

Novel amphiphilic compounds effectively inactivate the vaccinia virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies demonstrated the ability of artificial ribonucleases (aRNases, small organic RNA cleaving compounds) to inactivate RNA-viruses via the synergetic effect of viral RNA cleavage and disruption of viral envelope [1,2]. Herein, we describe the antiviral activity of aRNases against DNA-containing vaccinia virus: screening of aRNases of various structures revealed that amphiphilic compounds built of positively charged 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane substituted at the bridge nitrogen atoms with aliphatic residues efficiently inactivate this virus. The first stage was the destruction of viral membrane and structure of surface proteins (electron microscopy data). Thus, 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane-based aRNases are novel universal agents inactivating both RNA- and DNA-containing viruses.

Fedorova AA; Goncharova EP; Ryabchikova EI; Vlasov VV; Zenkova MA

2012-06-01

234

Evaluation of Sorghum-Cowpea Intercrop Productivity in Savanna Agro-ecology using Competition Indices  

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Full Text Available The competitive behaviour of sorghum-cowpea intercrops at different planting patterns were studied at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching and Research farm, Bauchi in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The treatments comprised of three row arrangements of sorghum/cowpea mixtures; one row of sorghum for one row of cowpea (1S:1C), two rows of sorghum for one row of cowpea (2S:1C) and one row of sorghum for two rows of cowpea (1S:2C), respectively. Sole crops of sorghum and cowpea were included as check to compare yields of intercropped mixtures. Results indicated that grain and straw yields of both sorghum and cowpea were higher in sole cropping than in the intercropping mixtures. However, the 2S:1C planting arrangement exhibited higher LER, competitive indices values, SPI and MAI (N7857.11) compared to the other planting arrangements and the sole crops. From this study, it is inferred that intercropping of sorghum with cowpea at 2S:1C planting pattern will give higher income, better land use efficiency and thus enhancing sustainability of crop production than sole culture of each crop species.   

Tajudeen Olusegun Oseni

2010-01-01

235

Effect of glucosamine on phenotype mixing of vesicular stomatitis virus with avian sarcoma virus  

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Full Text Available The effect of glucosamine on phenotypic mixing between vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and avian sarcoma virus (ASV) was studied. Phenotypic mixing decreased with increase in glucosamine concentration, and, in the presence of 20 mM glucosamine, was no longer detectable. In the presence of 20 mM glucosamine, cells still produced 10(2)--10(3) focus forming units (FFU) of ASV and 10(6) plaque forming units (PFU) of VSV per milliliter. These results suggest that cells producing a relatively large amount of ASV (more than 10(3) FFU/ml) are essential for phenotypic mixing of VSV with ASV.

Ogura,Hajime; Fujiwara,Tazuko

1980-01-01

236

Effect of adenovirus and influenza virus infection on obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effects of adenovirus and influenza virus infections on obesity in various experimental models. We reviewed studies that were conducted within the past 10years and were related to virus infection and obesity prevalence. Here, we discuss a different causal relationship between adenovirus and influenza infections with obesity. Adenovirus infection can cause obesity, whereas obesity can be a risk factor for increasing influenza virus infection and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of obesity due to adenovirus infections may be due to an increase in glucose uptake and reduction in lipolysis caused by an increase in corticosterone secretion. Adenovirus infections may lead to increases in appetite by decreasing norepinephrine and leptin levels and also cause immune dysfunction. The relationship between obesity and influenza virus infection could be summarized by the following features: decreases in memory T-cell functionality and interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-?, and IFN-? mRNA expression, increases in viral titer and infiltration, and impaired dendritic cell function in obese individuals. Moreover, leptin resistance may play an important role in increasing influenza virus infections in obese individuals. In conclusion, prevention of adenovirus infections could be a good approach for reducing obesity prevalence, and prevention of obesity could reduce influenza virus infections from the point of view of viral infections and obesity.

Hur SJ; Kim DH; Chun SC; Lee SK

2013-09-01

237

Effect of adenovirus and influenza virus infection on obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effects of adenovirus and influenza virus infections on obesity in various experimental models. We reviewed studies that were conducted within the past 10years and were related to virus infection and obesity prevalence. Here, we discuss a different causal relationship between adenovirus and influenza infections with obesity. Adenovirus infection can cause obesity, whereas obesity can be a risk factor for increasing influenza virus infection and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of obesity due to adenovirus infections may be due to an increase in glucose uptake and reduction in lipolysis caused by an increase in corticosterone secretion. Adenovirus infections may lead to increases in appetite by decreasing norepinephrine and leptin levels and also cause immune dysfunction. The relationship between obesity and influenza virus infection could be summarized by the following features: decreases in memory T-cell functionality and interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-?, and IFN-? mRNA expression, increases in viral titer and infiltration, and impaired dendritic cell function in obese individuals. Moreover, leptin resistance may play an important role in increasing influenza virus infections in obese individuals. In conclusion, prevention of adenovirus infections could be a good approach for reducing obesity prevalence, and prevention of obesity could reduce influenza virus infections from the point of view of viral infections and obesity. PMID:24007799

Hur, Sun Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan; Chun, Se Chul; Lee, Si Kyung

2013-09-02

238

Effects of ribavirin on respiratory syncytial virus in vitro.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ribavirin was demonstrated to have an antiviral effect on respiratory syncytial virus in vitro. A 50% reduction in plaque number was observed at concentrations of 3 or 10 micrograms of ribavirin per ml. This effect was observed when the drug was added as late as 12 h postinfection. At concentrations...

Hruska, J F; Bernstein, J M; Douglas, R G; Hall, C B

239

Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability.

Sadeghi A; Van Damme EJ; Peumans WJ; Smagghe G

2006-09-01

240

Vírus do mosaico severo do caupi-CPSMV como molécula carreadora para a p28 do vírus da artrite-encefalite caprina-CAEV Cowpea severe mosaic virus CPSMV as a carrier molecule to p28 from caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-CAEV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O vírus da Artrite-encefalite caprina (CAEV) pertence à família Retroviridae, gênero Lentivirus. O CAEV infecta caprinos do mundo inteiro causando artrite, encefalite, mamite, pneumonia e emagrecimento progressivo. Este trabalho mostra a formação de uma quimera construída através da mistura da p28 do CAEV com glutaraldeído e CPSMV, purificada por meio de cromatografia em biogel e sephadex G-150. As cromatografias foram monitoradas através de leituras em espectrofotômetro no comprimento de onda de 280nm, dos líquidos coletados nos tubos. Os picos contendo a quimera foram coletados e submetidos à eletroforese (SDS-PAGE), sendo assim evidenciada a banda correspondente à mesma. Grupos de camundongos swiss foram imunizados com o vírus quimérico (CPSMV + p28), com o vírus CPSMV purificado e com a proteína p28 do CAEV, utilizando o adjuvante de Freund incompleto. Os anticorpos específicos produzidos contra o CPSMV e p28 reconheceram a proteína quimérica em Western Blotting e em teste de ELISA. Os anticorpos contra o vírus quimérico apresentaram títulos mais elevados do que os anticorpos produzidos contra a p28, demonstrando que o vírus quimérico apresenta maior imunogenicidade do que a proteína p28 sozinha. Os resultados mostraram que o acoplamento covalente entre o CPSMV e a p28 do CAEV foi obtido com sucesso, originando uma molécula estável não comprometendo a estrutura do capsídeo do CPSMV. Desta forma, sugere-se que o CPSMV possa ser utilizado como molécula carreadora na produção de vacinas para vírus que infectam animais.Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) belongs to Retroviridae family, Lentivirus genus. This virus infects caprine all over the world causing arthritis, encephalitis, mammitis and progressive emaciating. This research showed chimera's building made by mixing up CAEV p28, with glutaraldehyde, and CPSMV, purified through the chromotography in biogel and sephadex (G-150). After that, some measures in a spectrophometric were developed to absorbance at 280nm. Peaks, which contained chimera, were collected and submitted to SDS-PAGE, evidencing the band relative to itself. Groups of swiss mice were immunized with chimeric virus, purified CPSMV and with p28 protein using incomplete Freund Adjuvant. CPSMV and p28 specific antibodies recognized chimeric protein in Western Blotting and ELISA showing the efficacy of the method. The results showed the covalent coupling between CPSMV and CAEV p28 was successfully archieved, originating a stable molecule, which no disestablished the capside from CPSMV. Besides, it showed that chimeric virus presents more immunogenicity than protein p28 isolated. It's suggesting CPSMV can be used as a carrier molecule in the production of vaccines to the virus, which infect animals.

Francisco Jarbas Santos de Sousa; Marcelo Róseo de Oliveira; Ney de Carvalho Almeida; Marlos Gomes Martins; Maria Erivalda Farias de Aragão; Maria Fátima da Silva Teixeira; Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

N fixation and transfer in Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea inter cropping systems as determined by N-15 isotope dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] N fixation and transfer in maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea intercropping systems, as determined by N-15 dilution technique was studied in two field trials conducted at Bata-atha, in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Two cvs. of cowpea i.e; Bombay and MI-35 were used in maize/cowpea intercropping system, with following combinations of treatments; maize/Bombay, maize/MI-35, Bombay (monocrop), MI-35 (monocrop) and maize (monocrop). A similar set of treatments was used in sorghum/cowpea intercropping system also. The N-15 atom excess, percentage Ndfa, total amount of N fixed, N yield and the total dry matter production were estimated. Maize/cowpea intercropping resulted in an increase in total dry matter production and total N yield compared to monocrop treatment. However the percentage Ndfa and total N fixed showed a decrease compared to monocrop stand. The percentage Ndfa was 60-65 percent monocrop while the same was 45-50 percent in intercropped treatments

2000-01-01

242

Cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus counteracts dietary protease inhibitors by modulating propeptides of major digestive enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cowpea bruchids, when challenged by consumption of the soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, reconfigure expression of their major CmCP digestive proteases and resume normal feeding and development. Previous evidence indicated that insects selectively induced CmCPs from subfamily B, that were more efficient in autoprocessing and possessed not only higher proteolytic, but also scN-degrading activities. In contrast, dietary scN only marginally up-regulated genes from the more predominant CmCP subfamily A that were inferior to subfamily B. To gain further molecular insight into this adaptive adjustment, we performed domain swapping between the two respective subfamily members B1 and A16, the latter unable to autoprocess or degrade scN even after intermolecular processing. Swapping the propeptides did not qualitatively alter autoprocessing in either protease isoform. Incorporation of either the N- (pAmBA) or C-terminal (pAmAB) mature B1 segment into A16, however, was sufficient to prime autoprocessing of A16 to its mature form. Further, the swap at the N-terminal mature A16 protein region (pAmBA) resulted in four amino acid changes. Replacement of these amino acid residues by the corresponding B1 residues, singly and pair-wise, revealed that autoprocessing activation in pAmBA resulted from cumulative and/or coordinated individual effects. Bacterially expressed isolated propeptides (pA16 and pB1) differed in their ability to inhibit mature B1 enzyme. Lower inhibitory activity in pB1 is likely attributable to its lack of protein stability. This instability in the cleaved propeptide is necessary, although insufficient by itself, for scN-degradation by the mature B1 enzyme. Taken together, cowpea bruchids modulate proteolysis of their digestive enzymes by controlling proCmCP cleavage and propeptide stability, which explains at least in part the plasticity cowpea bruchids demonstrate in response to protease inhibitors. PMID:17433072

Ahn, J-E; Lovingshimer, M R; Salzman, R A; Presnail, J K; Lu, A L; Koiwa, H; Zhu-Salzman, K

2007-04-13

243

Cytopathic effect of PPR vaccine virus strains in Vero cells  

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Full Text Available The present study describes the cytopathic effect of two different Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine virus strains presently being used in the country, in vero cells. The cytopathic effect (CPE) was visible from 4th day post infection in Sungri vaccine virus strain where as Arasur vaccine virus strain showed CPE, 36-48 hr post infection. With both vaccine virus strains the CPE in vero cells showed initial cell rounding, aggregation and syncytial development. The generalized CPE was noticed by 6th day in Sungri and by 96 hrs post infection in Arasur strain. However complete detachment of the cell monolayer was observed in Arasur strain by 120 hr, post infection. Infected coverslip cultures stained with H & E and May & Grunwald’s Giemsa showed cell vaculation, cytoplasmic extension and syncytia comprising of five to six nuclei. Acidophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies were also observed. Titers, HA activity and detection by s-ELISA of both the vaccine virus strains are also compared. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000): 93-94

Raveendra Hegde; Amitha R. Gomes; S. M. Byre Gowda; Santhosh A. K and C. Renukaprasad

2009-01-01

244

Line x tester analysis for yield and rust resistance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

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Full Text Available The combining ability of the parents as well as the hybrids of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) involving three lines andsixteen testers was studied. The parents and their resultant 48 hybrids were evaluated in line x tester mating design andobservations were recorded for nine quantitative and one qualitative trait. The GCA/SCA ratio indicated that all the traitsstudied were found to be predominantly controlled by non additive genes. Based on mean performance and GCA effects, lineV 118 and testers IC 202784, IC 202782 and IC 202778 were found to be the best general combiner for seed yield/plant.The hybrids V 118 x IC 202782 and V 118 X IC 202784 were found to be superior for more than one trait based on per seperformance and standard heterosis. Besides the heterotic potential, the hybrid V 118 x IC 202784 was found to bemoderately resistant to rust.

M.S.Uma and Indrani kalubowila

2010-01-01

245

Inheritance of Time to First Flower in Photo-insensitive Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

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Full Text Available Early maturity is a relatively important agronomic trait and is important in the adaptation of annual crops, including cowpea to any agro ecological zone. This trait was studied using days to first flowering under screen house condition to determine heterotic effects, heritability and inheritance of early heritable (h2ns) was 98.9% while (h2bs) was 68%. The F1 hybrid performed better than the average parent by 8.82 and 23.3% over the superior parent. Transgressive segregation was observed in the F2 population with plants flowering 9 days earlier than the early parent and 37 days later than the late maturing parent. Inheritance of earliness was observed to be controlled by duplicate dominant epistasis with late flowering partially dominant over early flowering.

A.O. Adeyanju; M.F. Ishiyaku; L.O. Omoigui

2007-01-01

246

The African yam bean seed lectin affects the development of the cowpea weevil but does not affect the development of larvae of the legume pod borer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera : Pyrialidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0% (wt/wt) of dietary lectin. Larval mortality was between 30% and 88%, while delays in total developmental time ranged between 7 and 13 days. The lectin had no effect on development of larvae of M. vitrala, when tested through topical artificial diet incorporation assays, except at the extremely high dose of 35% dietary level.

Machuka JS; Okeola OG; Chrispeels MJ; Jackai LE

2000-03-01

247

Diverse Effects of Cyclosporine on Hepatitis C Virus Strain Replication  

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Recently, a production system for infectious particles of hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizing the genotype 2a JFH1 strain has been developed. This strain has a high capacity for replication in the cells. Cyclosporine (CsA) has a suppressive effect on HCV replication. In this report, we characterize th...

Ishii, Naoto; Watashi, Koichi; Hishiki, Takayuki; Goto, Kaku; Inoue, Daisuke; Hijikata, Makoto; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Nobuyuki

248

Effect of chemicals on the infectivity of chicken anaemia virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

None of five commercial disinfectants, invert soap, amphoteric soap, orthodichlorobenzene, iodine disinfectant and sodium hypochlorite, was completely effective in destroying the infectivity of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in liver material at 5% concentration. However, the iodine disinfectant and sodium hypochlorite completely inactivated the virus in tissue culture (TC) material when used at 1% concentration. CAV was resistant to organic solvents such as methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, acetone and chloroform. Beta-propiolactone and glutaraldehyde inactivated CAV. Fumigation with formaldehyde for 24 h only partly inactivated both liver and TC materials. It is presumed very hard to disinfect CAV in poultry facilities. PMID:18670943

Yuasa, N

1992-01-01

249

Effect of chemicals on the infectivity of chicken anaemia virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

None of five commercial disinfectants, invert soap, amphoteric soap, orthodichlorobenzene, iodine disinfectant and sodium hypochlorite, was completely effective in destroying the infectivity of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in liver material at 5% concentration. However, the iodine disinfectant and sodium hypochlorite completely inactivated the virus in tissue culture (TC) material when used at 1% concentration. CAV was resistant to organic solvents such as methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, acetone and chloroform. Beta-propiolactone and glutaraldehyde inactivated CAV. Fumigation with formaldehyde for 24 h only partly inactivated both liver and TC materials. It is presumed very hard to disinfect CAV in poultry facilities.

Yuasa N

1992-01-01

250

Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación). Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante altoIn the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment) were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nutrients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

Silvina R Drago; Rolando J González; Luis Chel-Guerrero; Mirta E Valencia

2007-01-01

251

[Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

Modernell MG; Granito M; Paolini M; Olaizola C

2008-09-01

252

Structurally dissimilar proteins with antiviral and antifungal potency from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evidence is presented for the existence of multiple proteins with antifungal and antiviral potency in cowpea seeds. The two proteins, designated alpha- and beta-antifungal proteins in accordance with their order of elution from the CM-Sepharose column, were capable of inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase and one of the glycohydrolases associated with HIV infection, alpha-glucosidase, but beta-glucuronidase was not repressed. The ability of the proteins in retarding mycelial growth of a variety of fungi was also demonstrated with alpha-antifungal protein being more potent in most of the cases. Beta-antifungal protein was more active in only one instance. Both antifungal proteins had low cell-free translation-inhibitory activity. The proteins were adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel-and CM-Sepharose but could be separated from one another during chromatography on the latter medium by means of a linear NaCl concentration gradient. Different molecular weights were exhibited by the proteins, being 28 kDa and 12 kDa respectively for alpha- and beta- antifungal proteins. Alpha-antifungal protein was characterized by an N-terminal sequence showing close resemblance to sequences of chitinases. Beta-antifungal protein exhibited an N-terminal sequence hitherto unknown in the literature.

Ye XY; Wang HX; Ng TB

2000-11-01

253

Genetics of induced mutant genes for resistance to aphids in cowpea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The cowpea aphid is a serious pest, particularly in Africa and Asia. Aphids damage the crop by sucking sap from the terminal shoot and from petioles of the young leaves. An indirect and often more serious damage is caused by the transmission of mosaic viruses. Several resistant lines have been identified at IITA and were used in breeding. More recently, two resistant varieties ICV11 and ICV12 were developed at ICIPE, which derive their aphid resistance from mutation induction by gamma irradiation. Backcrossing the mutants with the susceptible original variety ICV1 indicated monogenic-dominant inheritance of the resistance. Other resistant cultivars included in the genetic study were ICV10, an improved breeding line from landraces in Kenya and Tvu 310, a breeding line from IITA. Crosses between these resistant cultivars led to conclude that ICV10 and Tvu 310 contain the same dominant gene for resistance and that ICV11 and ICV12 contain another dominant gene for resistance, which is non-allelic to the resistance gene in ICV10 and Tvu 310. The genes were designated as Rac1 (in ICV10 and Tvu 310) and Rac2 (in induced mutants). (author)

1989-01-01

254

Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using a F2 population (n?=?150) from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. Conclusions The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

Kamphuis Lars G; Gao Lingling; Singh Karam B

2012-01-01

255

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins bind to the peritrophic membrane of larval sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, we show that vicilins from two Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) genotypes, Epace-10 and IT 81D-1045, which are susceptible and resistant to attack by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus, respectively, associate with the peritrophic membrane (PM) from larvae of Diatraea saccharalis. Solutions with increasing concentrations of vicilins were incubated with PM of the larvae and subsequently analysed by electrophoresis with SDS. It was observed that the majority of the bands of approximately 50,000 Da (characteristic of vicilins) did not appear in the separating gel and only lower molecular weight polypeptides were seen. When vicilins were incubated with PM, and the solution was then heated after the incubation, the band pattern in the gel appeared completely different. It was observed that the vicilins were being hydrolysed by proteinases associated with the PM. When the incubated samples were heated after the reaction, the major bands reappeared, demonstrating that most of the vicilin molecules had bound to the PM of D. saccharalis. These results suggest that when the vicilins are in contact with the PM they are bound and also digested by the PM of this insect. The major and several minor proteinases from the PM were extracted with Triton X-100 and their activity and the inhibition of this activity were analysed by ingel assays. Based on the effects of proteinase inhibitors, the PM-associated activity is due to serine class proteinases. Larvae of D. saccharalis were fed on artificial diets containing purified vicilins from Epace-10 or IT 81D-1045 seeds. Vicilins from Epace-10 did not affect the larval development, while IT 81D-1045 vicilins reduced significantly the survival rate of the sugar cane borer.

Mota AC; Damatta RA; Lima Filho M; Silva CP; Xavier-Filho J

2003-09-01

256

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins bind to the peritrophic membrane of larval sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we show that vicilins from two Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) genotypes, Epace-10 and IT 81D-1045, which are susceptible and resistant to attack by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus, respectively, associate with the peritrophic membrane (PM) from larvae of Diatraea saccharalis. Solutions with increasing concentrations of vicilins were incubated with PM of the larvae and subsequently analysed by electrophoresis with SDS. It was observed that the majority of the bands of approximately 50,000 Da (characteristic of vicilins) did not appear in the separating gel and only lower molecular weight polypeptides were seen. When vicilins were incubated with PM, and the solution was then heated after the incubation, the band pattern in the gel appeared completely different. It was observed that the vicilins were being hydrolysed by proteinases associated with the PM. When the incubated samples were heated after the reaction, the major bands reappeared, demonstrating that most of the vicilin molecules had bound to the PM of D. saccharalis. These results suggest that when the vicilins are in contact with the PM they are bound and also digested by the PM of this insect. The major and several minor proteinases from the PM were extracted with Triton X-100 and their activity and the inhibition of this activity were analysed by ingel assays. Based on the effects of proteinase inhibitors, the PM-associated activity is due to serine class proteinases. Larvae of D. saccharalis were fed on artificial diets containing purified vicilins from Epace-10 or IT 81D-1045 seeds. Vicilins from Epace-10 did not affect the larval development, while IT 81D-1045 vicilins reduced significantly the survival rate of the sugar cane borer. PMID:16256689

Mota, A C; Damatta, R A; Lima Filho, M; Silva, C P; Xavier-Filho, J

2003-09-01

257

Growth and Yield Responses of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Genotypes to Nitrogen Fertilizer (NPK) Application in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The effects of compound fertilizer (NPK) application on growth and yields of cowpea genotypes were investigated in a field study at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin in the Southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. The study was designed as a series of factorial experiments in split-plot arrangements with four replications and were carried out in the late cropping seasons (August to December) of 2002 to 2004. Ten cowpea genotypes were evaluated at fertilizer levels ranging from 0 to 300 kg fertilizer (NPK) ha-1 (equivalent to 0-0-0 to 60-30-30 kg N-P-K ha-1). Results show that fertilizer application resulted in significant improvement in plant height, number of leaves per plant and reduced days to flowering, but no significant effect on total number of flowers produced. Application of fertilizer resulted in significant decreases in nodule production. Yield components and grain yield were significantly enhanced by the application of fertilizer at 150 kg ha-1 (i.e., 30 kg N, 15 P2O5 and 15 K2O ha-1), but significant fertilizerxgenotype effect indicated differential genotype responses to fertilizer application which may have significant practical implications for field production. It was therefore concluded that the application of fertilizer to cowpea is beneficial although in small quantity and genotype dependent.

Y.A. Abayomi; T.V. Ajibade; O.F. Sammuel; B.F. Saadudeen

2008-01-01

258

Fungi associated with stored unprocessed cowpea and groundnut varieties available in Borno State, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five stored unprocessed cowpea (Vigna spp) and four groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) varieties available in Borno State were examined for the mould flora. The degree of infestation of the grains ranged from 31% to 100% and 68% to 86% for surface sterilized cowpea and groundnut respectively. The mould flora commonly encountered were species of the genera Aspergillus. Penicillium species, Scopulariopsis species and Trichoderma species were also found. The flora of the cowpea was dominated by Aspergillus niger while Aspergillus flavus was the dominant mould on groundnut.

Collison E; Ohaeri G; Wadul-Mian M; Nkama I; Negbenebor C; Igene J

1992-01-01

259

[Study in the killing effect of Myxoma virus to C6 glioma cell in vitro].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility of C6 glioma cells to Myxoma virus and the killing effect of Myxoma virus to the C6 glioma cells in vitro. METHODS: C6 glioma cells were infected with myxoma virus, used death virus as the negative control, 5-FU as the positive control, DEMD as blank control. The number of living cells were counted every 24 h, and Western-Blot method, inverted microscope and MTT assay were applicated to observe the cell morphology and survival rate in each group. RESULTS: The cell number were decreased rapidly in virus effected group and 5-FU group, with significant differences to the negative and blank control groups. And cells in virus effected group appeared cytopathic effect. CONCLUSIONS: C6 glioma cells were susceptible to myxoma virus and myxoma virus had killing effect to C6 glioma cells in vitro.

Zang M; Zhang QS; Liang SJ; Ji T; Lin HZ; Li WP

2012-02-01

260

Distemper virus encephalitis exerts detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Despite knowledge about the impact of brain inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis, data on the influence of virus encephalitis on dentate granule cell neurogenesis are so far limited. Canine distemper is considered an interesting model of virus encephalitis, which can be associated with a chronic progressing disease course and can cause symptomatic seizures. METHODS: To determine the impact of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection on hippocampal neurogenesis, we compared post-mortem tissue from dogs with infection with and without seizures, from epileptic dogs with non-viral aetiology and from dogs without central nervous system diseases. RESULTS: The majority of animals with infection and with epilepsy of non-viral aetiology exhibited neuronal progenitor numbers below the age average in controls. Virus infection with and without seizures significantly decreased the mean number of neuronal progenitor cells by 43% and 76% as compared to age-matched controls. Ki-67 labelling demonstrated that hippocampal cell proliferation was neither affected by infection nor by epilepsy of non-viral aetiology. Analysis of CDV infection in cells expressing caspase-3, doublecortin or Ki-67 indicated that infection of neuronal progenitor cells is extremely rare and suggests that infection might damage non-differentiated progenitor cells, hamper neuronal differentiation and promote glial differentiation. A high inter-individual variance in the number of lectin-reactive microglial cells was evident in dogs with distemper infection. Statistical analyses did not reveal a correlation between the number of lectin-reactive microglia cells and neuronal progenitor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that virus encephalitis with and without seizures can exert detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, which might contribute to long-term consequences of the disease. The lack of a significant impact of distemper virus on Ki-67-labelled cells indicates that the infection affected neuronal differentiation and survival of newborn cells rather than hippocampal cell proliferation.

von Rüden EL; Avemary J; Zellinger C; Algermissen D; Bock P; Beineke A; Baumgärtner W; Stein VM; Tipold A; Potschka H

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Response of Maize (Zea mays) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Phosphate Rock  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05) affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1), okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1) and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1) in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

M.O. Akande; F.I. Oluwatoyinbo; C.O. Kayode; F.A. Olowokere

2006-01-01

262

DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL Efeitos da deficiência hídrica e recuperação sobre a assimilação de nitrato e atividade de nódulos de plantas de caupi inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium spp. sob um nível moderado de nitrato  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756) strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.Este estudo foi feito com a finalidade de estabelecer efeitos comparativos da seca e da reidratação na assimilação do nitrato e atividade do nódulo relacionado com a fixação de N2 em planta de caupi [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] previamente inoculada com Bradyrhizobium spp., estirpe BR-3256 (CB-756), na presença de NO-3 (5 mol m-3). Aos 28 dias após a emergência, as plantas noduladas foram submetidas à seca, durante 4 dias sucessivos e, depois, reidratadas com solução nutritiva durante 2 dias. A seca causou um aumento rápido no conteúdo de nitrato da raiz e uma acentuada redução na atividade da redutase do nitrato de folhas (NR). Em contraste, no nódulo esta atividade foi aumentada ligeiramente pelo déficit de água. Concomitantemente, nos nódulos das plantas estressadas, observou-se uma redução progressiva na concentração de leghemoglobina, atividade de glutamina sintetase (GS) e na concentração de ureídeos na seiva do xilema. A atividade da NR nas folhas aumentou rapidamente após a reidratação enquanto que o conteúdo de nitrato da mesma decresceu. Em contraste, a atividade de GS e a concentração de proteínas solúveis nos nódulos continuaram diminuindo nas plantas reidratadas. A concentração de leghemoglobina apresentou uma boa recuperação, enquanto que o conteúdo de ureídeos sofreu um leve aumento após a reidratação. Apesar da assimilação de nitrato em folhas e a atividade do nódulo terem sido severamente afetados pelo déficit de água, a rápida recuperação da atividade de redutase do nitrato nas folhas sugere que o primeiro processo seja menos susceptível ao ciclo de seca/reidratação quando plantas de caupi são noduladas em presença de nível moderado de nitrato.

Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da Silveira; Roberto Cezar Lobo da Costa; José Tadeu Abreu Oliveira

2001-01-01

263

Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a broad range of viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus). We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki), which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses.

Ueda K; Kawabata R; Irie T; Nakai Y; Tohya Y; Sakaguchi T

2013-01-01

264

Effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine antibodies on the shedding and transmission of challenge viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different genotypes of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 virus (APMV-1) circulate in many parts of the world. Traditionally, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recognized as having two major divisions represented by classes I and II, with class II being further divided into sixteen genotypes. Although all NDV are members of APMV-1 and are of one serotype, antigenic and genetic diversity is observed between the different genotypes. Reports of vaccine failure from many countries and reports by our lab on the reduced ability of classical vaccines to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding have created renewed interest in developing vaccines formulated with genotypes homologous to the virulent NDV (vNDV) circulating in the field. We assessed how the amount and specificity of humoral antibodies induced by inactivated vaccines affected viral replication, clinical protection and evaluated how non-homologous (heterologous) antibody levels induced by live NDV vaccines relate to transmission of vNDV. In an experimental setting, all inactivated NDV vaccines protected birds from morbidity and mortality, but higher and more specific levels of antibodies were required to significantly decrease viral replication. It was possible to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding with high levels of antibodies and those levels could be more easily reached with vaccines formulated with NDV of the same genotype as the challenge viruses. However, when the levels of heterologous antibodies were sufficiently high, it was possible to prevent transmission. As the level of humoral antibodies increase in vaccinated birds, the number of infected birds and the amount of vNDV shed decreased. Thus, in an experimental setting the effective levels of humoral antibodies could be increased by (1) increasing the homology of the vaccine to the challenge virus, or (2) allowing optimal time for the development of the immune response.

Miller PJ; Afonso CL; El Attrache J; Dorsey KM; Courtney SC; Guo Z; Kapczynski DR

2013-12-01

265

Effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine antibodies on the shedding and transmission of challenge viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different genotypes of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 virus (APMV-1) circulate in many parts of the world. Traditionally, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recognized as having two major divisions represented by classes I and II, with class II being further divided into sixteen genotypes. Although all NDV are members of APMV-1 and are of one serotype, antigenic and genetic diversity is observed between the different genotypes. Reports of vaccine failure from many countries and reports by our lab on the reduced ability of classical vaccines to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding have created renewed interest in developing vaccines formulated with genotypes homologous to the virulent NDV (vNDV) circulating in the field. We assessed how the amount and specificity of humoral antibodies induced by inactivated vaccines affected viral replication, clinical protection and evaluated how non-homologous (heterologous) antibody levels induced by live NDV vaccines relate to transmission of vNDV. In an experimental setting, all inactivated NDV vaccines protected birds from morbidity and mortality, but higher and more specific levels of antibodies were required to significantly decrease viral replication. It was possible to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding with high levels of antibodies and those levels could be more easily reached with vaccines formulated with NDV of the same genotype as the challenge viruses. However, when the levels of heterologous antibodies were sufficiently high, it was possible to prevent transmission. As the level of humoral antibodies increase in vaccinated birds, the number of infected birds and the amount of vNDV shed decreased. Thus, in an experimental setting the effective levels of humoral antibodies could be increased by (1) increasing the homology of the vaccine to the challenge virus, or (2) allowing optimal time for the development of the immune response. PMID:23796788

Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; El Attrache, John; Dorsey, Kristi M; Courtney, Sean C; Guo, Zijing; Kapczynski, Darrell R

2013-06-21

266

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) as a green manure to improve the productivity of a menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) intercropping system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field experiment was conducted at Central Institute of Medicinal and aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow, India in a sandy loam soil (entisol) during 2004 and 2005. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) was intercropped with transplanted menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) for green manuring (GM) and for fodder plus green manuring (F+GM) with four levels of urea N (0, 30, 60, 90kgNha?¹). In GM, cowpea was incorporated in the soil 30 days after sowing (DAS), while in F+GM 50% (alternate) cow pea plants were used for fodder at 30 DAS and 50% were incorporated in soil at 35 DAS. No significant differences were found between GM and F+GM with respect to herb and oil yield of menthol mint and succeeding palmarosa crop and nitrogen economy. Fresh biomass yield of menthol mint increased by 23.4% and essential oil yield by 25.2% by cowpea green manure (mean of GM and F+GM) as compared to without GM across all N levels. The contribution of green manure, as a nitrogen source, was equivalent to 30kgNha?¹ when no fertilizer nitrogen was applied in menthol mint. The residual effect of cowpea GM was studied in a succeeding crop of fast growing essential oil yielding palmarosa (Cymbopopogon martinii (Roxb.)Wats. var motia Burk.) over two harvests (July and December). Averaged across N levels green manure resulted in an increase of 18.5% in the fresh biomass and 17.7% in essential oil yield of palmarosa over no green manuring.

Singh Man; Singh A; Singh S; Tripathi RS; Singh AK; Patra DD

2010-03-01

267

Some characters of vacuum-uv effects on Sendai virus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Taking advantage of having assay techniques for various functions located in nucleocapside (infectivity) and in the envelope (hemagglutination, neuraminidase activity and hemolysis), effects of vacuum-uv radiation on Sendai virus were investigated. Monochromatic 163-nm photons from a bromine discharge lamp and polychromatic synchrotron radiation with wave-lengths longer than 115 nm from the electron storage ring were used as the vacuum-uv sources. Irradiation was performed in vacuum (dry) and in aqueous suspension (wet). For comparison the viruses were irradiated with far-uv radiation (254 nm). While the far-uv radiation affected only infectivity, the vacuum-uv radiation affected the infectivity and other virus functions as well. SDS-electrophoretic behaviors after irradiation in dry state indicated that vacuum-uv radiation caused uniform damage over several polypeptide components. The pattern was more similar to that of ..gamma..-rays previously studied. These results may be related to the fact that far-uv photons are absorbed predominantly in viral nucleic acids while vacuum-uv photons are absorbed more or less uniformly by various virus components. In the irradiation in suspension some difference was noted between vacuum-uv and ..gamma..-radiations.

Megumi, Tsuneo (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)); Ito, Takashi; Ito, Atsushi

1982-09-01

268

Cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.): traditional and improved cropping methods in northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article describes the traditional cowpea cropping system in Dambatta, Kano State, Nigeria. Through a baseline survey it becomes clear that traditionally cowpea is mostly intercropped with cereals, that the importance of land preparation is marginal, that yields are low and that, in general, the technical level of the cowpea grower is low (low inputs of fertilizer and pesticide). In a second part some data are given about a project that introduced à new cowpea variety, T.V.X.-3.236, and improved methods. It is shown that, although better yields are possible, the extension service does not succeed in motivating the farmers enough so that the outcome of the project intervention is uncertain.

F. Pauwels; P. Van Damme; W. Sampers

1986-01-01

269

Effects of double-stranded RNA viruses on the reproduction of Phaffia rhodozyma.  

Science.gov (United States)

DsRNA viruses were transferred from a virus-containing strain to a virus-free strain of Phaffia rhodozyma by protoplast fusion. The resulting new strain carried all three types of dsRNA of the virus-containing strain and had the electrophoretic karyotype of the virus-free strain. The effects of the dsRNA viruses on the host fitness were checked by following the asexual and the sexual reproductivity. The results demonstrated that viruses have no effect on the growth rate during the lag and log phases of the vegetative reproduction, but the maximum cell numbers in the stationary phase differ significantly. Inconclusive results were obtained as concerns the effects of viruses on the sexual reproduction. PMID:11426864

Pfeiffer, I; Litter, J; Pénzes, Z S; Kucsera, J

2001-01-01

270

Effects of double-stranded RNA viruses on the reproduction of Phaffia rhodozyma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DsRNA viruses were transferred from a virus-containing strain to a virus-free strain of Phaffia rhodozyma by protoplast fusion. The resulting new strain carried all three types of dsRNA of the virus-containing strain and had the electrophoretic karyotype of the virus-free strain. The effects of the dsRNA viruses on the host fitness were checked by following the asexual and the sexual reproductivity. The results demonstrated that viruses have no effect on the growth rate during the lag and log phases of the vegetative reproduction, but the maximum cell numbers in the stationary phase differ significantly. Inconclusive results were obtained as concerns the effects of viruses on the sexual reproduction.

Pfeiffer I; Litter J; Pénzes ZS; Kucsera J

2001-01-01

271

Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and 7% were infected with the Blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV-BlCM). Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV) was detected with an infection range of 5.4%- 12.5% in bambara samples tested using indirect antigen-first ELISA, indicator IITA cowpea lines Tvu 3433, Tvu 1582, Tvu 401 and Tvu 2657 and Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Topcrop. No viruses were detected in the peanut samples. The lack of a broad range of serological antisera limited the number of viruses tested but results show that the bulk of the samples were infected with seed-borne viruses. The results imply that resources must be invested in improving the quality of seed from the smallholder sector. National and international germplasm collection centres should be equipped with capacity to test for seed-borne viruses so as to minimize the movement of infected germplasm in breeding materials or germplasm exchange in international collections.

Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.

2010-01-01

272

Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. METHODS: We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s) of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1) was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164) of FMDV VP1. RESULTS: The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-gamma. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. CONCLUSION: Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

Yang CD; Liao JT; Lai CY; Jong MH; Liang CM; Lin YL; Lin NS; Hsu YH; Liang SM

2007-01-01

273

Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

1983-01-01

274

Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”). Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP) aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

Ezezika Obidimma C; Daar Abdallah S

2012-01-01

275

Pathogenesis of Newcastle Disease in Vaccinated Chickens: Pathogenicity of Isolated Virus and Vaccine Effect on Challenge of Its Virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7, and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in the spleen with fibrinous exudation and proliferation of macrophages, sinusoidal fibrin in the liver, proliferation of macrophages in the lung, lymphocytic necrosis in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and thymus, necrosis of bone marrow, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and necrosis of feather epithelial cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were seen in the lesions mentioned above. The ND virus could not induce the encephalitis and pancreatitis that were observed in the natural case of ND in vaccinated chickens. There was no clinical disease in vaccinated chickens after the challenge of the ND virus. In diluted ND vaccine experiments, chickens vaccinated with a high dilution of vaccine and then challenged with the ND virus showed clinical sign and mortality with pancreatic focal necrosis. Vaccine diluted with fresh tap water had no effect on protection against the challenge of the ND virus. This study suggests that improper vaccination may be involved in outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chickens.

Nakamura K; Ito M; Nakamura T; Yamamoto Y; Yamada M; Mase M; Imai K

2013-08-01

276

Effects of ultraviolet laser radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of usual low-intensity continuous (? = 254 nm,I = 10 W/m2) UV radiation and high-intensity laser nanosecond (? = 266 nm, ?p = 10 ns, I = 109 W/m2) or picosecond (? = 266 nm, ?p = 23 ps, I = 1012 W/m2) UV radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (a member of the Togaviridae family) were compared. The quantum yields of infectivity inactivation, pyrimidine dimer formation and RNA-protein crosslinking were determined. (author)

1991-01-01

277

Reduction of the nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus (Coloeptera: bruchidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the food nutrients such as the Free Fatty Acids and some other nutritional values of cowpea infested with Callosobruchus maculatus invitro. 400g of uninfested cowpea was divided into two parts of 200g each. The first 200g was left to be infested by Callosobruchus maculatus for 100 days. The remaining 200g was preserved in a Kilner jar in the laboratory. The mean moisture content of the infested cowpea was 21.10 while that of the uninfested cowpea was 32.70. The mean dry matter content of the infested cowpea was 78.89 while that of the uninfested cowpea was 67.30. The mean fat content of the infested sample was 2.75 while that of the uninfested sample was 6.23. The mean ash content of the infested sample was 1.85 while that of the uninfested sample was 1.90. The mean crude fibre content of the infested sample was 3.45 while the value for the uninfested sample was 2.84. The mean crude protein content values of the infested sample were 14.90 while the uninfested was 50.50. The mean carbohydrate content value of the infested sample was 21.74 while that of the uninfested sample was 5.87 and finally, the mean FFA value of the infested sample was 15.51 while that of the uninfested sample was 21.80.

Oke and Akintunde

2013-01-01

278

Identification of sources and inheritance of resistance to Sphaceloma scab in cowpea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Resistance in cowpea to Sphaceloma scab was characterized based on foliar and pod infection. Disease severity on cowpea plants was rated on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 = no symptoms, 2 = less than 10% infection, 3 = 10 to 20% infection, 4 = 20 to 50% infection, and 5 = more than 50% infection. Mean severity scores were used to calculate areas under the disease progress curve. Of the 75 cowpea lines evaluated, 10 were resistant, 30 were moderately resistant, and 35 were susceptible based on foliar infection. For pod infection, 24 lines were resistant, 40 were either moderately resistant or susceptible, and 11 were very susceptible. Local lines were less infected than plant introductions. In a separate experiment, 25 lines previously considered resistant were evaluated in the field with infested cowpea crop debris and susceptible rows as sources of inocula. Only 3 lines (39, KVu/175, and 46) maintained their high levels of resistance to Sphaceloma scab. Five cowpea lines were subsequently diallel-crossed, and parents and F2 were evaluated in the field to determine the nature of inheritance of resistance to Sphaceloma scab. The majority of the crosses between the resistant and susceptible lines showed intermediate reaction to scab, and high variation was obtained due to genotype and combining abilities. Partitioning of the variance into components due to general and specific combining ability revealed that additive genetic variation constituted the major portion of the total genetic variance for resistance to scab in cowpea.

Nakawuka CK; Adipala E

1997-12-01

279

Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity to chirality, ROA is an incisive probe of their aqueous solution structures at the molecular level. Protein ROA bands are especially prominent from which, as we have shown by comparison with the ROA spectra of proteins with known structures and by using a pattern recognition program, the folds of the major coat protein subunits may be deduced. Information about amino acid side-chain conformations, exemplified here by the determination of the sign and magnitude of the torsion angle chi(2,1) for tryptophan in fd, may also sometimes be obtained. By subtracting the ROA spectrum of the empty protein capsid (top component) of cowpea mosaic virus from those of the intact middle and bottom-upper components separated by means of a caesium chloride density gradient, the ROA spectrum of the viral RNA was obtained, which revealed that the RNA takes up an A-type single-stranded helical conformation and that the RNA conformations in the middle and bottom-upper components are very similar. This information is not available from the X-ray crystal structure of cowpea mosaic virus since no nucleic acid is visible.

Blanch, Ewan W.; Hecht, Lutz

2002-01-01

280

Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas/ Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata) e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a) testemunha; b) fertilização com NPK; c) inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d) inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão- (more) caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK) e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a) control; b) NPK; c) inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d) co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chloroph (more) yll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK) treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de; Carneiro, Romero Francisco Vieira; Bezerra, Antônio Aécio Carvalho; Araújo, Fábio Fernando de

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation and Actinomycin D on Polyoma Virus Replication in Mouse Embryo Cell Cultures  

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Ultraviolet irradiation and actinomycin D impair the capacity of mouse embryo (ME) cells to support the replication of polyoma virus, but not of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. The loss in capacity for polyoma virus synthesis was an “all-or-none” effect and followed closely upon the loss in cellul...

Bowen, J. M.; Hughes, R. G.; Dmochowski, L.

282

Quality of Garabia (A Nigerian Traditional Snack) From Four Varieties of Rice As Affected By the Addition of Cowpea  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and sensory attributes of garabia a traditional cereal-based snack of Nigeria manufactured from flour obtained from broken fractions of milled four popular rice varieties in Nigeria as a strategy for the improvement of rice postharvest system for improved income and livelihood. The mean moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of rice-cowpea blend garabia were 2.25, 11.87, 34.83, 2.04, and 49.00%, respectively and ranged between 1.88 to 2.47% for moisture, 10.72 to 12.86% for protein with FARO 52 blend having the highest and NERICA-L34 recording the lowest value. Calcium was found to be the most abundant mineral in rice garabia. The calculated metabolizable energy values of the blended rice garabia showed that the products are concentrated energy sources and compares favorably snacks from other sources. Consumer overall acceptability (liking) rating was higher than 6 (like slightly) based on hedonic ratings based on 9-point hedonic scales indicating that the product are well-liked by the consumers. It can then be concluded that addition of cowpea to rice flour for the production of garabia significantly improves nutritive value of the products with little or no pronounced effect on consumer acceptability.

M.H. Badau; C. Ngozi; N. Danbaba

2013-01-01

283

Anti-vaccinia virus effect of M13 bacteriophage DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Single-stranded DNA derived from M13 phage was evaluated for antiviral activity in mice infected with vaccinia virus. M13 DNA at a dose as low as 16.7 mg/kg was effective in reducing the number of tail lesions caused by vaccinia virus by more than 90%. A single administration of M13 DNA 1 day before infection was sufficient to reduce significantly the number of tail lesions caused by vaccinia virus. Denatured eukaryotic nucleic acids such as calf thymus DNA and human placenta DNA were not effective. A mixture of nucleotides prepared according to the nucleotides composition of M13 DNA was also ineffective. Within 4 h after the administration of M13 DNA, the serum interferon (IFN, predominantly type beta) titer rose from undetectable levels to as much as approximately 700 IU/ml. IFN was detectable for up to 12 h after the administration of M13 DNA. IFN titers as high as 1050 IU/ml were detected in vitro when M13 DNA was added to spleen cultures. We conclude that at least part of the antiviral activity of M13 DNA can be explained on the basis of IFN induction.

Mori K; Kubo T; Kibayashi Y; Ohkuma T; Kaji A

1996-06-01

284

Virus-inactivating effect of D-isoascorbic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of D-isoascorbic acid, an epimer of L-ascorbic acid, on viruses was investigated using a wide variety of bacterial viruses (phages) as model systems. D-isoascorbic acid exerted an inactivating effect on all phages examined. The reaction mechanism of virus inactivation by D-isoascorbic acid was investigated using phage J1 as a model system. Bubbling oxygen through the reaction mixture and the addition of H2O2 or transition metal ions into the reaction mixture enhanced the phage inactivation by D-isoascorbic acid. In contrast, nitrogen bubbling and the addition of reducing agents, chelating agents or radical scavengers prevented phage inactivation. Experiments using specific radical scavengers, superoxide dismutase or catalase showed that OH. could be mainly responsible for phage inactivation by D-isoascorbic acid. These findings are similar to those obtained with L-ascorbic acid, and indicate that phage-inactivating activity is independent of the stereoisomerism with inversion of the hydroxyl group at carbon 5 of ascorbic acids.

Murata A; Kawasaki M; Motomatsu H; Kato F

1986-12-01

285

Chimeric proteins that induce effects directed against viruses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is related to the obtaining of chimeric chains coding for proteins capable of inducing, in the recipient, a serotype-specific and protective humoral immune response against the infection by the Dengue virus, thus eliminating the effects of the serotype-nonspecific viral immunoenhancement that causes hemorrhagies and clinical complications described for this kind of pathology. These chimeric chains of nucleic acids are composed by the specific combination of fragments belonging to the gene of a mutated protein from Neisseria meningitidis with dehydrogenase activity and fragments that codify for a region of the envelope (E) protein from the Dengue virus which, when inserted to an expression vector, give rise to chimeric proteins with particular properties.; The resultant chimeric molecules from this invention are applicable to the pharmaceutical industry for the obtaining of vaccine preparations and diagnostic means of high serotype-specificity to be used in humans.

CRUZ LISSET H; DIAZ RAYNER R; VAZQUEZ LAURA L; MORALES AIDA Z; ABARRATEGUI CARLOS L; PRADO IRIS V; SILVA RODRIGUEZ RICARDO D.L; SANTIAGO GLAY C; GUILLEN NIETO GERARDO E; GUZMAN TIRADO MARIA G; SIERRA VAZQUEZ BEATRIZ DE LA C; ESPINOSA PEREZ RAUL R; CRUZ LISSET HERMIDA; DIAZ RAYNER RODRIGUEZ; VAZQUEZ LAURA LAZO; MORALES AIDA ZULUETA; ABARRATEGUI CARLOS LOPEZ; PRADO IRIS VALDES; SILVA RODRIGUEZ RICARDO DE LA C; SANTIAGO GLAY CHINEA; NIETO GERARDO ENRIQUE GUILLEN; TIRADO MARIA GUADALUPE GUZMAN; VAZQUEZ BEATRIZ DE LA CARIDAD SIERRA; PEREZ RAUL RAFAEL ESPINOSA

286

Chimeric Proteins that Induce Effects Directed Against Viruses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is related to the obtaining of chimeric chains coding for proteins capable of inducing, in the recipient, a serotype-specific and protective humoral immune response against the infection by the Dengue virus, thus eliminating the effects of the serotype-nonespecific viral immunoenhancement that causes hemorrhagies and clinical complications described for this kind of pathology. These chimeric chains of nucleic acids are composed by the specific combination of fragments belonging to the gene of a mutated protein from Neisseria meningitidis with dehydrogenase activity and fragments that codify for a region of the envelope (E) protein from the Dengue virus which, when inserted to an expression vector, give rise to chimeric proteins with particular properties. The resultant chimeric molecules from this invention are applicable to the pharmaceutical industry for the obtaining of vaccine preparations and diagnostic means of high serotype-specificity to be used in humans.

CRUZ LISSET HERMIDA; DIAZ RAYNER RODRIGUEZ; VAZQUEZ LAURA LAZO; MORALES AIDA ZULUETA; ABARRATEGUI CARLOS LOPEZ; PRADO IRIS VALDES; RODRIGUEZ RICARDO DE LA C SILVA; SANTIAGO GLAY CHINEA; NIETO GERARDO ENRIQUE GUILLEN; TIRADO MARIA GUADALUPE GUZMAN; VAZQUEZ BEATRIZ DE LA CARIDAD SIERRA; PEREZ RAUL RAFAEL ESPINOSA

287

Chimeric proteins that induce effects directed against viruses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is related to the obtaining of chimeric chains coding for proteins capable of inducing, in the recipient, a serotype-specific and protective humoral immune response against the infection by the Dengue virus, thus eliminating the effects of the serotype-nonespecific viral immunoenhancement that causes hemorrhagies and clinical complications described for this kind of pathology. These chimeric chains of nucleic acids are composed by the specific combination of fragments belonging to the gene of a mutated protein from Neisseria meningitidis with dehydrogenase activity and fragments that codify for a region of the envelope (E) protein from the Dengue virus which, when inserted to an expression vector, give rise to chimeric proteins with particular properties.; The resultant chimeric molecules from this invention are applicable to the pharmaceutical industry for the obtaining of vaccine preparations and diagnostic means of high serotype-specificity to be used in humans.

CRUZ LISSET H; DIAZ RAYNER R; VAZQUEZ LAURA L; MORALES AIDA Z; ABARRATEGUI CARLOS L; PRADO IRIS V; SILVA RODRIGUEZ RICARDO D.L; SANTIAGO GLAY C; GUILLEN NIETO GERARDO E; GUZMAN TIRADO MARIA G; SIERRA VAZQUEZ BEATRIZ DE LA C; ESPINOSA PEREZ RAUL R; CRUZ LISSET HERMIDA; DIAZ RAYNER RODRIGUEZ; VAZQUEZ LAURA LAZO; MORALES AIDA ZULUETA; ABARRATEGUI CARLOS LOPEZ; PRADO IRIS VALDES; SILVA RODRIGUEZ RICARDO DE LA C; SANTIAGO GLAY CHINEA; NIETO GERARDO ENRIQUE GUILLEN; TIRADO MARIA GUADALUPE GUZMAN; VAZQUEZ BEATRIZ DE LA CARIDAD SIERRA; PEREZ RAUL RAFAEL ESPINOSA

288

Characteristic properties of lipase from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipase activity was assayed in 4 days old cowpea seedlings using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity was observed at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCI buffer and at 30 degree C. The pH stability was found in between 7.5-8.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 degree C and retaining 80% activity whereas, 26% lipase activity was remaining at 100 degree C within 15 minutes. Lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of MnC/sub 2/ and decreased by the addition of Triton X 100, Tween 80, ZnCI/sub 2/ and mercaptoethanol. (author)

2007-01-01

289

Persistence and residual activity of an organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl, and three IGRs, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen, against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three insect growth regulators (IGR), the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron and the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) pyriproxyfen, as well as the organophosphate (OP) pirimiphos-methyl, were evaluated for their activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F), in cowpea seeds stored for up to 8 months post-treatment. The initial activity data showed that, based on LC50 level, teflubenzuron had strong ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.056 mg kg(-1)) followed by pirimiphos-methyl (1.82 mg kg(-1)) and pyriproxyfen (91.9 mg kg(-1)). The residual activity data showed that none of the IGRs tested had strong activity when applied at 200 mg kg(-1) in reducing the oviposition rates of C maculatus at various storage intervals up to 8 months post-treatment. However, teflubenzuron reduced adult emergence (F1 progeny), achieving control ranging from 96.2% at 1 month to 94.3% at 8 months. Hexaflumuron showed a similar trend in its residual activity, ranging between 93.8% control at 1 month to 88.2% control at 8 months post-treatment. However, pyriproxyfen was more active than the CSIs tested and caused complete suppression (100% control) of adult emergence at all storage intervals. Unlike the IGRs tested, pirimiphos-methyl applied at 25 mg kg(-1) was more effective in reducing oviposition rates of C maculatus up to 8 months post-treatment. A strong reduction of adult emergence was also observed at various bimonthly intervals (98.6% control at 1 month to 91.6% control at 8 months post-treatment). The persistence of hexaflumuron and pirimiphos-methyl in cowpea seeds was also studied over a period of 8 months. The loss of hexaflumuron residue in treated cowpeas (200 mg kg(-1)) was very slow during the first month post-treatment (4.43%). At the end of 8 months, the residue level had declined significantly to 46.4% of the initial applied rate. The loss of pirimiphos-methyl residue in treated cowpeas (25 mg kg(-1)) was relatively high during the first month post-treatment (36.7%) and increased to 81.6% after 8 months. PMID:14727746

Abo-Elghar, Gamal E; El-Sheikh, Anwar E; El-Sayed, Ferial M; El-Maghraby, Hamdi M; El-Zun, Hesham M

2004-01-01

290

Molecular Characterization of Viruses from Clinical Respiratory Samples Producing Unidentified Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture  

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Full Text Available The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600-1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses). Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation was present in the viral surface EF and CD loops. These results demonstrate the usefulness of SISPA for identifying emerging viruses and also known viruses not easily identified by standard virological methods.

Yacine Abed; Guy Boivin

2009-01-01

291

The Use of Vegetable Oils in the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Three Cowpea Varieties  

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The use of some of vegetable oils (rubber seed oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil) was evaluated against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus in three cowpea varieties (Ife white, Ife brown and Kano white). The trial involved exposing adult weevils to various levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and ...

K.E. Law-Ogbomo; R.K.A. Egharevba

292

Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF) technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs) with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa), and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO) with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A total of 5,888 GSRs had homology to genes encoding transcription factors (TFs) and transcription associated factors (TAFs) representing about 5% of the total annotated sequences in the dataset. Sixty-two (62) of the 64 well-characterized plant transcription factor (TF) gene families are represented in the cowpea GSRs, and these families are of similar size and phylogenetic organization to those characterized in other plants. The cowpea GSRs also provides a rich source of genes involved in photoperiodic control, symbiosis, and defense-related responses. Comparisons to available databases revealed that about 74% of cowpea ESTs and 70% of all legume ESTs were represented in the GSR dataset. As approximately 12% of all GSRs contain an identifiable simple-sequence repeat, the dataset is a powerful resource for the design of microsatellite markers. Conclusion The availability of extensive publicly available genomic data for cowpea, a non-model legume with significant importance in the developing world, represents a significant step forward in legume research. Not only does the gene space sequence enable the detailed analysis of gene structure, gene family organization and phylogenetic relationships within cowpea, but it also facilitates the characterization of syntenic relationships with other cultivated and model legumes, and will contribute to determining patterns of chromosomal evolution in the Leguminosae. The micro and macrosyntenic relationships detected between cowpea and other cultivated and model legumes should simplify the identification of informative markers for marker-assisted trait selection and map-based gene isolation necessary for cowpea improvement.

Timko Michael P; Rushton Paul J; Laudeman Thomas W; Bokowiec Marta T; Chipumuro Edmond; Cheung Foo; Town Christopher D; Chen Xianfeng

2008-01-01

293

Proanthocyanidin profile of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) reveals catechin-O-glucoside as the dominant compound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proanthocyanidin (PA) profile and content can have important nutritional and health implications on plant foods. Six diverse cowpea phenotypes (black, red, green, white, light-brown and golden-brown) were investigated for PA composition using normal-phase HPLC and reversed-phase UPLC-TQD-MS. Catechin and (epi)afzelechin were the major flavan-3-ol units. Unusual composition was observed in all cowpea phenotypes with significant degrees of glycosylation in the monomers and dimers. The PA content of cowpea (dry basis) ranged between 2.2 and 6.3 mg/g. Monomeric flavan-3-ols were the largest group of PA (36-69%) in cowpea, with catechin-7-O-glucoside accounting for most (about 88%) of the monomers. The oligomers with degree of polymerization (DP) 2-4 ranged from 0.41 to 1.3 mg/g (15-20%), whereas DP>10 polymers accounted for only 13.5% of PA. Future studies that highlight the impact of the unusual cowpea PA profile on nutritional and bioactive properties of this important legume are warranted. PMID:23561075

Ojwang, Leonnard O; Yang, Liyi; Dykes, Linda; Awika, Joseph

2013-02-10

294

Ocean viruses and their effects on microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Viruses are the most abundant life forms on Earth, with an estimated 10(31) total viruses globally. The majority of these viruses infect microbes, whether bacteria, archaea or microeukaryotes. Given the importance of microbes in driving global biogeochemical cycles, it would seem, based on numerical abundances alone, that viruses also play an important role in the global cycling of carbon and nutrients. However, the importance of viruses in controlling host populations and ecosystem functions, such as the regeneration, storage and export of carbon and other nutrients, remains unresolved. Here, we report on advances in the study of ecological effects of viruses of microbes. In doing so, we focus on an area of increasing importance: the role that ocean viruses play in shaping microbial population sizes as well as in regenerating carbon and other nutrients.

Weitz JS; Wilhelm SW

2012-01-01

295

Potential of plant materials for the management of cowpea bruchid callosobruchus analis (coleoptera: bruchidae) in gram cicer arietinum during storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present research was carried out to identify alternatives to synthetic insecticides to control cowpea weevil Callosobruchus analis (F.) population in gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.), during storage. The efficacies of three plant materials such as Nicotiana tabacum, Citrullus colocythis and Aloe vera were assessed to determine their insecticidal activities against survival of bruchid C. analis on seeds of gram varieties viz., CM-98 and Jubiha-1. These plant materials tested reduced weevil infestation and emergence as compared with untreated control seeds. Seeds treatment with A. vera followed by N. tabacum reduced maximum pest damage over C. colocythis, which proved least effective to control C. analis population. Consequently, the tested plant materials should be given due consideration for effective gram protection as a component of integrated pest management approach in storage. (author)

2012-01-01

296

Sepia 200cH at 1:1000 dilution ameliorates salt stress in cowpea seedlings but its medium 90% ethanol proves ineffective at the same dilution  

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Full Text Available Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1) control in sterile water, (2) in 50mM NaCl solution, (3) seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4) seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect.

Soma Sukul (nee Chunari); Sandhimita Mondal; Nirmal C Sukul

2012-01-01

297

Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus. PMID:19432010

Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

2009-03-01

298

Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

Toro H; van Santen VL; Hoerr FJ; Breedlove C

2009-03-01

299

Control of insect pests of cowpea in the savanna of Roraima, Brazil. = Controle de insetos-praga do feijão-caupi na savana de Roraima.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the insecticides acephate, imidacloprid and neem oil to control major insect pests of cowpea in cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR. The planting of cowpea (c.v. BRS Guariba) was carried out between the double rows of cassava (2.0 x 0.8 x 0.8 m). The rows of cowpea were spaced 0.5 m apart and 0.75 m double rows of cassava. We adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were as follows: T1 - control (without application of products), T2 - Neem oil ( applied to 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after planting - DAP), T3 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP) + Acephate (30 DAP ) + Imidacloprid (40 DAP) + Acephate (50 DAP), T4 - Acephate (20 DAP) + Imidacloprid (30 DAP) + Acephate (40 DAP) + Imidacloprid (50 DAP) T5 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP) + Oil nim (30 DAP) + Acephate (40 DAE) + neem oil (50 DAP). It measured the number of plants located in the middle row with symptoms of pest attack, and the calculation of the percentage of plants attacked. It was found that all treatments were effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, the best treatments for control of Chalcodermus bimaculatus were those who had been cunning application of neem oil, that the treatment using only the neem oil was effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, Bemisia tabaci, Empoasca kraemeri and the Chalcodermus bimaculatus. The treatments used in this study were not effective to control the Cerotoma arcuatus.

Deyse Cristina Oliveira da Silva; José Maria Arcanjo Alves; José de Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima; Maria Edite da Silva Veloso; Luana dos Santos Silva

2011-01-01

300

Isolation of Sphaceloma sp. from four cowpea plant parts using eight media.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The search for a better method of isolating Sphaceloma sp., which induces scab on cowpea, was investigated by plating out scab lesions from leaves, stems, peduncles and pods on cowpea extract media and some commercial media. The fungus was also isolated by grinding lesions in a small amount of sterile distilled water in a sterilized porcelain mortar. The paste was subsequently dispersed on agar plates. This technique is less tedious and less time consuming. Isolation of the pathogen from infected host tissue was easiest from young pod and leaf lesions. Cowpea pod agar and PDA amended with streptomycin sulphate (1.5 g l-1) and rose bengal (0.0025 g l-1 of agar) were the best media for isolation of Sphaceloma sp. by plating intact lesions.

Mungo CM; Emechebe AM; Florini DA

1998-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides exhibit anti-hepatitis B virus effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polysaccharides were extracted from fruiting bodies and cultured mycelia from five Antrodia camphorata strains. Polysaccharide profiles of the five strains, as determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography, showed varying yields and composition of neutral sugars. A. camphorata fruiting bodies also had different polysaccharide patterns compared to the cultured mycelium. Analysis of 26-day-old mycelia showed that the neutral sugars galactose, glucose, mannose, and galactosamine were predominant. All mycelia polysaccharide preparations exhibited anti-hepatitis B virus activity. Polysaccharides from strain B86 at a concentration of 50 microg ml(-1) showed the highest level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen effect, which was higher than alpha-interferon at a dosage of 1000 U ml(-1). Only strains B86 and 35398 had substantial anti-hepatitis B e antigen activities. None of the polysaccharides exhibited cytotoxic effects.

Lee IH; Huang RL; Chen CT; Chen HC; Hsu WC; Lu MK

2002-03-01

302

Toxicity Studies of Some Inert Dusts with the Cowpea Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to find out the effectiveness of DE and some other inert dusts like, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and a dust formulation insecticide carbaryl on the cowpea beetles Callosobruchus maculates (F. ). The bioassay of the dusts was done on adult beetles by applying them with normal food. The LD50 of C. maculatus after 24 h was 737.15, 73305.15, 1479.29, 11449.60, 117371.50, 5171.79 and 21.49 ppm for diatomaceous earth, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and carbaryl, respectively. The LD50 after 48 h was 385.24, 12078.10, 974.11, 7433.71, 10650.42, 1168.22 and 11.25 ppm for diatomaceous earth, kaolin powder, paddy husk ash, coal ash, alluvial soil, china clay and carbaryl respectively. The order of toxicity of the insecticides was carbaryl > diatomaceous earth > paddy husk ash > china clay > coal ash > alluvial soil> kaolin powder.

Shah Hussain Ahmad Mahdi; M. Khalequzzaman

2006-01-01

303

Quantitative resistance to Cercospora leaf spot disease caused by Pseudocercospora cruenta in cowpea  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six populations (Parent 1, Parent 2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) generated from each of four crosses involving four resistant and two susceptible varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were evaluated for resistance to Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) disease caused by Pseudocercospora cruenta under induced epiphytotic conditions, in four separate field experiments. Climatic conditions determined the onset of CLS disease in the susceptible cultivar and varied in the four experiments from 35 to 48 days after planting (DAP). Genetic analysis revealed that the mode of inheritance of resistance to P. cruenta can be oligogenic or polygenic depending upon the cross. This is the first report of polygenic inheritance of CLS resistance. Number of nodes infected fitted a simple additive dominance model with predominance of additive effects based on generation mean analysis. Oligogenic resistance was observed for the other three crosses, with the most plausible models being: a single gene model with incomplete dominance in CB27 x IT87D-939-1; a single gene model with complete dominance in CB27 x VRB-10; and a triger model in Los Banos Bush Sitao x IT86D-792, based on segregation analysis of symptomatic : non-symptomatic plants. The role of minor genes was also indicated in the above crosses. Suggested approaches to breeding for resistance to CLS are discussed.

Booker HelenM; Umaharan Pathmanathan

2008-07-01

304

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Cowpea Mutant (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) as Revealed by RAPD Marker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of present study is examine the effect of different doses gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and combination of both gamma rays with EMS on cowpea seeds and to identify DNA polymorphism among the mutants through a RAPD marker analysis. The mutants showing the differences in morphological traits showed DNA polymorphism in PCR profile amplified by RAPD marker. Ten random decamer primers revealed a high DNA polymorphism among the mutant populations like tall, dwarf, leaf; flower and seed mutants were analyzed. Ten primers produced a total of 60 amplified products. Among these 48 were monomorphic with an average of 53.84 per cent polymorphism. Only five primers (PG-04, PG-05, PG-07, OPA-05 and OPA-07) showed highest polymorphism. The primer OPA-02 gave the lowest polymorphism (22.27%). Highest genetic coefficient similarity (0.76) was observed between leaf and tall; whereas least similarity (0.58) was observed between control and leaf. In a Dendrogram constructed based on genetic similarity coefficients, t

rugan Girija,; Seenuvasan Gnanamurthy; Devarajan Dhanavel

2013-01-01

305

Carbon dioxide and light responses of photosynthesis in cowpea and pigeonpea during water deficit and recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse-grown pigeonpea (Cajunus cajan, (L.)) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, (L.)) were well-watered or subjected to low water potential by withholding water to compare their modes of adaptation to water-limited conditions. Leaf CO/sub 2/ exchange rate (CER), leaf diffusive conductance to CO/sub 2/ (g/sub L/), and CO/sub 2/ concentration in the leaf intercellular air space (C/sub i/) were determined at various CO/sub 2/ concentrations and photon flux densities (PFD) of photosynthetically active radiation. In cowpea, g/sub L/ declined to less than 15% of controls and total water potential (Psi/sub w/) at midafternoon declined to -0.8 megapascal after 5 days of withholding water, whereas g/sub L/ in pigeonpea was about 40% of controls even though midafternoon Psi/sub w/ was -1.9 megapascal. After 8 days of withholding water, Psi/sub w/ at midafternoon decline to -0.9 and -2.4 megapascals in cowpea and pigeonpea, respectively. The solute component of water potential (Psi/sub s/) decreased substantially less in cowpea than pigeonpea. Photosynthetic CER at saturation photon flux density (PFD) and ambient external CO/sub 2/ concentration on day 5 of withholding decreased by 83 and 55% in cowpea and pigeonpea, respectively. When measured at external, CO/sub 2/ concentration in bulk air of 360 microliters per liter, the CER of cowpea had fully recovered to control levels 3 days after rewatering; however, at 970 microliters per liter the PFD-saturated CERS of both species were substantially lower than in controls, indicating residual impairment.

Lopez, F.B.; Setter, T.L.; McDavid, C.R.

1987-10-01

306

Potent virucidal effect of pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a on enveloped viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts from a stem of Opuntia ficus indica on replication of three kinds of viruses: two enveloped viruses [herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), influenza A virus (IFV-A)], and one non-enveloped virus [poliovirus type 1 (PV-1)]. Only ethanol extract from the cactus stem showed significant antiviral activity in vitro. Two chlorophyll derivatives, pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, were isolated as active substances exhibiting potent virucidal effects on HSV-2 and IFV-A, but no activity against PV-1 was observed. These findings suggest that these active compounds might recognize specific glycoproteins of enveloped viruses, precluding their binding to host cell receptors and inhibiting viral infections. PMID:20835849

Bouslama, Lamjed; Hayashi, Kyoko; Lee, Jung-Bum; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

2010-09-11

307

Review of the clinical effectiveness of the neuraminidase inhibitors against influenza B viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza A and B viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. The neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the most commonly used class of influenza antiviral drugs for the treatment of infected patients. In vitro studies have shown that influenza B viruses are significantly less susceptible to oseltamivir and other neuraminidase inhibitors compared with influenza A viruses. Following analysis of published clinical studies, we show that oseltamivir does appear to have lower effectiveness in patients infected with influenza B virus compared with influenza A infected patients, but due to insufficient studies on zanamivir, laninamivir or peramivir, it was not possible to conclude the relative effectiveness of these drugs against influenza A virus compared with B virus. PMID:24093683

Farrukee, Rubaiyea; Mosse, Jennifer; Hurt, Aeron C

2013-10-07

308

Review of the clinical effectiveness of the neuraminidase inhibitors against influenza B viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza A and B viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. The neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the most commonly used class of influenza antiviral drugs for the treatment of infected patients. In vitro studies have shown that influenza B viruses are significantly less susceptible to oseltamivir and other neuraminidase inhibitors compared with influenza A viruses. Following analysis of published clinical studies, we show that oseltamivir does appear to have lower effectiveness in patients infected with influenza B virus compared with influenza A infected patients, but due to insufficient studies on zanamivir, laninamivir or peramivir, it was not possible to conclude the relative effectiveness of these drugs against influenza A virus compared with B virus.

Farrukee R; Mosse J; Hurt AC

2013-10-01

309

Uso del cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) en mezclas con fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) en el desarrollo de nuevos productos alimenticios/ Use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in mixtures with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for the development of new food products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de evaluar el cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) como sustituto parcial del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) como pasta o como harina. El grado de sustitución sería aquel en el cual no se detecte el sabor del frijol cowpea alterando el sabor del frijol común. Para la ejecución del estudio se utilizó la variedad Peruchin Negro del frijol cowpea y el ICTA Ligero del frijol común con un contenido de proteína de 24.4% y 18.7% respectiv (more) amente. No hubo diferencias significativas en otros nutrientes. Se postulo que el sabor característico a tierra del cowpea era debido al contenido de polifenoles, la cual se redujo con tratamientos de remojo, cocción y descascarado. Se estableció que los niveles de polifenoles logrados con 9 horas de remojo y 30 minutos de cocción eran iguales a los obtenidos con el descascarado. Con estos procedimientos previos en el cowpea se prepararon 2 pastas de frijol frito a base de una mezcla de frijol negro/cowpea (con y sin cáscara) en la relación 70/30 las cuales fueron enlatadas y una mezcla de harina precocida en las mismas proporciones. Estas pastas se sometieron a pruebas sensoriales de tipo triangular y de perfil descriptivo. En el perfil descriptivo se evaluó: color, textura, punto de sal y sabor, en una escala de 10 puntos. Las evaluaciones sensoriales de las 2 mezclas de frijol no mostraron diferencia significativa respecto al sabor del frijol común. El contenido de proteína en las mezclas fue más alto debido a la mayor concentración de este nutriente en el cowpea. Aunque las mezclas de frijol común con cowpea entero y sin cáscara dieron mayor valor proteico (NPR) que el de frijol solo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to evaluate cowpeas (V. unguiculata) as a partial substitute of common beans (P. vulgaris) as a paste or as cooked dry flour. The degree of substitution would be that in which the flavor of cowpeas is not detected in the mixture with common beans. The study was developed utilizing the Black Peruchin variety of cowpea and the ICTA Ligero for common beans, the latter with 18.7% protein and cowpeas with of 24.4%. Other nutrients in the samples (more) were similar. It was believed that the characteristic earth flavor of the cowpea was due to its content of polyphenolic compounds. To eliminate such compounds, the samples were soaked in water for various periods of time and cooked. Reduction was also achieved by dehulling. It was found that the polyphenolic levels obtained with 9 hrs. of soaking and 30 min. of cooking in water were equal to those measure with mechanical dehulling. Applying these process to cowpeas, two fried beans pastes were prepared with cowpeas (with and with out hulls) in a mixture of 70 common beans and 30 cowpeas. Likewise a precooked flour of the two legume grains in the same proportion was also tested. These samples were subjected to sensory trials using a triangular method, and by a descriptive profile. In these the following were evaluated: color, texture, salt level, and flavor, using a 10 point scale. The sensory evaluation of the two beans mixtures showed no significant differences with respect to common bean flavor. The protein content of the mixtures was high due to the high protein content of cowpeas. Even though the mixtures of common beans and cowpeas with and with out seed coat gave higher protein quality values as compared to common beans alone, the difference was not statistically significant.

López Guerra, Claudia Maritza; Bressani, Ricardo

2008-03-01

310

Major viruses and effect of major virus diseases and virus--eliminating meristem culture on sweetpotato yield and quality in China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1580 entries of sweetpotato samples from three Provinces, Shandong, Jiangsu and Anhuai were tested with ELISA method. The result showed that SPFMV and SPLV were the two popular viruses in Huang-huai sweetpotato production region of China which the infection rate ranged from 20.85% to 100% and from 2.15% to 90%, respectively, and SPMMV, SPCEM, C-6 and SPTSV were also found in some region, and SPCSV was firstly detected in China and its infection rate reached 8.9%. The demonstrations done in the three Provinces using five popular varieties in 3 years showed that virus-free seeds could significantly which increase the yield and commercial rate and the average fresh yield increased by 38.4% from 11.3% to 92.0% and the commercial rate increased by 23.05%; but virus-free seeds had no significant effect on dry matter content of storage roots. 30-location survey in Shandong showed that with the years of planting the yield increased the rate of virus-free seed decreases, the annual decrease rate of spring and summer crop was 5.85% and 11.7%, respectively, in three years after virus-elimination.

Zhang Liming; Wang Qingmei; Ma Daifu; Wang Yi

2005-01-01

311

Effect of temperature on the in vitro transcriptase reaction of bluetongue virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and African horsesickness virus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Virions of bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and African horsesickness virus (AHSV) can be converted to core particles by treatment with chymotrypsin and magnesium. The conversion is characterized by the removal of the 2 outer capsid polypeptides of the virion. The loss of these 2 proteins results in an increase in density from 1,36 g/ml to 1,40 g/ml on CsCl gradients. The BTV, EHDV and AHSV core particles have an associated double-stranded RNA dependent RNA transcriptase that appears to transcribe mRNA optimally at 28 degrees Celsius. It was found, at least in the case of BTV, that this low temperature preference is not an intrinsic characteristic of the transcriptase, but is due to a temperature-dependent inhibition of transcription at high core concentrations.

Van Dijk, A.A.; Huismans, H. (Veterinary Research Inst., Onderstepoort (South Africa))

1982-12-01

312

EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP) de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de fósforo de 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg de P205/ha sobre algumas características morfológicas do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), cv. 'TVX 1836 - 013 J’ de crescimento determinado. No início e no final de floração foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais, área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF) e produção de matéria seca por planta e na colheita foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais. No início de floração somente o IAF foi afetado de maneira significativa pelo DP, cujo aumento de 40.000 para 320.000 plantas/ha, ocasionou um incremento no IAF da ordem de 531%. No final de floração foi observado efeito significativo da DP sobre o número de nós nos ramos laterais, número total de nós por planta e área foliar, que diminuíram com o aumento da DP. Por sua vez, o incremento das doses de P205 aumentou significativamente essas variáveis. Por outro lado o aumento da DP diminuiu a produção de matéria seca por planta e aumentou o índice de área foliar. Na colheita, o aumento da DP de 40.000 para 320.000 reduziu significativamente o número de nós na haste principal, nos ramos laterais e o número total de nós na planta. A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp), Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare.

Magda Beatriz de Almeida Matteucci; Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho

2007-01-01

313

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp), Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP) de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de fósforo de 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg de P205/ha sobre algumas características morfológicas do feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), cv. 'TVX 1836 - 013 J’ de crescimento determinado. No início e no final de floração foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais, área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF) e produção de matéria seca por planta e na colheita foram tomados dados sobre o número de nós na haste principal e nos ramos laterais. No início de floração somente o IAF foi afetado de maneira significativa pelo DP, cujo aumento de 40.000 para 320.000 plantas/ha, ocasionou um incremento no IAF da ordem de 531%. No final de floração foi observado efeito significativo da DP sobre o número de nós nos ramos laterais, número total de nós por planta e área foliar, que diminuíram com o aumento da DP. Por sua vez, o incremento das doses de P205 aumentou significativamente essas variáveis. Por outro lado o aumento da DP diminuiu a produção de matéria seca por planta e aumentou o índice de área foliar. Na colheita, o aumento da DP de 40.000 para 320.000 reduziu significativamente o número de nós na haste principal, nos ramos laterais e o número total de nós na planta.

Magda Beatriz de Almeida Matteucci; Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho

2007-01-01

314

Beneficial fitness effects are not exponential for two viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution of fitness effects for beneficial mutations is of paramount importance in determining the outcome of adaptation. It is generally assumed that fitness effects of beneficial mutations follow an exponential distribution, for example, in theoretical treatments of quantitative genetics, clonal interference, experimental evolution, and the adaptation of DNA sequences. This assumption has been justified by the statistical theory of extreme values, because the fitnesses conferred by beneficial mutations should represent samples from the extreme right tail of the fitness distribution. Yet in extreme value theory, there are three different limiting forms for right tails of distributions, and the exponential describes only those of distributions in the Gumbel domain of attraction. Using beneficial mutations from two viruses, we show for the first time that the Gumbel domain can be rejected in favor of a distribution with a right-truncated tail, thus providing evidence for an upper bound on fitness effects. Our data also violate the common assumption that small-effect beneficial mutations greatly outnumber those of large effect, as they are consistent with a uniform distribution of beneficial effects.

Rokyta DR; Beisel CJ; Joyce P; Ferris MT; Burch CL; Wichman HA

2008-10-01

315

Beneficial fitness effects are not exponential for two viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of fitness effects for beneficial mutations is of paramount importance in determining the outcome of adaptation. It is generally assumed that fitness effects of beneficial mutations follow an exponential distribution, for example, in theoretical treatments of quantitative genetics, clonal interference, experimental evolution, and the adaptation of DNA sequences. This assumption has been justified by the statistical theory of extreme values, because the fitnesses conferred by beneficial mutations should represent samples from the extreme right tail of the fitness distribution. Yet in extreme value theory, there are three different limiting forms for right tails of distributions, and the exponential describes only those of distributions in the Gumbel domain of attraction. Using beneficial mutations from two viruses, we show for the first time that the Gumbel domain can be rejected in favor of a distribution with a right-truncated tail, thus providing evidence for an upper bound on fitness effects. Our data also violate the common assumption that small-effect beneficial mutations greatly outnumber those of large effect, as they are consistent with a uniform distribution of beneficial effects. PMID:18779988

Rokyta, Darin R; Beisel, Craig J; Joyce, Paul; Ferris, Martin T; Burch, Christina L; Wichman, Holly A

2008-09-09

316

Effect of respiratory syncytial virus and virus-antibody complexes on the oxidative metabolism of human neutrophils.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or mixtures of RSV and its specific antibody on the oxidative metabolic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied by the technique of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Peripheral blood neutrophils obtained from normal healthy donors...

Kaul, T N; Faden, H; Ogra, P L

317

WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES/ Resposta ao estresse hídrico na atividade enzimática dos nódulos de caupi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Experimento em casa de vegetação foi conduzido com objetivo de estudar os efeitos do estresse hídrico nas atividades metabólicas dos nódulos de caupi nos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da fixação de N2. As plantas de caupi foram crescidas em vasos com solo Latossolo amarelo sob diferentes potenciais matriciais: -7,0 (control-S1), -70,0 (S2) e (more) ndo os diferentes níveis de potencial matricial e a sub-parcela contendo os diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento: E1 (0-15), E2 (15-30), E3 (20-35) e E4 (30-45) dias após a emergência. Os tratamentos de estresse foram aplicados gradualmente através do sistema de cápsula porosa. O efeito do estresse de água foi mais prejudicial ao caupi quando aplicado no estádio E2 do que nos demais estádios. A relação parte aérea/raiz decresceu de 2,61 para 2,14 no potencial matricial Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1), -70.0 (S2) and (more) he four different developmental stages: E1 (0-15), E2 (15-30), E3 (20-35) and E4 (30-45) days after emmergence. Water stress treatments were applied by monitoring soil water potential using a set of porous cups. The effect of water stress was most harmful to cowpea when it was applied at E2 than at other symbiotic process stages. Shoot/root ratio decreased from 2.61 to 2.14 when matric potential treatment was

Figueiredo, Márcia do Vale B.; Bezerra-Neto, Egídio; Burity, Hélio A.

2001-10-01

318

[Antiviral effect of Haemanthus albiflos leaves extract on herpes virus, adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, rotavirus and poliovirus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An hydro-alcoholic extract from Haemanthus albiflos leaves (Amaryllidaceae) was tested for its potential antiviral activity against two DNA viruses: herpes simplex virus type I, Adenovirus type 5 and three RNA viruses: poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus, simian Rotavirus SA 11. Positive results were obtained against herpes virus and all the RNA viruses tested.

Husson GP; Vilaginès P; Sarrette B; Vilaginès R

1991-01-01

319

CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI), funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace) recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. DESCRIPTION: CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS) isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs) knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource), and UniProtKB-TrEMBL). Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF) program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS). CONCLUSION: CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

Chen X; Laudeman TW; Rushton PJ; Spraggins TA; Timko MP

2007-01-01

320

CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI), funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace) recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS) isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs) knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource), and UniProtKB-TrEMBL). Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the potential domains on annotated GSS were analyzed using the HMMER package against the Pfam database. The annotated GSS were also assigned with Gene Ontology annotation terms and integrated with 228 curated plant metabolic pathways from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) knowledge base. The UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot ENZYME database was used to assign putative enzymatic function to each GSS. Each GSS was also analyzed with the Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF) program in order to identify potential SSRs for molecular marker discovery. The raw sequence data, processed annotation, and SSR results were stored in relational tables designed in key-value pair fashion using a PostgreSQL relational database management system. The biological knowledge derived from the sequence data and processed results are represented as views or materialized views in the relational database management system. All materialized views are indexed for quick data access and retrieval. Data processing and analysis pipelines were implemented using the Perl programming language. The web interface was implemented in JavaScript and Perl CGI running on an Apache web server. The CPU intensive data processing and analysis pipelines were run on a computer cluster of more than 30 dual-processor Apple XServes. A job management system called Vela was created as a robust way to submit large numbers of jobs to the Portable Batch System (PBS). Conclusion CGKB is an integrated and annotated resource for cowpea GSS with features of homology-based and HMM-based annotations, enzyme and pathway annotations, GO term annotation, toolkits, and a large number of other facilities to perform complex queries. The cowpea GSS, chloroplast sequences, mitochondrial sequences, retroelements, and SSR sequences are available as FASTA formatted files and downloadable at CGKB. This database and web interface are publicly accessible at http://cowpeagenomics.med.virginia.edu/CGKB/.

Chen Xianfeng; Laudeman Thomas W; Rushton Paul J; Spraggins Thomas A; Timko Michael P

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Prophylactic effect of antiretroviral therapy on hepatitis B virus infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, especially in men who have sex with men (MSM). Almost all currently used regimens of antiretroviral therapy (ART) contain lamivudine (LAM) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), both of which have significant anti-HBV activity. However, the prophylactic effect of ART on HBV infection has not been assessed previously. METHODS: Non-HBV-vaccinated HIV-infected MSM were serologically evaluated for HBV infection using stocked serum samples. Cases negative for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in first serum samples were serologically followed until last available stocked samples. HBV genotype and LAM-resistant mutation (rtM204V/I) were analyzed in cases that became HBsAg-positive. RESULTS: The first stocked samples were negative for all analyzed HBV serological markers in 354 of 1434 evaluated patients. The analysis of their last samples indicated HBV incident infection in 43 of them during the follow-up period. The rate of incident infections was lower during LAM- or TDF-containing ART (0.669 incident infections in 100 person-years) than during no ART period (6.726 incident infections in 100 person-years) and other ART (5.263 incident infections in 100 person-years) (P < .001). Genotype A was most prevalent (76.5%), and LAM-resistant HBV was more frequent in incident infections during LAM-containing ART (50.0%) than in those during no ART and other ART (7.1%) (P = .029). CONCLUSIONS: LAM- and TDF-containing ART regimens seem to provide prophylaxis against HBV infection, although drug-resistant strains seem to evade these effects.

Gatanaga H; Hayashida T; Tanuma J; Oka S

2013-06-01

322

Radiation enhaced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultraviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since caffeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation

1976-01-01

323

Controle genético do comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi/ Genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético do caráter comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Para isso, foi realizado um cruzamento entre os parentais TVx-5058-09C, de pedúnculo curto, e TE96-282-22G, de pedúnculo longo. Os parentais e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1) e RC2 (P2xF1) foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram estimados: variâncias fenotípica, genotípica, ambiental, aditi (more) va e de dominância; herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito; grau médio de dominância e número mínimo de genes que determinam o caráter. O modelo aditivo-dominante foi adequado para explicar a variação observada. O efeito gênico aditivo foi o mais importante no controle do comprimento do pedúnculo, que é, aparentemente, controlado por cinco genes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). A short peduncle cowpea line (TVx-5058-09C) was crossed with a long peduncle line (TE 96-282-22G). The parents and the F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1), and RC2 (P2xF1) generations were evaluated in randomized block design with four replications. Genotypic, phenotypic, environmental, additive, and dominance variances for peduncle length were determined. Narrow and bro (more) ad sense heritability, the degree of dominance, and the minimum number of genes determining peduncle length were estimated. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the observed variation. The additive gene effect was the most important in controlling peduncle length, which appeared to be controlled by five genes.

Rocha, Maurisrael de Moura; Carvalho, Kênnya Jhouanny Martins de; Freire Filho, Francisco Rodrigues; Lopes, Ângela Celis de Almeida; Gomes, Regina Lúcia Ferreira; Sousa, Iradenia da Silva

2009-03-01

324

The effect of fungicides on sugar beet infected with beet mild yellowing virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies were made in 1989, 1990 and 1991 to establish whether carbendazim (MBC) had a direct therapeutic effect on sugar beet plants infected with beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV), resulting in detectable yield benefits. In a field trial in 1989 virus-infected plots treated with carbendazim gave a significantly higher yield, of 0.66 t sugar/ha, than virus-infected plots sprayed with sulphur to control powdery mildew. This response to carbendazim in virus-inoculated plots was not repeated in subsequent trials in 1990 and 1991, and a glasshouse study showed no apparent effect on virus concentration within inoculated plants. Neither was any effect of carbendazim on symptom development observed in any of the trials or glasshouse experiments.

Smith HG; Asher MJC; Williams GE; Hallsworth PB

1995-12-01

325

Screening of entomopathogenic Metarhizium anisopliae isolates and proteomic analysis of secretion synthesized in response to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) exoskeleton.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cowpea crops are severely attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus, a Coleopteran that at the larval stage penetrates into stored seeds and feeds on cotyledons. Cowpea weevil control could be based in utilization of bacteria and fungi to reduce pest development. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, are able to control insect-pests and are widely applied in biological control. This report evaluated ten M. anisopliae isolates according to their virulence, correlating chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities, as well proteomic analysis by two dimensional gels of fungal secretions in response to an induced medium containing C. maculatus shells, indicating novel biotechnological tools capable of improving cowpea crop resistance.

Murad AM; Laumann RA; Lima Tde A; Sarmento RB; Noronha EF; Rocha TL; Valadares-Inglis MC; Franco OL

2006-03-01

326

A method for rapid production of heteromultimeric protein complexes in plants: assembly of protective bluetongue virus-like particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant expression systems based on nonreplicating virus-based vectors can be used for the simultaneous expression of multiple genes within the same cell. They therefore have great potential for the production of heteromultimeric protein complexes. This work describes the efficient plant-based production and assembly of Bluetongue virus-like particles (VLPs), requiring the simultaneous expression of four distinct proteins in varying amounts. Such particles have the potential to serve as a safe and effective vaccine against Bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes high mortality rates in ruminants and thus has a severe effect on the livestock trade. Here, VLPs produced and assembled in Nicotiana benthamiana using the cowpea mosaic virus-based HyperTrans (CPMV-HT) and associated pEAQ plant transient expression vector system were shown to elicit a strong antibody response in sheep. Furthermore, they provided protective immunity against a challenge with a South African BTV-8 field isolate. The results show that transient expression can be used to produce immunologically relevant complex heteromultimeric structures in plants in a matter of days. The results have implications beyond the realm of veterinary vaccines and could be applied to the production of VLPs for human use or the coexpression of multiple enzymes for the manipulation of metabolic pathways. PMID:23647743

Thuenemann, Eva C; Meyers, Ann E; Verwey, Jeanette; Rybicki, Edward P; Lomonossoff, George P

2013-05-06

327

Effect of Imput Multiplicity and Tissue Cell Concentration on Growth of Rift Valley Fever Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of virus input multiplicity and of tissue cell concentration upon the growth of Rift Valley fever virus in L cells (Earle) were determined. The titers obtained in suspension cultures with cells obtained from two separate laboratories were significantly different. With both monolayer cult...

Orlando, Michael D.; DeLauter, Richard D.; Riley, Jean M.

328

Effect of Input Multiplicity and Tissue Cell Concentration Upon the Growth of Rift Valley Fever Virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in L (Earle) cells obtained from two sources and the effect of input multiplicity and tissue cell concentration upon the growth of the virus are described. The titers obtained in the suspension cultures with the...

M. D. Orlando R. D. DeLauter J. M. Riley

1967-01-01

329

Effect of actinomycin D and cycloheximide on replication of Sindbis virus in Aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of Sindbis virus in the presence of transcription and translation inhibitors was examined in three Aedes albopictus cell lines. Addition of cycloheximide to heat-resistant Sindbis virus (SVHR)-infected mosquito cells arrested viral RNA synthesis completely, in contrast to the effects of t...

Condreay, L D; Adams, R H; Edwards, J; Brown, D T

330

Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)/ Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ?I-484? (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ?I-490? (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron (more) a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ?I-484?. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ?I-490? se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares. Abstract in english The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ?I-484? (moderate sensibility to salinity) and ?I-490? (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after so (more) wn, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ?I-484?. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ?I-490? the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

Garzón, Paola; García, Marina

2011-12-01

331

Efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía radical y foliar en dos genotipos de Frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Effect of NaCl stress on root and leaf anatomy in two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del estrés por NaCl sobre la anatomía de la raíz y de la hoja en dos genotipos de frijol con sensibilidad distinta ante esta sal, con la finalidad de conocer si ese comportamiento diferencial está asociado con adaptaciones anatómicas en esos órganos. Semillas de los genotipos ‘I-484’ (moderadamente sensible a la salinidad) e ‘I-490’ (sensible a la salinidad), se sembraron en sustrato inerte, y seis días después de la siembra se sometieron a salinización con NaCl (100 mM). A los 14 días después de la siembra, se tomaron muestras de raíz y de las hojas primarias y se fijaron en FAA hasta su procesamiento. El estrés salino indujo suculencia en la rizodermis y en el parénquima de la corteza de la raíz, en mayor grado en ‘I-484’. La salinización también provocó reducción en el diámetro de la estela de la raíz en los dos genotipos, debido principalmente a la disminución en el número y diámetro de los vasos xilemáticos. En las hojas primarias de las plantas estresadas se observaron más tricomas glandulares, invaginaciones en las células del parénquima en empalizada y arreglo menos compacto del mesofilo. En ‘I-490’ se redujo significativamente el grosor de la hoja y de la epidermis adaxial del parénquima clorofiliano en empalizada y esponjoso. Estos resultados sugieren que los mecanismos anatómicos de adaptación de Vigna unguiculata ante el estrés por NaCl están relacionados con la capacidad de desarrollar suculencia en la raíz y con el mantenimiento de la integridad de los tejidos foliares.The effect of NaCl stress on leaf and root anatomy in two cowpea genotypes with differences in sensibility to that salt was studied in order to know the probable existence of histological adaptations associated to that differential behavior. Seeds of the genotypes ‘I-484’ (moderate sensibility to salinity) and ‘I-490’ (sensible to salinity) were sown on inert substrate and six days after sown they were subject to salinization with NaCl (100 mM). Fourteen days after sown, samples of the root and the primary leaves were taken and fixed in FAA until their processing. Salt stress induced succulence in the rizodermis and cortex parenchyma of the root, in higher degree in ‘I-484’. Salinity also produced a reduction in the stele diameter of both genotypes, because of the decrease in number and diameter of the xylem vessels. In the primary leaves of stressed plants, were observed more glandular trichomes, less compact mesophyll and invaginations in the palisade parenchyma cells. In ‘I-490’ the thickness of the leaf, and that of the adaxial epidermis of palisade and spongy parenchyma, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that the anatomical mechanisms of adaptation to NaCl stress in Vigna unguiculata are related to the capacity to develop root succulence and the maintenance of foliar tissue integrity.

Paola Garzón; Marina García

2011-01-01

332

Studies on the physiological effects of viruses on sweet potato yield in Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experiments to determine the effect of the three viruses most common on Kenyan sweet potato varieties were carried out at the University of Nairobi Kabete farm. The sweet potato varieties were Bungoma, Kemb 10 and Ex-Shimba hills which were either virus-free or infected with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) or a combination of SPFMV and SPCSV. Canopy photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception and the relative chlorophyll content of the plants were determined. At harvest, marketable tuber yield, harvest index (HI), leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf weight (SLW) were measured. Infection with single viruses caused no or mild symptoms and had no significant effect on chlorophyll content of leaves of any variety. Dual infection with SPFMV and SPCSV resulted in severe symptoms characteristic of sweet potato virus disease complex (SPVD) and significantly reduced chlorophyll content. Only SPCSV and SPCSV + SPFMV reduced PAR interception, the latter combination especially. Generally, infection with single viruses increased the SLW but a decrease occurred in plants dually infected with SPFMV and SPCSV. Whereas SPVD significantly reduced the harvest index (78%) and tuber yield (98%) in the three varieties, infection with single viruses caused a reduction only in the varieties Bungoma and Kemb 10. SPVD reduced yield through reducing leaf chlorophyll content, PAR interception, LAI and HI. The single virus infections possibly reduced assimilate translocation from leaves to tubers as is inferred from high SLW. Effects of viruses on physiological processes and yield are discussed.

Njeru RW; Mburu MWK; Cheramgoi E; Gibson RW; Kiburi ZM; Obudho E; Yobera D

2004-01-01

333

Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of the tobacco mosaic virus group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The initiation site for reconstitution on genome RNA was determined by electron microscopic serology for a watermelon strain of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-W), which is chemically and serologically related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The initiation site was located at the same position as that of the cowpea strain, a virus that produces short rods of encapsidated subgenomic messenger RNA for the coat protein (a two-component TMV), being about 320 nucleotides away from the 3' terminus, and hence within the coat protein cistron. Although CGMMV-W was until now believed to be a single-component TMV, the location of the initiation site indicated the presence of short rods containing coat protein messenger RNA in CGMMV-W-infected tissue, as in the case for the cowpea strain. We found such short rods in CGMMV-W-infected tissue. The results confirmed our previous hypothesis that the site of the initiation region for reconstitution determines the rod multiplicity of TMV. The finding of the second two-component TMV, CGMMV, indicates that the cowpea strain of TMV is not unique in being a two-component virus and that the location of the assembly initiation site on the genome RNA can be a criterion for grouping of viruses.

Fukuda M; Meshi T; Okada Y; Otsuki Y; Takebe I

1981-07-01

334

Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of the tobacco mosaic virus group.  

Science.gov (United States)

The initiation site for reconstitution on genome RNA was determined by electron microscopic serology for a watermelon strain of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-W), which is chemically and serologically related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The initiation site was located at the same position as that of the cowpea strain, a virus that produces short rods of encapsidated subgenomic messenger RNA for the coat protein (a two-component TMV), being about 320 nucleotides away from the 3' terminus, and hence within the coat protein cistron. Although CGMMV-W was until now believed to be a single-component TMV, the location of the initiation site indicated the presence of short rods containing coat protein messenger RNA in CGMMV-W-infected tissue, as in the case for the cowpea strain. We found such short rods in CGMMV-W-infected tissue. The results confirmed our previous hypothesis that the site of the initiation region for reconstitution determines the rod multiplicity of TMV. The finding of the second two-component TMV, CGMMV, indicates that the cowpea strain of TMV is not unique in being a two-component virus and that the location of the assembly initiation site on the genome RNA can be a criterion for grouping of viruses. PMID:16593057

Fukuda, M; Meshi, T; Okada, Y; Otsuki, Y; Takebe, I

1981-07-01

335

Insecticidal Efficacy of Castor and Hazelnut Oils in Stored Cowpea Against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is a primary pest of cowpea and other legumes worldwide, both in fields and in stored seeds. Castor oil at 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 mL kg-1 and Hazelnut at 2.8, 4.4, 6, 7.6 and 9.2 mL kg-1 were tested against C. macula...

N. Haghtalab; N. Shayesteh; S. Aramideh

336

Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes. PMID:14977138

Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

2003-12-01

337

Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes.

Johnson JA; Valero KA

2003-12-01

338

Differential Expression of Aluminium Tolerance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes under Phosphorus Limitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research efforts have revealed differences in tolerance to Aluminium (Al) toxicity among cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes grown on acid soils (pH<5.0) with tolerant genotypes exhibiting higher capacity for Al exclusion than the susceptible ones under P-deficient conditions. Here, we te...

E.A. Akinrinde; L. Iroh; G.O. Obigbesan; T. Hilger; G. Neumann; V. Romheld

339

Functional Characterization and Expression of a Cytosolic Iron-Superoxide Dismutase from Cowpea Root Nodules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An iron-superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) with an unusual subcellular localization, VuFeSOD, has been purified from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules and leaves. The enzyme has two identical subunits of 27 kD that are not covalently bound. Comparison of its N-terminal sequence (NVAGINLL) with the cDNA-d...

Morán, José F.; James, E. K.; Rubio Luna, Mari Carmen; Sarath, G.; Klucas, R. V.; Becana Ausejo, Manuel

340

Effectiveness of tomato-spotted wilt virus management tactics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tomato-spotted wilt (TSW) is caused by the tomato-spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and is a major disease affecting the production of tomato and pepper in the Southeastern United States. Before initiating a multistate, regional project addressing this issue, a survey was conducted in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida to assess the need for improved management of TSWV in these crops. We investigated farmer's stated effectiveness of four common TSWV management tactics (reflective mulch, resistant cultivar, imidacloprid, and Actiguard) in pepper and tomato production using logistic regression. We found that the odds that farmers were satisfied with the use of reflective mulch alone in controlling TSWV is 9-1, about one and a half times the amount obtained from using Actiguard alone. Moreover, the odds that farmers were satisfied with a practice that combines reflective mulch and Actiguard was far greater than that obtained from using each of the technique separately. We found some similarities between farmer's stated effectiveness and revealed effectiveness from experiments.

Awondo SN; Fonsah EG; Riley D; Abney M

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Preventive and curative effects of Apple latent spherical virus vectors harboring part of the target virus genome against potyvirus and cucumovirus infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV)-based vectors experimentally infect a broad range of plant species without causing symptoms and can effectively induce stable virus-induced gene silencing in plants. Here, we show that pre-infection of ALSV vectors harboring part of a target viral genome (we called ALSV vector vaccines here) inhibits the multiplication and spread of the corresponding challenge viruses [Bean yellow mosaic virus, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)] by a homology-dependent resistance. Further, the plants pre-infected with an ALSV vector having genome sequences of both ZYMV and CMV were protected against double inoculation of ZYMV and CMV. More interestingly, a curative effect of an ALSV vector vaccine could also be expected in ZYMV-infected cucumber plants, because the symptoms subsided on subsequent inoculation with an ALSV vector vaccine. This may be due to the invasion of ALSV, but not ZYMV, in the shoot apical meristem of cucumber.

Tamura A; Kato T; Taki A; Sone M; Satoh N; Yamagishi N; Takahashi T; Ryo BS; Natsuaki T; Yoshikawa N

2013-11-01

342

Estimation of Some Genetic Parameters using Six Populations of Two Cowpea Hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out at South Valley University, Experimental Farm, during the three summer seasons of 2007, 2008 and 2009. The objective of this work to estimate of some genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of yield and its components of cowpea crosses (Azmerly x IT 82C-16 and Azmerly x IT 81D-1137). The results showed significant deviation from zero for values of A, B and C for all studied traits, indicating the in adequacy of the additive dominance model and the presence of non-allelic gene interaction. The additive and dominance gene effects and the types of epistasis, i.e., additive x additive, additive x dominance and dominance x dominance were important in the genetic system controlling for all studied traits in the two crosses. Dominance gene action (h) was the main types of gene effects for all studied traits in both crosses. The additive gene effects were found to be significant positive for days to flowering, number of pods/plant in the (cross 1), weight seeds/plant (g), total seed yield/kg feddan in the (cross 2), suggesting the potential for obtaining further improvements of these traits by using pedigree selection program. Duplicate epistasis was found for all studied traits in the two crosses. Heterosis % over mid-parent value ranged from - 4.45% for days to Flowering to 23.75% for number of seeds/pod trait in the (cross 2). The inbreeding depression % value ranged from -12.87% for days to flowering to 17.02% for number of pods/plant in the (cross 1).

A.M.A. Rashwan

2010-01-01

343

Determination of some mineral components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some mineral elements in the seeds of the cowpea were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The cowpea cultivars were made up of improved varieties (Soronko, Gbeho, Ayiyi, Asontem, Asontem1, Bengpla, Asetenapa and Adom), farmers' accessions (87/7, 87/1, 87/27, 87/147, 87/34, 87/49, 87/83, 87/157, 87/149, 87/30, 87/153, 96/046, 87/137, 96/129, BTB 96/091, OAA 96/30, BTB 96/054), and experimental materials (IT870-677-2, Caroni, Kaase Market, 1977 and 1239). A total of 14 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Br, Cl, K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ta, Si and In) were detected in the seeds of the 30 cowpea cultivars. Five of the elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl) identified are classified as major elements in the human body, while four (Mn, Zn, V, Si) are trace elements. The major elements K, Na, Ca, Mg and Cl were detected in high concentration in cultivars 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34 and 87/49, respectively. The trace elements Mn, Zn, V, Si, Cu and Al were detected in high concentration in cultivars 87/34, 87/27, 87/34, Bengpla, 87/34 and 87/34, respectively. From the results the following accessions could be selected and incorporated into a cowpea mineral nutritional improvement programme: 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34, 87/49 and 87/27. The presence of the five major elements and the trace elements indicates that cowpea has a rich source of mineral elements and, therefore, can be used to improve the diet of both humans and livestock. (au)

2007-01-01

344

Physiological and Biochemical Variations in Seed Germination of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germination, coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG), lipid and sugar compositions were determined in whole ungerminated seed of three cowpea cultivars. The cultivars were chosen for biochemical characteristics based on seed germination and coefficient of velocity of germination tests. Texas cream 40 was able to germinate at very high and low temperatures. Black Crowder demonstrated acceptable germination at high temperatures but negatively affected at low temperature. Mississippi Purple obtained low germination percent and CVG at all temperatures studied. The main sugars present in cowpea seed are sucrose, raffinose and stachyose. Sugar contents were affected by cultivar. Sugar compositions were higher in the cultivars with high percent germination and reduced in the cultivar with lower percent germination suggesting the use of sugar for seed germination process. The most abundant fatty acids in cowpea seed were palmitic acid [CH3(CH2)14COOH; (16:0)], palmitoleic acid [CH3(CH2)5CH = CH(CH2)7COOH; (16:1)], stearic acid [CH3(CH2)16COOH; (18:0)], oleic acid [CH3(CH2)7CH = CH(CH2)7COOH; (18:1)], linoleic acid [CH3(CH2)4CH = CHCH2CH = CHCH2(CH2)6 COOH; (18:2)], linolenic acid [CH3CH2CH = CHCH2CH = CHCH2CH = CH(CH2)7COOH; (18:3)] and arachidic acid [CH3(CH2)18COOH; (20:0)]. The result shows that the long-chain fatty acid appears to be important in the cowpea seed germination process. Thus, the information provided by this research will facilitate future plant physiological and genetic studies of cowpea cultivars.

Shahidul Islam; R. Carvajal R. Carmen; Jr. James O. Garner

2008-01-01

345

Transmission model of hepatitis B virus with the migration effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatitis B is a globally infectious disease. Mathematical modeling of HBV transmission is an interesting research area. In this paper, we present characteristics of HBV virus transmission in the form of a mathematical model. We analyzed the effect of immigrants in the model to study the effect of immigrants for the host population. We added the following flow parameters: "the transmission between migrated and exposed class" and "the transmission between migrated and acute class." With these new features, we obtained a compartment model of six differential equations. First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. Previous similar publications have not added the kind of information about the numerical results of the model. In our case, from numerical simulation, a detailed discussion of the parameters and their numerical results is presented. We claim that with these assumptions and by adding the migrated class, the model informs policy for governments, to be aware of the immigrants and subject them to tests about the disease status. Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease.

Khan MA; Islam S; Arif M; ul Haq Z

2013-01-01

346

Effect of cellular cholesterol depletion on rabies virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there are several reports on candidates for rabies virus (RABV) receptor, possible roles played by these receptor candidates in determination of highly neurotropic nature of RABV have not been well understood. Since these candidate receptors for RABV were reported to be frequently associated with cholesterol-rich microdomains characterized by lipid rafts and caveolae structures, we attempted to determine whether the disturbance of microdomains caused by the cholesterol depletion showed any effects on RABV infection. When the cellular cholesterol was depleted by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) treatment, increase in RABV adsorption and infection, but not multiplication rather than suppression was observed in both BHK-21 and HEp-2 cells. These effects exerted by MBCD treatment on RABV infection could be reversed by cholesterol reconstitution. These results suggest that RABV enters BHK-21 or HEp-2 cells through ports of entry other than those located on cholesterol-rich microdomains and raise the possibility that RABV uses different mechanisms to enter the non-neuronal cells. PMID:19010362

Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbarrtar; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Okutani, Akiko; Inoue, Satoshi; Yamada, Akio

2008-11-28

347

Effect of caffeine on induction of endogenous type C virus in mouse cells in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of caffeine on the expression of murine endogenous virus in mouse cells induced by radiation and chemicals was studied. Postirradiation treatment of K-BALB cells with caffeine enhanced cell killing as well as the induction of xenotropic virus after ultraviolet light irradiation. The degree of enhancement for the virus induction was comparable to that for cell killing. On the other hand, colony-forming ability and the expression of xenotropic virus of K-BALB cells after X-irradiation were unaffected by caffeine. These data suggest a linear relationship between the degree of endogenous virus expression and the amount of lethal damages after irradiation. For induction by halogenated pyrimidines, a 24-hr incubation of AKR2B cells with caffeine after 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine treatment resulted in marked suppression of the expression of ecotropic virus. On the contrary, in K-BALB cells, caffeine exerted only a small effect on 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-induced expression of ecotropic and xenotropic viruses. These results indicate that, although using the same inducing agent, the pathway of endogenous virus induction may be different for AKR2B cells and for K-BALB cells.

1981-01-01

348

Effect of caffeine on induction of endogenous type C virus in mouse cells in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of caffeine on the expression of murine endogenous virus in mouse cells induced by radiation and chemicals was studied. Postirradiation treatment of K-BALB cells with caffeine enhanced cell killing as well as the induction of xenotropic virus after ultraviolet light irradiation. The degree of enhancement for the virus induction was comparable to that for cell killing. On the other hand, colony-forming ability and the expression of xenotropic virus of K-BALB cells after X-irradiation were unaffected by caffeine. These data suggest a linear relationship between the degree of endogenous virus expression and the amount of lethal damages after irradiation. For induction by halogenated pyrimidines, a 24-hr incubation of AKR2B cells with caffeine after 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine treatment resulted in marked suppression of the expression of ecotropic virus. On the contrary, in K-BALB cells, caffeine exerted only a small effect on 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-induced expression of ecotropic and xenotropic viruses. These results indicate that, although using the same inducing agent, the pathway of endogenous virus induction may be different for AKR2B cells and for K-BALB cells.

Niwa, O.; Sugahara, T.

1981-08-01

349

Identification of water storage tissue in the stem of cowpea plant (Vigna unguliculata Walp) by neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) is considered one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops. It was suggested that in the lower part of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. However, such tissue has not been identified yet. In order to identify the water storing tissue in the stem of cowpea plant, the authors performed neutron radiography, which provides a non-destructive image of water distribution pattern in a plant. Common bean plant and soybean plant were used as references. Comparing the neutron radiograph for the stems of the plants, i.e., cowpea, common bean and soybean plants, the parenchymatous tissue with water storing function was distinguished in the intermode between primary leaf and the first trifoliate leaf specifically in cowpea plant. (author)

1999-01-01

350

Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

Zia-Ul-Haq M; Ahmad S; Amarowicz R; De Feo V

2013-01-01

351

Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods. PMID:23385338

Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Amarowicz, Ryszard; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-02-05

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