WorldWideScience

Sample records for contextual knowledge reduces

  1. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can...... have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries. A...

  2. Integration of Funds of Knowledge as Contextual Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norawi Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed the importance of funds of knowledge as contextual knowledge to generate the impact of ‘resonance’ in sustaining students’ interest and motivation towards science, especially Physics. The funds of knowledge that comprises of cultural and language knowledge, which are richly embedded within the students due to daily interaction with family members, friends and community activities should be addressed, explored and utilized by science educators to generate the relationship between the science curriculum in school and students’ experience in community. The teaching and learning processes should be based on students’ cultural experiences and be contextually related to their rich community knowledge, so that an intersection occurs between the science curriculum and their community experiences. Example of a lesson plan integrating funds of knowledge in teaching Archimedes Principle was produced. The awareness and creativity of educators in adapting the repertoire of their own cultural experiences as well as students’ funds of knowledge would eliminate negative perceptions and difficulties in the understanding of Physics concepts.

  3. Knowledge Attributions and the Psychology of Reasoning: A Case against Contextualism

    OpenAIRE

    Čuljak, Zvonimir; Sekulić, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic contextualism in the works of S. Cohen, K. DeRose, D. Lewis and others amounts to the semantic thesis that the truth conditions of knowledge attributions or denials vary according to the contextually shifting standards for knowledge attributions and to the indexical character of the predicate “knows”. This semantic variation is primarily due to the pragmatic features of the attributor context, depending on “what is at stake” for the attributor. In this paper contextualism is confron...

  4. Cloud-Savvy Contextual Spaces as Agile Personal Learning Environments or Informal Knowledge Management Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gillet D.; Bogdanov E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents how advanced social media platforms can be exploited to construct and share contextual spaces enabling the instantiation of agile personal learning environments or informal knowledge management solutions. The usefulness of open plugins to collect resources from the cloud in such dedicated contextual spaces is discussed. The mechanisms for the personalization of spaces from an interaction point of view once populated with resources and their sharing across platforms are als...

  5. Using Regular, Lowstakes Tests to Secure Pupils' Contextual Knowledge in Year 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Lee Donaghy was concerned that his GCSE students' weak contextual knowledge was letting them down. Inspired by a mixture of cognitive science and the arguments of other teachers expressed in various blogs, he decided to tackle the problem by teaching and testing knowledge more intensively. The result was a rapid improvement in secure factual…

  6. Demographic and Contextual Factors Related to Knowledge About Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Zoller, Sarah M.; BALSIS, STEVE; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Gatz, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about Alzheimer's disease (AD) is essential to address the public health impact of dementia. This study examined AD knowledge in 794 people who completed the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale and questions about their background and experience with AD. Whereas overall knowledge was fair, there was significant variability across groups. Knowledge was highest among professionals working in the dementia field, lower for dementia caregivers and older adults, and lowest for se...

  7. Contextual factors, knowledge processes and performance in global sourcing of IT services: An investigation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Du; Shizhong Ai; Pamela Abbott; Yingqin Zheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the influences of two major contextual factors—supplier team members’ cultural understanding and trust relationship—on knowledge processes and performance in global sourcing of IT services. The authors discuss a joint investigation conducted by a cross-cultural research team in China. Cultural understanding is measured by individualism with guanxi and mianzi, two Chinese cultural concepts, and trust relationship is measured by adjusting trust, a notion...

  8. Knowledge Utilisation in Swedish Neonatal Nursing : Studies on Guideline Implementation, Change Processes and Contextual Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to study the implementation of guidelines, change processes and contextual variables from the perspective of improvements and neonatal nursing care’s endeavours to be more evidenced-based. Because health care is exposed to extensive change pressure and because the impact of effectiveness research on clinical practice is limited, it becomes urgent to understand how knowledge utilisation initiatives can be facilitated. Three studies involved managers and nurse...

  9. A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2011-01-01

    Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics and literacies embedded, and supported by ICT. Here, we present an evaluation of new technology that might bridge generations and preserve key elements of local IK in Namibia. We describe how we applied insights, generated by ethnographic, dialogical and participatory action research, in designing a structure in which users can store, organize and retrieve user-generated videos in ways that are compatible with their knowledge system. The structure embeds videos in a scenario-based 3D visualization of a rural village. It accounts for some of the ways this rural community manages information, socially, spatially and temporally and provides users with a recognizable 3D simulated environment in which to re-contextualize de-contextualized video clips. Our formative in situ evaluation of a prototype suggests the visualization is legible to community members, provokes participation in design discussions, offers opportunities for local appropriation and may facilitate knowledge sharing between IK holders and more youthful IK assimilators. Simultaneously differing interpretations of scenarios and modeled objects reveal the limitations of our modeling decisions and raises various questions regarding graphic design details and regional transferability.

  10. Discrete Logic Modelling Optimization to Contextualize Prior Knowledge Networks Using PRUNET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ana; Crespo, Isaac; Androsova, Ganna; del Sol, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput technologies have led to the generation of an increasing amount of data in different areas of biology. Datasets capturing the cell's response to its intra- and extra-cellular microenvironment allows such data to be incorporated as signed and directed graphs or influence networks. These prior knowledge networks (PKNs) represent our current knowledge of the causality of cellular signal transduction. New signalling data is often examined and interpreted in conjunction with PKNs. However, different biological contexts, such as cell type or disease states, may have distinct variants of signalling pathways, resulting in the misinterpretation of new data. The identification of inconsistencies between measured data and signalling topologies, as well as the training of PKNs using context specific datasets (PKN contextualization), are necessary conditions to construct reliable, predictive models, which are current challenges in the systems biology of cell signalling. Here we present PRUNET, a user-friendly software tool designed to address the contextualization of a PKNs to specific experimental conditions. As the input, the algorithm takes a PKN and the expression profile of two given stable steady states or cellular phenotypes. The PKN is iteratively pruned using an evolutionary algorithm to perform an optimization process. This optimization rests in a match between predicted attractors in a discrete logic model (Boolean) and a Booleanized representation of the phenotypes, within a population of alternative subnetworks that evolves iteratively. We validated the algorithm applying PRUNET to four biological examples and using the resulting contextualized networks to predict missing expression values and to simulate well-characterized perturbations. PRUNET constitutes a tool for the automatic curation of a PKN to make it suitable for describing biological processes under particular experimental conditions. The general applicability of the implemented algorithm makes PRUNET suitable for a variety of biological processes, for instance cellular reprogramming or transitions between healthy and disease states. PMID:26058016

  11. Discrete Logic Modelling Optimization to Contextualize Prior Knowledge Networks Using PRUNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androsova, Ganna; del Sol, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput technologies have led to the generation of an increasing amount of data in different areas of biology. Datasets capturing the cell’s response to its intra- and extra-cellular microenvironment allows such data to be incorporated as signed and directed graphs or influence networks. These prior knowledge networks (PKNs) represent our current knowledge of the causality of cellular signal transduction. New signalling data is often examined and interpreted in conjunction with PKNs. However, different biological contexts, such as cell type or disease states, may have distinct variants of signalling pathways, resulting in the misinterpretation of new data. The identification of inconsistencies between measured data and signalling topologies, as well as the training of PKNs using context specific datasets (PKN contextualization), are necessary conditions to construct reliable, predictive models, which are current challenges in the systems biology of cell signalling. Here we present PRUNET, a user-friendly software tool designed to address the contextualization of a PKNs to specific experimental conditions. As the input, the algorithm takes a PKN and the expression profile of two given stable steady states or cellular phenotypes. The PKN is iteratively pruned using an evolutionary algorithm to perform an optimization process. This optimization rests in a match between predicted attractors in a discrete logic model (Boolean) and a Booleanized representation of the phenotypes, within a population of alternative subnetworks that evolves iteratively. We validated the algorithm applying PRUNET to four biological examples and using the resulting contextualized networks to predict missing expression values and to simulate well-characterized perturbations. PRUNET constitutes a tool for the automatic curation of a PKN to make it suitable for describing biological processes under particular experimental conditions. The general applicability of the implemented algorithm makes PRUNET suitable for a variety of biological processes, for instance cellular reprogramming or transitions between healthy and disease states. PMID:26058016

  12. Midazolam reduces the selective activation of the rhinal cortex by contextual fear stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Borelli, Karina G; Almada, Rafael C; Brandão, Marcus L

    2011-01-20

    Independent brain circuits appear to underlie different forms of conditioned fear, depending on the type of conditioning used, such as a context or explicit cue paired with footshocks. Several clinical reports have associated damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) with retrograde amnesia. Although a number of studies have elucidated the neural circuits underlying conditioned fear, the involvement of MTL components in the aversive conditioning paradigm is still unclear. To address this issue, we assessed freezing responses and Fos protein expression in subregions of the rhinal cortex and ventral hippocampus of rats following exposure to a context, light or tone previously paired with footshock (Experiment 1). A comparable degree of freezing was observed in the three types of conditioned fear, but with distinct patterns of Fos distribution. The groups exposed to cued fear conditioning did not show changes in Fos expression, whereas the group subjected to contextual fear conditioning showed selective activation of the ectorhinal (Ect), perirhinal (Per), and entorhinal (Ent) cortices, with no changes in the ventral hippocampus. We then examined the effects of the benzodiazepine midazolam injected bilaterally into these three rhinal subregions in the expression of contextual fear conditioning (Experiment 2). Midazolam administration into the Ect, Per, and Ent reduced freezing responses. These findings suggest that contextual and explicit stimuli endowed with aversive properties through conditioning recruit distinct brain areas, and the rhinal cortex appears to be critical for storing context-, but not explicit cue-footshock, associations. PMID:20851717

  13. Experimental Activities in Astronomy for the Construction of Knowledge through an Interdisciplinary and Contextualized Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Pellenz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses experimental activities developed in astronomy for Scientific Presentation as a didactic resource for teaching science and math in elementary education in state schools. One of the key strategic elements used during the execution of this proposal was to initiate approaches for the identification of students' prior knowledge, resuming astronomical concepts covered during the elementary school. For development of the proposed activities was the interaction between different disciplines, seeking to promote the active and meaningful learning. Through contextualized astronomical activities, students develop different skills and competencies. These activities are a contribution to the teaching of science and mathematics, as we feel the need to demonstrate the importance of an educational approach that gives meaning to student learning.

  14. "That's in the Time of the Romans!" Knowledge and Strategies Students Use to Contextualize Historical Images and Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Carla; van Drie, Jannet

    2012-01-01

    An important goal of history education is the development of a chronological frame of reference that can be used to interpret and date historical images and documents. Despite the importance of this contextualization goal, little is known about the knowledge and strategies that allow students to situate information historically. Two studies were…

  15. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension of the foot, the radio an extension of the ear, the television an extension of the eye. From this perspective, exploring the internet as an extension of identity produces fruitful questions about the role of on...

  16. Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, Søsser

    2011-01-01

    practice. Consequently courses added into engineering curricula emphasizing contextual issues stay in stark contrast to the dominant instrumental disciplines of mathematics and techno-science content of core engineering courses. Based on several years of teaching and experimenting with Theory of Science at......Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science...

  17. How writing records reduces clinical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Through the practices of recording, psychiatric nurses produce clinical knowledge about the patients in their care. The objective of this study was to examine the conventionalized practices of recording among psychiatric nurses and the typical linguistic organization of their records. The study...... drew on data from an extended fieldwork on two Danish "special observation" wards. The results indicated that the nurses' recording produced "stereotyping" representations of the patients and reduced the nurses' clinical knowledge but that this particular way of recording made good sense in relation to...

  18. How writing records reduces clinical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Through the practices of recording, psychiatric nurses produce clinical knowledge about the patients in their care. The objective of this study was to examine the conventionalized practices of recording among psychiatric nurses and the typical linguistic organization of their records. The study drew on data from an extended fieldwork on two Danish "special observation" wards. The results indicated that the nurses' recording produced "stereotyping" representations of the patients and reduced the ...

  19. Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, Søsser

    2011-01-01

    Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science based reflections related to the use and uptake of technology in society often conflicts with engineering students’ self-understanding and identity. Another dilemma is related to the specificity and mod...

  20. Contextual Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be intelligible to the intellect, but is incomprehensible to the imagination, creativity and emotional intelligence, all of which are important to the full development of personality. A study of Economics without the human and social dimensions, industrialization detached from ecology, or science devoid of moral accountability results in problems. Education of each part must be in the context of the whole. Knowing the whole context helps one get the right perspective to address the issue effectively. In the education of the future, the gap between abstract concept and social relevance must be bridged. The following article explores the need for contextual education and the ways in which it can be implemented.

  1. Transient and Robust Knowledge: Contextual Support and the Dynamics of Children's Reasoning about Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Koepke, Margy F.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2007-01-01

    Contextual support for performance and understanding plays an important role in learning and teaching. This study investigated the temporal course of the effects of support--how it affects complexity and correctness of judgments about density in kindergarten (n = 35) and second-grade (n = 29) children. In the experimental group, a teacher provided…

  2. The Development of a Contextual Information Framework Model as a Potential IAEA Strategy to Maintain Radioactive Waste Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A contextual framework comprises 'entities' that exhibit one or more definable relationships with a particular 'event'. People, organisations, concepts, ideas, places, natural phenomena, events themselves, cultural artefacts including records, books, works of art can all be conceptualised as entities. If these entities are registered in an information management system where the relationships between them can be defined and systematically managed then it is possible to create a contextual information framework that represents a particular view of what occurs in real life. The careful identifying and mapping of the relationships between these entities and the selected event can lead rapidly to the creation of an information network that closely reflects the human approach to knowledge acquisition and application. The 'event' referred to in this paper is the safe management of radioactive waste. It is widely accepted that society will expect that knowledge about the waste will be maintained for many decades, if not centuries. Delivering on this expectation will demand the application of management approaches that are both innovative and sustainable. Effective inter-generational transfer of information using many 'conventional' techniques will be highly dependent on societal stability - something that cannot be guaranteed over such long periods of time. Consequently, alternative approaches should be explored and, where appropriate, implemented to give reasonable assurance that future generations of waste custodians will not be unduly burdened by the need to recreate information about the waste long after its disposal. In actual fact, the contextual information framework model is not 'new technology' but simply a means for rationalising and representing the way humans naturally tend to use information in the pursuit of knowledge enhancement. By making use of multiple information entities and their relationships, it is often possible to convert otherwise impossibly complex socio-technical environments into information architectures or networks with remarkable and useful properties. The International Atomic Energy Agency, in its ongoing work to encourage the application of systems to manage radioactive waste information over the long term, has embraced the contextual information framework as a potentially viable approach to this particular challenge. To this end, it invited Member States to contribute to the production of a Safety Report that used the contextual information framework model, building on the wealth of existing IAEA guidance. The report focuses, not on the important area of records management, but on the benefits that can arise from the development of an information management approach that increases the likelihood that future generations will recognise the significance and value of the information contained in these records. Our understanding of 'inter-generational transfer' should extend beyond the simple physical transfer of records into an archival repository towards the establishment of a working culture that places sufficient contemporary information into a form that ensures it remains accessible, and ultimately enhances, the knowledge of future generations. Making information accessible is therefore the key and whilst the use of stable records media, storage environments and quality assurance are important elements, they cannot be considered solutions in themselves. This paper articulates some of the lessons that have been learned about using the contextual information framework model when applied to the long term management of radioactive waste. The draft IAEA Safety Report entitled 'Preservation and Transfer to Future Generations of Information Important to the Safety of Waste Disposal Facilities', on which this paper is based, is expected to be published in 2007. (authors)

  3. Vpliv razvoja kontekstualnega znanja na razlikovalne kompetence = The Influence of the Development of Contextual Knowledge on Differentiating Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Podreka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is based on the definition of competence asthe individual’s ability to activate, utilize and merge the knowledge andskills acquired when faced with complex, diverse and unpredictablework situations. The purpose of this study is to determine whether thedevelopment of specific contextual knowledge and skills within an organizationleads to the adoption of specific differentiating competenciesby individuals. The survey included marketers employed by threemedium-sized Slovenian enterprises, who function in three differentwork contexts, according to our findings. The results of the researchshow that the differentiating competencies that distinguish the superiorjob performance marketing employee from an average one interms of work success are subject to the development of specific contextualknowledge and skills.

  4. Post-training gamma irradiation-enhanced contextual fear memory associated with reduced neuronal activation of the infralimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Tara; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects. Brain immunoreactivity patterns of the immediately early gene c-Fos, a marker of cellular activity was used to determine which brain areas might be altered in post-training irradiation memory retention tasks. In this study, we show that post-training gamma irradiation exposure (1Gy) enhanced contextual fear memory 24h later and is associated with reduced cellular activation in the infralimbic cortex. Reduced GABA-ergic neurotransmission in parvalbumin-positive cells in the infralimbic cortex might play a role in this post-training radiation-enhanced contextual fear memory. PMID:26522840

  5. Text-to-pinyin conversion based on contextual knowledge and D-tree for Mandarin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Sen; Laprie, Yves

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the technologies for text-to-Pinyin conversion based on context knowledge and D-tree for Mandarin Chinese. The local and long-distance context knowledge were considered and exploited. The context knowledge was represented by regular expressions. D-trees were built based on the regular expressions. The experimental results show that the approach using context knowledge and D-tree is an efficient solution to implement Chinese text-to-Pinyin conversion.

  6. Reduced Contextual Discrimination following Alcohol Consumption or MDMA Administration in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emily M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Moscoso-Castro, María; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The recreational drugs, alcohol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have both been shown to cause immune activation in vivo, and they are linked to cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The neuronal effects of these drugs in the hippocampal area, an area that has been a focus of studies aiming to explain the mechanisms underlying anxiety related-disorders, remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the specific inflammatory impact of alcohol and MDMA on this area of the brain and on a hippocampal-related behavioral task. We centered our study on two inflammatory factors linked to anxiety-related disorders, namely Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We subjected drug-consuming mice to a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, anxiety-like and depressive-live behaviors. We then introduced them to a contextual fear discrimination task and immune-related effects were examined by immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of immune activated pathways by voluntary alcohol consumption and a high-dose MDMA. Furthermore, the ability of mice to perform a contextual fear discrimination task was impaired by drug consumption and we report long term inflammatory alterations in the hippocampus even several weeks after drug intake. This information will be helpful for discovering new selective drug targets, and to develop treatments and preventive approaches for patients with anxiety-related disorders. PMID:26566284

  7. A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Bidwell, Nicola J.; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias; Kapuire, Gereon Koch

    2011-01-01

    Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics and...... opportunities for local appropriation and may facilitate knowledge sharing between IK holders and more youthful IK assimilators. Simultaneously differing interpretations of scenarios and modeled objects reveal the limitations of our modeling decisions and raises various questions regarding graphic design...

  8. Story Constellations: A Narrative Approach to Contextualizing Teachers' Knowledge of School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the roots of narrative research in the social sciences and education, then centers on "story constellations," a version of narrative inquiry that uncovers teachers' knowledge of school reform in context. A fluid form of investigation that unfolds in a three-dimensional inquiry space, story constellations consists of a flexible…

  9. NPY Y2 receptors in the central amygdala reduce cued but not contextual fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D; Wood, J; Lach, G; Mietzsch, M; Weger, S; Heilbronn, R; Herzog, H; Bonaventure, P; Sperk, G; Tasan, R O

    2015-12-01

    The amygdala is fundamental for associative fear and extinction learning. Recently, also the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) has emerged as a site of plasticity actively controlling efferent connections to downstream effector brain areas. Although synaptic transmission is primarily mediated by glutamate and GABA, neuropeptides critically influence the overall response. While neuropeptide Y (NPY) acting via postsynaptic Y1 receptors exerts an important anxiolytic and fear-reducing action, the role of the predominantly presynaptic Y2 receptors is less defined. To investigate the role of Y2 receptors in the CEA we employed viral-vector mediated over-expression of the Y2 selective agonist NPY3-36 in fear conditioning and extinction experiments. NPY3-36 over-expression in the CEA resulted in reduced fear expression during fear acquisition and recall. Interestingly, this effect was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of a brain-penetrant Y2 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, over-expression of NPY3-36 in the CEA also reduced fear expression during fear extinction of CS-induced but not context-related fear. Again, fear extinction appeared delayed by peripheral injection of a Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028. Importantly, mice with over-expression of NPY3-36 in the CEA also displayed reduced spontaneous recovery and reinstatement, suggesting that Y2 receptor activation supports a permanent suppression of fear. Local deletion of Y2 receptors in the CEA, on the other hand, increased the expression of CS-induced freezing during fear recall and fear extinction. Thus, NPY inhibits fear learning and promotes cued extinction by reducing fear expression also via activation of presynaptic Y2 receptors on CEA neurons. PMID:26314208

  10. Context aware decision system in a smart home : knowledge representation and decision making using uncertain contextual information

    OpenAIRE

    Chahuara, Pedro; Portet, François; Vacher, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This research addresses the issue of building home automation systems reactive to voice for improved comfort and autonomy at home. The paper presents a complete framework that acquires data from sensors and interprets them, by means of IA techniques, to provide contextual information for decision making. The system uses a two-level ontology to represent the different concepts handled during the processing which also contains SWRL instances to automatise some of the reasoning. The focus of thi...

  11. Mice lacking the PSD-95-interacting E3 ligase, Dorfin/Rnf19a, display reduced adult neurogenesis, enhanced long-term potentiation, and impaired contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwool; Yang, Jinhee; Kim, Ryunhee; Li, Yan; Lee, Yeunkum; Lee, Chungwoo; Park, Jongil; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination has a significant influence on diverse aspects of neuronal development and function. Dorfin, also known as Rnf19a, is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, but its in vivo functions have not been explored. We report here that Dorfin is a novel binding partner of the excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95. Dorfin-mutant (Dorfin(-/-)) mice show reduced adult neurogenesis and enhanced long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, but normal long-term potentiation in the CA1 region. Behaviorally, Dorfin(-/-) mice show impaired contextual fear conditioning, but normal levels of cued fear conditioning, fear extinction, spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory, spatial working memory, and pattern separation. Using a proteomic approach, we also identify a number of proteins whose ubiquitination levels are decreased in the Dorfin(-/-) brain. These results suggest that Dorfin may regulate adult neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and contextual fear memory. PMID:26553645

  12. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  13. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  14. Reducing Language Knowledge Asymmetries in a Temporary Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim

    The ERASMUS program was introduced (under a different name) in 1987 with the aim, among others, of furthering multilingualism (Coleman 1998). Given that this phenomenon was expected to be realized at an individual level, the aim of the program was clearly not merely multilingualism but, in fact, plurilingualism (Spolsky 2004) and, by implication, a program intended to strengthen the building at an individual level of the specialized knowledge that the learning of any second or foreign language requires. Recent research has shown, however, that the motivation of students whose disciplinary fields are not language or philology and who go to Denmark or Sweden on exchange does not necessarily lie in an interest in learning the official language of the host country (Caudery et al., 2008). On the basis of semi-structured individual interviews, picture description and basic vocabulary tests, this paper reports on a longitudinal study of 240 incoming non-language exchange students in Scandinavia. It analyses a few exceptional cases of students whose level of performance in the Scandinavian language of their host country was higher than the average performance of the cohort. The paper investigates the characteristics of these cases and, drawing on Hornberger's continua of biliteracy model, it relates them to factors arguably influencing the relative achievement of the aim of plurilingualism. In so doing, it seeks to contribute to our understanding of individuals' motives for reducing language knowledge asymmetries.

  15. On Contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

  16. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about the...

  17. Mice lacking the PSD-95–interacting E3 ligase, Dorfin/Rnf19a, display reduced adult neurogenesis, enhanced long-term potentiation, and impaired contextual fear conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwool; Yang, Jinhee; Kim, Ryunhee; Li, Yan; Lee, Yeunkum; Lee, Chungwoo; Park, Jongil; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination has a significant influence on diverse aspects of neuronal development and function. Dorfin, also known as Rnf19a, is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, but its in vivo functions have not been explored. We report here that Dorfin is a novel binding partner of the excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95. Dorfin-mutant (Dorfin?/?) mice show reduced adult neurogenesis and enhanced long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, but normal long-term potentiation in the CA1 region. Behaviorally, Dorfin?/? mice show impaired contextual fear conditioning, but normal levels of cued fear conditioning, fear extinction, spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory, spatial working memory, and pattern separation. Using a proteomic approach, we also identify a number of proteins whose ubiquitination levels are decreased in the Dorfin?/? brain. These results suggest that Dorfin may regulate adult neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and contextual fear memory. PMID:26553645

  18. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

  19. ??????????????????????????? Examining the Formation of Official Knowledge: A Contextual Analysis of the Politics of High School “Living Technology” Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??? Ya-Hsuan Wan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????55???????????????209??????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? This research examined the formation of official knowledge through textbook politics, which transformed curriculum guidelines into curriculum texts. In order to clarify the micro-politics of different interest groups hidden behind policy formation, this research employed multiple methods to examine what the new curriculum guidelines of high school Living Technology meant to different interest groups. The methods included individual interviews with 8 textbook writers and managers from 4 major publishers, document analyses of 55 textbook reviews by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation (NICT, and telephone surveys of textbook feedback from 209 high schools across Taiwan. The goal was to shed light on the politics of textbook writing, reviewing, and selection. The research data indicated that the system of textbook writing, reviewing, and selection was shaped by both extra-institutional forces, such as those from legislators and private industries, and institutional forces, such as those from textbook policies, NICT, publishers, schools, experts, and teachers. Under the influence of several political factors, however, experts, scholars, and publishers bowed to extra-institutional forces, which in the end relegated school teachers to an invisible and marginalized force behind the formation of Living Technology. In conclusion, the current Living Technology curriculum reform still embodied a top-down mode of power construction and did not demonstrate the bottom-up plans to deconstruct authority and challenge those at the top. In Taiwan, technology education remained a reproduced version of its American counterpart, in which knowledge construction was operated in an authoritative way. Subjectivity and spontaneity were still missing from Taiwanese technology education.

  20. Reducing Language Knowledge Asymmetries in a Temporary Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim; Shaw, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The ERASMUS program was introduced (under a different name) in 1987 with the aim, among others, of furthering multilingualism (Coleman 1998). Given that this phenomenon was expected to be realized at an individual level, the aim of the program was clearly not merely multilingualism but, in fact, plurilingualism (Spolsky 2004) and, by implication, a program intended to strengthen the building at an individual level of the specialized knowledge that the learning of any second or foreign language r...

  1. Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kyobe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’, and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities.Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged since it allows individuals to achieve personal goals and may lead to effective management of oneself, other people and tasks. In addition, students do not appear to recognise the role of mobile phones in enhancing knowledge transfer. More awareness of this role needs to be created in institutions of learning in order to improve group learning and student performance.

  2. Contextualized Media for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Tim; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper motivates contextualized media for learning and starts with a reference model for describing and analysing contextualized media applications for learning. Based on a more detailed analysis of the context dimension and contextual parameters taken into account when supporting mobile and ubiquitous learning a technical framework and its components are presented. The framework allows to model and implement complex educational scenarios for contextualized learning and int...

  3. Negative Probabilities and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, J Acacio; Oas, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest, both in physics and psychology, in understanding contextuality in experimentally observed quantities. Different approaches have been proposed to deal with contextual systems, and a promising one is contextuality-by-default, put forth by Dzhafarov and Kujala. The goal of this paper is to present a tutorial on a different approach: negative probabilities. We do so by presenting the overall theory of negative probabilities in a way that is consistent with contextuality-by-default and by examining with this theory some simple examples where contextuality appears, both in physics and psychology.

  4. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

  5. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

  6. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance :  Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension of the foot, the radio an extension of the ear, the television an extension of the eye. From this perspective, exploring the internet as an extension of identity produces fruitful questions about the role of on-line writing in Web presences. The Web changes writing as a knowledge-making practice by offering writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream perceptions. This paper theorizes about ways in which the Internet can change the act of producing knowledge through the characteristics of speed and reach, allowing minorities to access a widespread audience much more easily than before the Internet. Access to a widespread audience, in turn, offers the opportunity for engaging mainstream ideologies in order to reduce the rhetorical distance between minority and majority cultures.

  7. A Laboratory Study Designed for Reducing the Gap between Information Security Knowledge and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Elitzur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies often have the knowledge on procedures to prevent or mitigate against information technology security risks. Yet these companies may not take adequate measures to implement these procedures, and instead, leave themselves vulnerable to security breaches. Potential reasons for this gap between information security knowledge and implementation are provided based on interviews with information technology managers at a global automobile sales and marketing company. Four mechanisms to reduce this gap are proposed, along with a new approach to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of these mechanisms, applied independently and in combinations.

  8. Reducing Unwarranted Disparities: The Challenge of Managing Knowledge Sharing between Judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Taal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In their role as decision-makers, judges face the challenge of the law failing to provide clear answers to concrete cases. This may result in dissimilar decisions and outcomes in similar cases. In order to reduce unwarranted disparities, judges should participate in knowledge exchanges on a regular basis. That way, they can benefit from each other's expertise, insights and experiences and make better informed decisions. In order to manage this process in the court more effectively, a better understanding of the knowledge sharing behavior of judges is required. In this article, we will discuss how four dimensions (the technological, managerial, social and motivational dimension can influence the knowledge sharing behavior of judges. Based on this discussion, a research model is proposed.

  9. Neural correlates of contextual cueing are modulated by explicit learning

    OpenAIRE

    Westerberg, Carmen E.; Miller, Brennan B.; Reber, Paul J; Cohen, Neal J.; Ken A. Paller

    2011-01-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer’s knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be impaired following damage to the medial temporal lobe. Here we investigated neural correlates of contextual cueing and explicit scene memory in two pa...

  10. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what constitutes the boundaries of the communities. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle was preferred because it focused attention on the most frequently used spaces and it controlled potential aggregation problems. There is a need to further examine the validity of different methods proposed here. Given that no method is likely to capture the full complexity of human-environment interactions, we would need baseline data describing people's daily activity patterns along with expert knowledge of the area to evaluate our neighborhood units.

  11. HIV/AIDS Education and Behaviour Change:Contextual factors that affect translation of knowledge into action among in-school adolescents in rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Komunda,Rodney Noel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect translation of HIV/AIDS knowledge into action. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data was obtained from students, teachers, parents, school administrators and the HIV/AIDS coordination department from the Ministry of Education and Sports. The Health Belief Model and Social Learning Theory that formed the basis of this study were used through discussion and analysis of research findings. The ...

  12. Comprehending Spatial and Contextual Information in Picture-Text Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieger, George R.; Glock, Marvin D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the location, in picture or text, of spatial, contextual, and operational information on comprehension was evaluated. Results showed that textual presentation of spatial information produced fewer errors, pictorial presentation reduced performance times, and pictorial presentation of contextual information reduced assembly times and…

  13. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Behaviour: Have Information Campaigns Reduced HIV Infection? The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalia Vazquez-Alvarez; Markus Froelich

    2008-01-01

    AIDS continues to have a devastating effect on developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of a proven effective vaccine to stop HIV transmission has lead to much of public policy putting an emphasis on information campaigns in order to reduce HIV-prevalence. In this paper we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS-knowledge from two sides. First, we examine to what extent the campaigns have been successful at inducing the expected behavioural change with regards to HIV-related ...

  14. Incorporating Prior Knowledge for Quantifying and Reducing Model-Form Uncertainty in RANS Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Xiao, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Simulations based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) models have been used to support high-consequence decisions related to turbulent flows. Apart from the deterministic model predictions, the decision makers are often equally concerned about the predictions confidence. Among the uncertainties in RANS simulations, the model-form uncertainty is an important or even a dominant source. Therefore, quantifying and reducing the model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations are of critical importance to make risk-informed decisions. Researchers in statistics communities have made efforts on this issue by considering numerical models as black boxes. However, this physics-neutral approach is not a most efficient use of data, and is not practical for most engineering problems. Recently, we proposed an open-box, Bayesian framework for quantifying and reducing model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations by incorporating observation data and physics-prior knowledge. It can incorporate the information from the vast...

  15. Contextualized Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Bradeško, Luka; Dali, Lorand; Fortuna, Blaž; Grobelnik, Marko; Mladenić, Dunja; Novalija, Inna; Pajntar, Boštjan

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a system which enables accurate and easy-to-use contextualized question answering and it provides document overview functionalities. The possibility of asking natural language questions enables a friendly interaction for the user.The contextualization is achieved by using an ontology. The answers are provided based on a domain specific document collection of choice. The approach consists of several phases as follows: data preparation, data enhancement, data indexing and...

  16. Contextual Multiple Sequence Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Gambin Anna; Otto Rafa?

    2005-01-01

    In a recently proposed contextual alignment model, efficient algorithms exist for global and local pairwise alignment of protein sequences. Preliminary results obtained for biological data are very promising. Our main motivation was to adopt the idea of context dependency to the multiple-alignment setting. To this aim the relaxation of the model was developed (we call this new model averaged contextual alignment ) and a new family of amino acids substitution matrices are constructed. In this ...

  17. Tools of Contextualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Hansen, Frank Allan; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Nørregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Project based education is growing in importance in elementary schools though it is still quite poorly technologically supported, particularly with respect to actively taking advantage of contextual information. Based on an empirical study of teaching and in particular project based education in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. ...

  18. Contextual Social Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Groh, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The thesis centers around the multi-faceted research question of how contexts may be detected and derived that can be used for new context aware Social Networking services and for improving the usefulness of existing Social Networking services, giving rise to the notion of Contextual Social Networking. In a first foundational part, we characterize the closely related fields of Contextual-, Mobile-, and Decentralized Social Networking using different methods and focusing on diff...

  19. Reducing a Knowledge-Base Search Space When Data Are Missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This software addresses the problem of how to efficiently execute a knowledge base in the presence of missing data. Computationally, this is an exponentially expensive operation that without heuristics generates a search space of 1 + 2n possible scenarios, where n is the number of rules in the knowledge base. Even for a knowledge base of the most modest size, say 16 rules, it would produce 65,537 possible scenarios. The purpose of this software is to reduce the complexity of this operation to a more manageable size. The problem that this system solves is to develop an automated approach that can reason in the presence of missing data. This is a meta-reasoning capability that repeatedly calls a diagnostic engine/model to provide prognoses and prognosis tracking. In the big picture, the scenario generator takes as its input the current state of a system, including probabilistic information from Data Forecasting. Using model-based reasoning techniques, it returns an ordered list of fault scenarios that could be generated from the current state, i.e., the plausible future failure modes of the system as it presently stands. The scenario generator models a Potential Fault Scenario (PFS) as a black box, the input of which is a set of states tagged with priorities and the output of which is one or more potential fault scenarios tagged by a confidence factor. The results from the system are used by a model-based diagnostician to predict the future health of the monitored system.

  20. Truancy as a Contextual and School-Related Problem: A Comparative Multilevel Analysis of Country and School Characteristics on Civic Knowledge among 14 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Reeskens, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, various governments and education agencies have developed stricter policies to reduce truancy levels, mainly based on the argument that truancy is associated with risk behaviour, crime and substance abuse. In this article, we use a large, 28-nation comparative survey among 14 year olds to detect general patterns in consequences…

  1. Quantum contextuality in classical information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Zapatrin, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Document ranking based on probabilistic evaluations of relevance is known to exhibit non-classical correlations, which may be explained by admitting a complex structure of the event space, namely, by assuming the events to emerge from multiple sample spaces. The structure of event space formed by overlapping sample spaces is known in quantum mechanics, they may exhibit some counter-intuitive features, called quantum contextuality. In this Note I observe that from the structural point of view quantum contextuality looks similar to personalization of information retrieval scenarios. Along these lines, Knowledge Revision is treated as operationalistic measurement and a way to quantify the rate of personalization of Information Retrieval scenarios is suggested.

  2. ??????????????? Using Contextualized Assessment to Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??? Kuan-Li Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2,066???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Energy literacy is multidimensional, comprising broad content knowledge as well as affect and behavior. In this study, an assessment was designed using six contextualized test units to examine student energy literacy. A total of 2,066 secondary students participated in the survey. The results indicated that student energy literacy is low, particularly with respect to the dimension of “reasoning on energy controversies”. Qualitative analyses of student written responses to various question items revealed that students have misconceptions of biomass energy and misconstrue the sources of greenhouse gas. Inter-correlation among the dimensions of energy literacy indicated that energy knowledge and behavior are more closely correlated with each other than are affect and behavior. The students in southern Taiwan scored higher on energy literacy assessments than did the students in northern, central, as well as eastern Taiwan. These findings are a reference for developing energy-related curricula and educational materials to improve student energy literacy.

  3. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinc...

  4. Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Kyobe; Mzwandile M. Shongwe

    2011-01-01

    Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.

    Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologie...

  5. Contextual Learning Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented at a symposium on contextual learning issues moderated by John Henschke at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Self-Directed Learning in Organizations: An Analysis of Policies and Practices of Seven Resource Companies in Western Canada" (H. K. Morris Baskett)…

  6. Reducing Disaster Vulnerability through Local Knowledge and Capacity. The Cace of Earthquake Prone Rural Communities in India and Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Jigyasu, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the past and present status of local knowledge, skills and capacity of rural communities in India and Nepal for reducing their vulnerability to earthquakes. Disaster vulnerability is investigated not only as pre disaster condition but also as a continuous process, which is influenced by underdevelopment, process and various response decisions in post disaster situation. To get an integrated and dynamic picture of how local knowledge and capacity and disaster vul...

  7. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

  8. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is...... equally non-objectivist, but less revisionist, since it takes the semantics of moral discourse at face value, and can also explain all of Brogaard's other linguistic evidence....

  9. Contextual Dueling Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Dudík, Miroslav; Hofmann, Katja; Schapire, Robert E.; Slivkins, Aleksandrs; Zoghi, Masrour

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning to choose actions using contextual information when provided with limited feedback in the form of relative pairwise comparisons. We study this problem in the dueling-bandits framework of Yue et al. (2009), which we extend to incorporate context. Roughly, the learner's goal is to find the best policy, or way of behaving, in some space of policies, although "best" is not always so clearly defined. Here, we propose a new and natural solution ...

  10. Contextual Analysis in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bednar, Peter; Green, Gillian; Bain, Andy; Eglin, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The framework for Strategic Systemic Thinking (SST) provides a method for investigating an organisations perceptions, goals and identifying missing resources and posing possible solutions using the groups own understanding of the problem area, using both individual and group participation. Users may be assisted in the contextually relevant application of techniques such as brainstorming and rich pictures as useful ‘methods’ for organisational analysis. It supports adaptation of methods to foc...

  11. De/Contextualizing Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Mariategui, Jose-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive diffusion of digital media has introduced profound changes to social practices, challenging established notions of embeddedness and context. Based on our case study on the BBC's Digital Media Initiative, we further explore these changes in the domain of video craft editing for television broadcast brought about by the digitization of the video production process. As craft editing is mediated by digital images, its contextual embeddedness is transformed by context-independent standa...

  12. A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eicke Godehardt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues. This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition state context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization. To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees may benefit from such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

  13. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  14. Features and Feedback: Enhancing Metamnemonic Knowledge at Retrieval Reduces Source-Monitoring Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sean M.; Roussel, Cristine C.; Villa, Diane; Morita, Shelby K.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments explored the issue of whether enhanced metamnemonic knowledge at retrieval can improve participants' ability to make difficult source discriminations in the context of the eyewitness suggestibility paradigm. The 1st experiment documented differences in phenomenal experience between veridical and false memories. Experiment 2…

  15. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-01-01

    As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainabl...

  16. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  17. Comparing, Contextualizing, and Conceptualizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Demographic research mainly focuses on objective variables found in census and survey data. As demographers' interests expand to socially constructed phenomena, the discipline needs to incorporate new tools appropriate for understanding more subjective phenomena. The integration of quantitative and qualitative methods provides the opportunity to analyze data both rich in local meaning and generalizable beyond a small "N." This type of triangulation is particularly necessary in the study of women's situation, an area where quantitative results have generally confounded demographers. Using survey and ethnographic data, this paper demonstrates ways in which qualitative data complements quantitative data on women's situation. I argue that such an iterative methodological process can enrich future investigations in this area by comparing findings, contextualizing quantitative results, and improving the conceptualization of future quantitative measures.

  18. Investigating Means to Reduce Cognitive Load from Animations: Applying Differentiated Measures of Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, Sissel Guttormsen; Zimmermann, Philippe G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers an experiment designed to investigate the relationship between the didactical setting and learning effects with animations. We investigated whether the cognitive load imposed by animations could be reduced when the students could control the flow of the animation. We did not find an effect due to the fact that the students did…

  19. A survey on the effects of husbands’ education of pregnant women on knowledge, attitude, and reducing elective cesarean section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Soltani, Raheleh; Javaheri, Somayeh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, cesarean section rate is increasing in Iran and throughout the world. Cesarean section is one of the major surgical procedures, which carry serious and rarely fetal risk for mother and child. This study was conducted to determine the effects of health education on husbands of pregnant women in reducing elective cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This study was a trial study, in which 88 pregnant women between 28-32 weeks of pregnancy, who referred to the private clinics in Isfahan, were randomly assigned into case and control groups. The husbands of the women within case group were educated about cesarean and vaginal delivery. At the beginning of study and 4 weeks after an educational intervention, the knowledge and attitude of 3 groups (cases, controls, and husbands of case group) were determined. The type of delivery was determined by phone call. Findings: Educational intervention on husbands caused a significant increase in the knowledge and a positive attitude in mothers within case group towards vaginal delivery. Elective cesarean section in case group was significantly lower than that of the control group (29.5% vs. 50%, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that husbands’ education can effectively increase the knowledge and improve the attitude of their wives, and reduce the rate of elective cesarean section. PMID:24251286

  20. Humanizing Chemistry Education: From Simple Contextualization to Multifaceted Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry teaching has traditionally been weakly connected to everyday life, technology, society, and history and philosophy of science. This article highlights knowledge areas and perspectives needed by the humanistic (and critical-reflexive) chemistry teacher. Different humanistic approaches in chemistry teaching, from simple contextualization…

  1. Reducing the global burden of Preterm Birth through knowledge transfer and exchange: a research agenda for engaging effectively with policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamey, Gavin; Horváth, Hacsi; Schmidt, Laura; Myers, Janet; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the world's leading cause of death in children under 5 years. In 2013, over one million out of six million child deaths were due to complications of PTB. The rate of decline in child death overall has far outpaced the rate of decline attributable to PTB. Three key reasons for this slow progress in reducing PTB mortality are: (a) the underlying etiology and biological mechanisms remain unknown, presenting a challenge to discovering ways to prevent and treat the condition; (ii) while there are several evidence-based interventions that can reduce the risk of PTB and associated infant mortality, the coverage rates of these interventions in low- and middle-income countries remain very low; and (c) the gap between knowledge and action on PTB-the "know-do gap"-has been a major obstacle to progress in scaling up the use of existing evidence-based child health interventions, including those to prevent and treat PTB.In this review, we focus on the know-do gap in PTB as it applies to policymakers. The evidence-based approaches to narrowing this gap have become known as knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE). In our paper, we propose a research agenda for promoting KTE with policymakers, with an ambitious but realistic goal of reducing the global burden of PTB. We hope that our proposed research agenda stimulates further debate and discussion on research priorities to soon bend the curve of PTB mortality. PMID:26987438

  2. Contextual Query Perfection by Affective Features Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback in Multimedia Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Tripathi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia Information may have multiple semantics depending on context, a temporal interest and user preferences. Hence we are exploiting the plausibility of context associated with semantic concept in retrieving relevance information. We are proposing an Affective Feature Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback (AICSRF to investigate whether audio and speech along with visual could determine the current context in which user wants to retrieve the information and to further investigate whether we could employ Affective Feedback as an implicit source of evidence in CSRF cycle to increase the systems contextual semantic understanding. We introduce an Emotion Recognition Unit (ERU that comprises of spatiotemporal Gabor filter to capture spontaneous facial expression and emotional word recognition system that uses phonemes to recognize the spoken emotional words. We propose Contextual Query Perfection Scheme (CQPS to learn, refine the current context that could be used in query perfection in RF cycle to understand the semantic of query on the basis of relevance judgment taken by ERU. Observations suggest that CQPS in AICSRF incorporating such affective features reduce the search space hence retrieval time and increase the systems contextual semantic understanding.

  3. Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  4. Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  5. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ritin; Rolley, John X.; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet. PMID:26051008

  6. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  7. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M van der Elst

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM, limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org, combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods: We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results: Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96% completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001; this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions: Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information

    CERN Document Server

    Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

  9. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; JØrgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well.

  10. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  11. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  12. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrs, Erik; Lander, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide consumption is increasing in Bolivia as well as pest resistance, pesticide poisonings and pollution of the environment. This survey evaluates the training of small holder farmers on pesticide handling and ecological alternatives to reduce the negative pesticide effects. METHOD: A baseline survey was performed in 2002 and follow-up surveys in 2004 and 2009. Farmers were selected and trained on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) from 2002 to 2004 in Farmer Field Schools (FFS). After exclusions and drop outs, 23 FFS trained farmers could be compared to 47 neighbor farmers for changes in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using ?2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS farmers. At baseline no difference were seen between the two groups apart from a more frequent use of personal protection among the FFS farmers. After the training was finished significant differences were seen between FFS farmers and neighbor farmers on all KAP variables, a difference reduced to six of the KAP variables in 2009. No difference was seen in self-reported poisonings after pesticide handling. FFS farmers improved their KAP scores markedly during training and there after retained their knowledge, while neighbor farmers improved during the entire period. Ecological farming without the use of pesticides increased most among the FFS farmers. CONCLUSION: The study showed a sustained improvement among Farmers Field School trained farmers on personal protection and hygiene when handling pesticides, knowledge and use of IPM and ecological alternatives and a reduction in self-reported symptoms after pesticide handling. Similar though less pronounced improvements was seen among neighbor farmers having had less training and information on pesticide handling and alternatives than the FFS trained farmers. Training of farmers on IPM and good agricultural practices has positive effects, but is scarce in Bolivia as in most low-income countries and must be encouraged to support an improved and sustainable food production and to protect the health of farmers and consumers as well as the environment.

  13. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  14. Contextuality: Wheeler's universal regulating principle

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay I develop quantum contextuality as a potential candidate for Wheeler's universal regulating principle, arguing -- \\textit{contrary} to Wheeler -- that this ultimately implies that `bit' comes from `it.' In the process I develop a formal definition of physical determinism in the languages of domain theory and category theory.

  15. Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.

  16. Computing Presuppositions by Contextual Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Monz, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes how automated deduction methods for natural language processing can be applied more efficiently by encoding context in a more elaborate way. Our work is based on formal approaches to context, and we provide a tableau calculus for contextual reasoning. This is explained by considering an example from the problem area of presupposition projection.

  17. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine; de Rijke, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system......-centered perspective. The main focus has been on developing content-based algorithms similar to document search. These algorithms identify matching experts primarily on the basis of the textual content of documents with which experts are associated. Other factors, such as the ones identified by expertise......-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...

  18. Contextual Region of Interest Based Medical Image Compression using Contextual Listless SPIHT Algorithm for Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. S.Sridevi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical Imaging plays a major role in medical diagnosis. Storing these medical images and transmitting them is quite challenging. Due to the extensive use of medical images like CT and MR scan, the application of digital imaging technology in the medical domain has grown rapidly. These medical imagery are stored for a longer period for the continuous monitoring of the patients. So, the medical images need to be compressed to reduce the storage cost and for transmission without any loss. In this paper, a context based method called Contextual Listless Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (CLSPIHT algorithm for brain images is proposed to overcome this challenge. Here, the region containing the most inportant information for diagnosis purpose is referred as contextual region of interest. In this method, the Contextual Region of Interest(CROI is encoded separately with a low compression rate ie, with high bpp and the Back Ground region(BG is encoded with low bpp. Finally, the two regions are merged together to construct the output image. Our experimental results show that the proposed Contextual Listless SPIHT (CLSPIHT yields very good image quality without any diagnostic loss. Compression performance parameters (Mean Square Error, Peak Signal to Noice Ratio, and Coefficient of Correlation are improved by our method and it is compared with the other existing methods of JPEG2000,and the ROI based methods such as CSPIHT and CVQ on magnetic resonance images. As a result, it is found that our proposed algorithm gives better results and using this method, we can overcome the limitations in storage and transmission of medical images.

  19. A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, James J.; Brunken, Richard C.; Bybel, Bohdan; Di Filippo, Frank P.; Faul, David D.

    2006-06-01

    Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%.

  20. A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%

  1. Mobile and contextual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

  2. CWI and TU Delft at TREC 2013: Contextual Suggestion, Federated Web Search, KBA, and Web Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Bellogin, Alejandro; Gebremeskel, G.G.; He, J; Lin, Jimmy; Said, A.; Samar, T.; Vries, A.P. de; Vuurens, Jeroen B.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work done at the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) and Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) for different tracks of TREC 2013. We participated in the Contextual Suggestion Track, the Federated Web Search Track, the Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Track, and the Web Ad-hoc Track. In the Contextual Suggestion track, we focused on filtering the entire ClueWeb12 collection to generate recommendations according to the provided user profiles and cont...

  3. ESL Distance Learners’ Participation in an Online Forum: The Interplay of Contextual Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sadhna Nair-Prakash; Siti Hamin Stapa

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the findings of a study examining the contextual factors that mediated distance learners’ participation in an online forum (OLF). Contextual factors are elements that emerge as a result of distance learners’ interaction with their social environment. The study drew on a sociocultural perspective that encompassed the concepts of communities of practice, mediation and dialogic interaction. These concepts advocate that both learning for knowledge and language learning are p...

  4. R-CoRe: A Rule-based Contextual Reasoning Platform for AmI

    OpenAIRE

    Moawad, Assaad; Bikakis, Antonis; Caire, Patrice; Nain, Grégory; Le Traon, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present R-CoRe; a rule-based contextual reasoning platform for Ambient Intelligence environments. R-CoRe integrates Contextual Defeasible Logic (CDL) and Kevoree, a component-based software platform for Dynamically Adaptive Systems. Previously, we explained how this integration enables to overcome several reasoning and technical issues that arise from the imperfect nature of context knowledge, the open and dynamic nature of Ambient Intelligence environments, and the restricti...

  5. Living among the breakage : contextual theology-making and ex-Muslim Christians

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Duane Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960’s there has been a marked increase in the number of known conversions from Islam to Christianity. This thesis asks whether certain of these ex-Muslim Christians engage in the process of theology-making and, if so, it asks what these theologies claim to know about God and humans’ relation to God. Utilizing the dialectic of contextuality-contextualization of Shoki Coe, and the sociology of theological knowledge of Robert Schreiter, the thesis seeks to answer these ...

  6. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  7. Mechanisms underlying contextual fear learning

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a central role in learning and memory. Although synaptic delivery of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) contributes to experience-dependent synaptic strengthening, its role in hippocampus-dependent learning remains elusive. In a recent study,we found that the inhibitory avoidance (IA) task, a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear learning paradigm, drives GluR1-containing AMPARs into CA3-CA1 synapses of the dorsal hippocampus.We expressed mutated membrane-proxymal re...

  8. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that context...

  9. Forma lógica y sensibilidad contextual

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, David Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, los filósofos del lenguaje han desarrollado un interés creciente en el fenómeno de la sensibilidad contextual. Estos filósofos han explorado nuevas maneras en las que el contexto afecta los contenidos proposicionales de las palabras y las oraciones. Como resultado de este proceso, hemos sido testigos de una confrontación entre dos importantes tradiciones, el contextualismo y el semanticismo. Los representantes de la primera tradición, que hunde sus raíces en la filosof...

  10. Contextualizing Data Warehouses with Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Berlanga, Rafael; Aramburu, Maria Jose; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    Current data warehouse and OLAP technologies are applied to analyze the structured data that companies store in databases. The context that helps to understand data over time is usually described separately in text-rich documents. This paper proposes to integrate the traditional corporate data warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, the user first selects an analysis context by supplying some keywords. Then, the analysis is performed on a novel type of...

  11. Structuring mobile and contextual learning

    OpenAIRE

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to define the nature and focus of mobile learning. This study is based on a previous expert study that intends to structure the research problems that are underlying the domain of mobile and contextual learning. The previous study identified three core clusters of research problems in our domain. This paper analyses the research problems underpinning the previously identified clusters and identifies research topics within these clusters. This supports a more struc...

  12. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.

  13. Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J; Honorado, Elizabeth; Bush, Nicole R

    2007-01-01

    Using a short-term longitudinal design (6 months), this study examined cumulative contextual risk as a predictor of effortful control (EC) and social competence in a community sample of children (N = 80, ages 33-40 months at time 1). Maternal parenting was examined as a mediator of contextual risk. EC was assessed using laboratory tasks, and parenting was assessed using observational ratings. Time 1 contextual risk was negatively related to time 2 EC after controlling for time 1 EC. Mothers' limit setting and scaffolding predicted higher time 2 EC and accounted for the effect of contextual risk. Time 1 EC, contextual risk, and parenting predicted time 2 social competence, and contextual risk had an indirect effect on social competence through parenting. Results suggest that contextual risk predicts smaller relative increases in EC and that parenting accounts for this effect. Knowledge of the factors that divert or promote effortful control can provide targets for intervention to enhance effortful control abilities and better adjustment. PMID:21687825

  14. Exploiting Contextual Information for Improved Phoneme Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Joel Praveen; B. Yegnanarayana; Hermansky, Hynek; Magimai.-Doss, Mathew

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the significance of contextual information in a phoneme recognition system using the hidden Markov model - artificial neural network paradigm. Contextual information is probed at the feature level as well as at the output of the multilayerd perceptron. At the feature level, we analyse and compare different methods to model sub-phonemic classes. To exploit the contextual information at the output of the multilayered perceptron, we propose the hierarchical estimati...

  15. COPING: IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXTUAL FACTORS AND MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Coping skills cover an important area in rehabilitation counseling field. Bipolarity of coping skills as being adaptive or not adaptive has been prevalent throughout the literature. On the other hand, influence of contextual factors on coping skills has been underemphasized.  Recent researches indicate that contextual factors play major role in coping skills. This paper examines importance of contextual factors on coping skills particularly in relation to assessment issues in rehabilitation c...

  16. Ontological models, preparation contextuality and nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2013-01-01

    The ontological model framework for an operational theory has generated much interest in recent years. The debate concerning reality of quantum states has been made more precise in this framework. With the introduction of generalized notion of contextuality in this framework, it has been shown that completely mixed state of a qubit is \\emph{preparation contextual}. Interestingly, this new idea of preparation contextuality has been used to demonstrate nonlocality of some $\\ps...

  17. A contextual extension of Spekkens' toy model

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2011-01-01

    Quantum systems show contextuality. More precisely, it is impossible to reproduce the quantum-mechanical predictions using a non-contextual realist model, i.e., a model where the outcome of one measurement is independent of the choice of compatible measurements performed in the measurement context. There has been several attempts to quantify the amount of contextuality for specific quantum systems, for example, in the number of rays needed in a KS proof, or the number of terms in certain ineq...

  18. Contextual Restriction in Business English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Gao

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the contextual restriction in business English translation from the perspectives of linguistic context, situational context and cultural context respectively. To avoid mistranslation resulting from translators' neglecting the contextual restriction, this paper also comes up with relevant suggestions for business English translation. The research aims at reminding translators of the contextual restriction in translating so as to produce correct, exact and proper trans...

  19. A contextual extension of Spekkens' toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jan-A.?ke

    2012-03-01

    Quantum systems show contextuality. More precisely, it is impossible to reproduce the quantum-mechanical predictions using a non-contextual realist model, i.e., a model where the outcome of one measurement is independent of the choice of compatible measurements performed in the measurement context. There has been several attempts to quantify the amount of contextuality for specific quantum systems, for example, in the number of rays needed in a KS proof, or the number of terms in certain inequalities, or in the violation, noise sensitivity, and other measures. This paper is about another approach: to use a simple contextual model that reproduces the quantum-mechanical contextual behaviour, but not necessarily all quantum predictions. The amount of contextuality can then be quantified in terms of additional resources needed as compared with a similar model without contextuality. In this case the contextual model needs to keep track of the context used, so the appropriate measure would be memory. Another way to view this is as a memory requirement to be able to reproduce quantum contextuality in a realist model. The model we will use can be viewed as an extension of Spekkens' toy model [Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007)], and the relation is studied in some detail. To reproduce the quantum predictions for the Peres-Mermin square, the memory requirement is more than one bit in addition to the memory used for the individual outcomes in the corresponding noncontextual model.

  20. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    CERN Document Server

    Privitera, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  1. Contextualizing Data Warehouses with Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Berlanga, Rafael; Aramburu, Maria Jose; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    Current data warehouse and OLAP technologies are applied to analyze the structured data that companies store in databases. The context that helps to understand data over time is usually described separately in text-rich documents. This paper proposes to integrate the traditional corporate data...... warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, the user first selects an analysis context by supplying some keywords. Then, the analysis is performed on a novel type of OLAP cube, called an R-cube, which is materialized by retrieving and ranking the documents and...

  2. Architecture knowledge management: challenges, approaches, and tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Gorton, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Capturing the technical knowledge, contextual information, and rationale surrounding the design decisions underpinning system architectures can greatly improve the software development process. If not managed, this critical knowledge is implicitly embedded in the architecture, becoming tacit knowledge which erodes as personnel on the project change. Moreover, the unavailability of architecture knowledge precludes organizations from growing their architectural capabilities. In this tutorial...

  3. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

  4. Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedivy, J C; Tanenhaus, M K; Chambers, C G; Carlson, G N

    1999-06-22

    While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal adjectives. Experiment 1 focused on intersective adjectives. Experiment 1A provided further evidence that intersective adjectives are processed incrementally. Experiment 1B compared response times to follow instructions such as 'Pick up the blue comb' under conditions where there were two blue objects (e.g. a blue pen and a blue comb), but only one of these objects had a contrasting member in the display. Responses were faster to objects with a contrasting member, establishing that the listeners initially assume a contrastive interpretation for intersective adjectives. Experiments 2 and 3 focused on vague scalar adjectives examining the time course with which listeners establish contrast for scalar adjectives such as tall using information provided by the head noun (e.g. glass) and information provided by the visual context. Use of head-based information was examined by manipulating the typicality of the target object (e.g. whether it was a good or poor example of a tall glass. Use of context-dependent contrast was examined by either having only a single glass in the display (the no contrast condition) or a contrasting object (e.g. a smaller glass). The pattern of results indicated that listeners interpreted the scalar adjective incrementally taking into account context-specific contrast prior to encountering the head. Moreover, the presence of a contrasting object, sharply reduced, and in some conditions completely eliminated, typicality effects. The results suggest a language processing system in which semantic interpretation, as well as syntactic processing, is conducted incrementally, with early integration of contextual information. PMID:10444906

  5. The effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing organophosphate pesticide exposure among Indonesian and South Australian migrant farmworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Ross, Kirstin E; Babina, Kateryna; Edwards, John William

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). Improvements of knowledge and perceptions about organophosphate (OP) exposure may be of benefit for the reduction in OP exposure. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing OP exposure among Indonesian and South Australian (SA) migrant farmworkers. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study. The educational intervention used a method of group communication for 30 Indonesian farmworkers and individual communication for seven SA migrant farmworkers. Knowledge and perceptions about OP exposure were measured pre-intervention and 3 months after the intervention. Results Unadjusted intervention effects at follow-up showed statistically significantly improved scores of knowledge (both adverse effects of OPs and self-protection from OP exposure), perceived susceptibility, and perceived barriers among Indonesian farmworkers compared with SA migrant farmworkers. Furthermore, these four significant variables in the unadjusted model and the two other variables (perceived severity and perceived benefits) were statistically significant after being adjusted for the level of education and years working as a farmworker. In contrast, knowledge about adverse effects of OPs was the only variable that was statistically significantly improved among SA migrant farmworkers. The results of this study suggests educational interventions using a method of group communication could be more effective than using individual intervention. Conclusion These improvements provide starting points to change health behavior of farmworkers, particularly to reduce OP exposure, both at the workplace and at home. PMID:26855602

  6. Contextual Recommendation of Social Updates, a Tag-based Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Adrien; Maret, Pierre; Daigremont, Johann

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to improve the rele- vance of awareness information about people and subjects, by adapting recommendation techniques to real-time web data, in order to reduce information overload. The novelty of our approach relies on the use of contextual information about people's current activities to rank social updates which they are following on Social Networking Services and other collaborative software. The two hypothesis that we are supporting in this paper are:...

  7. A Combinatorial Approach to Nonlocality and Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín, Antonio; Fritz, Tobias; Leverrier, Anthony; Sainz, Ana Belén

    2015-03-01

    So far, most of the literature on (quantum) contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem seems either to concern particular examples of contextuality, or be considered as quantum logic. Here, we develop a general formalism for contextuality scenarios based on the combinatorics of hypergraphs, which significantly refines a similar recent approach by Cabello, Severini and Winter (CSW). In contrast to CSW, we explicitly include the normalization of probabilities, which gives us a much finer control over the various sets of probabilistic models like classical, quantum and generalized probabilistic. In particular, our framework specializes to (quantum) nonlocality in the case of Bell scenarios, which arise very naturally from a certain product of contextuality scenarios due to Foulis and Randall. In the spirit of CSW, we find close relationships to several graph invariants. The recently proposed Local Orthogonality principle turns out to be a special case of a general principle for contextuality scenarios related to the Shannon capacity of graphs. Our results imply that it is strictly dominated by a low level of the Navascués-Pironio-Acín hierarchy of semidefinite programs, which we also apply to contextuality scenarios. We derive a wealth of results in our framework, many of these relating to quantum and supraquantum contextuality and nonlocality, and state numerous open problems. For example, we show that the set of quantum models on a contextuality scenario can in general not be characterized in terms of a graph invariant. In terms of graph theory, our main result is this: there exist two graphs and with the properties

  8. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  9. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Efficacy of a Knowledge-Contact Program to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma and Improve Mental Health Literacy in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Myers, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this school-based cluster-randomized trial was to determine the initial acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of an existing community-based intervention, In Our Own Voice, in a sample of US adolescent girls aged 13–17 years (n=156). In Our Own Voice is a knowledge-contact intervention that provides knowledge about mental illness to improve mental health literacy and facilitates intergroup contact with persons with mental illness as a means to reduce mental illness stigma. T...

  10. Análise contextual de reinternações frequentes de portador de transtorno mental / Contextual analysis of frequent hospital readmissions of the individual with mental disorder / Análisis contextual de reingresos frecuentes del portador de trastorno mental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Déborah Karollyne Ribeiro, Ramos; Jacileide, Guimarães; Bertha Cruz, Enders.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o contexto de reinternações frequentes de indivíduos com sofrimento psíquico em suas dimensões: imediata, específica, geral e metacontextual. Seguindo a perspectiva contextual proposta pelo referencial teórico de Hinds, Chaves e Cypress (1992), categorizaram-se os resultados enc [...] ontrados na revisão narrativa da literatura científica em quatro subtemas referentes às dimensões contextuais: 1) a porta giratória da psiquiatria (nível contextual imediato); 2) desarticulação da rede de atenção em saúde mental (nível contextual específico); 3) o louco e a loucura no imaginário social: o hospital como o lugar da "cura" (nível contextual geral); 4) paradigmas da saúde mental: a dimensão epistemológica do saber/fazer psiquiátrico (metacontexto). Analisar e compreender os contextos nos quais estão inseridas as reinternações psiquiátricas torna-se, na atualidade, aspecto significativo para a efetivação dos avanços conquistados pela Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileira e pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Abstract in spanish Este estudio examina el contexto de los frecuentes reingresos de pacientes con trastornos psicológicos en las dimensiones: inmediatas, específicas, generales y meta-contextuales. Siguiendo la perspectiva contextual propuesta por el marco teórico de Hindes, Chaves y Cypress (1992), los resultados enc [...] ontrados en la revisión narrativa de la literatura científica se clasifican en cuatro sub-temas relativos a las dimensiones contextuales: 1) la puerta giratoria de la psiquiatría (contexto inmediato); 2) desarticulación de la red de salud mental (contexto específico); 3) el loco y la locura en lo imaginario social; el hospital como un lugar de "curación" (contexto general); 4) paradigmas de salud mental: la dimensión epistemológica del saber/hacer psiquiátricos (metacontexto). Analizar y comprender los contextos donde se insertan los reingresos psiquiátricos se convierte, actualmente, en un aspecto significativo para confirmar los avances conquistados por la Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileña y el Sistema Único de Salud. Abstract in english This study analyzed the context of frequent hospital readmissions of individuals with psychic suffering in the following dimensions: immediate, specific, general and metacontextual. Following the contextual perspective proposed by the theoretical framework of Hinds, Chaves and Cypress (1992), the re [...] sults of the narrative review of the scientific literature were categorized in four subthemes corresponding to the contextual dimensions: 1) the revolving door of psychiatry (immediate contextual level); 2) disarticulation of the mental health care network (specific contextual level); 3) the mad person and madness in the social mental imagery: the hospital as the "healing" place (general contextual level); 4) mental health paradigms: the epistemological dimension of psychiatric knowledge and action (metacontext). The analysis and comprehension of the contexts in which psychiatric hospital readmissions are included are significant so that the advances achieved by the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and by the National Health System become effective.

  11. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  12. Contextual Analysis Of Tactical Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Arthur V.; Rowland, Patricia J.; Pemberton, Wade G.

    1984-06-01

    Current automated approaches for recognizing spatially localized objects fall short of human recognition performance for two reasons. First, the classical statistical pattern recognizer uses only locally measured scene information in the recognition process. Contextual information can and should be extracted and exploited to enhance automated statistical approaches. Second, the human recognizer is able to learn from and adapt to new situations, while the automatic statistical pattern recognizer is confounded by any object that fails to match some subset of its training experience. Techniques from artificial intelligence can be employed to endow the machine with the ability to adapt to the scene at hand based on feedback of derived scene information. This paper describes an intelligent automated object recognition system that uses extracted scene context and feedback for improved recognition.

  13. Contextual Modelling of Collaboration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa DACHRY

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Faced with new environmental constraints, firms decide to collaborate in collective entities and adopt new patterns of behavior. So, this firms’ collaboration becomes an unavoidable approach. Indeed, our aim interest in our study is to propose a collaborative information system for supply chain. Our proposed platform ensures cooperation and information sharing between partners in real time. In fact, several questions have to be asked: What is the information nature may be shared between partners? What processes are implemented between actors? What functional services are supported by the platform? In order to answer these questions, we present, in this article, our methodological approach of modelling, called CMCS (Contextual Modelling of Collaborative System

  14. CONTEXTUAL TRAINING MODEL IN THE PRACTICAL COURSE OF GENERAL TECHNICAL DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ja N. Jel’jash

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is a verification of new model necessity of vocational training within the graduates of technical branches of study in high schools. Expert’s activity unlike educational activity is not structured-indetail. Knowledge from the diversified areas and based on it skills to find out appropriate, uncommon decisions of current problems and arising problems are required for effective work on present-day production with constantly improved and becoming complicated technologies. The traditional reproductive training focused on presentation of a set of information and given algorithms for completing different activities presented by the teacher does not allow forming properly creative research way of thinking, abilities to master professional innovations and readiness for regular self-education of trainees. The author notes that it is necessary to work out and introduce essentially alternate methods of preparation that would provide systematic integrity of the systematised theoretical knowledge with acquirable practical skills and its application. The author considers the contextual model of training as one of the most appropriate and reasoned. Methods. The core theory of contextual training is the statute of sensemaking influence of professional work context on educational activity of the student. Theoretically training is to be carried out in the closest field and in forms to real activity; as a peculiar kind of immersion to the future professional sphere. The proposed model of contextual training is installed on the basis of activity approach. The activity approach in contrast to traditional system preparation isn’t broken up to two stages (firstly, overlearning, then its practical application, but is posed to be indivisible: mastery to theoretical readiness and required practical skills acquisition refer a concurrent process under the performance of any tutorial activity or task at the training subject. Results. The principles of contextual training model are pointed out. The performance technique of the practical tasks which logic is close to logic of real professional work is considered. Scientific novelty. The novelty of contextual training model in relation to designing of academic and didactic materials consists in updating of practical training, corresponding coherence of theory and practice as the essential formation of professional skill and competency. The solution algorithms under the reduced or formerly known formula and functional connections are organized in such a way as to motivate the student for regular appeal to educational sources of information (such as textbooks, study guides, reference books. The author states that the uselessness and unreliability perception of theory mastering is avoided due to the proposed training; problem solving is not confined to simple mathematical calculations. Physical sense of conception and phenomenon essence occurs while performing the task. Practical significance. The research outcomes can be used while academic teaching packages designing and its implementation into educational process of high school. The research findings can help to form sustained professional competencies, students’ interest upgrading to studied disciplines, establishment of intersubject communication between the training courses provided by educational program. 

  15. PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY AND CONTEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT CONSTANCIA PERCEPTUAL Y MEJORAMIENTO CONTEXTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERIBERTO AVELINO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communication. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y acumulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos lingüísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que procesos cognitivos de nivel alto pueden restringir los mecanismos auditivos básicos involucrados en la identificación del tono para garantizar una percepción constante. Los resultados que muestran una mejor identificación de tonos en contextos que son inversamente proporcionales a su frecuencia apoyan la hipótesis de que el procesamiento auditivo periférico mejora la identificación de los tonos a través de una función de contraste contextual.

  16. PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY AND CONTEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT / CONSTANCIA PERCEPTUAL Y MEJORAMIENTO CONTEXTUAL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HERIBERTO, AVELINO.

    Full Text Available La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y ac [...] umulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos lingüísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que procesos cognitivos de nivel alto pueden restringir los mecanismos auditivos básicos involucrados en la identificación del tono para garantizar una percepción constante. Los resultados que muestran una mejor identificación de tonos en contextos que son inversamente proporcionales a su frecuencia apoyan la hipótesis de que el procesamiento auditivo periférico mejora la identificación de los tonos a través de una función de contraste contextual. Abstract in english The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded [...] in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communication. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.

  17. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  18. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple as...... that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing is...... considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  19. Assimilation of a knowledge base and physical models to reduce errors in passive-microwave classifications of sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanik, J. A.; Key, J.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system framework has been developed to classify sea ice types using satellite passive microwave data, an operational classification algorithm, spatial and temporal information, ice types estimated from a dynamic-thermodynamic model, output from a neural network that detects the onset of melt, and knowledge about season and region. The rule base imposes boundary conditions upon the ice classification, modifies parameters in the ice algorithm, determines a `confidence' measure for the classified data, and under certain conditions, replaces the algorithm output with model output. Results demonstrate the potential power of such a system for minimizing overall error in the classification and for providing non-expert data users with a means of assessing the usefulness of the classification results for their applications.

  20. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Cervantes Morant, Rafael; Gulis, Gabriel; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    changes in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using ?2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS......-reported symptoms after pesticide handling. Similar though less pronounced improvements was seen among neighbor farmers having had less training and information on pesticide handling and alternatives than the FFS trained farmers. Training of farmers on IPM and good agricultural practices has positive effects, but...... is scarce in Bolivia as in most low-income countries and must be encouraged to support an improved and sustainable food production and to protect the health of farmers and consumers as well as the environment....

  1. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co-creation...... strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...... reducing complexity and dividing knowledge into to dichotomies or hierarchies, knowledge workers should be enabled to use different strategies for knowledge sharing, -transfer and –creation depending on the task and the nature of the knowledge. However if the ambition is to have a strategy for sharing...

  2. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Gulis, Gabriel; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide consumption is increasing in Bolivia as well as pest resistance, pesticide poisonings and pollution of the environment. This survey evaluates the training of small holder farmers on pesticide handling and ecological alternatives to reduce the negative pesticide effects. METHOD: A baseline survey was performed in 2002 and follow-up surveys in 2004 and 2009. Farmers were selected and trained on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) from 2002 to 2004 in Farmer Field Schools (FFS). ...

  3. An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Durham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

  4. Comment on "Contextuality in Bosonic Bunching"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Kraglund Andersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Bosonic bunching occurs within quantum physics and can be mimicked classically by noncontextual hidden-variable models, which excludes this phenomenon as a means to prove stronger-than-quantum contextuality.

  5. Contextual Dependencies in Information Systems Security

    OpenAIRE

    Bednar, Peter; Moufida SADOK; Katos, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the contextual dependencies related to the use of information systems security and criticizes the predominance of technical and formalized paradigm in the development and implementation of IS security policies and procedures. The underlying epistemology of our research lies in the interpretative paradigm. It explores the patterns of how the contextual use of information systems security is involved according to a business/organizational practice perspective. It elicits th...

  6. The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule, and cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The...

  7. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were est...

  8. Templates and Queries in Contextual Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kenneth Mark; Hansen, Frank Allan; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new definition of context for context-aware computing based on a model that relies on dynamic queries over structured objects. This new model enables developers to flexibly specify the relationship between context and context data for their context-aware applications. We discuss a framework, HyConSC, that implements this model and describe how it can be used to build new contextual hypermedia systems. Our framework aids the developer in the iterative development of contextu...

  9. Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations

  10. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research, a worldwide consensus about the content of NOS teaching is said to be reached. This consensus content is listed as a general statement of science, which students are supposed to understand during their education. Unfortunately, decades of research has demonstrated that teachers and students alike do not possess an appropriate understanding of NOS, at least as far as it is defined at the general level. One reason for such failure might be that formal statements about the NOS and scientific knowledge can really be understood after having been contextualized in the actual cases. Typically NOS is studied as contextualized in the reconstructed historical case stories. When the objective is to educate scientifically and technologically literate citizens, as well as scientists of the near future, studying NOS in the contexts of contemporary science is encouraged. Such contextualizations call for revision of the characterization of NOS and the goals of teaching about NOS. As a consequence, this article gives two examples for studying NOS in the contexts of scientific practices with practicing scientists: an interview study with nanomodellers considering NOS in the context of their actual practices and a course on nature of scientific modelling for science teachers employing the same interview method as a studying method. Such scrutinization opens rarely discussed areas and viewpoints to NOS as well as aspects that practising scientists consider as important.

  11. Contextuality and nonlocality in decaying multipartite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    Everyday experience supports the existence of physical properties independent of observation in strong contrast to the predictions of quantum theory. In particular, the existence of physical properties that are independent of the measurement context is prohibited for certain quantum systems. This property is known as contextuality. This Rapid Communication studies whether the process of decay in space-time generally destroys the ability of revealing contextuality. We find that in the most general situation the decay property does not diminish this ability. However, applying certain constraints due to the space-time structure either on the time evolution of the decaying system or on the measurement procedure, the criteria revealing contextuality become inherently dependent on the decay property or an impossibility. In particular, we derive how the context-revealing setup known as Bell's nonlocality tests changes for decaying quantum systems. Our findings illustrate the interdependence between hidden and local hidden parameter theories and the role of time.

  12. Context Awareness Framework Based on Contextual Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays computing becomes increasingly mobile and pervasive. One of the important steps in pervasive computing is context-awareness. Context-aware pervasive systems rely on information about the context and user preferences to adapt their behavior. However, context-aware applications do not always behave as user's desire, and can cause users to feel dissatisfied with unexpected actions. To solve these problems, context-aware systems must provide mechanisms to adapt automatically when the context changes significantly. The interesting characteristic of context is its own behaviors which depend on various aspects of the surrounding contexts. This paper uses contextual graphs to solve the problem "the mutual relationships among the contexts". We describe the most relevant work in this area, as well as ongoing research on developing context-aware system for ubiquitous computing based on contextual graph. The usage of contextual graph in context-awareness is expected to make it effective for developers to develop...

  13. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...

  14. Knowledge Integration in Virtual Teams: The Potential Role of KMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Maryam; Tiwana, Amrit

    2002-01-01

    Discusses knowledge management and identifies four challenges to knowledge integration in virtual team environments: constraints in transactive memory, insufficient mutual understanding, failure in sharing and retaining contextual knowledge, and inflexibility of organizational ties. Proposes a knowledge management systems approach to meet these…

  15. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus ...

  16. The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule, and...... cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The empirical results, based on a hierarchical linear model with a sample of 444 employees from 82 firms in...

  17. Crowdsourced cartography: mapping experience and knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Martin; Kitchin, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the emerging phenomenon of crowdsourced cartography in relation to ideas about the organisation of contemporary knowledge production in capitalist societies. Taking a philosophical perspective that views mapping as a processual, creative, productive act, constructed through citational, embodied, and contextual experiences, we examine how we might profitably analyse collaborative crowdsourced projects like OpenStreetMap to better understand geographic knowledge production ...

  18. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous event-related potential (ERP studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces.

  19. Contextual Affordances of Rural Appalachian Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sara Lynne Rieder

    2008-01-01

    Vocational psychology has recently begun examining the career development of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers may affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. Contextual…

  20. Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlow, Michelle C.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

  1. Sleep-dependent consolidation of contextual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca M C; Sunm, Michelle; Ivry, Richard B

    2006-05-23

    Memory consolidation is facilitated by sleep. Specifying the functional domain of sleep-dependent consolidation (SDC) is important for identifying the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Previous work indicates that SDC may be limited to conditions in which learning is explicit. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that SDC may also occur with implicit learning when learning benefits from the formation of contextual associations, a function associated with the hippocampus. Three versions of the serial-reaction-time task (SRTT) were examined, and SDC was assessed by comparing performance after 12 hr breaks that included or did not include sleep. SDC was observed in the Explicit condition. Two implicit conditions were compared. In the Implicit Noncontextual condition, participants performed a concurrent tone-counting task with the pitch of each tone selected at random, precluding cross-dimensional associations. In the Implicit Contextual condition, participants responded to the color of the cues while the spatial location of the cues followed a correlated sequence. Whereas learning was observed in both implicit conditions, SDC was restricted to the contextual condition. Given that the formation of contextual associations is dependent on the hippocampus, we suggest that SDC is a hippocampus-mediated process. PMID:16713957

  2. Influence diagrams for contextual information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Tamine-Lechani, Lynda; Boughanem, Mohand

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of contextual information retrieval is to make some exploration towards designing user specific search engines that are able to adapt the retrieval model to the variety of differences on user's contexts. In this paper we propose an influence diagram based retrieval model which is able to incorporate contexts, viewed as user's long-term interests into the retrieval process.

  3. Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

  4. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  5. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Günther Sagl; Bernd Resch; Thomas Blaschke

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on b...

  6. How (not to be a fallibilist: Lottery paradox and two types of epistemic contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is one common thing among lotteries from all over the world: there is small number of winning tickets and considerably bigger number of losing tickets. Therefore, the probability that a ticket wins a lottery is quite low, usually so low that we think that it is almost sure the ticket loses. But, we would never say that we know that a ticket will lose, until we see results of the lottery in, for example, some newspapers. And the probability of newspapers making a mistake does not seem to affect our knowledge claims. But why is that, since newspapers could make a mistake more often than a ticket wins? This question presents trouble for fallibilism, which claim that S could know that p, even when the probability that p is less than 1. Contextualist theories give their typical brand of solution: we have a change of context between the two cases, and in one case standard for knowledge claims are higher than the standard in the other case. Because of that, one can know that S lost the lottery when she reads it in newspapers. In this paper, I will present analysis of the lottery paradox, and two types of epistemic contexutalism: simple conversational contextualism and inferential contextualism. I will also present two of the most popular solution based on simple conversational contextualism, made by Lewis and Cohen. Finally, I will introduce some problems for such solutions, and show that the problems could solved if we apply strategy and explanation of inferential contextualism, type of contextualism proposed by Michael Williams. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinami?ki sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

  7. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among...... political parties on us-them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical outgroup members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  8. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØnderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter FrØlund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among political parties on us-them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical outgroup members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner sentiment when intergroup relations are politicized. These findings demonstrate the need for widening the scope of the intergroup contact theory in order to cover macro-political conditions.

  9. Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shannon Stokes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.

  10. The effects of discrete contextual variables on «bullying» in the schoolyard

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández de Frutos, Teodoro

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the abundance of scientific literature that exists on bullying in schools, few studies have focused on the effects, both separate and combined, caused by contextual structural variables, such as geographical space, the municipal district, family, school, gender, male hegemonic culture, and exposure to the mass media. This article reviews to the present state of knowledge on the effects of these factors and provides empirical evidence of their influence on students aged between 12 ...

  11. Power and Liberty: A Long-Term Course Planning Strategy to Encourage the Contextualization of Events in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    Applying a consistent historical theme throughout a social studies course is an effective long-term planning strategy that can promote student engagement, retention of information, and contextualized knowledge of history's continuity and change. This article demonstrates how one such theme, power and liberty, might be incorporated into a secondary…

  12. Contextual influences on the development of obesity in children: A case study of UK South Asian communities?

    OpenAIRE

    Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Adab, Peymane

    2012-01-01

    ? We examined contextual influences on childhood obesity in South Asian communities. ? We held focus groups with stakeholders from UK South Asian communities. ? Knowledge of context is critical for childhood obesity intervention development. ? Cultural influences on childhood obesity need to be understood in detail.

  13. Contextuality for preparations, transformations, and unsharp measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Spekkens, R W

    2004-01-01

    An operational definition of contextuality is introduced which generalizes the standard notion in three ways: (1) it applies to arbitrary operational theories rather than just quantum theory, (2) it applies to arbitrary experimental procedures, rather than just sharp measurements, and (3) it applies to a broad class of ontological models of quantum theory, rather than just deterministic hidden variable models. We derive three no-go theorems for ontological models, each based on an assumption of noncontextuality for a different sort of experimental procedure; one for preparation procedures, another for unsharp measurement procedures (that is, measurement procedures associated with positive-operator valued measures), and a third for transformation procedures. All three proofs apply to two-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and are therefore stronger than traditional proofs of contextuality.

  14. Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images.

  15. Contextualized attention metadata in learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpers, M (Martin)

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the notion of contextualized attention metadata (CAM) in learning environments. CAM describes observations about the handling of digital information in relation to the context in which the respective activities took place. The usage of CAM is exemplified in three scenarios: (1) using CAM to support the learning process of employees in agile business process execution, (2) enriching learning resource description with CAM and (3) identifying usage patterns of architectural l...

  16. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  17. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Boespflug; Brigitte Pientka

    2011-01-01

    Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce...

  18. Implicit Contextual Integrity in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, Natalia; Such, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Many real incidents demonstrate that users of Online Social Networks need mechanisms that help them manage their interactions by increasing the awareness of the different contexts that coexist in Online Social Networks and preventing them from exchanging inappropriate information in those contexts or disseminating sensitive information from some contexts to others. Contextual integrity is a privacy theory that conceptualises the appropriateness of information sharing based o...

  19. Design Analysis - Contextual Architecture with Landscape Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho da Silva, Isabel; Portela Marques, Theresa; Andrade, Gonçalo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the contextual analysis of architecture with landscape methods as both design and teaching methodology. The methodology applies our understanding of research as design and design as research, and involves the evaluation of landscape architecture-based approaches to built examples in a region famous for its constructed landscapes – The Netherlands. In a series of design courses the authors have been teaching in Delft and Rotterdam from 2009 to 2012 analytical methods were ...

  20. Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals

    OpenAIRE

    Moed, Henk F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further de...

  1. Modestia, principio de caridad y sensibilidad contextual

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo muestra que una teoría modesta del lenguaje implica el conocimiento previo de un lenguaje cuando se intenta explicar el dominio de un lenguaje radicalmente desconocido. En segundo lugar, el artículo muestra que una teoría de interpretación radical, como solución al problema anterior, tiene implicaciones etnocentristas. Por último, el artículo propone la hipótesis de la "sensibilidad contextual" como solución al problema.

  2. Generalization of Contextual Fear in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Marta; Leombruni, Estelle; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced fear responses to cues, which were not associated with the threat but share perceptual characteristics with the threat signal, indicate generalization of conditioned fear. Here, we investigated for the first time generalization processes in contextual fear conditioning. Thirty-two participants were guided through two virtual offices (acquisition phases). Mildly painful electric shocks (unconditioned stimulus, US) were unpredictably delivered in one office (anxiety context, CTX+), but never in the other office (safety context, CTX-). During the generalization test, participants were guided through CTX+, CTX-, and the generalization context (G-CTX), which contained features of both the CTX+ and the CTX-, but no US was delivered. We found successful contextual fear conditioning (i.e., the CTX+ compared to the CTX- elicited potentiated startle responses and was rated with more negative valence, higher arousal and higher anxiety). Importantly, implicit and explicit responses dissociated in the generalization test. Thus, participants rated the G-CTX as more arousing and anxiogenic than the CTX- indicating anxiety generalization, but they showed enhanced startle responses to the CTX+ only, while the G-CTX and the CTX- did not differ. In summary, healthy participants on an explicit level responded to the generalization context like to the anxiety context, but on an implicit level responded to the generalization context like to the safety context. Possibly, this dissociation suggests distinct and specific generalization processes underlying contextual fear. PMID:26459839

  3. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SatoshiShioiri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  4. Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

  5. Socio-Cultural Knowledge in Conversational Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomei Yang

    2009-01-01

    In addition to words and grammar, socio-cultural knowledge is also of vital importance in the interpretation of conversations. Socio-cultural knowledge helps participants to get contextualization cues and together with other signaling channels, participants will be able to perceive the context-bound information and prepare their appropriate responses. Socio-cultural knowledge is indispensable in our modern society where people have widely varying communicative and cultural backgrounds, which ...

  6. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  7. Individual differences in predicting aversive events and modulating contextual anxiety in a context and cue conditioning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Johanna M P

    2013-01-01

    Deficient fear conditioning leads to maladaptive contextual anxiety as predicting danger is a key factor in regulating anxiety. A virtual reality conditioning task was used to evaluate cue learning and contextual anxiety with fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear in two experiments. In Experiment 1, failure to condition to a cue resulted in a constant state of context anxiety (subjective fearfulness and startle). Trait anxiety was unrelated to learning cue contingencies but the participants who failed to learn scored lower on a self-report measure of attentional control. Part of the group that learned the cue contingency failed to deduce safety of the context and hence did not reduce their contextual anxiety. Experiment 2 specifically focused on isolating this process and demonstrated an inverse association between trait anxiety and adaptive modulation of contextual anxiety. In conclusion, predicting threat aids in but not automatically implies successful regulation of contextual anxiety. High trait anxiety may increase risk of deficient modulation of contextual anxiety. PMID:22342768

  8. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different types of contextual information, thus providing an additional, namely the geo-spatial perspective on the future development of smart cities.

  9. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different types of contextual information, thus providing an additional, namely the geo-spatial perspective on the future development of smart cities. PMID:26184221

  10. Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Alexandra

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

  11. Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leana R., Uys; Robin P., Newhouse; Arwa, Oweis; Xiaokun, Liang.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. OBJECTIVES: The current study [...] aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. METHOD: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. RESULTS: Nurse researchers (N = 100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. CONCLUSION: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

  12. Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leana R. Uys

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enablethe conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on aliterature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used.Results: Nurse researchers (N = 100 from 22 countries were invited to participate. Theresponse rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97. The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100. The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22. This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research.Conclusion: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used tostrategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

  13. Data, Information and Knowledge Transformation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana

    Vol. 1. Praha : WSEAS PRESS, 2009, s. 255-263. ISBN 978-960-474-064-2. [Recent Advances in Automation & Information. Praha (CZ), 23.03.2009-25.03.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : information structures * contextual space * information management Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/klimesova-data, information and knowledge transformation.pdf

  14. A study on factors influencing implementation of knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Behdad Gitinejad; Mohammad Ali Keramati

    2013-01-01

    Replacement in organization’s employees can results in knowledge loss and turnover faces a serious problem in knowledge based organizations such as knowledge based sectors of governmental organizations. The increases in sizes of some governmental organizations in recent years have increased their structural and contextual dimensions. One of the biggest problems in governmental organizations is employee turnover, which could result to knowledge loss. By using knowledge management it is possibl...

  15. Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

    2012-01-01

    All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

  16. A Contextual Item-Based Collaborative Filtering Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Pan; Xueqing Tan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a contextual item-based collaborative filtering technology, which is based on the traditional item-based collaborative filtering technology. In the process of the recommendation, user's important mobile contextual information are taken into account, and the technology combines with those ratings on the items in the users' historical contextual information who are familiar with user's current context information in order to predict that which items will be preferred by user...

  17. Multiculturalism and contextualism: How is context relevant for political theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as “contextualist.” But it is unclear what “contextualism” means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about “moderate secularism,” as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual...

  18. Transfer of contextual stimulus function via equivalence class development

    OpenAIRE

    Gatch, Michael B.; Osborne, J. Grayson

    1989-01-01

    In a conditional discrimination, 6 college students arranged six Cyrillic letters into groups of three based upon which of two additional Cyrillic letters (contextual stimuli) was present. All subjects demonstrated symmetry and transitivity within each class of equivalent stimuli. In a second conditional discrimination, two more Cyrillic letters were related to each contextual stimulus. Testing of symmetrical and transitive relations between the original contextual stimulus and the two new on...

  19. Contextual advertisement placement in printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

    2010-02-01

    Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

  20. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. PMID:25892218

  1. Multiculturalism and contextualism: How is context relevant for political theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as ‘‘contextualist.’’ But it is unclear what ‘‘contextualism’’ means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about ‘‘moderate secularism,’’ as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual in each sense is novel and interesting, and whether contextualism is a distinct feature of political theory of multiculturalism. I argue that the forms of contextualism which concern the scope and methodology of political theory are sensible, but not novel or distinctive of multiculturalism. I then discuss the more controversial forms of contextualism, which I call political and theoretical contextualism. Finally, I apply the distinctions to Modood’s argument. I argue that it is not a form of theoretical contextualism and that theoretical contextualism would in fact undermine arguments for multiculturalist policies of accommodation.

  2. Dimensions of organizational learning: contextual variables in companies under lean manufacturing implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luz Tortorella

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lean Production (LP is an approach that encompasses a variety of management practices to reduce losses and improve operational efficiency. Due to this fact, the ability to innovate, change and learn continuously presents itself as a key element in the implementation of the LP. Several contextual variables were mentioned in the literature as potential impediments to implementing lean. However, little is known about the influence of these variables on the dimensions of Organizational Learning (OL. This study aims to examine the relationship between six contextual variables and the frequency of occurrence of problems in companies that are implementing the LP. Furthermore, the identification of relevant relationships between dimensions of OL and contextual variables contribute to the identification of the contexts in which problems can be expected to occur. The sample contains thirteen companies implementing the LP. The results indicate that the same contextual variables, which are deemed as influential to implement LP, have a different influence on the ability of organizational learning.

  3. Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer...... relations. Involving customer relations in the design project had a powerful effect: it was revealed that the system the organization believed they needed was irrelevant, while they needed another system nobody had thought of beforehand. The paper presents the case by describing the setting and starting...

  4. Contextual Action Recognition with R*CNN

    OpenAIRE

    Gkioxari, Georgia; Girshick, Ross; Malik, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    There are multiple cues in an image which reveal what action a person is performing. For example, a jogger has a pose that is characteristic for jogging, but the scene (e.g. road, trail) and the presence of other joggers can be an additional source of information. In this work, we exploit the simple observation that actions are accompanied by contextual cues to build a strong action recognition system. We adapt RCNN to use more than one region for classification while still maintaining the ab...

  5. Physical-virtual linkage with contextual bookmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, Niels; Rukzio, Enrico; Lorenz, Andreas; Righetti, Xavier; Boll, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    In our everyday life we often see objects or persons and are aware that there are related digital services such as an online ticket service when seeing a poster advertising a concert. Currently it is a rather time consuming activity to find the related information. Using our Contextual Bookmark system a user can define a snapshot with her mobile phone consisting of a picture, time stamp and location. Such a bookmark can then be stored on the mobile phone, exchanged with friends and in particu...

  6. Contextual inquiry: discovering physicians' true needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, J M; Maffitt, J S; Orland, M J; Kahn, M G

    1995-01-01

    Gathering user requirements that represent the true needs of the users is a challenge. There are many elicitation methods in use today, but they generally are not successful in identifying a comprehensive set of requirements that reflect the users' true needs. This paper describes the requirements gathering method, Contextual Inquiry, that we used to generate physician requirements for a comprehensive Clinical Information System. We feel that this method has advantages over traditional techniques such as surveys, questionnaires, traditional interviews, and focus groups, in obtaining a more comprehensive analysis of the true needs of the users. PMID:8563326

  7. Contextual design defining customer-centered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Hugh

    1997-01-01

    This book introduces a customer-centered approach to business by showing how data gathered from people while they work can drive the definition of a product or process while supporting the needs of teams and their organizations. This is a practical, hands-on guide for anyone trying to design systems that reflect the way customers want to do their work. The authors developed Contextual Design, the method discussed here, through their work with teams struggling to design products and internal systems. In this book, you'll find the underlying principles of the method and how to apply them to diff

  8. Intelligent Contextual Algorithm For Harmonics Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. ELANGO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents methods for classification of harmonics present in the electrical signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Contextual Clustering (CC and Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA. Power quality meter has been used to collect the electrical signal data from a 40W Fluorescent Lamp (FL. In the captured data, variouselectrical disturbances are introduced through Matlab code. FFT has been used for extraction of features from the acquired electrical signal. The FFT, CC, BPA and BPACC algorithms have been implemented by Matlab. Comparison of performance classification of harmonics by CC, BPA and BPACC are presented.

  9. Negatively-Marked MCQ Assessments That Reward Partial Knowledge Do Not Introduce Gender Bias Yet Increase Student Performance and Satisfaction and Reduce Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, A. Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O.F.; Jones, D. Hugh; Restall, Colin J.; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The ‘Single Answer’ (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are una...

  10. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE SAMPLE OF CALL CENTERS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN KOÇAK; ERSIN KAVI

    2011-01-01

    The emerging of knowledge societies brought about a lot of transformations in societies in the last decades. At first, these effects have been appeared in the developed and then in the developing world not only urban area also rural. The diffusion of the technologies that is invented on the mentality of knowledge society, have been effecting all life and promising to have major changes by providing access the opportunities for training and education, media and social networks and remodeling t...

  11. Contextual Poverty, Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes. One of the strongest factors that impacts nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast food restaurants within particular regions markedly impact the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to impact CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

  12. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Boespflug

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

  13. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Boespflug, Mathieu; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.3

    2011-01-01

    Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable ...

  14. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Rick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  15. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge. PMID:23437081

  16. Abnormal Contextual Modulation of Visual Contour Detection in Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Scott R. Sponheim; Olman, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients demonstrate perceptual deficits consistent with broad dysfunction in visual context processing. These include poor integration of segments forming visual contours, and reduced visual contrast effects (e.g. weaker orientation-dependent surround suppression, ODSS). Background image context can influence contour perception, as stimuli near the contour affect detection accuracy. Because of ODSS, this contextual modulation depends on the relative orientation between the cont...

  17. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    . To look at how knowledge about virtual work is established in a multinational context, we interviewed members of a team that connects Finland and India. Results reveal five objects shared between the team members with varying knowledge about them. By making these differences in knowledge visible......How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from...... contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective...

  18. Is there contextuality in behavioural and social systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, E N; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne

    2016-01-13

    Most behavioural and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as contextuality-by-default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such systems, even if there are context-dependent errors in measurements, or if something in the contexts directly interacts with the measurements. This makes the theory especially suitable for behavioural and social systems, where direct interactions of 'everything with everything' are ubiquitous. For cyclic systems with binary outcomes, the theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for non-contextuality, and these conditions are known to be breached in certain quantum systems. We review several behavioural and social datasets (from polls of public opinion to visual illusions to conjoint choices to word combinations to psychophysical matching), and none of these data provides any evidence for contextuality. Our working hypothesis is that this may be a broadly applicable rule: behavioural and social systems are non-contextual, i.e. all 'contextual effects' in them result from the ubiquitous dependence of response distributions on the elements of contexts other than the ones to which the response is presumably or normatively directed. PMID:26621988

  19. Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Anna Van Ast

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42 received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle and skin conductance responses. In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on fear potentiated startle data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by skin conductance responses, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events.

  20. A Contextual Approach to Investigating Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Douglas M.; Wilson, Barry

    This investigation utilized a recent concept developed by researchers and theoreticians studying nonverbal behavior--the contextual framework. Instruments of demonstrated reliability were employed to record simultaneous verbal and nonverbal data within the selected contextual framework of student-initiated questions. Data was collected at the…

  1. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  2. O wra?liwo?co kontekstowej zda? typu 'S wie, ?e p' (ON CONTEXTUAL SENSITIVITY OF SENTENCE TYPE 'S KNOWS THAT P'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafa? Palczewski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic contextualism is recently one of the most discussed epistemological theories. So far, the main part of discussion concerns contextualist solution of the skeptical problem. Nowadays it has become more clear that this theory needs strong and independent justification from a linguistic and language-philosophical point of view. In this paper The author outlines several treads concerning linguistic basis for contextualism. In part one there are presented some fundamental contextualism thesis and an example proposed by S. Cohen which has to support it. Next the following question is considered: which semantic feature is responsible for context dependence of knowledge ascription sentences? Is it indexicality, vagueness, ambiguity, ellipticity or unspecificity? Debate sketched in part three is concentrated on an analogy between linguistic behavior of knowledge ascription sentences and other context-dependent expressions, especially indexicals and gradable adjectives. The last part of this paper contains a new argument for contextualism proposed by K. De Rose. In addition such argument points out that contextualism does not confuse a truth conditions of knowledge ascribing sentences with their condition of warranted assertability.

  3. Translating Contextualized Arabic Euphemisms into English: Socio-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrema Shehab

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role context plays in determining the translation strategies pursued by translators of Arabic euphemisms into English. Due to different cultural backgrounds, adherence to the employment of euphemism in a social context may differ in both Arabic and English. While some situations call for the use of euphemism in one culture, the other culture finds no point in using such euphemisms for such situations; preserving the original Arabic euphemisms when rendered into English in this case could lead to misunderstanding and may deprive the Source Language (SL from a cultural trait. The study derives evidence from 11 Arabic euphemistic expressions taken from five literary masterpieces written by the Egyptian novelist and Noble Prize winner Najib Mahfouz, and it looks into the English translation of these euphemisms. The present study attempts to advance the proposition that Arabic euphemisms in their context  exhibit fluctuating, unstable meaning, which emanates from various contextual factors such as speakers, addressees, shared knowledge and background information, and hence these factors combined dictate on translators the chosen translation strategy.  

  4. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Barrett, H. Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C.; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  5. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Barrett, H Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H; Gervais, Matthew M; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-08-22

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  6. Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals

    CERN Document Server

    Moed, Henk F

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further develops Eugene Garfield's notions of a field's 'citation potential' defined as the average length of references lists in a field and determining the probability of being cited, and the need in fair performance assessments to correct for differences between subject fields. A journal's subject field is defined as the set of papers citing that journal. SNIP is defined as the ratio of the journal's citation count per paper and the citation potential in its subject field. It aims to allow direct comparison of sources in different subject fields....

  7. Probabilistic generation of quantum contextual sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megill, Norman D. [Boston Information Group, 19 Locke Ln., Lexington, MA 02420 (United States); Fresl, Kresimir [Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Waegell, Mordecai; Aravind, P.K. [Physics Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Pavicic, Mladen, E-mail: pavicic@grad.hr [ITAMP at Physics Department at Harvard University and Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chair of Physics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-09-12

    We give a method for exhaustive generation of a huge number of Kochen-Specker contextual sets, based on the 600-cell, for possible experiments and quantum gates. The method is complementary to our previous parity proof generation of these sets, and it gives all sets while the parity proof method gives only sets with an odd number of edges in their hypergraph representation. Thus we obtain 35 new kinds of critical KS sets with an even number of edges. We also give a statistical estimate of the number of sets that might be obtained in an eventual exhaustive enumeration. -- Highlights: ? We generate millions of new Kochen-Specker noncontextual set. ? We find thousands of novel critical Kochen-Specker (KS) sets. ? We give algorithms for generating KS sets from a new 4-dim class. ? We represent KS sets by means of hypergraphs and their figures. ? We give a new exact estimation method for random sampling of sets.

  8. Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...

  9. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE SAMPLE OF CALL CENTERS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN KOÇAK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerging of knowledge societies brought about a lot of transformations in societies in the last decades. At first, these effects have been appeared in the developed and then in the developing world not only urban area also rural. The diffusion of the technologies that is invented on the mentality of knowledge society, have been effecting all life and promising to have major changes by providing access the opportunities for training and education, media and social networks and remodeling the way we do business, the nature of work and economy. In this concept, the internet, as a tool of the knowledge society, has also been regarded an important instrument in developing the rural regions around the globe. By connecting different parts of the world, the internet and other tools of information technologies create new job opportunities for individuals and companies. There are many people who cannot have and reach to the good education as well as the job opportunities in the rural areas as much as there is in urban areas. Many state institutions and companies have easily been investing to the rural area because of information technologies’ low level entry costs. Especially, many of them open new call centers in the poor areas of countries. the purpose of this paper is that the role of information technologies in the rural area is going to be evaluated on the call centers sample in Turkey. First part of the study, the literature is reviewed about knowledge society and information technologies. In the second part, the benefits of information technologies for individuals who live in the rural areas and some model applications are explained. In the final part, call centers that established by state and private companies are investigated according to their employment and training effects for the poor in the rural areas.

  10. Contextual influences on object representations in the occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Olivia; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    What are the factors that determine how objects are represented in the visual system? Apart from visual shape, conceptual information such as animacy and object size has been established as major organizational principles for object representations in the occipito-temporal cortex. However, it remains unclear whether object representations may also be influenced by contextual information (i.e., where objects appear in the world). There has been debate regarding whether contextual information is retrieved when objects are seen, and whether the neural locus of contextual effect may be in the object-selective lateral occipital complex (LOC) or the scene-selective parahippocampal cortex (PHC). We examined how object representations in the occipito-temporal cortex may be influenced by animacy, object size, and context. We used 24 items, including 4 animals, 4 big and 4 small inanimate objects for each of 2 contexts (e.g., beach items: dolphin, lifeguard chair, goggles; house items: dog, coffee table, vase). Sixteen exemplars were included for each item. Using fMRI, neural responses for the 24 items were obtained when participants (n=15) performed a one-back task to match identical images. To analyze the nature of object representations, we first calculated representational similarity matrices (RSMs) on the neural response patterns for the 24 items in both the LOC and the PHC (defined in a separate localizer). We then correlated the neural RSMs with several candidate models of RSMs. We found that a RSM that incorporated the effects of animacy, object size, and context was significantly correlated with the RSMs in both LOC and PHC. The correlations were stronger compared to those with other candidate RSMs, which concerned only animacy and size, or animacy alone. These results suggest that contextual information is engaged, even when such information is task-irrelevant. It appears that multiple sources of object knowledge contribute to form object representations in the occipito-temporal cortex. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326857

  11. Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

  12. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors. PMID:24805920

  13. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  14. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development. PMID:21569250

  15. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households? energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Omar; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir

    2015-12-01

    We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG). The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015) [2]. PMID:26568974

  16. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households? energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jridi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  17. Pilot survey of HIV risk and contextual problems and issues in Mexican/Latino migrant day laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, Kurt C; Kubo, Ai

    2005-10-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted with 102 migrant day laborers (MDLs) to assess HIV risk and related contextual problems and issues. These men were primarily Mexican, of low SES background, low in acculturation to the United States, and their income ranged from $100 and $400 a week, 40% of which is sent back home. The psychosocial context of HIV risk included concerns expressed about lack of money and employment, followed by racism, social isolation, sadness and loneliness. High rates of alcohol use and binge drinking that co-occur with sexual activities were reported. While only 7% of MDLs reported illegal injection drug use, needles were frequently shared without bleach cleaning. Men generally did not carry condoms and knowledge of proper condom use was poor. For the most common form of sex reported, vaginal sex, condom use was infrequent. However, men did report confidence in being able to insist on condom use in challenging sexual situations, and they also reported fairly frequent pro-condom attitudes and behaviors within their social circles. Slightly over half of the men reported sexual activity with female partners, during the past 2 months. These female partners were almost evenly divided into regular sex partners, including spouses, and riskier partners such as one time only sex partners, prostitutes, and multiple sex partners. Results also indicated encouraging efforts by MDLs to reduce risk with risky partners (e.g., more condom use). PMID:19813293

  18. La preocupación crónica como miedo contextual: Evidencia psicofisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Delgado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación crónica se ha considerado un estado de ansiedad anticipatoria o miedo contextual distinto del miedo específico o miedo fóbico. El presente estudio intenta confirmar esta distinción examinando la preocupación crónica mediante dos paradigmas experimentales basados en la modulación de reflejos defensivos: uno de miedo contextual (la respuesta cardiaca de defensa y otro de miedo específico (el reflejo de sobresalto. Los resultados apoyan la interpretación de la preocupación crónica como un estado de miedo contextual acompañado de pobre regulación del sistema nervioso autónomo.

  19. The Use of Contextual Problems to Support Mathematical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanty Widjaja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the use of contextual problems to supportmathematical learning based on current classroom practice. The usecontextual problems offers some potentials to engage and motivatestudents in learning mathematics but it also presents some challengesfor students in classrooms. Examples of the use of contextual problemsfrom several primary classrooms in Indonesia will be discussed.Contextual problems do not lend themselves to a meaningful learningfor students. Teachers need to engage students in interpreting thecontext in order to explore key mathematical ideas. It is critical toestablish explicit links between the context and the mathematics ideasto support students’ progression in their mathematical thinking.

  20. Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. We present our approach in this paper and highlight a number of future extensions with additional contextual information.

  1. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement...... personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...... managing shared image collections or other types of information....

  2. Managing knowledge in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasto, Chiquito J; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2007-01-01

    Processing text from scientific literature has become a necessity due to the burgeoning amounts of information that are fast becoming available, stemming from advances in electronic information technology. We created a program, NeuroText ( http://senselab.med.yale.edu/textmine/neurotext.pl ), designed specifically to extract information relevant to neuroscience-specific databases, NeuronDB and CellPropDB ( http://senselab.med.yale.edu/senselab/ ), housed at the Yale University School of Medicine. NeuroText extracts relevant information from the Neuroscience literature in a two-step process: each step parses text at different levels of granularity. NeuroText uses an expert-mediated knowledge base and combines the techniques of indexing, contextual parsing, semantic and lexical parsing, and supervised and non-supervised learning to extract information. The constrains, metadata elements, and rules for information extraction are stored in the knowledge base. NeuroText was created as a pilot project to process 3 years of publications in Journal of Neuroscience and was subsequently tested for 40,000 PubMed abstracts. We also present here a template to create domain non-specific knowledge base that when linked to a text-processing tool like NeuroText can be used to extract knowledge in other fields of research. PMID:18368357

  3. Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders / Efeito de estratégias de codificação sobre a memória contextual em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Papaleo Freire

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memory task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.

  4. Effects of Contextual Factors on Information Seeking Behavior on the Web by Postgraduate Students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the influence of contextual factors on information seeking behavior. This survey investigates search tactics used and users’ perceptions of the search results on the Web by postgraduate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted through a mixed method. Thirty postgraduate students voluntarily participated. The study was carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2012-2013. The data was gathered using two questionnaires and log files recorded with Camtasia Studio software. The findings indicated more than half of the participants (53.3 percent used Google, short queries were more used than long queries, advanced search options were used rarely (23 percent, and the participants view few search result pages. According to the results, the contextual factors significantly influenced the search time, search tactics (including querying and navigating and users’ perceptions of the search results (including ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction and relevance judgment. Navigating tactic was primarily used by the participants. Among different aspects of users’ perceptions of the search results, ease of use and relevance judgments were significantly different based on the contextual factors, whereas scanning, extracting, and confidence were less affected by the contextual factors. The findings suggest practical implications for information retrieval systems designers that can design of systems with better user interface in order to meet the needs of users with different knowledge and skills, in this way it leads in promotion of search process and improvement of search results quality.

  5. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups managing shared image collections or other types of information.

  6. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  7. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  8. Teoria reprezentacji dyskursu a kontekstualizm [Discourse Representation Theory and contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Odrowaz-Sypniewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I informally present Discourse Representation Theory (DRT and assess its usefulness for contextualism. First I sketch DRT’s analysis of nominal and temporal anafora, definite descriptions,proper names, universal statements, conditionals and negated statements. Next I discuss some philosophical consequences of DRT and consider whether analysis offered by this theory can be used in the debate between semantic minimalism and contextualism.

  9. Mechanisms of the contextual interference effect in individuals poststroke

    OpenAIRE

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Lee, Jeong-Yoon; Goh, Hui-Ting; Choi, Youggeun; Kim, Sung Shin; Stewart, Jill Campbell; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Winstein, Carolee J.

    2011-01-01

    Although intermixing different motor learning tasks via random schedules enhances long-term retention compared with “blocked” schedules, the mechanism underlying this contextual interference effect has been unclear. Furthermore, previous studies have reported inconclusive results in individuals poststroke. We instructed participants to learn to produce three grip force patterns in either random or blocked schedules and measured the contextual interference effect by long-term forgetting: the c...

  10. Algorithms with Logarithmic or Sublinear Regret for Constrained Contextual Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Huasen; Srikant, R.; Liu, Xin; Jiang, Chong

    2015-01-01

    We study contextual bandits with budget and time constraints, referred to as constrained contextual bandits.The time and budget constraints significantly complicate the exploration and exploitation tradeoff because they introduce complex coupling among contexts over time.Such coupling effects make it difficult to obtain oracle solutions that assume known statistics of bandits. To gain insight, we first study unit-cost systems with known context distribution. When the expecte...

  11. Contextual Information and Specific Language Models for Spoken Language Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Baggia, Paolo; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta; Moisa, Loreta M.; Popovici, Cosmin

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we explain how contextual expectations are generated and used in the task-oriented spoken language understanding system Dialogos. The hard task of recognizing spontaneous speech on the telephone may greatly benefit from the use of specific language models during the recognition of callers' utterances. By 'specific language models' we mean a set of language models that are trained on contextually appropriated data, and that are used during different states of the dialogue on the ...

  12. Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. W...

  13. Employment-related stress and preterm delivery: a contextual examination.

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, C A; Cliver, S P; Mulvihill, F X; McNeal, S F; Hoffman, H. J.; Goldenberg, R L

    1995-01-01

    Studies of employment-related stress as a risk factor for preterm delivery suggest that contextual factors unrelated to occupation, as well as work-related characteristics, must be examined in assessing this relationship. In this study, the relationship of work and contextual characteristics--assessed at midpregnancy and including scores on an occupational fatigue index--to preterm delivery was examined among 943 black and 425 white low-income multiparous women who were at risk for a poor pre...

  14. Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Bogers, Toine

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph...

  15. A Contextual Behavioral Approach for Obesity Surgery Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Weineland, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates a contextual behavioral approach for obesity surgery patients. In a contextual approach a behavior is interpreted as inseparable from its current and historical context. Candidates for bariatric surgery often have a history of self-stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating for emotional relief. Despite losing a large amount of weight post surgery, psychological problems may still be present for some patients. One possible common underlying process observed in body conce...

  16. Contextual Spaces with Functional Skins as OpenSocial Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Salzmann, Christophe; Gillet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Portability, flexibility and extensibility are essential features of social media platforms. When such Web platforms are able to take user's context into account, they provide better user experience and enhance the effectiveness of users' actions. In this paper, we discuss an extension to OpenSocial standard, namely contextual space, that shapes the framework, in which people carry out online activities. The proposed contextual space extension defines how a set of Open...

  17. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    White, Rebecca. M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. However, the theory has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570 two-parent Mexican American families. Results support the negative impact of economic stress on parenting through parental depressive symptoms. Neighborhood ...

  18. Does content knowledge matter for new teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Todd D.

    There is considerable evidence that new teachers are ill prepared for classroom practice, including self-reported evidence collected from teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), and statistical evidence for differences in the achievement of students with new versus more experienced teachers (Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005). In light of the challenges encountered by new teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), this study examined the value of different forms of teacher knowledge for teachers with different levels of experience. In particular, this study investigated the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teacher content knowledge, and student achievement in mathematics and science. In New York City, Boyd et al. (2009) linked practice-focused teacher preparation to student mathematics achievement in the first year of teaching and teacher content preparation to achievement in the second. However, other studies demonstrated interactions between teaching experience and content knowledge with different interpretations (e.g., Kukla-Acevedo, 2009; Monk, 1994). At the same time, this study examined the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, and student achievement. Extant models of teacher career development (Huberman, 1989; National Research Council, 2010) and how teacher education affects student achievement (e.g., Desimone, 2009) offered theoretical grounding for the study. With nationally representative samples of fourth and eighth grade U.S. students--participants in the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study--this study employed hierarchical linear modeling to address its research questions among an array of student achievement outcomes in the domains of mathematics and science. This study attempted to account for salient student, teacher, and contextual factors, and the probabilities of teachers' receipt of various teacher education "treatments" (i.e., propensity score analysis) to reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

  19. Knowledge crash and knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

  20. CONTEXTUAL INTERFERENCE AND INTROVERSION/EXTRAVERSION IN MOTOR LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Cassio M; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Perez, Carlos R

    2015-10-01

    -The Introversion/Extraversion dimension may interact with contextual interference, as random and blocked practice schedules imply distinct levels of variation. This study investigated the effect of different practice schedules in the acquisition of a motor skill in extraverts and introverts. Forty male undergraduate students (M = 24.3 yr., SD = 5.6) were classified as extraverts (n = 20) and introverts (n = 20) by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and allocated in one of two practice schedules with different levels of contextual interference: blocked (low contextual interference) and random (high contextual interference). Half of each group was assigned to a blocked practice schedule, and the other half was assigned to a random practice schedule. The design had two phases: acquisition and transfer (5 min. and 24 hr.). The participants learned variations of a sequential timing keypressing task. Each variation required the same sequence but different timing; three variations were used in acquisition, and one variation of intermediate length was used in transfer. Results for absolute error and overall timing error (root mean square error) indicated that the contextual interference effect was more pronounced for introverts. In addition, introverts who practiced according to the blocked schedule committed more errors during the 24-hr. transfer, suggesting that introverts did not appear to be challenged by a low contextual interference practice schedule. PMID:26447746

  1. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Olsen, Eli V.

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does...

  2. The Costs of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusak, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology, almost infinite amounts of information are instantly available, it still takes the same amount of time and work to learn French as it did in the year 1800-or to master physics or philosophy.

  3. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued, fear following post-training whole body irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Raber

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.. To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear-conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation 24 hours later. Animals were given two weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22 days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  4. Modelling Reflective and Contextual Learning at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Annikki; Poikela, Esa

    2001-01-01

    Models of experiential learning, organizational learning, and knowledge creation can assist in analyzing learning at work. Workplace learning can be conceptualized as intertwined processes of individual, group, and organizational learning. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  5. Efeito de estratégias de codificação sobre a memória contextual em idosos / Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosane Papaleo, Freire; Joana Bisol, Balardin; Fábio, Caldana; Cristiane Moro dos, Santos; Luciana Cunha, Krebs; Valdemarina Bidone de Azevedo e, Souza; Nadja, Schröder; Elke, Bromberg.

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes mostram que a memória contextual parece ser especialmente suscetível aos efeitos negativos do envelhecimento sobre a cognição. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do uso de estratégias de codificação no desempenho de idosos em uma tarefa de memória contextual. Vinte e qu [...] atro idosos e vinte e um jovens foram divididos em dois subgrupos para a realização da tarefa: um que recebeu orientação específica para estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto e outro que não recebeu essa orientação na fase de codificação. Na fase de teste, os participantes foram submetidos às tarefas de reconhecimento do objeto e do contexto. Os resultados indicam que a estratégia de estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto foi capaz de reverter os déficits de memória contextual dos idosos. Abstract in english Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memo [...] ry task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.

  6. Contextual specificity in perception and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    The visually guided control of helicopter flight is a human achievement, and, thus, understanding this skill is, in part, a psychological problem. The abilities of skilled pilots are impressive, and yet it is of concern that pilots' performance is less than ideal: they suffer from workload constraints, make occasional errors, and are subject to such debilities as simulator sickness. Remedying such deficiencies is both an engineering and a psychological problem. When studying the psychological aspects of this problem, it is desirable to simplify the problem as much as possible, and thereby, sidestep as many intractable psychological issues as possible. Simply stated, we do not want to have to resolve such polemics as the mind-body problem in order to contribute to the design of more effective helicopter systems. On the other hand, the study of human behavior is a psychological endeavor and certain problems cannot be evaded. Four related issues that are of psychological significance in understanding the visually guided control of helicopter flight are discussed. First, a selected discussion of the nature of descriptive levels in analyzing human perception and performance is presented. It is argued that the appropriate level of description for perception is kinematical, and for performance, it is procedural. Second, it is argued that investigations into pilot performance cannot ignore the nature of pilots' phenomenal experience. The conscious control of actions is not based upon environmental states of affairs, nor upon the optical information that specifies them. Actions are coupled to perceptions. Third, the acquisition of skilled actions in the context of inherent misperceptions is discussed. Such skills may be error prone in some situations, but not in others. Finally, I discuss the contextual relativity of human errors. Each of these four issues relates to a common theme: the control of action is mediated by phenomenal experience, the veracity of which is context specific.

  7. Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Escalante Beltrán

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende, desde una perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente la categoría de género. En los seis apartados que lo componen, se realiza una crítica profunda de la ciencia social pero desde una óptica menos rígida en el planteamiento de categorías dicotómicas excluyentes como masculino-femenino, racional-afectivo, privado-público, o liberal - comunitario, por mencionar algunos tópicos centrales en los que se han suscitado varios de los debates sobre género. La metodología utilizada es la comparativa, a partir de la cual se analizan autores como Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre otros. Una de las principales conclusiones a la que se arriba en este artículo es que los tradicionales esquematismos, aun existentes en la actualidad, hacen muy difícil la posibilidad de alcanzar consensos amplios y postergan riesgosamente el tratamiento de problemas prácticos como los que, en el caso peruano, suponen la traducción del discurso de equidad en acciones y prácticas cotidianas concretas que permitan a los ciudadanos un real acceso a la justicia.Este artigo pretende, desde uma perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente a categoria gênero. Nas seis seções que o compõem procura realizar uma crítica profunda da ciência social, a partir, porém, de uma ótica menos rígida no tratamento de categorias dicotômicas excludentes tais como masculino-feminino, racional-afetivo, privado-público, liberal-comunitário, para mencionar alguns dos tópicos centrais suscitados pelos vários debates sobre gênero. A metodologia utilizada é a comparativa, a partir da qual se analisam autores como Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre outros. Uma das principais conclusões alcançadas neste trabalho é a de que os esquemas teóricos tradicionais, ainda existentes, dificultam a possibilidade de se alcançar amplos consensos e atrasam o equacionamento de problemas práticos, tais quais, no caso peruano, aqueles oriundos da tradução do discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça.This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

  8. A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança / The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eveline de Castro, Pereira; Pedro César Teixeira, Silva; Marco Antonio Ferreira da, Costa; Claudia, Jurberg; Cintia de Moraes, Borba.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples i [...] deia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro. Abstract in english Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of [...] teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

  9. Reinstatement of contextual anxiety in humans: Effects of state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul

    2015-12-01

    After successful extinction of conditioned fear, the presentation of an unsignaled unconditioned stimulus (US) leads to return of fear, thus, the previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) triggers fear responses again. Human studies on such reinstatement processes are still inconclusive. Some revealed a general increase of fear reactions, both to the fear (CS+) and the safety stimulus (CS-), whereas other studies discovered a differential return of fear with enhanced fear responses to the CS+ only. Moreover, we know little about reinstatement of contextual anxiety, a state of general anxious apprehension and chronic worry. Therefore, the present study investigated reinstatement of contextual anxiety with an ecological valid virtual reality (VR) design. Additionally, we examined whether the current state anxiety might modulate the reinstatement of contextual anxiety. To this end, two groups underwent context conditioning on Day 1, i.e., one context (CXT+) became paired with unpredictable USs, but not the other context (CXT-), and an extinction training on Day 2. On Day 3 a reinstatement test was conducted, i.e., one group (reinstatement group, n=21) received one unsignaled US before testing, whereas the control group (n=21) did not. Only the reinstatement group showed a differential return of contextual anxiety as measured by fear-potentiated startle and anxiety ratings. Interestingly, the reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle was additionally influenced by state anxiety. Conclusively, an anxious state before an unsignaled aversive event might favor a return of contextual anxiety. PMID:26232063

  10. A role for anterior thalamic nuclei in contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, A; Faugère, A; Coutureau, E; Wolff, M

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the neural processes that govern the attribution of a predictive value to environmental stimuli is a major issue in behavioural neuroscience. The main strategy to explore this question has been the use of Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms. While a majority of studies have focussed on the specific role of the hippocampus and amygdala in contextual versus cued fear, very few studies examined the potential role of subcortical limbic areas. Among those, the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) connect to both the hippocampus and the amygdala and also to the cingulate region which is known to support fear-related activity. Here, we show that rats sustaining ATN lesions exhibit a specific impairment following context but not tone conditioning. ATN lesions slowed down acquisition without preventing normal freezing behaviour when rats were reexposed to the conditioning context 24 h later. However, ATN rats exhibited poor retrieval of contextual but not cued fear when assessed 3 weeks after conditioning. In addition, extinction was faster in ATN rats and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear was impaired by the lesions. These deficits indicate that contextual fear memories established in the absence of the ATN are not robust. Collectively, these findings support an involvement of the ATN in the circuits underlying contextual fear memory. PMID:23733176

  11. Teología bíblica contextual en América Latina / Contextual Biblical Theology in Latin America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René, Krüger.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo destaca que la investigación de los textos bíblicos, tal como la realizan exégetas de las iglesias y facultades de teología del protestantismo histórico en América Latina, tiene referencias socioeconómicas y toma en cuenta el doble marco de la situación social, económica y política en la [...] que se formaron aquellos textos como también la situación actual del continente, pudiendo hablarse de una verdadera contextualización de la exégesis por la pobreza, las diferencias sociales y la historia de la explotación del continente. Una vez constatado ello, el artículo diseña algunas líneas bíblicas fundamentales relacionadas con la ética socioeconómica en un contexto de marginación, opresión y horizontes cerrados. Para ello hace dos recorridos, uno diacrónico, que repasa las grandes etapas de la historia abarcada por los textos bíblicos, y otro sincrónico, repasando los ítems socioeconómicos fundamentales. Abstract in english The article notes that the investigation of biblical texts, as is carried out by exegetes of the Churches and Schools of Theology of historical Protestantism in Latin America, includes socio-economic references and takes into consideration the double framework of the social, economic and political s [...] ituation in which these texts were created as well as the current situation of the continent. One could speak of a true contextualization of the exegesis by poverty, social differences, and the history of the exploitation of the continent. Once this contextualization is presented, the article designs some fundamental biblical lines related to a socio-economic ethic in the context of marginalization, oppression and closed horizons. To do this, the article takes two angles, one is diachronic and reviews the great stages of the history that is covered by the biblical texts, and the other is synchronic and reviews fundamental socio-economic questions.

  12. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators...... organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization....... and carriers. By contrast, theexplicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held byindividuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, andthe development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulatedknowledge within an...

  13. Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  14. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  15. Function of knowledge culture in the effectiveness of knowledge management procedures: A case study of a knowledge-based organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Dilmaghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective aspects and factors on knowledge culture are identified. A model for explaining the relationship between knowledge culture and effectiveness of knowledge management procedures in a knowledge-based organization is presented. The study used a mixture of library and documentary studies, and exploratory mixed methods. First, the literature was reviewed to extract the effective aspects and factors on knowledge culture and the conceptual model was developed. Then, a questionnaire which was validated through eliciting the comments of experts and examining the status of knowledge management in the organization was distributed to the researchers who were randomly selected to be included in the sample. The collected data were examined through AMOS and SPSS software. The possible relationship between the components of the model was investigated through posing five hypotheses and correlation coefficient test. The results of structural equation modeling demonstrated a significant positive relationship between contextual factors and aspects of knowledge culture and between knowledge culture and the knowledge management effectiveness. Evaluating the variables of the conceptual model revealed that staff members’ characteristics, information technology and job characteristics would make a significant positive impact on knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. However, these factors had no significant influence on knowledge cooperation and knowledge learning.

  16. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Breedt, Marlize; Janse van Rensburg, Antonie C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of the Information Age necessitates the need to manage the organisation’s knowledge asset. The competitive advantage of the organisation depends on the quality of the organisation’s knowledge asset and the successful exploitation of it. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this explicit and tacit knowledge asset to the collective benefit of the organisation by developing an infrastructure to facilitate knowledge processes. Elements such as company know-how, employee competenc...

  17. A Contextual-Bandit Approach to Personalized News Article Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lihong; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Personalized web services strive to adapt their services (advertisements, news articles, etc) to individual users by making use of both content and user information. Despite a few recent advances, this problem remains challenging for at least two reasons. First, web service is featured with dynamically changing pools of content, rendering traditional collaborative filtering methods inapplicable. Second, the scale of most web services of practical interest calls for solutions that are both fast in learning and computation. In this work, we model personalized recommendation of news articles as a contextual bandit problem, a principled approach in which a learning algorithm sequentially selects articles to serve users based on contextual information about the users and articles, while simultaneously adapting its article-selection strategy based on user-click feedback to maximize total user clicks. The contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we propose a new, general contextual bandit algorithm that is ...

  18. A Contextual Risk Model for the Ellsberg Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    The Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes show that the expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions. The popular explanation in terms of 'ambiguity aversion' is not completely accepted. On the other hand, we have recently introduced a notion of 'contextual risk' to mathematically capture what is known as 'ambiguity' in the economics literature. Situations in which contextual risk occurs cannot be modeled by Kolmogorovian classical probabilistic structures, but a non-Kolmogorovian framework with a quantum-like structure is needed. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a 'sphere model' within our 'hidden measurement formalism' which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a 'quantum conceptual layer'...

  19. Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

  20. Contextual Normalization Applied to Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Halasz, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Diagnosing faults in aircraft gas turbine engines is a complex problem. It involves several tasks, including rapid and accurate interpretation of patterns in engine sensor data. We have investigated contextual normalization for the development of a software tool to help engine repair technicians with interpretation of sensor data. Contextual normalization is a new strategy for employing machine learning. It handles variation in data that is due to contextual factors, rather than the health of the engine. It does this by normalizing the data in a context-sensitive manner. This learning strategy was developed and tested using 242 observations of an aircraft gas turbine engine in a test cell, where each observation consists of roughly 12,000 numbers, gathered over a 12 second interval. There were eight classes of observations: seven deliberately implanted classes of faults and a healthy class. We compared two approaches to implementing our learning strategy: linear regression and instance-based learning. We have...

  1. Contextual Values Approach to the Generalized Measurement of Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Dressel, J

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed motivation for and definition of the contextual values of an observable, which were introduced in Dressel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040402 (2010). The theory extends the well-established theory of generalized state measurements by bridging the gap between partial state collapse and the observables that represent physically relevant information about the system. To emphasize the general utility of the concept, we first construct the full theory of contextual values within an operational formulation of classical probability theory, paying special attention to observable construction, detector coupling, generalized measurement, and measurement disturbance. We then extend the results to quantum probability theory built as a superstructure on the classical theory, pointing out both the classical correspondences to and the full quantum generalizations of both Lueder's rule and the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz rule in the process. In both cases the contextual values of a system observable for...

  2. Essays on Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    For many firms, particularly those operating in high technology and competitive markets, knowledge is cited as the most important strategic asset to the firm, which significantly drives its survival and success (Grant 1996, Webber 1993). Knowledge management (KM) impacts the firm's ability to develop process features that reduce manufacturing…

  3. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pamela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  4. Social contextual factors contributing to child and adolescent labor: an ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between social contextual factors and child and adolescent labor. METHODS: Population-based cohort study carried out with 2,512 families living in 23 subareas of a large urban city in Brazil from 2000 to 2002. A random one-stage cluster sampling was used to select families. Data were obtained through individual household interviews using questionnaires. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was estimated for each district. New child and adolescent labor cases were those who had their first job over the two-year follow-up. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was the response variable and predictors were contextual factors such as lack of social support, social deprivation, unstructured family, perceived violence, poor school quality, poor environment conditions, and poor public services. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: There were selected 943 families corresponding to 1,326 non-working children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years. Lack of social support, social deprivation, perceived violence were all positively and individually associated with the annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor. In the multiple linear regression model, however, only lack of social support and perceived violence in the neighborhood were positively associated to child and adolescent labor. No effect was found for poor school quality, poor environment conditions, poor public services or unstructured family. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty reduction programs can reduce the contextual factors associated with child and adolescent labor. Violence reduction programs and strengthening social support at the community level may contribute to reduce CAL.

  5. "Knowing Their World": Urban Choral Music Educators' Knowledge of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study was to explore how successful urban choral educators use contextual knowledge to inform pedagogical practice. With choirs in nine of a large midwestern city's demographically varied residential neighborhoods, a children's choir organization provided a research setting that offered a unique view of urban…

  6. Generalized Quantum Theory, Contextual Emergence and Non-Hierarchic Alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    The concept of emergence is critically analyzed in particular with respect to the assumed emergence of mental properties from a neuronal basis. We argue that so-called contextual emergence is needed to avoid an eliminatory reductionism. Quantum-like features of the emergent qualities are to be expected. As a consequence, non-causal relations like entanglement correlations have to be considered as full fledged elements of reality. "Observable extension" is proposed as a contextual alternative to emergence avoiding the asymmetry between purportedly basic and emergent properties.

  7. Analysis of the Contextual Behaviour of Mobile Subscribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkasalo, Hannu; Salmeron, Borja Jimenez

    In this paper, contextual behavior of mobile subscribers is studied with data collected straight from smartphones. The paper develops an approach to study how people use mobile devices in different contexts, by proposing an algorithm that works with device-based sensor data. This approach consists of context detection and data analysis. The context detection algorithm analyses cellular network radio logs in modeling the location of people. This paper then analyses usage patterns over different contexts. Demonstration of the contextual modeling with a sample of Finnish smartphone users proves that the applications of the approach are numerous.

  8. Multipartite macroscopic locality and macroscopic non-contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Navascues, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of generalizing the idea of bipartite macroscopic locality to multipartite scenarios. After pointing out that the original definition of macroscopic locality leaves out relevant experimental settings, we derive the maximal set of correlations closed under classical maps and whose members give rise to local intensities at the macroscopic scale. We also formulate a new axiom, macroscopic non-contextuality, whose falsifiability just involves single-site experiments and seems to be very robust against external noise. Finally, we characterize the sets of macroscopically local and non-contextual correlations, and comment on the differences and similarities with respect to the quantum set.

  9. Category of «Context» and Contextual Approach in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly G. Kalashnikov Sholohov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief review of the concept «context» which is gaining itsplace among the key concepts in modern theoretical and empirical psychology. Acomprehensive analysis of scientific literature leads the authors to distinguish twocomplementary conceptions of context – structural (which regards a fragmentof a text as a semantic system and functional (which treats it as a mental sensegeneratingmechanism. The authors suggest an understanding of mentality as arecursive-contextual phenomenon, where each fragment of its subject matter existsin the context of other fragments – parallel, preceding or ensuing. Such understandingmay form a basis for the contextual approach in psychology.

  10. Discursive conditions and contextual presuppositions. Habermas versus Apel.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedberg, Petra

    2003-01-01

    The terms "morality� and "ethical life� refer to the relationship between Kant"s universalistic and Hegel"s "contextualised� account of morality. In this essay, the problem of universalism and contextualism will be addressed to Apel"s and Habermas"s positions. I will divide the theme into three main topics: 1) The historical reconstruction of the rational conditions of discourse ethics within Habermas"s position: in which sense could this approach lead to a contextualism? 2) The difficu...

  11. Knowledge Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

  12. Combining ethnography and object-orientation for mobile interaction design : contextual richness and abstract models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Stage, Jan

    2012-01-01

    There has been a lot of interest in ethnography within human–computer interaction over the last two decades, and its relevance within systems development is today beyond question. However, one of the challenges reported is that ethnography generates findings and knowledge with such contextual richness that it can be hard to transfer into system design. In the light of recent years' push for the use of ethnography within the area of mobile human–computer interaction, this challenge has resurfaced and is of renewed importance to the research field. In this article we describe an interdisciplinary combination of ethnography with a structured software engineering method supporting the transition from collected data to design and implementation. We explore this combination through two case studies of mobile system development for supporting distributed work activities within industrial process control. We show that when developing mobile systems ethnographic data is a highly valuable source of input for developing object-oriented models by providing contextual richness, and that in turn, objected-oriented analysis is a highly valuable method for working with ethnographic field data in systems development by supporting the creation of abstract models. Combining the two, we have a method where ethnographic field studies inform core system design.

  13. Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred

    2005-04-01

    In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  14. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role in...... the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.......e., creating and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  15. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users′ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists′ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number of processes that may possibly improve following the introduction of digital pathology systems were identified. These work processes included case management, case examination and review, and final case reporting. Furthermore, a digital slide system should integrate with the anatomic pathologic laboratory information system. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilized the contextual inquiry method to document AP workflow. Findings were used to establish key requirements for the design of digital pathology systems.

  16. Contextual advertising in the process of the web-community positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Sloboda, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of contextual advertising in the process of web-communities’ positioning is described, the main web-communities’ sites quality characteristics are distinguished, the approaches to the improvement of contextual advertising are given.

  17. Representing Contextualized Information in the NSDL

    CERN Document Server

    Lagoze, C; Cornwell, T; Eckstrom, D; Jesuroga, S; Wilper, C; Lagoze, Carl; Krafft, Dean; Cornwell, Tim; Eckstrom, Dean; Jesuroga, Susan; Wilper, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The NSDL (National Science Digital Library) is funded by the National Science Foundation to advance science and match education. The inital product was a metadata-based digital library providing search and access to distributed resources. Our recent work recognizes the importance of context - relations, metadata, annotations - for the pedagogical value of a digital library. This new architecture uses Fedora, a tool for representing complex content, data, metadata, web-based services, and semantic relationships, as the basis of an information network overlay (INO). The INO provides an extensible knowl-edge base for an expanding suite of digital library services.

  18. O efeito da interferência contextual em idosos / The contextual interference effect in elderly people

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wesley R., Gonçalves; Guilherme M., Lage; Alexandro B. da, Silva; Herbert, Ugrinowitsch; Rodolfo N., Benda.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da interferência contextual (EIC) na aquisição de habilidades motoras em idosos. Foi utilizada uma tarefa de posicionamento manual, caracterizada pelo transporte de três bolas de tênis em uma seqüência e tempo alvo pré-determinados. O experimen [...] to constou de 4 fases: 1) aquisição, 2) transferência 1 (T1), 3) transferência 2 (T2) e 4) retenção da aquisição. Os sujeitos foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=12): grupo de prática aleatória-aleatória (A-A), que realizou a tarefa de forma aleatória na aquisição e na retenção; grupo de prática aleatória-blocos (A-B), que realizou a aquisição de forma aleatória e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-blocos (B-B), que realizou a aquisição e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-aleatória (B-A), que realizou a aquisição em blocos e a retenção de forma aleatória. Os resultados mostraram que um dos grupos que praticou em regime aleatório apresentou-se mais variável durante a fase de aquisição que os grupos que praticaram em blocos. Entretanto, este mesmo grupo aleatório, no primeiro bloco do teste de retenção da aquisição, mostrou-se mais preciso que um dos grupos em blocos. Esses resultados confirmaram parcialmente o EIC em idosos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference effect (CIE) in the acquisition of motor skills in elderly people. A manual positioning task was used, it was characterized by the transport of three tennis ball in a movement sequence and predetermined target times. The experi [...] ment consisted of 4 phases: 1) acquisition, 2) transfer 1 (T1), 3) transfer 2 (T2) and 4) retention of the acquisition. The subjects were randomly distributed into four groups: random-random group (R-R), which performed the tasks in a random order in the acquisition and retention; random-blocked group (R-B), which performed the acquisition in a random order and the retention in a blocked order; blocked-blocked group (B-B), which performed the tasks in a blocked order in the acquisition and retention; blocked-random group (B-R), which performed the acquisition in a blocked order and the retention in a random order. The results showed that one of the random groups was more variable during the acquisition compared to the both blocked groups. However, this random group, in the first block of the retention was more precise than one of the blocked groups. These results partially confirm the CIE in elderly people.

  19. Artisanal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven, Diederick

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the ensuing problem that in general it is nothelpful to talk about non-standard knowledge practices as modeled after our Western ideas of what knowledge is. It negotiates this problem by arguing that artisanal knowledge is an independent and self-contained mode of knowledge and is arranged in three parts. In the first part an outline is given of the key assumptions of the interactionist conception of knowledge that needs to be put in place as an alternative to the basically Kantian mixture of empiricist and rationalist assumptions of the folk model of Western academic thinking about knowledge. In this interactionist conception of knowledgeartisanal knowledge gets center stage. In the second part, the notion of craftknowledge is opened up as much as possible. The third and final part takes upthe question whether craft knowledge is a cultural universal.

  20. Knowledge Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? Wha...

  1. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Nádvorník, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to describe implementation of the information system that will support knowledge management using KM-Beat-it methodology in Helpdesk department of the Wincor Nixdorf, Ltd. company. Due to lack of knowledge management principles usage this system will support procedures and processes of knowledge management. Setup and implementation of this system was performed using and combining of two methodologies, methodology for knowledge management implementation KM-Beat-...

  2. Academic Dishonesty in the Middle East: Individual and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Donald L.; Feghali, Tony; Abdallah, Hanin

    2008-01-01

    Little work has been done on academic dishonesty in the Middle East. This research investigates the nature of the relationship between contextual factors and academic dishonesty using a sample from three private universities in Lebanon, and compares the results to a sample from seven large universities in the US. Using the basic model of McCabe et…

  3. Hierarchical segmentation of malignant gliomas via integrated contextual filter response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shishir; Corso, Jason J.; Yuille, Alan; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; El-Saden, Suzie; Sinha, Usha

    2008-03-01

    We present a novel methodology for the automated segmentation of Glioblastoma Multiforme tumors given only a high-resolution T1 post-contrast enhanced channel, which is routinely done in clinical MR acquisitions. The main contribution of the paper is the integration of contextual filter responses, to obtain a better class separation of abnormal and normal brain tissues, into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation (SWA) algorithm. The SWA algorithm uses neighboring voxel intensities to form an affinity between the respective voxels. The affinities are then recursively computed for all the voxel pairs in the given image and a series of cuts are made to produce segments that contain voxels with similar intensity properties. SWA provides a fast method of partitioning the image, but does not produce segments with meaning. Thus, a contextual filter response component was integrated to label the aggregates as tumor or non-tumor. The contextual filter responses were computed via texture filter responses based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method. The GLCM results in texture features that are used to quantify the visual appearance of the tumor versus normal tissue. Our results indicate the benefit of incorporating contextual features and applying non-linear classification methods to segment and classify the complex case of grade 4 tumors.

  4. Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L C Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA. Co-infusion of ACEA and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioural conditions that, by themselves, did not result in either a reconsolidation impairment by sulfasalazine alone or reactivation-induced upregulation of Zif268 expression. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential.

  5. A Molecular Dissociation between Cued and Contextual Appetitive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…

  6. Towards Computational Fronesis: Verifying Contextual Appropriateness of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…

  7. On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Kurzy?ski, Pawe? [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Ramanathan, Ravishankar [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Grudka, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Thompson, Jayne [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kaszlikowski, Dagomir, E-mail: phykd@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-11-29

    We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

  8. Common cause and contextual realization of Bell correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the common cause principle, we construct a local-contextual hidden-variable model for the Bohm version of EPR experiment. Our proposed model can reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics. It can be also extended to classical examples in which similar correlations may be revealed

  9. Contextual Control by Function and Form of Transfer of Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David R.; Dougher, Michael J.; Greenway, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated conditions leading to contextual control by stimulus topography over transfer of functions. Three 4-member stimulus equivalence classes, each consisting of four (A, B, C, D) topographically distinct visual stimuli, were established for 5 college students. Across classes, designated A stimuli were open-ended linear figures,…

  10. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  11. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore: (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  12. Survival of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect after Contextual Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughner, Robert L.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of contextual shifts on the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) were studied in autoshaping with rats. Experiment 1 established that the two contexts used subsequently were easily discriminable and equally salient. In Experiment 2, independent groups of rats received acquisition training under partial reinforcement (PRF) or…

  13. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge– including research-based knowledge – do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners found their primary support in context-dependent knowledge, whereas context-independent knowledge was criticised as being too prescriptive. Further, they tended to ask for assistance from the researcher in person rather than reading research publications. The findings challenge research in two ways – first to produce context-dependent knowledge to structure the first steps of the design process, second to develop new ways to ensure a knowledge flow between research and practice.

  14. Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p225

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Chiviacowsky

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33% of knowledge of results (KR on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS. Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups. While the 100% group received KR after each trials, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acquisition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed after 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

  15. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  16. Contextual Modulation of the Motion Aftereffect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Helle K.; Bex, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined center-surround effects for motion perception in human observers. The magnitude of the motion aftereffect (MAE) elicited by a drifting grating was measured with a nulling task and with a threshold elevation procedure. A surround grating of the same spatial frequency, temporal frequency, and orientation significantly reduced…

  17. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  18. A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica / The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Guida, Navarro.

    Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vi [...] nculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas. Abstract in english This article deals with the historiographic and archeological contextualization of the Mayan civilization. Its purpose is to trace the profile of the first explorations into archeological sites, the construction of the knowledge created around the first information obtained by Archeology, as well as [...] the diverse research links undertaken in relation to the historical contexts of its time, and the theories used at present by the Mayanists.

  19. [The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria Eveline de Castro; Silva, Pedro César Teixeira; da Costa, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Jurberg, Claudia; Borba, Cintia de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future. PMID:22699654

  20. Thoughts on Creating, Accumulating, and Utilizing Shareable Knowledge to Improve Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; Thompson, Belinda J.

    2009-01-01

    Many have proposed the creation of a practitioner knowledge base as a foundation for the continuous improvement of teaching. In this article, we discuss the promise, and the challenges, involved in the creation and use of such a knowledge base. We begin by reflecting on the difficulties of changing teaching, a cultural and contextual activity. We…

  1. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  2. Hearing Tamar's voice: Contextual readings of 2 Samuel 13:1-22

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charlene, van der Walt.

    Full Text Available The story of Tamar in 2 Sam 13:1-22 formed the basis of a qualitative research inquiry that investigated the intricate functioning of the intercultural Bible reading process. It is a process theoretically based on the combined hermeneutical frameworks of Feminism and African hermeneutics. Although t [...] he research showed that the inter-cultural Bible reading process cannot avoid the complexities of an inherent power dynamic, it proved to be a space that promotes human dignity and has the inherent capacity to facilitate social transformation. The intercultural Bible reading space can thus be described as a dynamic meeting place: a space that facilitates the meeting of individuals from various cultural backgrounds and reading positions, but also the meeting between modern readers and the culturally removed biblical text. In this paper I will look at the reception history of 2 Sam 13:1-22, describing the rape of Tamar in traditional scholarship as well as feminist and African scholarship. Special attention will be given to the feminist scholar, Denise Ackermann's interpretation of hope. I will then discuss the interpretations that were given by the intercultural Bible reading groups that were constructed for the qualitative research inquiry. In doing so, I will show that the intercultural Bible reading space is a dynamic creative space that allows individual readers to draw on a wealth of personal contextual knowledge as a key to interpret the Bible text. In the intercultural Bible reading process, a diversity of readers are thus brought together that find creative new ways to journey through old biblical landscapes by drawing on contextual knowledge and sharing interpretative gifts.

  3. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Fraunhofer Competence Center Knowledge Management presents in this second edition its up-dated and extended research results on business-process oriented knowledge management, pro-active change management, KM strategy, knowledge structuring and KM audit, reviews the latest advancements in measuring intellectual capital and classifies more than 100 KM tools. Best Practices in KM are described by the Swiss Benchmarking Center TECTEM at University St. Gallen and in case studies from price-wi...

  4. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  5. Contextualizing racial disparities in preterm delivery: a rhetorical analysis of U.S. epidemiological research at the turn of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussing, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD), defined as delivery prior to 37 weeks gestation, is a key contributor to persistent racial disparities in infant mortality in the United States. Five major funding initiatives were devoted to advancing PTD epidemiology during the 1990s and 2000s. By examining content and rhetorical features of 94 studies conducted under these initiatives, and published between 1993 and 2011, this paper considers how calls for more "contextual" approaches (focusing on social and environmental contexts) interacted with more "conventional" approaches (focusing on individual-level risk factors) to PTD epidemiology during this period. Contextual advocates initially emphasized complex biosocial reasoning to better connect social adversity with embodied outcomes. Yet responses by researchers invested in conventional approaches, as well as in studies published under new initiatives that explicitly claimed to incorporate contextual insights, often reframed this complex reasoning in biologically reductionist terms. Subsequent contextual advocates then focused on developing statistical methods to support research about social and environmental causes of PTD, and this strategy appears to have gained some traction with conventional researchers. These findings call for closer attention to language and power in both social scientific studies of epidemiological knowledge production, as well as among epidemiologists themselves. PMID:24955873

  6. "Knowledge Must Be Contextual": Some Possible Implications of Complexity and Dynamic Systems Theories for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggis, Tamsin

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that qualitative and quantitative research traditions, rather than being seen as opposed to or in competition with each other (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995; Furlong, 2004 ) should be used, where appropriate, in some kind of combination (Bryman & Cramer, 1999; Moore et al., 2003 ). How this combining is to be understood…

  7. Collaborative Inquiry in a Socially Shared Contextual Frame, Striving toward Sensible Knowledge Creation on Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löytönen, Teija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The tradition of dance art in Finland is characterized by values such as individuality and uniqueness, and the professional practice is structured by competition and different kinds of hierarchies, which may also add color to the culture of dance teaching. One of the most noticeable elements within the dance education community…

  8. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  9. Critical knowledge map as a decision tool for knowledge transfer actions

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis; Boughzala, Imed; Tounkara, Thierno

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge transfer is no longer reducible to classical solutions such as face-to-face training, technical education or tutoring. Knowledge to be transferred is professional knowledge (Business Knowledge). It involves the whole Knowledge Capital within an organization. Identifying the knowledge components that are worthwhile transferring is not an easy task. This is the problem addressed in this paper.

  10. The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Hasan Tariq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has become identical as “Bengal Style” among the other styles practiced in Indian sub-continent and outside of India in other Muslim countriesduring 12th-15th century. This paper is an outcome of the search on contextual issues of Bengal mosques practiced from 12th -15th century and put light on the existing practice of mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

  11. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Chalon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  12. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  13. Knowledge Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David

    2004-01-01

    The strategies that expose learners to the large volume of knowledge, enables them for creative thinking, self-management and deep reading. The different ways of creating knowledge with the help of creativity, communication, organization, problem solving and decision-making are discussed.

  14. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been referred to as ‘silent knowledge’.

  15. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…

  16. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers...

  17. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowl...

  18. Mathematical knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Leng, Mary; Potter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. - ;What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. Written by some of the world''s leading philosophers of mathematics, psychologists, and mathematicians, Mathematical Knowledge gives a lively sense of the. current state of debate in this fascinating field. -

  19. The contextual nature of launching industrial new products

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to understand the contextual nature of launching industrial new products. Therefore, the launch drivers, challenges, and launch processes are examined here in two remarkably different industrial contexts. The importance of the launch for new product success has been acknowledged and the formulation of a successful launch strategy is broadly addressed in the previous launch research. However, the launch activities and the variety of industrial launch c...

  20. “Inter-Communicating”: Phenomenological Perspectives on Embodied Communication and Contextuality

    OpenAIRE

    Wendelin M. Küpers

    2012-01-01

    Based on phenomenological perspectives on embodied communication and con-textuality, this paper contributes to a more integral understanding of the constitutive role of communicating in organising and organisations. Relating to the recent turn towards interpreting emergent communication as constitutive for organisation, the paper shows the supplementing role of advanced phenomenology of the body, embodiment and inter-corporeity as well as creative expression for transcending the materialist-i...

  1. Contextual social cognition and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-01

    The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3)...

  2. The Contextually Controlled, Feature-Mediated Classification of Symbols

    OpenAIRE

    DeRosse, Pamela; Fields, Lanny

    2010-01-01

    The classification of names of people or objects based on the features acquired by the names and the sorting instructions provided is a commonplace occurrence. For example, given the names Renoir, Pollock, James and Voltaire the average adult would be able to classify them differentially based on the instruction to classify them based on vocation or nationality. In general, such a repertoire reflects the reclassification of symbols (i.e, the names of individuals) in terms of contextual cues (...

  3. Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Erke Shang; Xiangjing An; Jian Li; Lei Ye; Hangen He

    2013-01-01

    Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV) system for road following. However, current vision?based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour), variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured road...

  4. Lexicographic Slips: Gathering and Organising Contextual Data for Dictionary Entries

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Bruce L

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the process of incorporating contextual information in bilingual dictionaries, with especial focus on the task of organising the textual source-material for a Greek-English dictionary. A description is given of the two functions of textual material: as citations in dictionaries to illustrate meanings, and also as the source-material for identifying meanings and writing the definitions. As almost all extant ancient Greek texts have been archived in digital libraries, t...

  5. The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Hasan Tariq; Mahbuba Afroz Jinia

    2013-01-01

    The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has beco...

  6. Distinctiveness effect due to contextual information in a categorization task

    OpenAIRE

    Oker, Ali; Versace, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of our study was to confirm that the distinctiveness effect could emerge in implicit memory tasks and to show that the specificity of an item can be varied by manipulating the contextual information associated with the item during encoding. In an encoding phase and test phase, participants had to categorize target words as referring to artifactual or natural items. Each target word was associated with a context consisting of a colored frame in which the word was presented. ...

  7. It from Qubit: How to Draw Quantum Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheeler’s observer-participancy and the related it from bit credo refer to quantum non-locality and contextuality. The mystery of these concepts slightly starts unveiling if one encodes the (incompatibilities between qubit observables in the relevant finite geometries. The main objective of this treatise is to outline another conceptual step forward by employing Grothendieck’s dessins d’enfants to reveal the topological and (nonalgebraic machinery underlying the measurement acts and their information content.

  8. AUTOMATIC CONTEXTUAL TEXT CORRECTION USING THE LINGUISTIC HABITS GRAPH LHG

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Gadamer; Adrian Horzyk

    2009-01-01

    Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG) also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were comp...

  9. Contextualizing Concepts using a Mathematical Generalization of the Quantum Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Gabora, Liane; Aerts, Diederik

    2002-01-01

    We outline the rationale and preliminary results of using the State Context Property (SCOP) formalism, originally developed as a generalization of quantum mechanics, to describe the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning. The quantum formalism was developed to cope with problems arising in the description of (1) the measurement process, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when particles become entangled. Si...

  10. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurðardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice matching-to-sample tasks. Tests confirmed that six equivalence classes had formed. Without further training, plural forms of the stimuli were presented ...

  11. Contextual control of equivalence-based transformation of functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Dougher, Michael; Perkins, David R; Greenway, David; Koons, Ashton; Chiasson, Carmenne

    2002-01-01

    The transformation of functions refers to the untrained acquisition of stimulus functions among members of stimulus equivalence classes or relational frames. Although it is widely assumed that contextual control over the transformation of fuctions must exist, this has not yet been conclusively demonstrated in laboratory studies. Four experiments are reported in which (a) stimulus equivalence classes were established, (b) a conditional stimulus function was trained for one member of each of th...

  12. Towards contextual goal-oriented perception for pedestrian simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgois, Laure; Saunier, Julien; Auberlet, Jean Michel

    2012-01-01

    Perception is often seen in multiagent systems and in robotics from a passive point of view. The sensors of the agent collect information on its environment ; however the potentially important number of percepts is not realistic and may decrease the agents efficiency. In this article, we introduce a contextual goal-oriented perception filtering. Besides the lack of plausibility of omniscient agents, it addresses the problem of transmitting too much information to the agents. This goal-oriente...

  13. Contextualizing an EFL teacher's beliefs about grammar teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Gil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a qualitative study that focused on an EFL teacher's beliefs and her practices concerning grammar teaching. The study aimed at investigating how the teacher's beliefs could be contextualized with classroom data. In the first stage of data collection and analysis, an open questionnaire was given to the teacher. Then, as a means of contextualizing the beliefs found in the analysis of the questionnaire data, the second stage of data collection and analysis focused on episodes from the teacher's classes. The analysis of the data shows that, according to this teacher, grammar teaching should be used as a facilitative device in order to help students in their learning process. The results of this study also indicate that the teacher's beliefs are influenced by three interactive sources: cognitive, contextual and experiential.Este artigo reporta um estudo qualitativo que enfocou as crenças e práticas de uma professora de inglês-LE relacionadas ao ensino da gramática. O estudo objetivou investigar como as crenças da professora poderiam ser contextualizadas com dados da sala de aula. No primeiro estágio de análise e coleta de dados, um questionário foi aplicado à professora. Posteriormente, para contextualizar as crenças encontradas na análise do questionário, o segundo estágio de análise e coleta de dados enfocou episódios das aulas da professora. A análise dos dados mostrou que, de acordo com essa professora, o ensino da gramática deveria ser usado como um recurso facilitador para ajudar os alunos em seus processos de aprendizagem. Os resultados também indicaram que as crenças da professora são influenciadas por três fatores interativos: cognitivo, contextual e experiencial.

  14. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    OpenAIRE

    Seugnet Blignaut; Christo Els; Sarah Howie

    2010-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African ed...

  15. Accurate image search using the contextual dissimilarity measure

    OpenAIRE

    Jégou, Hervé; Schmid, Cordelia; Harzallah, Hedi; Verbeek, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the contextual dissimilarity measure which significantly improves the accuracy of bag-of-features based image search. Our measure takes into account the local distribution of the vectors and iteratively estimates distance update terms in the spirit of Sinkhorn's scaling algorithm, thereby modifying the neighborhood structure. Experimental results show that our approach gives significantly better results than a standard distance and outperforms the state-of-the-art in ter...

  16. Contextualized Recommendations for the Socio-Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Schirru, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, recommender systems have been widely used for a variety of different kinds of items such as books, movies, and music. However, current recommendation approaches have often been criticized to suffer from overspecialization thus not enough considering a user’s diverse topics of interest. In this thesis we present a novel approach to extracting contextualized user profiles which enable recommendations taking into account a user’s full range of interests. The method applies algor...

  17. Contextual interactions in a generalized energy model of complex cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dellen, Babette; Clark, John W; Wessel, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalized energy model of complex cells to describe modulatory contextual influences on the responses of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1). Many orientationselective cells in V1 respond to contrast of orientation and motion of stimuli exciting the classical receptive field (CRF) and the non-CRF, or surround. In the proposed model, a central spatiotemporal filter, defining the CRF, is nonlinearly combined with a spatiotemporal filter extending into the non- ...

  18. Contextual Control by Function and form of Transfer of Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, David R; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.; Greenway, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated conditions leading to contextual control by stimulus topography over transfer of functions. Three 4-member stimulus equivalence classes, each consisting of four (A, B, C, D) topographically distinct visual stimuli, were established for 5 college students. Across classes, designated A stimuli were open-ended linear figures, B stimuli were circular, C stimuli three-sided, and D stimuli four-sided. Three different computer tasks then were trained with the B stimuli. Diffe...

  19. Seeing the Big Picture: Deep Embedding with Contextual Evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; He, Fei; Tian, Qi

    2014-01-01

    In the Bag-of-Words (BoW) model based image retrieval task, the precision of visual matching plays a critical role in improving retrieval performance. Conventionally, local cues of a keypoint are employed. However, such strategy does not consider the contextual evidences of a keypoint, a problem which would lead to the prevalence of false matches. To address this problem, this paper defines "true match" as a pair of keypoints which are similar on three levels, i.e., local, r...

  20. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  1. The influence of contextual reward statistics on risk preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Rutledge, Robb B.; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Decision theories mandate that organisms should adjust their behaviour in the light of the contextual reward statistics. We tested this notion using a gambling choice task involving distinct contexts with different reward distributions. The best fitting model of subjects' behaviour indicated that the subjective values of options depended on several factors, including a baseline gambling propensity, a gambling preference dependent on reward amount, and a contextual reward adaptation factor. Combining this behavioural model with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging we probed neural responses in three key regions linked to reward and value, namely ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral striatum (VST). We show that activity in the VTA/SN reflected contextual reward statistics to the extent that context affected behaviour, activity in the vmPFC represented a value difference between chosen and unchosen options while VST responses reflected a non-linear mapping between the actual objective rewards and their subjective value. The findings highlight a multifaceted basis for choice behaviour with distinct mappings between components of this behaviour and value sensitive brain regions. PMID:26707890

  2. Scalable mobile image retrieval by exploring contextual saliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiyu; Qian, Xueming; Xue, Yao

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, it is very convenient to capture photos by a smart phone. As using, the smart phone is a convenient way to share what users experienced anytime and anywhere through social networks, it is very possible that we capture multiple photos to make sure the content is well photographed. In this paper, an effective scalable mobile image retrieval approach is proposed by exploring contextual salient information for the input query image. Our goal is to explore the high-level semantic information of an image by finding the contextual saliency from multiple relevant photos rather than solely using the input image. Thus, the proposed mobile image retrieval approach first determines the relevant photos according to visual similarity, then mines salient features by exploring contextual saliency from multiple relevant images, and finally determines contributions of salient features for scalable retrieval. Compared with the existing mobile-based image retrieval approaches, our approach requires less bandwidth and has better retrieval performance. We can carry out retrieval with <200-B data, which is <5% of existing approaches. Most importantly, when the bandwidth is limited, we can rank the transmitted features according to their contributions to retrieval. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25775488

  3. Identifying contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent L. Hawkins, PhD, LRT/CTRS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that community reintegration (CR after injury and rehabilitation is difficult for many servicemembers. However, little is known about the influence of the contextual factors, both personal and environmental, on CR. Framed within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and social cognitive theory, the quantitative portion of a larger mixed-methods study of 51 injured, community-dwelling servicemembers compared the relative contribution of contextual factors between groups of servicemembers with different levels of CR. Cluster analysis indicated three groups of servicemembers showing low, moderate, and high levels of CR. Statistical analyses identified contextual factors that significantly discriminated between CR clusters. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis indicated significant contributions of general self–efficacy, services and assistance barriers, physical and structural barriers, attitudes and support barriers, perceived level of disability and/or handicap, work and school barriers, and policy barriers to CR scores. Overall, analyses indicated that injured servicemembers with lower CR scores had lower general self-efficacy scores, reported more difficulty with environmental barriers, and reported their injuries as more disabling.

  4. Facilitation of contextual fear memory extinction and anti-anxiogenic effects of AM404 and cannabidiol in conditioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Rafael M; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2008-12-01

    The present study investigated the central effects of the eCB uptake/metabolism inhibitor AM404 and the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) on the extinction of contextual fear memories in rats. Rats were conditioned and 24 h later subjected to three consecutive 9-min non-reinforced exposures to the conditioning context (extinction sessions, 24 h intervals). AM404 or CBD was injected i.c.v. 5 min before each extinction session and a 3-min drug-free test of contextual memory was performed 24 h after the last extinction session. AM404 (1.0 microg/microl, i.c.v.) and CBD (2.0 microg/microl, i.c.v.) facilitated extinction of contextual fear memory, with persistent effects. These responses were antagonized by the CB1-selective antagonist SR141716A (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by the TRPV1-selective antagonist capsazepine (5.0 microg/microl, i.c.v.). The effect of the anxiolytic drug Diazepam (DZP) on the extinction of contextual fear memory was also investigated. In contrast with the CBD and AM404 results, DZP induced a general reduction in the expression of conditioned freezing. Both AM404 and CBD induced anti-anxiogenic effect in the fear-potentiated plus-maze test, whereas DZP was anxiolytic in conditioned and unconditioned rats. In conclusion, CBD, a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid could be an interesting pharmacological approach to reduce the anxiogenic effects of stress and promote the extinction of fear memories. PMID:18706790

  5. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...

  6. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight

  7. Learning from the World? : Horizontal Knowledge Flows and Geopolitics in International Consulting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussebaa, Mehdi; Sturdy, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the contemporary multinational corporation (MNC) through a study of the use of knowledge management systems (KMS) in four major international consulting firms. In particular, we explore whether and how such systems facilitate horizontal (inter-subsidiary) flows of knowledge, as described in the network view of the MNC. Our analysis reveals the presence of horizontal flows within the four firms, but flows that are contextually constrained and partly shaped by geopolitical power relations. Thus, our study gives some support to the image of the MNC as a network whilst highlighting the contextual limits of horizontal knowledge transfer and, importantly, the geopolitical conditions under which such knowledge transfer takes place. At the same time, it challenges the claim that consulting firms are model organizations in the area of knowledge management as well as the more negative view that questions the ability of KMS to facilitate knowledge transfer.

  8. Lack of contextual-word predictability during reading in patients with mild Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Manes, Facundo; Rotstein, Nora P; Colombo, Oscar; Mandolesi, Pablo; Politi, Luis E; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we analyzed the effect of contextual word predictability on the eye movement behavior of patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to age-matched controls, by using the eyetracking technique and lineal mixed models. Twenty AD patients and 40 age-matched controls participated in the study. We first evaluated gaze duration during reading low and highly predictable sentences. AD patients showed an increase in gaze duration, compared to controls, both in sentences of low or high predictability. In controls, highly predictable sentences led to shorter gaze durations; by contrary, AD patients showed similar gaze durations in both types of sentences. Similarly, gaze duration in controls was affected by the cloze predictability of word N and N+1, whereas it was the same in AD patients. In contrast, the effects of word frequency and word length were similar in controls and AD patients. Our results imply that contextual-word predictability, whose processing is proposed to require memory retrieval, facilitated reading behavior in healthy subjects, but this facilitation was lost in early AD patients. This loss might reveal impairments in brain areas such as those corresponding to working memory, memory retrieval, and semantic memory functions that are already present at early stages of AD. In contrast, word frequency and length processing might require less complex mechanisms, which were still retained by AD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study measuring how patients with early AD process well-defined words embedded in sentences of high and low predictability. Evaluation of the resulting changes in eye movement behavior might provide a useful tool for a more precise early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25080188

  9. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    2014-01-01

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by thi...

  10. Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Handzic

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

  11. Pay knowledge as a motivator of performance - Case: Neste Oil Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkonen, Juho

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how much and what employees know about pay determination and pay-related processes can help organizations to improve pay satisfaction and its effectiveness as a motivator. Elevated pay knowledge has been found more effective than pay raises in motivating performance and promoting organizational commitment. Unlike previous survey-based pay knowledge studies covering multiple organizations with low contextualization, this single case study researches pay knowledge in the organizat...

  12. Exploring the role of contextual information in bloodstain pattern analysis: A qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nikola K P; Taylor, Michael C; Zajac, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    During Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA), an analyst may encounter various sources of contextual information. Although contextual bias has emerged as a valid concern for the discipline, little is understood about how contextual information informs BPA. To address this issue, we asked 15 experienced bloodstain pattern analysts from New Zealand and Australia to think aloud as they classified bloodstain patterns from two homicide cases. Analysts could request items of contextual information, and were required to state how each item would inform their analysis. Pathology reports and additional photographs of the scene were the most commonly requested items of information. We coded analysts' reasons for requesting contextual information-and the way in which they integrated this information-according to thematic analysis. We identified considerable variation in both of these variables, raising important questions about the role and necessity of contextual information in decisions about bloodstain pattern evidence. PMID:26774408

  13. Inhibition of Rac1 Activity in the Hippocampus Impairs the Forgetting of Contextual Fear Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lizhu; Mao, Rongrong; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Cao, Jun; Ding, Yuqiang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Xia; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Fear is crucial for survival, whereas hypermnesia of fear can be detrimental. Inhibition of the Rac GTPase is recently reported to impair the forgetting of initially acquired memory in Drosophila. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of Rac1 activity in rat hippocampus could contribute to the hypermnesia of contextual fear. We found that spaced but not massed training of contextual fear conditioning caused inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus and heightened contextual fear. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injection of the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 heightened contextual fear in massed training, while Rac1 activator CN04-A weakened contextual fear in spaced training rats. Our study firstly demonstrates that contextual fear memory in rats is actively regulated by Rac1 activity in the hippocampus, which suggests that the forgetting impairment of traumatic events in posttraumatic stress disorder may be contributed to the pathological inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus. PMID:25613020

  14. Contextualizing the self: the emergence of a biographical understanding in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Hatiboğlu, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence, remembering the personal past and understanding what kind of person one is intertwine to form a story of one's life as the most extant, informative, and flexible form of self-representation. In adolescence, the striving for self-coherence translates into a quest for global coherence of the life story. We suggest that contextualizing is a fifth means for creating global coherence in life narratives besides the cultural concept of biography, temporal, causal-motivational, and thematic coherence. We present three kinds of contextualizing in life narratives, the temporal macrostructure, sociohistorical contextualizing of one's life, and hierarchical and linear segmenting of the text and life. These three forms of contextualizing in life narratives by their authors are complemented by three forms of contextual influences on life narratives analyzed by researchers, namely the historical, personal, and communicative situation in which they are recounted. Contextualizing is exemplified by the life narrative of a young migrant. PMID:25251508

  15. Reflexivity and vulnerability in collaborative knowledge production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    Previous research argues that reflexive investigations into situations in which you become `struck´ cognitively and/or physiologically and/or emotionally have potential to instigate organisational knowledge production (Cunliffe, 2002). However, this research focuses mainly on participants’ self...... the field of study. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the synergy between ‘how’ these incidents unfold in collaborative knowledge production processes – i.e. how potential discomforts arise and how power relations seem to affect the ‘what’; i.e. the knowledge co-produced in the situated...... and the way in which power is at play. According to Foucault, power discourses and power relations can be subjected to empirical, situated studies because they are dynamic and contextual. Power is seen as productive and always at play, implicit or explicit in the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion...

  16. Teaching Intercultural Communication in China and Australia: Intellectual and Contextual Constraints and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying HUANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As the world turns more towards China through trade, tourism and knowledge exchange, Chinese professionals will increasingly need to communicate directly with foreigners inside China. This face-to-face communication will require not only linguistic and communicative competence, but also a deep cultural knowledge of China as well as of other cultures, to help strangers adapt effectively to Chinese cultural contexts and to improve mutual understanding. In this paper we suggest that it might be useful for Chinese teachers of intercultural communication to examine their assumptions and practices by comparing them with those in other countries. We illustrate this argument through a comparison of the teaching of intercultural communication in Yunnan with an equivalent program in professional education in Melbourne. We argue that there are many similarities in the two programs, reflecting their common disciplinary basis. There are also differences between the programs reflecting different assumptions about teaching and learning, and different contexts of intercultural communication. This comparison helps identify the cultural and contextual influences on what is currently identified as appropriate in Yunnan, and the possible constraints on how much the program could be altered without clashing with acceptable aims, strategies and outcomes.
    Key words: Intercultural Communication; Communicative Competence; Professional Education; Globalization

  17. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel; Jahn, Karsten; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munk-Madsen, Andreas; Pedersen, Keld

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions f...

  18. PRAGMATIC KNOWLEDGE OR NOBLE KNOWLEDGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MANOLESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Disputes about the opportunity to introduce competence-based education are increasingly present in terms of educational policies and strategies. Obviously, in the last decade and a half, several countries have introduced competence based education. Although specific knowledge acquisition should be an essential component of student learning, assessing such knowledge in adult life depends largely on the individual purchase of more general concepts and skills. The article discusses pragmatic knowledge and noble knowledge. This is a collective dilemma, to the extent that the education system lives in the tension between the two logics. The two positions or divergent attitudes can coexist as long ast hey do not become extremist. Educational dilemma is especially now a priority.

  19. The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character

    OpenAIRE

    Kokom Komalasari

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1) the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2) the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3) the effect of the living...

  20. Contextual cost: When a visual-search target is not where it should be

    OpenAIRE

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    Visual search is often facilitated when the search display occasionally repeats, revealing a contextual-cueing effect. According to the associative-learning account, contextual-cueing arises from associating the display configuration with the target location. However, recent findings emphasizing the importance of local context near the target have given rise to the possibility that low-level repetition priming may account for the contextual-cueing effect. This study distinguishes associative-...

  1. Contextual control of stimulus generalization and stimulus equivalence in hierarchical categorization.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffee, Karen; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether hierarchical categorization would result from a combination of contextually controlled conditional discrimination training, stimulus generalization, and stimulus equivalence. First, differential selection responses to a specific stimulus feature were brought under contextual control. This contextual control was hierarchical in that stimuli at the top of the hierarchy all evoked one response, whereas those at the bottom each evoked different r...

  2. A Textural–Contextual Model for Unsupervised Segmentation of Multipolarization Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Vahid; Doulgeris, Anthony Paul; Gabriele, Moser; Eltoft, Torbjørn; Sebastiano, B. Serpico; Anfinsen, Stian Normann

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel unsupervised, non-Gaussian, and contextual segmentation method that combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual informa-tion for multilook polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR)data. This extends on previous studies that have shown the added value of both non-Gaussian modeling and contextual smoothing individually or for intensity channels only. The method is based on a Markov random field (MRF) model that integrates a K-Wishart d...

  3. Aprendizagem motora e síndrome de Down: efeitos da frequência relativa reduzida de conhecimento de resultados / Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzete, Chiviacowsky; Camila, Machado; Alexandre Carriconde, Marques; José Francisco Gomes, Schild; Ricardo, Drews.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos de duas frequências (100 e 33%) de conhecimento de resultados (CR) na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora em indivíduos com síndrome de Down (SD). Vinte participantes com SD foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em dois grupos. O grupo 100% recebeu [...] CR após cada tentativa, enquanto o grupo 33% recebeu CR em um terço das tentativas, ou seja, uma tentativa com CR em cada bloco de três tentativas. A tarefa consistiu em arremessar um implemento em um alvo, com a mão dominante, sem visualizar o alvo. A fase de aquisição constou de 60 tentativas de prática, enquanto a fase de retenção, realizada 48 horas após, de 10 tentativas, sem CR. Os resultados indicaram a inexistência de diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclui-se que frequências relativas reduzidas de CR podem ser tão efetivas quanto altas frequências para a aprendizagem de habilidades motoras em adultos com SD. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33%) of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups.While the 100% group received KR aft [...] er each trial, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acquisition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

  4. Entrepreneurship and its analysis in Colombia: A contextualized literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review contextualized through the different stages of Colombian industrial history up to the first decade of the XXI century, when an attempt is made to organize the growing interest in the topic of entrepreneurship. We find a tight connection between public policy agenda setting and the definition of the research agenda of the topic. We also find a dualistic approach in the research of the topic, with universities and think-tanks leading the investigation on accumulative / innovative entrepreneurship, and a consultancy-bias group dedicated to the study of subsistence entrepreneurship.

  5. Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022115

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting "hybrid" entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion, by employing a $q$-plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also non-local, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

  6. Preface to the Special Issue – Contextual effects in Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanec, Dragutin

    2010-01-01

    What do contextual effects mean in psychology? Reber (1985) wrote: “A cover term for those behavioral effects that result from the particular context within which a stimulus is presented or a response is made. No behavior, no thoughts, no dreams – in short, nothing any organism can ever do – can take place in a physical or psychic vacuum. Context effects are necessarily ubiquitous. This is at once a most trivial and most profound statement; ignoring its obvious truth has led more than a few w...

  7. A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Raji?, Andrijana

    2014-12-01

    The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews in decision-making in this sector. Future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these summary formats for a variety of end-users in different contexts. PMID:25383916

  8. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities and...

  9. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able to...

  10. Controle de injúrias sob a ótica da pediatria contextual / Injury control from the perspective of contextual pediatrics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danilo, Blank.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever relações entre controle de injúrias e pediatria contextual. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão quase-sistemática dos bancos MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, usando combinações das seguintes palavras: contextual, comunidade, injúria, acidente e violência; revisão não-sistemática de capítulos de l [...] ivros e artigos clássicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A segurança depende de uma interação entre hábitos familiares, normas culturais e entorno. A pediatria contextual vê a criança, a família e a comunidade como um conjunto contínuo. Um de seus pontos-chave é o diagnóstico de saúde (observação seqüencial dos problemas e trunfos). Alterar fatores intrapessoais de injúrias requer a aplicação de estratégias passivas e ativas. Fatores familiares e culturais de risco de injúria: superpopulação do domicílio, mudanças de endereço, pobreza, pais jovens, analfabetos e desempregados. Principais fatores da vizinhança: privação material e trânsito. Fatores culturais: analfabetismo, produtos inseguros, transporte de massa insuficiente, armas de mão, ambientes de trabalho sem normas de segurança, organização comunitária precária, falta de comunicação entre setores sociais, legislação inadequada, baixa prioridade da segurança entre as ações do governo, escassez de recursos econômicos e baixo comprometimento acadêmico com o campo da segurança. CONCLUSÕES: Os papéis do pediatra são reforçar o relacionamento longitudinal com as famílias, trabalho interdisciplinar integrado, intervenção construtiva, parceria com a comunidade, orientação sobre os riscos de injúria inerentes a cada etapa do desenvolvimento, por meio de listas com processo e conteúdo explícitos e entrega de material escrito. Advogar ativamente pela promoção da segurança, em instâncias variadas, além do âmbito clínico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between injury control and contextual pediatrics. SOURCES OF DATA: Quasi-systematic review of MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, using combinations of the words contextual, community, injury, accident and violence; and non-systematic review of book chapters [...] and classic articles. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Safety depends on the interaction of family habits, cultural patterns and surroundings. Contextual pediatrics sees the child, the family, and the community as a continuum; health diagnosis (sequential observation of problems and assets) is one of its cornerstones. Changing intrapersonal factors for injuries requires the use of both passive and active strategies. Family and cultural risk factors for injury: home overcrowding, moving, poverty, and young, illiterate and unemployed parents. The main neighborhood factors: material deprivation and traffic. Cultural factors: illiteracy, unsafe products, lack of mass transportation, handguns, workplaces without safety rules, faulty community organization, lack of communication between social sectors, inadequate legislation, low priority for safety among government actions, lack of economic resources, and low academic commitment with the field of safety. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatrician's roles include strengthening of the longitudinal relationship with families, integrated interdisciplinary work, constructive intervention, partnership with community, counseling on injury risks pertaining to each developmental stage, by using lists with explicit processes and contents, and by handing out written materials. Active advocacy for safety promotion in different environments, besides the clinical setting.

  11. Knowledge of sexual abuse amongst female students in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dzimadzi; H. Klopper

    2007-01-01

    Sexual abuse is an increasing problem in Malawi amongst female students, and is associated with physical and mental health problems. This study aimed to determine existing knowledge of sexual abuse amongst female students in tertiary education institutions in Malawi. A descriptive, comparative, quantitative and contextual research design was used. Participants (n=219) were selected through systematic random sampling from a population of female students aged 18 to 21, at fifteen (n= 15) tertia...

  12. Measuring organizational readiness for knowledge translation in chronic care

    OpenAIRE

    Ouimet Mathieu; Légaré France; Labarthe Jenni; Gagnon Marie-Pierre; Estabrooks Carole A; Roch Geneviève; Ghandour El Kebir; Grimshaw Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT) is an imperative in order to implement research-based and contextualized practices that can answer the numerous challenges of complex health problems. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) provides a conceptual framework to guide the implementation process in chronic care. Yet, organizations aiming to improve chronic care require an adequate level of organizational readiness (OR) for KT. Available instruments on organizational readiness for change (ORC) h...

  13. User Adoption Tendency Modeling for Social Contextual Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies on the existing recommender system for Netflix-style sites (scenarios with explicit user feedback focus on rating prediction, but few have systematically analyzed users’ motivations to make decisions on which items to rate. In this paper, the authors study the difficult and challenging task Item Adoption Prediction (IAP for predicting the items users will rate or interact with. It is not only an important supplement to previous works, but also a more realistic requirement of recommendation in this scenario. To recommend the items with high Adoption Tendency, the authors develop a unified model UATM based on the findings of Marketing and Consumer Behavior. The novelty of the model in this paper includes: First, the authors propose a more creative and effective optimization method to tackle One-Class Problem where only the positive feedback is available; second, the authors systematically and conveniently integrate the user adoption information (both explicit and implicit feedbacks included and the social contextual information with quantitatively characterizing different users’ personal sensitivity to various social contextual influences.

  14. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

  15. Prefrontal microcircuit underlies contextual learning after hippocampal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikowsky, Moriel; Bissiere, Stephanie; Hast, Timothy A; Bennett, Rebecca Z; Abdipranoto, Andrea; Vissel, Bryce; Fanselow, Michael S

    2013-06-11

    Specific brain circuits have been classically linked to dedicated functions. However, compensation following brain damage suggests that these circuits are capable of dynamic adaptation. Such compensation is exemplified by Pavlovian fear conditioning following damage to the dorsal hippocampus (DH). Although the DH normally underlies contextual fear and fear renewal after extinction, both can be learned in the absence of the DH, although the mechanisms and nature of this compensation are currently unknown. Here, we report that recruitment of alternate structures, specifically the infralimbic and prelimbic prefrontal cortices, is required for compensation following damage to the hippocampus. Disconnection of these cortices in DH-compromised animals and immediate early gene induction profiles for amygdala-projecting prefrontal cells revealed that communication and dynamic rebalancing within this prefrontal microcircuit is critical. Additionally, the infralimbic cortex normally plays a role in limiting generalization of contextual fear. These discoveries reveal that plasticity through recruitment of alternate circuits allows the brain to compensate following damage, offering promise for targeted treatment of memory disorders. PMID:23676273

  16. An Ensemble Approach to Image Matching Using Contextual Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morago, Brittany; Bui, Giang; Duan, Ye

    2015-11-01

    We propose a contextual framework for 2D image matching and registration using an ensemble feature. Our system is beneficial for registering image pairs that have captured the same scene but have large visual discrepancies between them. It is common to encounter challenging visual variations in image sets with artistic rendering differences or in those collected over a period of time during which the lighting conditions and scene content may have changed. Differences between images may also be caused using a variety of cameras with different sensors, focal lengths, and exposure values. Local feature matching techniques cannot always handle these difficulties, so we have developed an approach that builds on traditional methods to consider linear and histogram of gradient information over a larger, more stable region. We also present a technique for using linear features to estimate corner keypoints, or pseudo corners, that can be used for matching. Our pipeline follows this unique matching stage with homography refinement methods using edge and gradient information. Our goal is to increase the size of accurate keypoint match sets and align photographs containing a combination of man-made and natural imagery. We show that incorporating contextual information can provide complimentary information for scale invariant feature transform and boost local keypoint matching performance, as well as be used to describe corner feature points. PMID:26186783

  17. Sparse Contextual Activation for Efficient Visual Re-Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Song; Bai, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an extremely efficient algorithm for visual re-ranking. By considering the original pairwise distance in the contextual space, we develop a feature vector called sparse contextual activation (SCA) that encodes the local distribution of an image. Hence, re-ranking task can be simply accomplished by vector comparison under the generalized Jaccard metric, which has its theoretical meaning in the fuzzy set theory. In order to improve the time efficiency of re-ranking procedure, inverted index is successfully introduced to speed up the computation of generalized Jaccard metric. As a result, the average time cost of re-ranking for a certain query can be controlled within 1 ms. Furthermore, inspired by query expansion, we also develop an additional method called local consistency enhancement on the proposed SCA to improve the retrieval performance in an unsupervised manner. On the other hand, the retrieval performance using a single feature may not be satisfactory enough, which inspires us to fuse multiple complementary features for accurate retrieval. Based on SCA, a robust feature fusion algorithm is exploited that also preserves the characteristic of high time efficiency. We assess our proposed method in various visual re-ranking tasks. Experimental results on Princeton shape benchmark (3D object), WM-SRHEC07 (3D competition), YAEL data set B (face), MPEG-7 data set (shape), and Ukbench data set (image) manifest the effectiveness and efficiency of SCA. PMID:26742133

  18. Social media: A contextual framework to guide research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Lynn A; Ployhart, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Social media are a broad collection of digital platforms that have radically changed the way people interact and communicate. However, we argue that social media are not simply a technology but actually represent a context that differs in important ways from traditional (e.g., face-to-face) and other digital (e.g., email) ways of interacting and communicating. As a result, social media is a relatively unexamined type of context that may affect the cognition, affect, and behavior of individuals within organizations. We propose a contextual framework that identifies the discrete and ambient stimuli that distinguish social media contexts from digital communication media (e.g., email) and physical (e.g., face-to-face) contexts. We then use this contextual framework to demonstrate how it changes more person-centered theories of organizational behavior (e.g., social exchange, social contagion, and social network theories). These theoretical insights are also used to identify a number of practical implications for individuals and organizations. This study's major contribution is creating a theoretical understanding of social media features so that future research may proceed in a theory-based, rather than platform-based, manner. Overall, we intend for this article to stimulate and broadly shape the direction of research on this ubiquitous, but poorly understood, phenomenon. PMID:26052712

  19. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Nagaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3?,5?-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  20. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Naomi; Acca, Gillian M.; Maren, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO), is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response) to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS). In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride (FIN), an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3?,5?)-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry. PMID:26300750

  1. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2015-11-15

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS-. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations. PMID:26220745

  2. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Naomi; Acca, Gillian M; Maren, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO), is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response) to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS). In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride (FIN), an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3?,5?)-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry. PMID:26300750

  3. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  4. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a...

  5. Cancer Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide population estimates for variables that represent knowledge about certain cancer risk factors, screening tests, and resources. The data are sourced from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). The HINTS data collection program was created to monitor changes in the rapidly evolving field of health communication. Survey researchers are using the data to understand how adults 18 years and older use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information for themselves and their loved ones.

  6. Neuroleptic Drugs Revert the Contextual Fear Conditioning Deficit Presented by Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Potential Animal Model of Emotional Context Processing in Schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Regina Helena; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of the present study was to characterize the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Adult male normotensive Wistar rats and SHR were submitted to the CFC task. Sensitivity of the animals to the shock and the ...

  7. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    OpenAIRE

    Marincola Francesco M; Littman Bruce H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propo...

  8. Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

  9. Solving a Contextual Problem with the Spreadsheet as an Environment for Algebraic Thinking Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Sandra; Amado, Nelia; Carreira, Susana

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report and discuss a contextual problem solving task that was proposed to a class of 8th grade (13-14-year-old) students. These students had been developing a reasonable experience in the use of the spreadsheet to model relations within contextual problems and chose to use this tool to solve the mentioned problem, engaging in…

  10. Post-Training Unilateral Amygdala Lesions Selectively Impair Contextual Fear Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) are both structures with key roles in contextual fear conditioning. During fear conditioning, it is postulated that contextual representations of the environment are formed in the hippocampus, which are then associated with foot shock in the amygdala. However, it is not known to what…

  11. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  12. Disentangling Ethnic and Contextual Influences among Parents Raising Youth in High-Risk Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Hurley, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on analyses examining contextual influences on parenting with an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of parents (predominantly mothers) raising 387 children (49% ethnic minority; 51% male) in high-risk communities. Parents and children were followed longitudinally from first through tenth grades. Contextual influences…

  13. The Contextual Effect of School Satisfaction on Health-Risk Behaviors in Japanese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Minoru; Wake, Norie; Kobayashi, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Background: The importance of school contextual effects on health and well-being among young people is currently recognized. This study examines the contextual effects of school satisfaction as well as the effects of individual-level school satisfaction on health-risk behaviors in Japanese high school students. Methods: Self-administered…

  14. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  15. A Pilot Study of a Functional Contextual Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Drew A.; Simmons, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the initial development of a treatment for bulimia nervosa using a functional contextual treatment approach. Seven women (6 with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and 1 with a diagnosis of eating disorder not otherwise specified) completed 12 sessions of functional contextual treatment. Participants were assessed with the Eating…

  16. Linear and nonlinear analogues of the Schroedinger equation in the contextual approach in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One derived the general evolutionary differential equation within the Hilbert space describing dynamics of the wave function. The derived contextual model is more comprehensive in contrast to a quantum one. The contextual equation may be a nonlinear one. Paper presents the conditions ensuring linearity of the evolution and derivation of the Schroedinger equation

  17. Principals' Self-Efficacy: Relations with Job Autonomy, Job Satisfaction, and Contextual Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual…

  18. Developmental Differences in the Impact of Contextual Factors on Susceptibility to Retroactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The influence of contextual similarity on children's recognition memory performance was examined using a retroactive interference paradigm. In the study, 9- and 12-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of two contextual conditions. In both conditions, target and interfering information were presented in distinctive contexts by using different…

  19. Health, Quality of Life and Population Density: A Preliminary Study on "Contextualized" Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassio, Omar; Rollero, Chiara; De Piccoli, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life concerns individual (physical and psychological health), interpersonal (social relationships) and contextual (environment) aspects, which are both subjective and objective. In considering contextual characteristics, empirical findings have demonstrated that people's relation to their living environment is a key issue for their…

  20. Post-Training Unilateral Amygdala Lesions Selectively Impair Contextual Fear Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) are both structures with key roles in contextual fear conditioning. During fear conditioning, it is postulated that contextual representations of the environment are formed in the hippocampus, which are then associated with foot shock in the amygdala. However, it is not known to what…

  1. Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2011-01-01

    Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)......Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)...

  2. Behavioral and central correlates of contextual fear learning and contextual modulation of cued fear in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Frauke; Nees, Frauke; Wicking, Manon; Lang, Simone; Flor, Herta

    2015-12-01

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show persistent fear responses to trauma cues in contexts in which these cues no longer predict danger. This might be related to deficient context and enhanced cue conditioning. To test this hypothesis, we examined context conditioning directly followed by a cue conditioning phase against the background of the previously conditioned context in 12 patients with PTSD, 14 traumatized control subjects without PTSD and 11 matched never-traumatized controls. We used differential context and cue conditioning paradigms, with rooms as contexts and geometric figures as cues, and assessed valence, arousal and contingency ratings as well as brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The PTSD patients showed more hippocampal activation and differentiated the threat and safe contexts less in their contingency ratings than the healthy controls during context acquisition. In the subsequent cue acquisition against the background of the conditioned context, they displayed similar threat versus safe cue differentiation in contingency ratings as the two control groups. Moreover, PTSD patients failed to extinguish the differential conditioned context and cued fear responses and showed increased fear to both the dangerous and the safe conditioned contexts and cues in some ratings. This study provides evidence for a dissociation of brain responses and contingency awareness in PTSD which represents impaired context learning and a deficient contextual modulation of cue-related associations. In addition, extinction and extinction recall were impaired in PTSD. These changes were related to PTSD symptoms and suggest that contextual learning deficits may contribute to PTSD. PMID:26149734

  3. Exploring Caregiver Behavior and Knowledge about Unsafe Sleep Surfaces in Infant Injury Death Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tracy; Hackett, Martine; Kaur, Navpreet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In the United States, infant deaths due to sleep-related injuries have quadrupled over the past two decades. One of the major risk factors is the placement of an infant to sleep on a surface other than a crib or bassinet. This study examines contextual circumstances and knowledge and behaviors that may contribute to the placement of…

  4. Context-Inappropriate Anger, Emotion Knowledge Deficits, and Negative Social Experiences in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI…

  5. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  6. Identifying Contextual Factors of Employee Satisfaction of Performance Management at a Thai State Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molraudee Saratun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been an increase in Performance Management (PM literature over the years arguing that PM perceptions are likely to be a function of PM process components and contextual factors, the actual relationship between the contextual factors and employee satisfaction of PM remains little explored. Extending previous research, this study examines relationships between contextual factors and employees’ PM satisfaction. Derived from the literature, these contextual factors are motivation and empowerment of employees, role conflict, role ambiguity, perceived or- ganisational support, procedural justice and distributive justice. Seven directional hypotheses are tested accordingly through a series of regression analyses. This article finds that these contextual factors, with the exception of role conflict, are directly predictive of enhanced employees’ PM satis- faction at the Thai state enterprise.

  7. Classical systems can be contextual too: Analogue of the Mermin-Peres square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Pawel

    2015-02-01

    Contextuality lays at the heart of quantum mechanics. In the prevailing opinion it is considered as a signature of "quantumness" that classical theories lack. However, this assertion is only partially justified. Although contextuality is certainly true of quantum mechanics, it cannot be taken by itself as discriminating against classical theories. Here we consider a representative example of contextual behaviour, the so-called Mermin-Peres square, and present a discrete toy model of a bipartite system which reproduces the pattern of quantum predictions that leads to contradiction with the assumption of non-contextuality. This illustrates that quantum-like contextual effects have their analogues within classical models with epistemic constraints such as limited information gain and measurement disturbance.

  8. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home cage controls. Furthermore, most clustering occurs over the period where animals experience the largest increase in freezing behavior, suggesting that the clustered addition of spines may be subserving this learning process. Most importantly, the number of new clustered spines correlates with behavioral performance; specifically, animals with the highest proportion of new spines formed in clusters also have the highest context freezing, further supporting the hypothesis that clustered addition of spines is important for learning. In sum, these results support the hypothesis that spine clustering is a general mechanism for learning-related information storage in the brain and a mechanism specifically operating in the RSC.

  9. Compositional and contextual predictors for emotional problems among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; ErsbØll, Annette Kjær

    Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from a random sample of Danish schools. Students answered a questionnaire including mental health and the classroom environment. The outcome measure emotional problems was defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having difficulties falling asleep. Further, school-administrators answered a questionnaire on school environment and characteristics, e.g. policies against bullying. We applied multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at individual, classroom and school levels. Results Initially a large variation in emotional problems was observed from one school to another. The proportion of students with daily experience of emotional problems varied between 7% and 32% across schools. Individual level variables such as socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Students from low (OR=1.74 (CI:1.37;2.22)) and medium (OR=1.53 (CI:1.24;1.87)) social class, girls (OR=1.37 (CI:1.15;1.63)) and students exposed to bullying (OR=3.20 (CI:2.17;4.72)), had increased odds of experiencing emotional problems. At the classroom level, a high proportion of students who reported a negative classroom climate was significantly associated with emotional problems (OR=1.43 (CI:1.07;1.92)). Further, bullying seems to reach beyond the individual. In classes with a high prevalence of bullying, students have significantly higher odds (OR=1.33 (CI:1.05;1.70)) of experiencing emotional problems compared to classes where bullying didn´t appear. These findings suggest that contextual exposure affects emotional problems. Conclusions We expected compositional factors to explain much of the variation in prevalence of emotional problems between schools. This study suggests that contextual factors at the school and class level are important to take into account in studies of emotional problems among children and adolescents.

  10. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas...... his critical attitude has become superseded. A critical discussion on the heritage from Bacon leads to a focus on the concepts of truth, utility, and goodness. Unification of skills and Bildung, it is stated, should imply the ability to deal explicitly with these concepts and their interrelations...

  11. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    includes a perspective on the strength of the organizational relation. In this paper, an in-depth case study of a High-Tech-Small-Firm (HTSF) is presented. By combining the literature on inter-organizational search and social networks, the study contributes by showing the implications of an inter......-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...

  12. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    that is in fact a central aspect of everyday practices of policymaking and research. Reflexivity is understood in the study as a thoughtful consideration about connections and causes, truth and trust, factual and normative aspects of decision making and planning. My analysis leads me to propose an...... a variety of understandings of ‘evidence’ and ‘evidence based’ and reveals that evidence is more of a claim for authority than an epistemologically defined knowledge product. Still, the fact that evidence and evidence-based are used as arguments of quality and certainty closes off the reflexivity...

  13. The Effect of Contextual Interference on Acquisition and Learning Badminton Skills among Children aged from 10 to 12

    OpenAIRE

    Kimiya Sadri; Hassan Mohommadzadeh; Mostafa Khani

    2013-01-01

    Age may limit the effect of contextual interference, but the accurate effect of age on contextual interference is not completely identified. Therefore, the purpose of the study was the effect of contextual interference practice orders on acquisition and learning of badminton skills of 45 female students aged from 10 to 12. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups of blocked, random, and systematically increasing contextual interference. They trained three skills of badmi...

  14. Dynamic Capitalization and Visualization Strategy in Collaborative Knowledge Management System for EI Process

    CERN Document Server

    Oladejo, Bolanle; David, Amos

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge is attributed to human whose problem-solving behavior is subjective and complex. In today's knowledge economy, the need to manage knowledge produced by a community of actors cannot be overemphasized. This is due to the fact that actors possess some level of tacit knowledge which is generally difficult to articulate. Problem-solving requires searching and sharing of knowledge among a group of actors in a particular context. Knowledge expressed within the context of a problem resolution must be capitalized for future reuse. In this paper, an approach that permits dynamic capitalization of relevant and reliable actors' knowledge in solving decision problem following Economic Intelligence process is proposed. Knowledge annotation method and temporal attributes are used for handling the complexity in the communication among actors and in contextualizing expressed knowledge. A prototype is built to demonstrate the functionalities of a collaborative Knowledge Management system based on this approach. It is...

  15. On pigs and packers: Radically contextualizing a practice of science with Mexican immigrant students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson Bruna, Katherine; Vann, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on instructional practices observed in a high school English Learner (EL) Science course serving newcomer Mexican immigrant youth. The school is located in a rural Midwestern meatpacking community in which labor at the hog plant is economically- and racially-segmented; it is the town's Mexican residents, many of them undocumented, who comprise most of the unskilled labor force. The general purpose of the paper is to document how the economic and racial context of this community influences science instruction in the EL Science course and to describe how this presents particular challenges in achieving equitable science instruction for Mexican immigrant youth in these rural, globalizing places. Entering the data via critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995) and then utilizing Barton's (2003) "practice of science" perspective, with an eye toward achieving "radical contextuality" (Grossberg, 1997), we describe the science events, identities, and structures of the pig dissection lesson and detail how what these students could do with science, as rendered by that lesson, was limited by the roles the teacher attributed to the students, her inability to draw on their funds of knowledge as resources for learning, and the voice and position she allowed them to take up. The data reinforce conventional understandings of schools as sites of cultural reproduction (Bowels & Gintis, 1976), as well as of resistance (Giroux, 1983), but afford us a glimpse of the particularity of those mechanisms within the demographically-transitioning American Heartland, iconic of the era of global capitalism.

  16. Assessing historical empathy through simulation – How do Finnish teacher students achieve contextual historical empathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Rantala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal of international debate about introducing historical empathy as the focus in teaching history. However, as it is, the contents of the concept have been included in the curricula in many countries. Nevertheless, practising stepping into the shoes of a person from a previous era is still in its infancy in schools in many locations – Finland included. This article discusses Finnish class teacher students' understanding of historical empathy. The article is based on a study where 360 class teacher students played a game simulating the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their task was to assume the roles of the superpower leaders and make decisions on the basis of these roles. The simulation showed that a majority of the student teachers are able to attain a level of contextual historical empathy. They were able to empathize with the historical context in question and make such decisions that would have been possible for the historical actors. Some of the playing groups on the other hand, referred to their current knowledge and attitudes, which, according to Ashby and Lee's empathy classification, shows lower-level empathy. The study corroborates previous research results concerning great discrepancies in the understanding of empathy prevalent within one age group. Moreover, the study raises the question of how historical empathy should be handled in teaching if many future teachers have difficulties in understanding it.

  17. SUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIMETRIC SAR IMAGERY USING TEMPORAL AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dargahi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the context as a source of ancillary information in classification process provides a powerful tool to obtain better class discrimination. Modelling context using Markov Random Fields (MRFs and combining with Bayesian approach, a context-based supervised classification method is proposed. In this framework, to have a full use of the statistical a priori knowledge of the data, the spatial relation of the neighbouring pixels was used. The proposed context-based algorithm combines a Gaussian-based wishart distribution of PolSAR images with temporal and contextual information. This combination was done through the Bayes decision theory: the class-conditional probability density function and the prior probability are modelled by the wishart distribution and the MRF model. Given the complexity and similarity of classes, in order to enhance the class separation, simultaneously two PolSAR images from two different seasons (leaf-on and leaf-off were used. According to the achieved results, the maximum improvement in the overall accuracy of classification using WMRF (Combining Wishart and MRF compared to the wishart classifier when the leaf-on image was used. The highest accuracy obtained was when using the combined datasets. In this case, the overall accuracy of the wishart and WMRF methods were 72.66% and 78.95% respectively.

  18. Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Martens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

  19. Contextual processing of brightness and color in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Christian; Henke, Josephine; Leibold, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Thurley, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Brightness and color cues are essential for visually guided behavior. However, for rodents, little is known about how well they do use these cues. We used a virtual reality setup that offers a controlled environment for sensory testing to quantitatively investigate visually guided behavior for achromatic and chromatic stimuli in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In two-alternative forced choice tasks, animals had to select target stimuli based on relative intensity or color with respect to a contextual reference. Behavioral performance was characterized using psychometric analysis and probabilistic choice modeling. The analyses revealed that the gerbils learned to make decisions that required judging stimuli in relation to their visual context. Stimuli were successfully recognized down to Weber contrasts as low as 0.1. These results suggest that Mongolian gerbils have the perceptual capacity for brightness and color constancy. PMID:25589297

  20. Experimental certification of random numbers via quantum contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mark; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Ye; Yangchao, Shen; Deng, D-L; Duan, Lu-Ming; Kim, Kihwan

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic unpredictability of measurements in quantum mechanics can be used to produce genuine randomness. Here, we demonstrate a random number generator where the randomness is certified by quantum contextuality in connection with the Kochen-Specker theorem. In particular, we generate random numbers from measurements on a single trapped ion with three internal levels, and certify the generated randomness by showing a bound on the minimum entropy through observation of violation of the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality. Concerning the test of the KCBS inequality, we close the detection efficiency loophole for the first time and make it relatively immune to the compatibility loophole. In our experiment, we generate 1 × 10(5) random numbers that are guaranteed to have 5.2 × 10(4) bits of minimum entropy with a 99% confidence level. PMID:23568082

  1. Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erke Shang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV system for road following. However, current vision‐based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour, variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured roads. Two traditional algorithms, support vector machine (SVM and k‐nearest neighbour (KNN, are carried out to verify the helpfulness of the proposed confidence map. Following this, a novel algorithm, which combines SVM, KNN and the confidence map under a Bayesian framework, is proposed to improve the overall performance of the unstructured road detections. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using different types of unstructured roads and the experimental results show its effectiveness.

  2. Experimental demonstration of preparation contextuality and parity-oblivious multiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Spekkens, Robert W; Keehn, A J; Toner, Ben; Pryde, G J

    2008-01-01

    Using a recent generalization of the notion of noncontextuality to arbitrary procedures and to arbitrary operational theories, it is possible to derive noncontextuality inequalities -- constraints on experimental statistics that hold for theories that admit a noncontextual hidden variable model. We prove one such inequality based on an assumption of noncontextuality for preparation procedures and report an experimental violation of it with very high statistical confidence. We also demonstrate that a particular kind of two-party secure computation which we call "parity-oblivious multiplexing" is powered by contextuality in the sense that the degree of violation of our inequality quantifies the degree of success that can be achieved in the task. Consequently, our experimental results also demonstrate better-than-classical performance for this task. They also represent the first demonstration of 2-to-1 and 3-to-1 quantum random access codes.

  3. Contextual factors and challenges to e-health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle A. Olaniran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a digital world or digital era. Hence, People will argue that not only do information communication technologies (ICTs make e-health possible but rather that it is an innovation advance whose time has come. Notwithstanding, e-health while hoping to create well needed improvement in health care, it is rife with certain challenges which are not limited to e-health literacy. However, this paper looks specifically at e-health literacy. The paper, in particular overviews e-health while addressing the impacts of key contextual factors that impacts e-health and e-health literacy regarding the propensity to adopt and use e-health in LEDCs.

  4. Automatic Contextual Text Correction Using The Linguistic Habits Graph Lhg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Gadamer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were compared with commercial programs which also enableto make text correction: Microsoft Word 2007, Open Office Writer 3.0 and search engineGoogle. The achieved results of text correction were much better than correction made bythese commercial tools.

  5. Ego boundary as process: a systemic-contextual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, S

    1983-08-01

    This paper examines the ego boundary construct, outlining its origin and development within psychoanalytic theory and demonstrating the ways in which its interpretation and use have been affected and circumscribed by the structural model upon which psychoanalytic theory is based. In particular, I will discuss the sequence of reasoning by which the construct boundary became synonymous with barrier at the expense of consideration of its role in maintaining contact and exchange with the world. The contributions and limitations of the mathematical model of Kurt Lewin are also discussed. An alternative systemic-contextual model is proposed, a model which describes boundary not as barrier but as dialectical processes of separation and inclusion which mediate a person's complex relationship with the world. PMID:6622600

  6. Quantum view on contextual logic of composite intelligent devices

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2013-01-01

    Based on the ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) we propose the consistent approach to study probabilistic many-valued propositional logic of intelligent devices that are composed from separate but interconnected logical units. In this preliminary communication we consider only the simplest example of such systems, namely, four- valued probabilistic logical device composed of two logical subsystems. We demonstrate that similar devices can generate two classes of probabilistic propositions:1) decomposable propositions, which in fact are equivalent to certain ordered pair of propositions in device subsystems and 2) indecomposable propositions which are connected with inherent logical interaction between device units. The indecomposable propositions are undoubtedly of greatest interest since they, as shown in the paper, provide powerful additional logical resource compared to standard parallel processing in composite intelligent systems. The contextual logic of composite devices proposed in this paper...

  7. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A.

    2013-08-01

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in {{Z}}(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain "Heyting factors," are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  8. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourdas, A. [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  9. Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2005-06-01

    We continue the development of a so-called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric cos-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic cos-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability. We also discuss possibilities of experimental verification of hyperbolic quantum mechanics: in physics of elementary particles, string theory as well as in experiments with nonphysical systems, e.g., in psychology, cognitive sciences, and economy.

  10. Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We continue the development of a so-called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric cos-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic cos-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability. We also discuss possibilities of experimental verification of hyperbolic quantum mechanics: in physics of elementary particles, string theory as well as in experiments with nonphysical systems, e.g., in psychology, cognitive sciences, and economy

  11. Stimuli with identical contextual functions taught independently become functionally equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Luis Antonio; Díaz, Elvira; Fernández-García, Silvia; Baizán, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    A novel learning process that does not require stimulus associations was explored in humans. The hypothesis was that two contextual stimuli taught in separate settings, with different stimuli, become equivalent if they accomplish identical functions with regard to the relations between the stimuli presented with them. The procedure consisted of : (a) first teaching an AB conditional discrimination (e.g., match A1 to B1 and A2 to B2) and then teaching a second-order XAB conditional discrimination in which X1 indicated performing the same selections as in AB and X2 indicated selecting the alternative comparison (e.g., match A1 to B2 and A2 to B1); (b) repeating the procedure with completely new stimuli, YHJ, in which the functions of the Y stimuli were identical to those of X; and (c) conducting a final probe under extinction to verify the equivalence between the X and the Y stimuli. Three experiments were conducted to explore the process and to rule out the influence of alternative variables. Out of these, 13 of the 14 participants matched the stimuli to the same contextual functions. Thus, the hypothesis was verified. These results demonstrate that humans are able to match stimuli according to their functions in relation to other stimuli. This process may be very much involved in language; for example, understanding that words or clauses that have been learned in separate contexts and with separate stimuli share the same meaning. Understanding this process may help to identify learning or developmental problems, such as those shown by persons with autism, and help to treat them. PMID:25673100

  12. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. PMID:24374604

  13. How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TennØy, Aud; Lissandrello, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Changing urban development in more sustainable directions poses numerous challenges for planning practitioners. Expert knowledge could be helpful for planners aiming at facing up to these challenges by developing innovative ways of meeting seemingly contradictive objectives and solving planning problems. This paper examines how planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge affect the content and goal achievement of plans, and discusses how changes in planning practice and research practice can contribute to improve goal achievement potentials. Goal achievement potential refers to whether the plans (if implemented) contribute to achieve defined objectives, which in this paper concern transition toward more sustainable mobility patterns and reduction of traffic volumes. The expert knowledge in question concerns how land use and transport systems developments influence traffic volumes in urban regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning this issue have emerged, but few empirical studies have been presented. The research in this paper involves case studies of strategic plan-making processes in three Scandinavian cities. A main finding is that whether the expert knowledge in question is used or not, and how it is used, indeed affect the goal achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call for traffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge in question for explaining that these measures reduce the goal achievement potential of plans, for several reasons. It may seem as if the knowledge sometimes is ousted when it challenges the contextual agenda. Further, planners do not turn to written or research- based sources of knowledge for help in solving their planning problems. Instead, they rely on their embedded professional knowledge, which is sometimes outdated or misleading. It is found that changing towards land use and transport systems developments contributing to more sustainable mobility patterns requires considerable efforts from planning practitioners, as well as from planning researchers.

  14. Animacy-based predictions in language comprehension are robust: contextual cues modulate but do not nullify them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, R; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-05-22

    Couldn?t a humble coconut hurt a gardener? At least in the first instance, the brain seems to assume that it should not: we perceive inanimate entities such as coconuts as poor event instigators ("Actors"). Ideally, entities causing a change in another entity should be animate and this assumption not only influences event perception but also carries over to language comprehension. We present three auditory event-related brain potential (ERP) studies on the processing of inanimate and animate subjects and objects in simple transitive sentences in Tamil. ERP responses were measured at the second argument (event participant) in all three studies. Experiment 1 employed all possible animacy combinations of Actors and Undergoers (affected participants) in Actor- and Undergoer-initial verb-final orders. Experiments 2 and 3 employed a fairly novel context design that enabled us to compare ERPs evoked by identical auditory material to differing contextual expectations: Experiment 2 focussed on constructions in which an inanimate Actor acts upon an inanimate Undergoer, whereas Experiment 3 examined whether and how a preceding context modulates the prediction for an ideal Actor. Results showed an N400 effect when the prediction for an ideal (animate) Actor following an Undergoer was not met, thus further supporting the cross-linguistically robust nature of animacy preferences. In addition, though specific contextual cues that are indicative of a forthcoming non-ideal Actor may reduce this negativity in comparison to when such cues are not available, they nevertheless do not nullify it, suggesting that animacy-based predictions are stronger than contextual cues in online language comprehension. PMID:25619551

  15. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    susceptible to both demand-side and supply-side context than is the case for high-tech start-ups in general. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably academic institutions, such as universities that contribute...... on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge-intensive industries. Using multilevel data of all knowledge-intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002...

  16. Atender o cuidar. Un problema contextual por discernir en la práctica profesional de enfermería / To assist or to care. A contextual problem to discern in the nursing professional practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Félix, Kindelán Delís.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de una ciencia comprende fenómenos tanto de la naturaleza como de la vida social; incluye las propiedades de la actividad mental de los hombres como resultado de la imaginación, y entraña operaciones del pensamiento abstracto, tales como: concepto, juicio y razonamiento. No constituye una [...] certidumbre dada para siempre, es transformable; preserva cierto grado de estabilidad y designa la esencia de la actuación científica direccional del actor cultural, pero si en la ciencia existe bilateralidad terminológica, entonces habrá disgregación de la esencia de su surgimiento y desarrollo. El modo lógico básico de formación del conocimiento será difuso, y distinguir la singularidad del saber al cual se apega creará dispersión del pensamiento. Por tales razones se realizó este trabajo para desentrañar el problema contextual existente entre los conceptos cuidar/atender que rectoran la práctica profesional de enfermería en Cuba. Abstract in english The object of a science comprises phenomena either from nature as from social life; it includes properties from mental activity of men as a result of the imagination, and it involves functions of the abstract thought, such as: concept, judgment and reasoning. It doesn't constitute a certainty given [...] forever, it is transformable; it preserves certain degree of stability and it designs the essence of the cultural actor's directional scientific performance, but if in science terminological bilaterality exists, then there will be disintegration of the essence of its emergence and development. The basic logical way of emergence of knowledge will be diffuse, and to distinguish the singularity of the knowledge to which it joints will create dispersion in thinking. For such reasons this work was carried out to decipher the existent contextual problem between the concepts to care/to assist which guide the nursing professional practice in Cuba.

  17. The making of green knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the contributions of environmental activism to the development of knowledge. The paper contrasts some of the main forms of knowledge-making that have emerged among activists and raises a number of questions both about the political and cognitive implications of such "g...... "green knowledge". The general argument is that, in the future, new types of interaction and new spaces for communication will need to be developed if green knowledge is not to be incorporated into the dominant culture or reduced to ineffective forms of protest....

  18. Relações de equivalência após treino com pareamento consistente de estímulos sob controle contextual / Equivalence relations after stimulus matching consistent training under contextual control

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Grauben José Alves de, Assis; Marcelo Quintino Galvão, Baptista; Olívia Misae, Kato; Keila Regina, Alves.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Alguns estudos têm produzido relações condicionais que se mostraram também equivalentes, através do treino com pareamento consistente de estímulos. O presente estudo buscou verificar se essas relações podem ocorrer também sob controle contextual. Quatro universitários foram submetidos ao treino AB, [...] AC e AD, intercalado aos testes de simetria correspondentes BA, CA e DA. Em seguida, ao treino AD e ao teste de simetria DA sob controle contextual. Por último, foram testadas as relações de equivalência BC, CB, BD, DB, CD e DC, na ausência de estímulos contextuais, e DB e DC, com estímulos de contexto. Os participantes alcançaram o critério de acerto em todos os treinos. Três participantes apresentaram as relações simétricas, na ausência de estímulos contextuais, e a relação DA, em sua presença. Estes resultados replicam e expandem estudos anteriores, mostrando que mesmo sem conseqüências diferenciais, é possível obter um desempenho consistente sob controle condicional de segunda ordem. Abstract in english Some studies, using stimulus matching consistent training, had produced conditional relations that have also yielded equivalence relations. The objective of this experiment was to ascertain whether the same type of discriminations would occur under contextual control. Four university students were s [...] ubmitted to sequential relationships. AB, AC, and AD, interspersed with corresponding tests for symmetry: BA, CA, and DA. Subsequently, AD was tested with the DA test for symmetry. Finally, the equivalence relations BC, CB, BD, DB, CD, and DC were evaluated without the contextual stimuli, whereas the relations DB and DC were tested with contextual stimuli. The participants reached the criterion for accuracy in all training sessions. Three participants presented symmetrical relations without contextual stimuli, while the DA relationship was obtained in the presence of contextual cues. These results replicate and extend previous studies showing that even without differential consequences, it was possible to obtain consistent performance under second-order conditional control.

  19. Pushing Personhood into Place : Situating Media in the Transfer of Rural Knowledge in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...

  20. Collaborative repositories : An organisational and technological response to current challenges in specialised knowledge communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Textual and communicative competence lies at the heart of the skills of a professional linguistic mediator in general. Such skills are particularly important in specialized writing, which requires deep conceptual and contextual knowledge. One of the main objectives of the activities undertaken at the Knowledge Communication Lab is to provide linguistic mediators, be they translators and writers of professional texts or subject matter experts entrusted with tasks of intra- or interdisciplinary...

  1. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries : The Tension between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed.

  2. MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottmann Renzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3. Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.

  3. The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokom Komalasari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3 the effect of the living values-based contextual learning model on students’ character improvement. Approach: This study used Research and Development design. The technique of data collection used observation, documentation, Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative data used data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion stages. Meanwhile, quantitative data analysis used correlation and regression analysis. The subjects of study were 98 students of Civic Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education of academic year 2011/2012. Results: The finding showed that: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing was the integration of living values into material, method, media, learning source and lecturing evaluation conceptually; (2 the living values-based contextual learning model was implemented through value learning variation in contextual learning (problem-based learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, service learning and work-based learning; (3 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model had an effect by 26% on the students’ character development Conclusion: The living values-based contextual learning is an alternative of character education integration model in university learning process. This model can be applied in lecturing to develop the students’ characters including religious, honest, tolerant, well-mannered, discipline, hard working, creative, independent, democratic, homeland love, respecting achievement, collaborating and responsible.

  4. Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Chalon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker’s profile. We further discuss the proposed system structure, supportive process and context-driven engine. Finally, we describe a scenario using our contextual mobile learning system.

  5. Individual and contextual covariates of burnout: a cross-sectional nationwide study of French teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerrière Eléna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information on the covariates of burnout syndrome in French teachers is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of individual and contextual factors on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in 2005 among 20,099 education workers (in activity or retired selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. The response rate was 52.4%. Teachers in activity currently giving classes to students who participated in the survey (n = 3,940 were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 2,558 teachers provided complete data (64.9%. Variables associated with high emotional exhaustion (highest quartile of score, high depersonalization (highest quartile, and reduced personal accomplishment (lowest quartile were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, job dissatisfaction, experienced difficulties at work, and teaching motivations. Results Different variables were associated with each burnout dimension. Female teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment, whereas male teachers were more susceptible to high depersonalization. Elementary school teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion, but less susceptible to high depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment than their higher school level counterparts. Experienced difficulties with pupils were associated with all three dimensions. A socio-economically underprivileged school neighbourhood was also related to high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalization. Conclusion Programs to enhance teaching environment might be an interesting approach to try to prevent burnout. It would be useful to take the different dimensions into account in planning the intervention.

  6. Effective and functional connectivity patterns during contextual fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bäuchl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In contextual fear conditioning, an initially neutral context-stimulus (CS is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US which evokes fear or anxiety responses. Repeated pairings of the CS with the US result in an association of both stimuli that causes the occurrence of the CS alone to elicit an emotional response. It has been suggested that neocortical regions are able to represent the single features of the context, whereas the implementation of features into a unitary conjunctive representation necessitates the binding capacity of the hippocampus. We carried out a pilot study with young healthy subjects to test a novel paradigm, which utilizes two cue-array contexts with identical physical properties, only differing in the arrangement of context components to force subjects to uncontaminated contextual processing. T-contrasts revealed sustained BOLD activity of the electrical-shock-associated context, relative to the non-shocked context (CS+unpaired > CS-, in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral insula. Transient activity for the same contrast was found in regions of the right hippocampus and the right amygdala. An analysis of functional connectivity showed that the posterior hippocampus was significantly stronger connected to the right superior orbital gyrus during unpaired CS+ contexts relative to CS- contexts. An additional analysis of effective connectivity revealed that activity of the right anterior hippocampus influences activity in the amygdala and the primary somatosensory cortex (Brodmann areas 3a and 3b as a result of its interaction with the electrical-shock-associated context. A functional decoupling between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex has been suggested as one of the major dynamical signatures of depression and age-related cognitive decline. Therefore we started to investigate healthy elderly subjects and depressive patients using the same paradigm. It is expected that, compared to young individuals, elderly subjects will be hampered in their ability to differentiate the visually similar contexts, resulting in a diminished contingency awareness and weaker connection of hippocampus to amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, depressive subjects are expected to show a stronger tendency to overgeneralize the aversive electrical stimulus (CS+ to both context-images relative to healthy controls. We expect depressed patients to show hyperactive amygdalae which are weakly connected to hippocampus, anterior cingulated cortex and prefrontal areas with a similar impairment of identifying the correct US-CS+ association. The data will serve at constructing and validating biophysically and anatomically detailed models of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus that will serve to investigate these relationships. In a further step, dynamical and behavioural predictors will be derived from highly realistic model simulations for additional imaging experiments in humans.

  7. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  8. Controle de injúrias sob a ótica da pediatria contextual Injury control from the perspective of contextual pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Blank

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever relações entre controle de injúrias e pediatria contextual. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão quase-sistemática dos bancos MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, usando combinações das seguintes palavras: contextual, comunidade, injúria, acidente e violência; revisão não-sistemática de capítulos de livros e artigos clássicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A segurança depende de uma interação entre hábitos familiares, normas culturais e entorno. A pediatria contextual vê a criança, a família e a comunidad...

  9. Contextuality in Generalized Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal theory of contextuality for a set of random variables grouped into different subsets (contexts) corresponding to different, mutually incompatible conditions. Within each context the random variables are jointly distributed, but across different contexts they are stochastically unrelated. The theory of contextuality is based on the analysis of the extent to which some of these random variables can be viewed as preserving their identity across different contexts when one considers all possible joint distributions imposed on the entire set of the random variables. We illustrate the theory on three systems of traditional interest in quantum physics (and also in non-physical, e.g., behavioral studies). These are systems of the Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type. Listed in this order, each of them is formally a special case of the previous one. For each of them we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for contextuality while allowing for experimental errors and contextual biase...

  10. What does an experimental test of quantum contextuality prove or disprove?

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to test experimentally the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem is investigated critically, following the demonstrations by Meyer, Kent and Clifton-Kent that the predictions of quantum mechanics are indistinguishable (up to arbitrary precision) from those of a non-contextual model, and the subsequent debate to which extent these models are actually classical or non-contextual. The present analysis starts from a careful consideration these "finite-precision" approximations. A stronger condition for non-contextual models, dubbed , is exhibited. It is shown that it allows to formulate approximately the constraints in Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems such as to render the usual proofs robust. As a consequence, one can experimentally test to finite precision ontologically faithful non-contextuality, and thus experimentally refute explanations from this smaller class. We include a discussion of the relation of ontological faithfulness to other proposals to overcome the finite precision objection.

  11. A teologia da missão integral como teologia evangélica contextual latino-americano

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Moraes Sanches

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo inicia com uma análise da reflexão teológica da Fraternidade Teológica Latino-Americana (FTL), numa perspectiva contextual e aborda questões históricas e metodológicas. A seguir, estuda os documentos finais dos Congressos Latino-americanos de Evangelização (CLADES).

  12. The Glocalization of Responsible Investment : Contextualization Work in France and Québec

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gond, Jean-Pascal; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actor–network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work that sustains RI glocalization. Empirical data from two case studies highlight how entrepreneurial actors imported the notion of RI from the US to France and Québec. Our findings uncover three types of contextualization work—filtering, repurposing, and coupling—that sustain RI glocalization, and show how actors employed them in both settings to overcome the lack of technical, cultural, or political fit between the imported practice and their local context. Our results explain how divergent glocalized versions of RI are developed and adapted through contextualization work. Last, we discuss how our repertoire of contextualization work can account for local forms of a global concept and the uneven pattern of its diffusion.

  13. Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2011-01-01

    Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)

  14. Multisensor ISR in geo-registered contextual visual dataspace (CVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungnam; Owechko, Yuri; Flores, Arturo; Korchev, Dmitriy

    2011-06-01

    Current ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) systems require an analyst to observe each video stream, which will result in analyst overload as systems such as ARGUS or Gorgon Stare come into use with many video streams generated by those sensor platforms. Full exploitation of these new sensors is not possible using today's one video stream per analyst paradigm. The Contextual Visual Dataspace (CVD) is a compact representation of real-time updating of dynamic objects from multiple video streams in a global (geo-registered/annotated) view that combines automated 3D modeling and semantic labeling of a scene. CVD provides a single integrated view of multiple automatically-selected video windows with 3D context. For a proof of concept, a CVD demonstration system performing detection, localization, and tracking of dynamic objects (e.g., vehicles and pedestrians) in multiple infrastructure camera views was developed using a combination of known computer vision methods, including foreground detection by background subtraction, ground-plane homography mapping, and appearance model-based tracking. Automated labeling of fixed and moving objects enables intelligent context-aware tracking and behavior analysis and will greatly improve ISR capabilities.

  15. Spectral characteristics of the hippocampal LFP during contextual fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birajara Soares Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The hippocampus has an important role in the acquisitionand recall of aversive memories. The objective of this study was toinvestigate the relationship among hippocampal rhythms. Methods:Microeletrodes arrays were implanted in the hippocampus of Wistarrats. The animals were trained and tested in a contextual fearconditioning task. The training consisted in applying shocks in thelegs. The memory test was performed 1 day (recent memory or 18days (remote memory after training. We proposed a measure basedon the FFT power spectrum, denominated “delta-theta ratio”, tocharacterize the different behaviors (active exploration and freezingand the memories types. Results: The delta-theta ratio was able todistinguish recent and remote memories. In this study, the ratio forthe 18-day group was smaller than for the 1-day group. Moreover,this measure was useful to distinguish the different behavior states– active exploration and freezing. Conclusions: The results suggestdelta-theta oscillations could reflect the demands on informationprocessing during recent and remote memory recalls.

  16. Providing Adapted Contextual Information in an Overlay Vehicular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current vehicular networks are developed upon commercial solutions based on cellular networks (CNs or vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs, both present in numerous research proposals. Current approximations are not enough to cover the communication necessities of several applications at the same time, and they are not suitable for future vehicular pervasive services. The vehicular network presented in this paper fills the existent gap between solutions lacking in flexibility, mainly supported by an infrastructure deployment, and those highly local and distributed, such as sole-VANET approximations. In this manner, an overlay communication platform which can work over the CN basis has been designed and developed. This architecture is complemented by an additional support of an information system located at the infrastructure side. Moreover, since most of the information received from current notification services is not relevant for the driver, an additional subsystem has been devised to provide adapted information to users. This has been carried out by means of an ontology model which represents users' preferences and contextual information. Finally, using a whole prototype of the telematic platform, the performance of this interring process has been evaluated to point out its impact on the system operation.

  17. Contextual valence modulates the neural dynamics of risk processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Li, Qi; Wang, Kai; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xun

    2015-07-01

    A well-known bias in risky decision making is that most people tend to be risk averse when gains are salient but risk seeking when losses are salient. The present study addressed the neural dynamics of this process by recording ERPs during a gambling task in a gain and a loss context. Behaviorally, participants were found to be risk averse in the gain context but risk neutral in the loss context. During the anticipation stage, an increased stimulus-preceding negativity was elicited by high- versus low-risk choices in the gain but not the loss context. During the outcome-appraisal stage, the feedback-related negativity was larger after high- versus low-risk choices in the gain instead of the loss context. For the P300, an outcome valence effect (a larger P300 for gain vs. loss outcomes) emerged following the high- versus low-risk decisions in the gain but not the loss context. Our findings suggest that risk processing can be modulated by the context of valence during the anticipation stage and by both the contextual valence and the outcome valence during the outcome-appraisal stage, which may be driven by the motivational salience imposed by the context of valence. PMID:25664392

  18. Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

  19. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  20. Contextual information-aided kidney segmentation in CT sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Enwei; Liang, Yanmei; Fan, Hailun

    2013-03-01

    Based on the continuity of adjacent slices in a medical image sequence, a slice-based 3-D segmentation framework is constructed to extract the intact kidney by processing all slices automatically in the whole sequence. The framework includes four sections: initial segmentation, selection of the most reliable initial segmentation, location and modification of leakage. The crucial section of the proposed framework is selecting the most reliable initial segmentation image, which will be regarded as the reference image to evaluate the continuity of the following slice. Leakage location is carried out based on the contextual features, and the local iterative thresholding (LIT) is used to modify the leakage. As test examples of the framework, abdominal computed tomography (CT) images in enhanced phases are processed to segment kidney automatically. The total of 392 CT images in 7 sequences from 3 patients are selected as training images to determine the parameters in the database, and other 898 CT images in 21 sequences from 7 patients are used as test images to evaluate the effectiveness of the method. An average of three dimensional Dice similarity coefficient (3-D DSC) of 94.7% and average symmetric surface distance (ASSD) of 0.91 mm are obtained, which indicate that the intact kidney can be perfectly extracted with hardly any leakage automatically.

  1. Generalization and transfer of contextual cues in motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwary, A M E; Stegeman, D F; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2015-09-01

    We continuously adapt our movements in daily life, forming new internal models whenever necessary and updating existing ones. Recent work has suggested that this flexibility is enabled via sensorimotor cues, serving to access the correct internal model whenever necessary and keeping new models apart from previous ones. While research to date has mainly focused on identifying the nature of such cue representations, here we investigated whether and how these cue representations generalize, interfere, and transfer within and across effector systems. Subjects were trained to make two-stage reaching movements: a premovement that served as a cue, followed by a targeted movement that was perturbed by one of two opposite curl force fields. The direction of the premovement was uniquely coupled to the direction of the ensuing force field, enabling simultaneous learning of the two respective internal models. After training, generalization of the two premovement cues' representations was tested at untrained premovement directions, within both the trained and untrained hand. We show that the individual premovement representations generalize in a Gaussian-like pattern around the trained premovement direction. When the force fields are of unequal strengths, the cue-dependent generalization skews toward the strongest field. Furthermore, generalization patterns transfer to the nontrained hand, in an extrinsic reference frame. We conclude that contextual cues do not serve as discrete switches between multiple internal models. Instead, their generalization suggests a weighted contribution of the associated internal models based on the angular separation from the trained cues to the net motor output. PMID:26156381

  2. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel H. Thesnaar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

  3. Contextual chemosensory urine signaling in an African cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P; Fernald, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory signaling is crucial for communication in many fish species, but little is known about how signalers modulate chemical output in response to sensory information and social context. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dominant male African cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) use urine signals during social interactions, and demonstrate that this signaling depends on social context (reproductive; territorial) and on available sensory information (visual cues; full interaction). We injected males with dye to visualize urine pulses and exposed them to full sensory information or visual cues alone of four types: (1) dominant male; (2) gravid (reproductively receptive) females; (3) mouth-brooding (non-receptive) females; or (4) control (no fish). We found that males released urine sooner and increased their urination frequency when visually exposed to gravid females as compared with mouth-brooding females and or no-fish controls. While males could distinguish female reproductive states using visual cues alone, courtship behavior rates were ?10-fold higher when they fully interacted with gravid females compared with receiving visual cues alone. Males also increased their urination and territorial behaviors when exposed to another male, suggesting that chemical signals may convey information on dominance status. These data support the hypothesis that dominant males use urine as a chemical signal and adjust the frequency of their urine output based on contextual information. PMID:22162854

  4. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Seugnet, Blignaut; Christo, Els; Sarah, Howie.

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand th [...] e pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv) teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  5. Processing temporary syntactic ambiguity: the effect of contextual bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Taha; Clifton, Charles

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports two experiments using sentences with a temporary ambiguity between a direct object and a sentence complement analysis that is resolved toward the normally preferred direct object analysis. Postverbal noun phrases in these sentences could be ambiguously attached as either a direct object or the subject of a sentence complement, whereas in unambiguous versions of the sentences the subcategorization of the verb forced the direct object interpretation. Participants read these sentences in relatively long paragraph contexts, where the context supported the direct object analysis ("preferred"), supported the sentence complement analysis ("unpreferred"), or provided conflicting evidence about both analyses ("conflicting"). Self-paced reading times for ambiguous postverbal noun phrases were almost equivalent to the reading times of their unambiguous counterparts, even in unpreferred and conflicted context conditions. However, time to read a following region, which forced the direct object interpretation, was affected by the interaction of verb subcategorization ambiguity and contextual support. The full pattern of results do not fit well with either an unelaborated single-analysis ("garden path") model or a competitive constraint-satisfaction model, but are consistent with a race model in which multiple factors affect the speed of constructing a single initial analysis. PMID:21722057

  6. Quantum contextual finite geometries from dessins d'enfants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planat, Michel; Giorgetti, Alain; Holweck, Frédéric; Saniga, Metod

    2015-04-01

    We point out an explicit connection between graphs drawn on compact Riemann surfaces defined over the field \\bar Q of algebraic numbers — the so-called Grothendieck's dessins d'enfants — and a wealth of distinguished point-line configurations. These include simplices, cross-polytopes, several notable projective configurations, a number of multipartite graphs and some "exotic" geometries. Among them, remarkably, we find not only those underlying Mermin's magic square and magic pentagram, but also those related to the geometry of two- and three-qubit Pauli groups. Of particular interest is the occurrence of all the three types of slim generalized quadrangles, namely GQ(2, 1), GQ(2, 2) and GQ(2, 4), and a couple of closely related graphs, namely the Schläfli and Clebsch ones. These findings seem to indicate that dessins d'enfants may provide us with a new powerful tool for gaining deeper insight into the nature of finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces and their associated groups, with a special emphasis on contextuality.

  7. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christoffel H., Thesnaar.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( [...] TRC) South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a postapartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

  8. Contextual Influences on Men's Perceptions of Women's Sexual Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Teresa A; Viken, Richard J; Summers, Sharday

    2015-11-01

    The current study evaluated whether the sexual relevance of the social environment potentiated men's judgments of women's sexual interest, particularly among men reporting more frequent misperception of a potential partner's sexual interest. Twenty-eight scenes were constructed depicting social environments that were either lower or higher in sexual relevance (e.g., office vs. bar). A full-body photograph of one of 14 college-aged women was inserted into each scene; the women all expressed neutral-to-positive affect and varied in provocativeness of dress and attractiveness. A total of 237 undergraduate males viewed each scene and judged how sexually interested and friendly each woman felt. Sexually relevant social environments potentiated men's judgments of women's sexual interest far more than their friendliness. This effect was stronger among more conservatively dressed women and among men reporting more frequent experiences of misperceiving a woman's sexual interest. The findings highlight the contextualized nature of emotional perception, whereby perception of emotion is potentiated in congruent, relative to incongruent, contexts. PMID:25917412

  9. Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Eriksson, I. [Maelardalen University (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

  10. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  11. Contextual social cognition and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-04-24

    The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3) consolidate context-target associative learning. We suggest the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) as a specific disorder in which the reported deficits in social cognition (e.g., facial recognition, empathy, decision-making, figurative language, theory of mind) can be described as context impairments due to deficits in the SCNM. Disruption of orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit, as well as the frontal, temporal, and insular atrophy in bVFTD, suggests a relationship between context-sensitive social cognition and SCNM. In considering context as an intrinsic part of social cognition, we highlight the need for a situated cognition approach in social cognition research as opposed to an abstract, universal, and decontextualized approach. The assessment of context-dependent social cognition paradigms, the SCNM, and their possible application to neuropsychiatric disorders may provide new insight into bvFTD and other related frontal disorders. PMID:22529204

  12. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel H. Thesnaar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

  13. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savolainen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  14. Cognitive and contextual variables in sexual partner and relationship perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maria-João; Garcia-Marques, Leonel

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the effects of contextual and cognitive variables for sexual protection on perceived social relationship factors. University students (108 women and 108 men) read script-based narratives on sexual encounters in which six variables were manipulated in two independent analyses. In the first analysis, four variables were evaluated: relational context (stable, casual), condom use (yes, no), script terminus (beginning, middle or end), and the rater's sex. The dependent variables were interpersonal perception of one of the characters of the narrative, and expectations regarding characteristics and future of the relationship. In the second analysis, two other factors were manipulated only in the "yes" condom conditions: communication strategy (verbal, non-verbal) and condom proponent gender. Our findings corroborated other studies where condom use was viewed as unromantic with less positive characteristics for relationships. Condom proponents, especially male, were perceived as less romantic, particularly when proposing a condom non-verbally at the beginning of the encounter. However, the controlled variables enabled us to propose ways of associating condom use with positive expectations towards the proponent and the relationship itself. Romanticism, expectation of sexual intercourse, emotional proximity, and expectations of condom use in encounters where a condom was proposed increased when suggested by a woman, postponed to the end of the encounter, and verbally mentioned. We encourage women to take the lead in suggesting condom use, thus empowering them since they do not have to wait for the male to make the first move. PMID:21350915

  15. Study of career development in children from a developmental-contextual perspective Estudio del desarrollo de la orientación vocacional en la infancia desde la perspectiva evolutivo-contextual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Araújo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Career development is a longitudinal process, from childhood to adulthood, which is influenced by personal and contextual factors. Vocational literature has described childhood as a formative period for career development, as the bases of career exploration and vocational interests, values, attitudes and skills are established in the first years of life. This study starts with an overview of the major theoretical approaches and research trends in the study of children’s career development. A particular focus on the developmental-contextual approach to career development is adopted, as an integrative framework to capture the complexity of career developmental processes and results that occur in the first years of life. The application of such a perspective to the study of children’s career development leads to a discussion of the nature of change in the first years of life, of the child as a shaper of development and context, and of the impact of contexts on children’s development. Finally, we present implications of the adoption of a developmental-contextual approach to the study of children’s career development for future research.

    Keywords: Career development, vocational guidance, childhood, contextual theories.
    El desarrollo de la orientación vocacional debemos entenderlo como un proceso longitudinal, que se extiende desde la infancia hasta la edad adulta y que está influido por factores personales y contextuales. La literatura existente, ha descrito la infancia como un período clave para este proceso, pues las bases de la exploración profesional, los intereses, los valores, las actitudes y las habilidades vocacionales, se forman en los primeros años de vida. Este estudio, describe los principales enfoques teóricos y las tendencias de la investigación en la actualidad sobre este tema y su relación con la infancia, poniendo especial énfasis en el enfoque contextual, como marco integrador explicativo de la complejidad de los procesos que se ven implicados en el desarrollo vocacional y la importancia que tienen los primeros años de vida. El uso de esa perspectiva, en el estudio de la orientación profesional en la infancia, surge a raíz de las controversias existente en referencia a la naturaleza del cambio en los primeros años de vida, de la idea del niño como regulador del desarrollo y del contexto, así como también, del impacto contextual en los procesos evolutivos. Finalmente, el trabajo presenta las implicaciones -para futuras investigaciones- de la relevancia de la teoría contextual.

    Palabras clave: Desarrollo, orientación vocacional, infancia, teoría contextual.

  16. Contextual effects and psychological features influencing decoy options: A review and research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop future research proposals aiming to contribute the extant theory which explains decoy effects.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, a review of the existing literature about decoy options and its interactions with contextual effects that could affect their performance is presented. Next, two research proposals are presented: the introduction of a double decoy choice set and the evaluation of decoy effect under different levels of cognitive effort in a purchasing process.Findings and Originality/value: For the research proposal concerning double decoy choice sets, different hypothesis are introduced based on the different theories aiming to explain the effect of simple decoy choice sets. This hypothesis predict different outcomes for the same experimental design, fact that could provide further support for at least one of the current explanations for decoy effects. Regarding the effect of decoy options under different levels of cognitive effort, implications for experimental design for sequential purchasing process are expected. Especially for those designed with complex options, with many steps or high number of options.Originality/value: Two new research proposal approaches are presented in order enhance the current theory. Moreover, both have managerial implications concerning the real usage of decoy options in reduced choice sets as well as in sequential purchasing processes.

  17. Contextual modulation of pain in masochists: involvement of the parietal operculum and insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamping, Sandra; Andoh, Jamila; Bomba, Isabelle C; Diers, Martin; Diesch, Eugen; Flor, Herta

    2016-02-01

    Pain can be modulated by contextual stimuli, such as emotions, social factors, or specific bodily perceptions. We presented painful laser stimuli together with body-related masochistic visual stimuli to persons with and without preferred masochistic sexual behavior and used neutral, positive, and negative pictures with and without painful stimuli as control. Masochists reported substantially reduced pain intensity and unpleasantness in the masochistic context compared with controls but had unaltered pain perception in the other conditions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that masochists activated brain areas involved in sensory-discriminative processing rather than affective pain processing when they received painful stimuli on a masochistic background. The masochists compared with the controls displayed attenuated functional connectivity of the parietal operculum with the left and right insulae, the central operculum, and the supramarginal gyrus. Masochists additionally showed negative correlations between the duration of interest in masochistic activities and activation of areas involved in motor activity and affective processing. We propose that the parietal operculum serves as an important relay station that attenuates the affective-motivational aspects of pain in masochists. This novel mechanism of pain modulation might be related to multisensory integration and has important implications for the assessment and treatment of pain. PMID:26808014

  18. Contextual Information and Covariance Descriptors for People Surveillance: An Application for Safety of Construction Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prati Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In computer science, contextual information can be used both to reduce computations and to increase accuracy. This paper discusses how it can be exploited for people surveillance in very cluttered environments in terms of perspective (i.e., weak scene calibration and appearance of the objects of interest (i.e., relevance feedback on the training of a classifier. These techniques are applied to a pedestrian detector that uses a LogitBoost classifier, appropriately modified to work with covariance descriptors which lie on Riemannian manifolds. On each detected pedestrian, a similar classifier is employed to obtain a precise localization of the head. Two novelties on the algorithms are proposed in this case: polar image transformations to better exploit the circular feature of the head appearance and multispectral image derivatives that catch not only luminance but also chrominance variations. The complete approach has been tested on the surveillance of a construction site to detect workers that do not wear the hard hat: in such scenarios, the complexity and dynamics are very high, making pedestrian detection a real challenge.

  19. The roles of Eph receptors in contextual fear conditioning memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Monica; Grinberg, Svetlana; Vassiliev, Maria; Ram, Alon; Tamir, Tal; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-10-01

    Eph receptors regulate glutamate receptors functions, neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, cellular events believed to be involved in memory formation. In this study we aim to explore the roles of Eph receptors in learning and memory. Toward that end, we examined the roles of EphB2 and EphA4 receptors, key regulators of synaptic functions, in fear conditioning memory formation. We show that mice lacking EphB2 (EphB2(-/-)) are impaired in short- and long-term contextual fear conditioning memory. Mice that express a carboxy-terminally truncated form of EphB2 that lacks forward signaling, instead of the full EphB2, are impaired in long-term, but not short-term, contextual fear conditioning memory. Long-term contextual fear conditioning memory is attenuated in CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice where EphA4 is removed from all pyramidal neurons of the forebrain. Mutant mice with targeted kinase-dead EphA4 (EphA4(KD)) exhibit intact long-term contextual fear conditioning memory showing that EphA4 kinase-mediated forward signaling is not needed for contextual fear memory formation. The ability to form long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory is not impaired in the EphB2(-/-) and CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice. We conclude that EphB2 forward signaling is required for long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation. In contrast, EphB2 mediates short-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a forward signaling-independent manner. EphA4 mediates long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a kinase-independent manner. PMID:26165136

  20. Hippocampal Regulation of Contextual Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Alison L.; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Associations between cocaine and cues facilitate development and maintenance of addiction. We hypothesized that the ventral hippocampus is important for acquisition of these associations. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, with or without pre-exposure to distinct sets of cocaine- and saline-paired contextual cues. Next, rats were conditioned for 3 days with the distinct sets of contextual cues paired with cocaine and saline along with distinct discrete cues. Vehicle or lidocaine wa...