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1

Epistemological Contextualism and Cultures of Knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My first aim in this article is to describe the origin of the notion of culture of knowledge due to the re-search activities carried out at the University of Frankfurt by the Research Group Culture of Knowledge and Social Change since 1999. In this context we examined the relation between knowledge and society and proposed the notion of culture of knowledge as a key-concept to emphasize that knowledge does always appear in a specific historical form, and can be investigated only as a social practice. This key-concept turned out to be a helpful heuristic construct and had therefore a widespread diffusion as a general and extremely flexible category which can shed light on mutual relations between knowledge and culture in several historical contexts. Secondly, I will compare the approach taken in the culture of knowledge with other contextualist approaches of contemporary research areas like History of Science and Theory of Culture to show that it is particularly helpful in terms of connecting different fields. Finally, I will drive attention to a basic question concerning the approach of the culture of knowledge which remains still unanswered. The Frankfurter Research Group considered it as a model of knowledge alternative to all those positions in History of Science and Theory of Culture that assume the universal, trans-historical, and trans-cultural validity of fundamental forms of knowledge and cognitive abilities. I will discuss whether and to what extent these positions are really alternative, and for this purpose I will focus on a central point: whether the thesis of a radical historicity of knowledge undermines the very idea of universal rationality and to what extent.

Wolfgang Detel

2014-04-01

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Appropriating Technologies for Contextual Knowledge: Mobile Personal Learning Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of Technology Enhanced Learning has been dominated by the education paradigm. However social software and new forms of knowledge development and collaborative meaning making are challenging such domination. Technology is increasingly being used to mediate the development of work process knowledge and these processes are leading to the evolution of rhizomatic forms of community based knowledge development. Technologies can support different forms of contextual knowledge development through Personal Learning Environments. The appropriation or shaping of technologies to develop Personal Learning Environments may be seen as an outcome of learning in itself. Mobile devices have the potential to support situated and context based learning, as exemplified in projects undertaken at London Metropolitan University. This work provides the basis for the development of a Work Orientated MoBile Learning Environment (WOMBLE).

Attwell, Graham; Cook, John; Ravenscroft, Andrew

3

Contextualizing Instruction: Leveraging Students' Prior Knowledge and Experiences to Foster Understanding of Middle School Science  

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Contextualizing science instruction involves utilizing students' prior knowledge and everyday experiences as a catalyst for understanding challenging science concepts. This study of two middle school science classrooms examined how students utilized the contextualizing aspects of project-based instruction and its relationship to their science…

Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2008-01-01

4

Cloud-Savvy Contextual Spaces as Agile Personal Learning Environments or Informal Knowledge Management Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents how advanced social media platforms can be exploited to construct and share contextual spaces enabling the instantiation of agile personal learning environments or informal knowledge management solutions. The usefulness of open plugins to collect resources from the cloud in such dedicated contextual spaces is discussed. The mechanisms for the personalization of spaces from an interaction point of view once populated with resources and their sharing across platforms are als...

Gillet, Denis; Bogdanov, Evgeny

2013-01-01

5

Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer : A multiple case study on disparate contexts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries. A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts promote different learning preferences and possibly complementarities may exist between these. Furthermore, double loop learning is not required for beneficial reverse knowledge transfer.

SØberg, Peder Veng

2010-01-01

6

Increase Motivation and Knowledge the Environment through Contextual Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory study is to determine the development of curriculum Environmental Sciences which applies scientific lecture materials that are integrated in the environment, application of environmental knowledge, and character development curriculum on motivation. This study involved 45 students who were selected randomly. Data from samples were obtained by using a questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the survey instrument was conducted by performing a pilot study involving 30 students. The findings of the pilot study as a whole shows that each aspect has high reliability with Cronbach alpha values between 0.77 to 0.823. The findings of the study were analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The analysis of the results showed that the development of curriculum Environmental Sciences which applies scientific lecture materials that are integrated in the environment is at a good level of motivation; the implementation of environmental knowledge is at the average or moderate level of motivation; and character development curriculum is at the high level of motivation. These findings provide information to various stakeholders to develop environment in order to engage students in a campaign or expansion activities in the environmental awareness among the public.

Yustina Yustina

2013-08-01

7

Reducing the Knowledge Tracing Space  

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In Cognitive Tutors, student skill is represented by estimates of student knowledge on various knowledge components. The estimate for each knowledge component is based on a four-parameter model developed by Corbett and Anderson [Nb]. In this paper, we investigate the nature of the parameter space defined by these four parameters by modeling data…

Ritter, Steven; Harris, Thomas K.; Nixon, Tristan; Dickison, Daniel; Murray, R. Charles; Towle, Brendon

2009-01-01

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A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics and literacies embedded, and supported by ICT. Here, we present an evaluation of new technology that might bridge generations and preserve key elements of local IK in Namibia. We describe how we applied insights, generated by ethnographic, dialogical and participatory action research, in designing a structure in which users can store, organize and retrieve user-generated videos in ways that are compatible with their knowledge system. The structure embeds videos in a scenario-based 3D visualization of a rural village. It accounts for some of the ways this rural community manages information, socially, spatially and temporally and provides users with a recognizable 3D simulated environment in which to re-contextualize de-contextualized video clips. Our formative in situ evaluation of a prototype suggests the visualization is legible to community members, provokes participation in design discussions, offers opportunities for local appropriation and may facilitate knowledge sharing between IK holders and more youthful IK assimilators. Simultaneously differing interpretations of scenarios and modeled objects reveal the limitations of our modeling decisions and raises various questions regarding graphic design details and regional transferability.

Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2011-01-01

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Using Wikipedia as an External Knowledge Source for Supporting Contextual Disambiguation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every term has a meaning but there are terms which have multiple meanings. Identifying the correct meaning of a term in a specific context is the goal of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD applications. Identifying the correct sense of a term given a limited context is even harder. This research aims at solving the problem of identifying the correct sense of a term given only one term as its context. The main focus of this research is on using Wikipedia as the external knowledge source to decipher the true meaning of each term using a single term as the context. We experimented with the semantically rich Wikipedia senses and hyperlinks for context disambiguation. We also analyzed the effect of sense filtering on context extraction and found it quite effective for contextual disambiguation. Results have shown that disambiguation with filtering works quite well on manually disambiguated dataset with the performance accuracy of 86%.

2013-01-01

10

Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science based reflections related to the use and uptake of technology in society often conflicts with engineering students’ self-understanding and identity. Another dilemma is related to the specificity and modeling reductionism in engineering science compared to the complexity of problems in engineering practice. Consequently courses added into engineering curricula emphasizing contextual issues stay in stark contrast to the dominant instrumental disciplines of mathematics and techno-science content of core engineering courses. Based on several years of teaching and experimenting with Theory of Science at the Technical University of Denmark, the paper argues that teaching contextual knowledge needs to overcome several barriersthat tend to be neglected in engineering educations.

JØrgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, SØsser

2011-01-01

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"That's in the Time of the Romans!" Knowledge and Strategies Students Use to Contextualize Historical Images and Documents  

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An important goal of history education is the development of a chronological frame of reference that can be used to interpret and date historical images and documents. Despite the importance of this contextualization goal, little is known about the knowledge and strategies that allow students to situate information historically. Two studies were…

van Boxtel, Carla; van Drie, Jannet

2012-01-01

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Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.  

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The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts, appreciation of the clinical importance of anatomy, and the general development of professionalism. PMID:8793222

Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

1996-01-01

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Transient and Robust Knowledge: Contextual Support and the Dynamics of Children's Reasoning about Density  

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Contextual support for performance and understanding plays an important role in learning and teaching. This study investigated the temporal course of the effects of support--how it affects complexity and correctness of judgments about density in kindergarten (n = 35) and second-grade (n = 29) children. In the experimental group, a teacher provided…

Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Koepke, Margy F.; Fischer, Kurt W.

2007-01-01

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Vpliv razvoja kontekstualnega znanja na razlikovalne kompetence = The Influence of the Development of Contextual Knowledge on Differentiating Competencies  

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Full Text Available The subject of this paper is based on the definition of competence asthe individual’s ability to activate, utilize and merge the knowledge andskills acquired when faced with complex, diverse and unpredictablework situations. The purpose of this study is to determine whether thedevelopment of specific contextual knowledge and skills within an organizationleads to the adoption of specific differentiating competenciesby individuals. The survey included marketers employed by threemedium-sized Slovenian enterprises, who function in three differentwork contexts, according to our findings. The results of the researchshow that the differentiating competencies that distinguish the superiorjob performance marketing employee from an average one interms of work success are subject to the development of specific contextualknowledge and skills.

Ramon Podreka

2010-06-01

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The Development of a Contextual Information Framework Model as a Potential IAEA Strategy to Maintain Radioactive Waste Knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e, implemented to give reasonable assurance that future generations of waste custodians will not be unduly burdened by the need to recreate information about the waste long after its disposal. In actual fact, the contextual information framework model is not 'new technology' but simply a means for rationalising and representing the way humans naturally tend to use information in the pursuit of knowledge enhancement. By making use of multiple information entities and their relationships, it is often possible to convert otherwise impossibly complex socio-technical environments into information architectures or networks with remarkable and useful properties. The International Atomic Energy Agency, in its ongoing work to encourage the application of systems to manage radioactive waste information over the long term, has embraced the contextual information framework as a potentially viable approach to this particular challenge. To this end, it invited Member States to contribute to the production of a Safety Report that used the contextual information framework model, building on the wealth of existing IAEA guidance. The report focuses, not on the important area of records management, but on the benefits that can arise from the development of an information management approach that increases the likelihood that future generations will recognise the significance and value of the information contained in these records. Our understanding of 'inter-generational transfer' should extend beyond the simple physical transfer of records into an archival repository towards the establishment of a working culture that places sufficient contemporary information into a form that ensures it remains accessible, and ultimately enhances, the knowledge of future generations. Making information accessible is therefore the key and whilst the use of stable records media, storage environments and quality assurance are important elements, they cannot be considered solutions in themselves. This paper articulates some of the lessons that have been learned about using the contextual information framework model when applied to the long term management of radioactive waste. The draft IAEA Safety Report entitled 'Preservation and Transfer to Future Generations of Information Important to the Safety of Waste Disposal Facilities', on which this paper is based, is expected to be published in 2007. (authors)

16

Putting it in Perspective : Designing a 3D Visualization to Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Namibia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a long-term research and co-design project we are creating a 3D visualization interface for an indigenous knowledge (IK) management system with rural dwellers of the Herero tribe in Namibia. Evaluations of earlier prototypes and theories on cultural differences in perception led us to further investigate the suitability of different perspectives of view for the given user group. Through a combination of drawing sessions, design discussions and a high-fidelity technology probe we explored the visual perceptions and preferences of community members; specifically focusing on representation and recognition of objects and places in their everyday environment. We report how the findings from the study have informed design decisions for our particular system while also suggesting that certain viewing angles for 3D visualizations could be more suitable for the Herero and similar rural cultures in general.

Jensen, Kasper LØvborg; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2012-01-01

17

Quantifying Contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity.

Grudka, A.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Joshi, P.; K?obus, W.; Wójcik, A.

2014-03-01

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The Effect of Contextualizing and Decontextualizing Techniques on Lexical-oriented Knowledge of Persian EFL Language Learners  

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Full Text Available Taking a pretest posttest control group design, the present study served as an attempt to compare the effects of two vocabulary teaching techniques (contextualization and decontextualization techniques on the elementary Iranian EFL learners. To achieve such a purpose, 190 male and female language learners were randomly selected and assigned into two groups, a control group and an experimental group. In the control group, the new English words were presented in word lists associated with their Persian meanings and students were supposed to memorize them (a decontextualizing technique. In the other group, the new English words were presented in model sentences (a contextualizing technique. The data were collected using two reliable and valid tests as pretest and posttest: Each of them consisted of 15 equivalent multiple-choice items of vocabulary. The result of the study revealed significant differences between the two groups of the study. The experimental group outperformed those in the control group quite significantly on vocabulary memorization test. The experimental group also had a better performance on a sentence-making test than the control group though the differences were not significant.

Kamal Heidari Soureshjani

2011-05-01

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Contextual Text Mining  

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With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

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Argumentation and Indigenous Knowledge: Socio-Historical Influences in Contextualizing an Argumentation Model in South African Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and…

Gallard Martinez, Alejandro J.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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On Contextuality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

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Measuring knowledge: investigative research into the quantification of performance within a contextual multi-source PED fusion process  

Science.gov (United States)

Most intelligence analysts currently use Information Products (IP) from multiple sources with very different characteristics to perform a variety of intelligence tasks. In order to maximize the analysts' efficacy (and ultimately provide intelligent automation), it is important to understand how and what each IP within the set of IPs contributes to the accuracy and validity of the analytic result. This paper describes initial research toward the development of a scale, analogous to the National Imagery Interpretability Scale (NIIRS), which will measure the knowledge contribution of each of the multi-source IPs, as well as measuring the extent to which the IP set as a whole meets the enduser's intelligence need - which is actionable knowledge. This scale, the Knowledge-NIIRS (KnIIRS), when completed, will support the measurement of the quality and quantity of information gained through multi-source IP fusion and enables the development of smart (automated) tools for analysts using the next generation of PED workstations. The results of this initial study indicate that analysts are capable of making judgments that reflect the "value" of fused information, and that the judgments they make vary along at least two dimensions. Furthermore, there are substantial and significant differences among analysts in how they make these judgments that must be considered for further scale development. We suggest that the KnIIRS objectives and its derived understandings offer important and critical insights to enable automation that will achieve the goal to deliver actionable knowledge.

Scarff, Larry A.; Burke, Dustin; Jones, Eric; Gilfillan, Lynne; Pratt, Stephanie; Jackson, Cullen; Weil, Shawn; Fiore, Stephen

2013-05-01

23

Histogram contextualization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histograms have been widely used for feature representation in image and video content analysis. However, due to the orderless nature of the summarization process, histograms generally lack spatial information. This may degrade their discrimination capability in visual classification tasks. Although there have been several research attempts to encode spatial context into histograms, how to extend the encodings to higher order spatial context is still an open problem. In this paper,we propose a general histogram contextualization method to encode efficiently higher order spatial context. The method is based on the cooccurrence of local visual homogeneity patterns and hence is able to generate more discriminative histogram representations while remaining compact and robust. Moreover, we also investigate how to extend the histogram contextualization to multiple modalities of context. It is shown that the proposed method can be naturally extended to combine both temporal and spatial context and facilitate video content analysis. In addition, a method to combine cross-feature context with spatial context via the technique of random forest is also introduced in this paper. Comprehensive experiments on face image classification and human activity recognition tasks demonstrate the superiority of the proposed histogram contextualization method compared with the existing encoding methods. PMID:21824847

Feng, Jiashi; Ni, Bingbing; Xu, Dong; Yan, Shuicheng

2012-02-01

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Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

2011-09-01

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Measurement of implementation components and contextual factors in a two-state healthcare quality initiative to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective.?To develop and field test an implementation assessment tool for assessing progress of hospital units in implementing improvements for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a two-state collaborative, including data on actions implemented by participating teams and contextual factors that may influence their efforts. Using the data collected, learn how implementation actions can be improved and analyze effects of implementation progress on outcome measures. Design.?We developed the tool as an interview protocol that included quantitative and qualitative items addressing actions on the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) and clinical interventions for use in guiding data collection via telephone interviews. Setting.?We conducted interviews with leaders of improvement teams from units participating in the two-state VAP prevention initiative. Methods.?We collected data from 43 hospital units as they implemented actions for the VAP initiative and performed descriptive analyzes of the data with comparisons across the 2 states. Results.?Early in the VAP prevention initiative, most units had made only moderate progress overall in using many of the CUSP actions known to support their improvement processes. For contextual factors, a relatively small number of barriers were found to have important negative effects on implementation progress (in particular, barriers related to workload and time issues). We modified coaching provided to the unit teams to reinforce training in weak spots that the interviews identified. Conclusion.?These assessments provided important new knowledge regarding the implementation science of quality improvement projects, including feedback during implementation, and give a better understanding of which factors most affect implementation. PMID:25222890

Ali, Kisha Jezel; Farley, Donna O; Speck, Kathleen; Catanzaro, Mary; Wicker, Karol G; Berenholtz, Sean M

2014-10-01

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The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.

Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

27

Real-time, contextual intervention using mobile technology to reduce marijuana use among youth: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of MOMENT, an intervention to reduce youth marijuana use that combines brief motivational enhancement therapy with mobile self-monitoring and responsive messaging. At baseline, primary care patients ages 15-24 who used marijuana frequently (at least 3 times per week) completed a recall assessment, then 1 week of mobile momentary and daily reports on use-related factors. For the intervention, youth participated in two motivational enhancement therapy sessions, during which they identified their top-3 social and emotional triggers for use and discussed healthy ways to manage them. They then completed two weeks of mobile reports. Upon reporting a top-3 trigger for use, desire to use, or recent use, they received a message supporting self-efficacy and prompting consideration of coping strategies. Generalized estimating equations examined changes in momentary-, daily-, and individual-level measures on 3-month recall and mobile assessments. Twenty-seven youth (M=19.2 years, 70% female) enrolled; there were 377-677 momentary and 50-106 daily reports per study phase. Participants reported reading the messages and finding them motivating, being comfortable with participation, and not experiencing the study as burdensome. Although proportion of momentary reports of being in a top-3 trigger context did not change (36%-43%), marijuana desire in a top-3 trigger context and marijuana use after top-3 trigger exposure decreased over the study (p<.0001 and p=.03, respectively). Daily- and individual-level measures showed similar, non-significant, improvements. The MOMENT intervention appears feasible, well-accepted, and potentially efficacious for youth who use marijuana frequently. PMID:24139665

Shrier, Lydia A; Rhoads, Amanda; Burke, Pamela; Walls, Courtney; Blood, Emily A

2014-01-01

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Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’, and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities.Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged since it allows individuals to achieve personal goals and may lead to effective management of oneself, other people and tasks. In addition, students do not appear to recognise the role of mobile phones in enhancing knowledge transfer. More awareness of this role needs to be created in institutions of learning in order to improve group learning and student performance.

Michael E. Kyobe

2011-03-01

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"An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

Nolan, Jessica M.

2010-01-01

30

Definition-based Versus Contextualized Vocabulary Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ability to infer the meaning of unknown words encountered while reading plays an important role in learners’ foreign language word knowledge development. The current study was an attempt to investigate the efficiency of two vocabulary learning procedures, i.e. definition-based (decontextualized versus contextualized. In the contextualized group there were 53 students of grade one in high school and pre-university who were taught meaning inferencing strategies in which they read their textbooks, identified unknown words in the texts, and inferred the meanings of the unknown words. There were also another 54 students in the decontextualized group who learnt the new words' translations out of context before a new lesson was taught. The findings of the study revealed that the students in decontextualized group slightly outperformed the contextualized group on the vocabulary post-test. It is concluded that definition-based learning was more effective in improving learner’s vocabulary knowledge.

Seyyed Mohammad Reza Amirian

2012-11-01

31

Contextualism, skepticism, and invariantism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Michael Williams and Keith DeRose defend their different versions of contextualism on the grounds that contextualism gives a better account of the ordinary use of epistemic terms than invariantist competitors. One aim of this paper is to explain why their arguments do not succeed. A further aim is to show that the dispute between contextualists and invariantists portrayed by Williams and DeRose is a narrow interpretation of the dispute: there are important contextualist and invariantist positions which fall outside the scope of their arguments and which a full defense of contextualism should consider.

Stephen Jacobson

2010-12-01

32

Informação e competitividade: a contextualização da gestão do conhecimento nos processos organizacionais / Information and competitiveness: the contextualization of knowledge management in organizational processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No âmbito das organizações empresariais, este artigo se propõe a discutir a visualização da gestão do conhecimento na organização em três níveis diferentes, mas fortemente inter-relacionados: o estratégico, o tático e o operacional. O primeiro nível trata da ligação entre competitividade da empresa [...] e o trabalho com os conhecimentos para a criação de competências organizacionais. O segundo nível destaca a importância de se considerar a gestão de conhecimentos na organização como sendo parte relevante de seus processos de negócio e não somente de suas áreas departamentais. E finalmente, em um terceiro nível, está o lado operacional da gestão do conhecimento ligado à aprendizagem, aos formatos que o conhecimento assume e ao papel desempenhado pela tecnologia da informação. Este artigo, baseado principalmente em um estudo diversificado de várias referências bibliográficas, procura trazer algumas contribuições iniciais para esta discussão. Abstract in english In the context of the entrepreneurial organizations, this article aims to discuss the visualization of knowledge management on three different but greatly interrelated levels: the strategic, the tactical and the operational. The first level deals with the link between competitiveness of enterprises [...] and work with knowledge for creation of organizational competencies. The second level highlights the importance of considering knowledge management in the organization as being a relevant part of its business processes and not only of its departmental areas. And, finaly, the third treats of the operational aspect of knowledge management linked to learning, to the formats by which knowledge is presented and the role performed by information technology. Based mainly on a diversified study of several bibliographic references, this article seeks to bring some initial contributions to this discussion.

Sergio Luis da, Silva.

33

HIV/AIDS Education and Behaviour Change:Contextual factors that affect translation of knowledge into action among in-school adolescents in rural Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The main goal of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect translation of HIV/AIDS knowledge into action. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data was obtained from students, teachers, parents, school administrators and the HIV/AIDS coordination department from the Ministry of Education and Sports. The Health Belief Model and Social Learning Theory that formed the basis of this study were used through discussion and analysis of research findings. The ...

Komunda, Rodney Noel

2008-01-01

34

Truancy as a Contextual and School-Related Problem: A Comparative Multilevel Analysis of Country and School Characteristics on Civic Knowledge among 14 Year Olds  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, various governments and education agencies have developed stricter policies to reduce truancy levels, mainly based on the argument that truancy is associated with risk behaviour, crime and substance abuse. In this article, we use a large, 28-nation comparative survey among 14 year olds to detect general patterns in consequences…

Claes, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Reeskens, Tim

2009-01-01

35

Reducing a Knowledge-Base Search Space When Data Are Missing  

Science.gov (United States)

This software addresses the problem of how to efficiently execute a knowledge base in the presence of missing data. Computationally, this is an exponentially expensive operation that without heuristics generates a search space of 1 + 2n possible scenarios, where n is the number of rules in the knowledge base. Even for a knowledge base of the most modest size, say 16 rules, it would produce 65,537 possible scenarios. The purpose of this software is to reduce the complexity of this operation to a more manageable size. The problem that this system solves is to develop an automated approach that can reason in the presence of missing data. This is a meta-reasoning capability that repeatedly calls a diagnostic engine/model to provide prognoses and prognosis tracking. In the big picture, the scenario generator takes as its input the current state of a system, including probabilistic information from Data Forecasting. Using model-based reasoning techniques, it returns an ordered list of fault scenarios that could be generated from the current state, i.e., the plausible future failure modes of the system as it presently stands. The scenario generator models a Potential Fault Scenario (PFS) as a black box, the input of which is a set of states tagged with priorities and the output of which is one or more potential fault scenarios tagged by a confidence factor. The results from the system are used by a model-based diagnostician to predict the future health of the monitored system.

James, Mark

2007-01-01

36

Personalized Contextual Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explains the combination of instructional practices called personalized contextual instruction (PCI) and illustrates its implementation by a general education teacher, a special education teacher, and a paraprofessional working together in a multiage primary inclusive classroom. The PCI approach incorporates individual learning…

Voltz, Deborah L.

2003-01-01

37

Contextual Variability in Free Recall  

Science.gov (United States)

According to contextual-variability theory, experiences encoded at different times tend to be associated with different contextual states. The gradual evolution of context implies that spaced items will be associated with more distinct contextual states, and thus have more unique retrieval cues, than items presented in proximity. Ross and Landauer…

Lohnas, Lynn J.; Polyn, Sean M.; Kahana, Michael J.

2011-01-01

38

Reduced frequency of knowledge of results enhances learning in persons with Parkinson’s disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurological disorder, known to cause a large number of motor and non-motor limitations. Research related to factors that affect motor control and learning in people with PD is still relatively limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different frequencies (100% versus 66% of knowledge of results (KR on the learning of a motor skill with spatial demand in participants with PD. Twenty individuals with PD were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The 100% group received KR after each trial, while the 66% group received KR on two thirds of the trials. A linear positioning task with a spatial target was used. Participants carried out the task with the dominant hand while being blindfolded. In the acquisition and retention phases, the goal was to position the cursor at a distance of 60cm from the starting point. The hypothesis was that participants with PD, who practiced with a reduced KR frequency, would demonstrate more effective learning than those who practiced with a 100% KR frequency, similar to previous findings with adults without neurological disorders. The results showed differences between the groups in the retention phase (without KR: The 66% KR group was more accurate and less variable in their performance than the 100% KR group. Thus, reducing the KR frequency can enhance motor learning in persons with PD, similar to what has previously been found for unimpaired participants.

SuzeteChiviacowsky

2010-12-01

39

Knowledges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

Berling, Trine Villumsen

2012-01-01

40

A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues. This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition state context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization. To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees may benefit from such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

Eicke Godehardt

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Contextual Coalitional Games  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of cooperation among agents is of central interest in multi-agent systems research. A popular way to model cooperation is through coalitional game theory. Much research in this area has had limited practical applicability as regards real-world multi-agent systems due to the fact that it assumes deterministic payoffs to coalitions and in addition does not apply to multi-agent environments that are stochastic in nature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to modeling such scenarios where coalitional games will be contextualized through the use of logical expressions representing environmental and other state, and probability distributions will be placed on the space of contexts in order to model the stochastic nature of the scenarios. More formally, we present a formal representation language for representing contextualized coalitional games embedded in stochastic environments and we define and show how to compute expected Shapley values in such games in a computationally efficient manner. We present the value of the approach through an example involving robotics assistance in emergencies.

Doherty, Patrick; Michalak, Tomasz; Sroka, Jacek; Sza?as, Andrzej

42

Features and Feedback: Enhancing Metamnemonic Knowledge at Retrieval Reduces Source-Monitoring Errors  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments explored the issue of whether enhanced metamnemonic knowledge at retrieval can improve participants' ability to make difficult source discriminations in the context of the eyewitness suggestibility paradigm. The 1st experiment documented differences in phenomenal experience between veridical and false memories. Experiment 2…

Lane, Sean M.; Roussel, Cristine C.; Villa, Diane; Morita, Shelby K.

2007-01-01

43

Using contextual and lexical features to restructure and validate the classification of biomedical concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical ontologies are critical for integration of data from diverse sources and for use by knowledge-based biomedical applications, especially natural language processing as well as associated mining and reasoning systems. The effectiveness of these systems is heavily dependent on the quality of the ontological terms and their classifications. To assist in developing and maintaining the ontologies objectively, we propose automatic approaches to classify and/or validate their semantic categories. In previous work, we developed an approach using contextual syntactic features obtained from a large domain corpus to reclassify and validate concepts of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS, a comprehensive resource of biomedical terminology. In this paper, we introduce another classification approach based on words of the concept strings and compare it to the contextual syntactic approach. Results The string-based approach achieved an error rate of 0.143, with a mean reciprocal rank of 0.907. The context-based and string-based approaches were found to be complementary, and the error rate was reduced further by applying a linear combination of the two classifiers. The advantage of combining the two approaches was especially manifested on test data with sufficient contextual features, achieving the lowest error rate of 0.055 and a mean reciprocal rank of 0.969. Conclusion The lexical features provide another semantic dimension in addition to syntactic contextual features that support the classification of ontological concepts. The classification errors of each dimension can be further reduced through appropriate combination of the complementary classifiers.

Friedman Carol

2007-07-01

44

Evaluation of a Fotonovela to Increase Depression Knowledge and Reduce Stigma Among Hispanic Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fotonovelas—small booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions—represent a powerful health education tool for low-literacy and ethnic minority audiences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a depression fotonovela in increasing depression knowledge, decreasing stigma, increasing self-efficacy to recognize depression, and increasing intentions to seek treatment, relative to a text pamphlet. Hispanic adults attending a community adult school (N = 157, 47.5 % f...

Unger, Jennifer B.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Molina, Gregory B.; Contreras, Sandra; Baron, Melvin

2013-01-01

45

The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

2009-05-01

46

Psychological, Contextual, and Social Determinants of Safe Sex Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study that developed a model of sexual risk-taking behavior that included psychological measures, as well as social or demographic factors, and contextual variables. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge based used when designing health promotion or disease prevention programs that promote safer sexual practices…

Wilkinson, Anna V.; Iscoe, Ira; Holahan, Charles J.

47

Humanizing Chemistry Education: From Simple Contextualization to Multifaceted Problematization  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemistry teaching has traditionally been weakly connected to everyday life, technology, society, and history and philosophy of science. This article highlights knowledge areas and perspectives needed by the humanistic (and critical-reflexive) chemistry teacher. Different humanistic approaches in chemistry teaching, from simple contextualization

Sjöström, Jesper; Talanquer, Vicente

2014-01-01

48

Contextual Query Perfection by Affective Features Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback in Multimedia Information Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia Information may have multiple semantics depending on context, a temporal interest and user preferences. Hence we are exploiting the plausibility of context associated with semantic concept in retrieving relevance information. We are proposing an Affective Feature Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback (AICSRF to investigate whether audio and speech along with visual could determine the current context in which user wants to retrieve the information and to further investigate whether we could employ Affective Feedback as an implicit source of evidence in CSRF cycle to increase the systems contextual semantic understanding. We introduce an Emotion Recognition Unit (ERU that comprises of spatiotemporal Gabor filter to capture spontaneous facial expression and emotional word recognition system that uses phonemes to recognize the spoken emotional words. We propose Contextual Query Perfection Scheme (CQPS to learn, refine the current context that could be used in query perfection in RF cycle to understand the semantic of query on the basis of relevance judgment taken by ERU. Observations suggest that CQPS in AICSRF incorporating such affective features reduce the search space hence retrieval time and increase the systems contextual semantic understanding.

Anil K. Tripathi

2012-09-01

49

Mindfulness reduces habitual responding based on implicit knowledge: evidence from artificial grammar learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants were unknowingly exposed to complex regularities in a working memory task. The existence of implicit knowledge was subsequently inferred from a preference for stimuli with similar grammatical regularities. Several affective traits have been shown to influence AGL performance positively, many of which are related to a tendency for automatic responding. We therefore tested whether the mindfulness trait predicted a reduction of grammatically congruent preferences, and used emotional primes to explore the influence of affect. Mindfulness was shown to correlate negatively with grammatically congruent responses. Negative primes were shown to result in faster and more negative evaluations. We conclude that grammatically congruent preference ratings rely on habitual responses, and that our findings provide empirical evidence for the non-reactive disposition of the mindfulness trait. PMID:23774456

Whitmarsh, Stephen; Uddén, Julia; Barendregt, Henk; Petersson, Karl Magnus

2013-09-01

50

Parallel Processing Implementations of a Contextual Classifier for Multispectral Remote Sensing Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contextual classifiers are being developed as a method to exploit the spatial/spectral context of a pixel to achieve accurate classification. Classification algorithms such as the contextual classifier typically require large amounts of computation time. One way to reduce the execution time of these tasks is through the use of parallelism. The applicability of the CDC Flexible Processor system and of a proposed multimicroprocessor system (PASM) for implementing contextual classifiers is exami...

Siegel, Howard J.; Swain, Philip H.; Smith, Bradley W.

1980-01-01

51

Empathy and contextual social cognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM. PMID:23955101

Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

2014-03-01

52

Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend tre parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

53

Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM, limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org, combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods: We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results: Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96% completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001; this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions: Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa.

Elise M van der Elst

2013-12-01

54

Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information  

CERN Document Server

In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

Slivkins, Aleksandrs

2009-01-01

55

Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well.

Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; JØrgensen, Klaus Frovin

2013-01-01

56

Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

57

Contextuality: Wheeler's universal regulating principle  

CERN Document Server

In this essay I develop quantum contextuality as a potential candidate for Wheeler's universal regulating principle, arguing -- \\textit{contrary} to Wheeler -- that this ultimately implies that `bit' comes from `it.' In the process I develop a formal definition of physical determinism in the languages of domain theory and category theory.

Durham, Ian T

2013-01-01

58

Contextual Teaching and Learning for Practitioners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL is defined as a way to introduce content using a variety of activelearning techniques designed to help students connect what they already know to what they are expected to learn, and to construct new knowledge from the analysis and synthesis of this learning process. A theoretical basis for CTL is outlined, with a focus on Connection, Constructivist, and Active Learning theories. A summary of brain activity during the learning process illustrates the physiological changes and connections that occur during educational activities. Three types of learning scenarios (project-based, goal-based, and inquiry-oriented are presented to illustrate how CTL can be applied by practitioners.

Clemente Charles Hudson

2008-08-01

59

Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Pesticide consumption is increasing in Bolivia as well as pest resistance, pesticide poisonings and pollution of the environment. This survey evaluates the training of small holder farmers on pesticide handling and ecological alternatives to reduce the negative pesticide effects. METHOD: A baseline survey was performed in 2002 and follow-up surveys in 2004 and 2009. Farmers were selected and trained on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) from 2002 to 2004 in Farmer Field Schools (FFS). After exclusions and drop outs, 23 FFS trained farmers could be compared to 47 neighbor farmers for changes in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using ?2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS farmers. At baseline no difference were seen between the two groups apart from a more frequent use of personal protection among the FFS farmers. After the training was finished significant differences were seen between FFS farmers and neighbor farmers on all KAP variables, a difference reduced to six of the KAP variables in 2009. No difference was seen in self-reported poisonings after pesticide handling. FFS farmers improved their KAP scores markedly during training and there after retained their knowledge, while neighbor farmers improved during the entire period. Ecological farming without the use of pesticides increased most among the FFS farmers. CONCLUSION: The study showed a sustained improvement among Farmers Field School trained farmers on personal protection and hygiene when handling pesticides, knowledge and use of IPM and ecological alternatives and a reduction in self-reported symptoms after pesticide handling. Similar though less pronounced improvements was seen among neighbor farmers having had less training and information on pesticide handling and alternatives than the FFS trained farmers. Training of farmers on IPM and good agricultural practices has positive effects, but is scarce in Bolivia as in most low-income countries and must be encouraged to support an improved and sustainable food production and to protect the health of farmers and consumers as well as the environment.

JØrs, Erik; Lander, Flemming

2014-01-01

60

Mobile and contextual learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Task duration in contextual interference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Duration of practice trial on a pursuit rotor task in contextual interference was investigated. Participants practiced at each of 4 angular velocities, with 24 participants completing 28 trials lasting 20 sec., and 24 participants completing 112 trials of 5 sec. Half of the participants in each trial-duration condition practiced in a blocked format and half practiced in a random format. After random practice posttest performance was better than blocked practice when practice-trial duration was 20 sec., but worse when practice-trial duration was 5 sec. This result is not consistent with theoretical explanations of the contextual interference effect and is discussed with reference to the task characteristics and demands of the pursuit rotor. PMID:12578255

Smith, Peter J K

2002-12-01

62

Contextual approach to quantum formalism  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

Khrennikov, Andrei

2009-01-01

63

A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%.

Hamill, James J [Siemens Medical Solutions, Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN (United States); Brunken, Richard C [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Bybel, Bohdan [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFilippo, Frank P [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Faul, David D [Siemens Medical Solutions, Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN (United States)

2006-06-07

64

Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality  

CERN Document Server

The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.

Kupczynski, Marian

2014-01-01

65

Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects? attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects? task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. PMID:24593900

Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

2014-04-01

66

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Efficacy of a Knowledge-Contact Program to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma and Improve Mental Health Literacy in Adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this school-based cluster-randomized trial was to determine the initial acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of an existing community-based intervention, In Our Own Voice, in a sample of US adolescent girls aged 13–17 years (n=156). In Our Own Voice is a knowledge-contact intervention that provides knowledge about mental illness to improve mental health literacy and facilitates intergroup contact with persons with mental illness as a means to reduce mental illness stigma....

Pinto-foltz, Melissa D.; Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Myers, John A.

2011-01-01

67

Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.

68

Contextual Inference in Computational Semantics  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, an application of automated theorem proving techniques to computational semantics is considered. In order to compute the presuppositions of a natural language discourse, several inference tasks arise. Instead of treating these inferences independently of each other, we show how integrating techniques from formal approaches to context into deduction can help to compute presuppositions more efficiently. Contexts are represented as Discourse Representation Structures and the way they are nested is made explicit. In addition, a tableau calculus is present which keeps track of contextual information, and thereby allows to avoid carrying out redundant inference steps as it happens in approaches that neglect explicit nesting of contexts.

Monz, C

2000-01-01

69

Architecture knowledge management: challenges, approaches, and tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capturing the technical knowledge, contextual information, and rationale surrounding the design decisions underpinning system architectures can greatly improve the software development process. If not managed, this critical knowledge is implicitly embedded in the architecture, becoming tacit knowledge which erodes as personnel on the project change. Moreover, the unavailability of architecture knowledge precludes organizations from growing their architectural capabilities. In this tutorial...

Ali Babar, Muhammad; Gorton, Ian

2007-01-01

70

Knowledge translation of research findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

Grimshaw Jeremy M

2012-05-01

71

Contextualizing instruction and student learning in middle school project-based science classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

National science education reform efforts encourage teachers to contextualize instruction by building from students' personal experiences and prior knowledge to promote understanding and develop their capacity to apply science ideas in a variety of real-world settings. However, little information exists regarding the use of this instruction in classrooms, and scant evidence is available to demonstrate a relationship between this instructional method and students' science learning. This study addresses these gaps in the literature by exploring teachers' efforts to contextualize instruction in two urban middle school project-based science classrooms, looking particularly at how teachers and students utilized the contextualizing aspects of the project and its relationship to learning. The study was guided by three research questions. First, what does contextualizing instruction in middle school project-based science classrooms look like? Second, what are students' uses of contextualizing aspects during instruction? Third, what is the relationship between students' utilization of these aspects and their science learning? To address these questions, several data collection and analysis methods were utilized. These included classroom observations and characterization of students' use of these features in terms of a contextualizing score, stimulated recall interviews with target students regarding ideas and experiences brought forward during instruction, and analysis of final science learning assessments. Major findings include teachers' successful use of contextualizing features throughout the extended project in urban classrooms, students' engagement with the contextualizing features which brought forward their prior ideas and experiences during instruction, and a significantly large correlation between students' use of contextualizing features during instruction and their performance on science learning assessments. Together, these findings provide initial evidence for contextualizing instruction in science classrooms as a means to build on students' prior knowledge and experiences and facilitate their development and application of concepts in real world settings. The results indicate the importance of contextualizing instruction in science learning environments, and inform methods of utilizing this instruction in classrooms through curriculum design and professional development efforts. Future research should address the limitations of this study including greater numbers of student cases and focus on a variety of classroom and learning settings.

Rivet, Ann Elizabeth

72

Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

Anna Voigt

2008-03-01

73

Contextual Modelling of Collaboration System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faced with new environmental constraints, firms decide to collaborate in collective entities and adopt new patterns of behavior. So, this firms’ collaboration becomes an unavoidable approach. Indeed, our aim interest in our study is to propose a collaborative information system for supply chain. Our proposed platform ensures cooperation and information sharing between partners in real time. In fact, several questions have to be asked: What is the information nature may be shared between partners? What processes are implemented between actors? What functional services are supported by the platform? In order to answer these questions, we present, in this article, our methodological approach of modelling, called CMCS (Contextual Modelling of Collaborative System

Wafaa DACHRY

2012-03-01

74

Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paisit Boonyakawee, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Robert S ChapmanCollege of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. The study included 42 and 50 farmers at the intervention and control farms, respectively. The intervention included several components, including didactic instruction, practical demonstrations, use of a fluorescent tracer, and continuing guidance on insecticide use via a small, specially trained group within the overall intervention group. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first such intervention in Thailand. Knowledge and attitude were measured at baseline (pre-intervention, and at 2 and 5 months after the intervention (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, respectively. Intervention effects were assessed with linear mixed models, specified to enable testing of effects at each follow-up time. The intervention was associated with substantial and statistically significant improvements in both knowledge score and attitude score (P < 0.001 for each score at each follow-up time. Intervention-related improvements in knowledge score and attitude score were equivalent to about 27% and 14% of baseline mean knowledge and attitude scores, respectively. Intervention-related benefits were similar at both follow-up times. Findings were similar before and after adjustment for covariates. These findings increase confidence that well-designed interventions can reduce farmers' insecticide exposure in Thailand and elsewhere. In future research, it would be desirable to address long-term intervention effects on farmers' health and quality of life.Keywords: insecticides, pesticides, intervention, farmers, knowledge, attitude

Boonyakawee P

2013-09-01

75

Ontological Models, Preparation Contextuality and Nonlocality  

Science.gov (United States)

The ontological model framework for an operational theory has generated much interest in recent years. The debate concerning reality of quantum states has been made more precise in this framework. With the introduction of generalized notion of contextuality in this framework, it has been shown that completely mixed state of a qubit is \\emph{preparation contextual}. Interestingly, this new idea of preparation contextuality has been used to demonstrate nonlocality of some $\\psi$-epistemic models without any use of Bell's inequality. In particular, nonlocality of a non maximally $\\psi$-epistemic model has been demonstrated from preparation contextuality of a maximally mixed qubit and Schr\\"{o}dinger's steerability of the maximally entangled state of two qubits [Phys. Rev. Lett {\\bf 110}, 120401 (2013)]. In this paper, we, show that any mixed state is preparation contextual. We, then, show that nonlocality of any bipartite pure entangled state, with Schmidt rank two, follows from preparation contextuality and steerability provided we impose certain condition on the epistemicity of the underlying ontological model. More interestingly, if the pure entangled state is of Schmidt rank greater than two, its nonlocality follows without any further condition on the epistemicity. Thus our result establishes a stronger connection between nonlocality and preparation contextuality by revealing nonlocality of any bipartite pure entangled states without any use of Bell-type inequality.

Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

2014-10-01

76

A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles  

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Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

Arthur Stamps

2014-11-01

77

Primary Contextualization of Science Learning through Immersion in Content-Rich Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study of primary contextualization processes during science immersion trips and the resultant student learning. Four High School Ecology classes (n?=?67) and teachers participated. Through a pre-/post-assessment of science concept knowledge (Pathfinder Network Modeling) and follow-up interviews with students, it was…

Giamellaro, Michael

2014-01-01

78

Contextual compound screening for improved therapeutic discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellular behaviors are governed by combinations of systemic and microenvironmental factors; together, these regulate cell signaling responses to growth factors. This contextual microenvironmental influence also determines drug sensitivity. Hence using in vitro systems that model contextual cellular behavior is highly beneficial for effective therapeutic development. Angiogenesis (formation of blood vessels) is driven by a series of dynamic endothelial cell signaling responses to growth factors under the influence of the vascular extracellular matrix and adjacent pericytes. In vitro primary human vascular cell co-cultures self-assemble into capillary-like structures through reciprocal heterotypic interactions that mimic angiogenic context dynamics. By using temporal live-cell imaging-based analysis, unique angiogenic microenvironments can be delineated to quantify the contextual activity of compound inhibitors. We used this in vitro organotypic contextual screening approach to conduct structure-activity relationship analysis on a combretastatin A-4 analogue series to identify novel compounds with potent vascular disrupting activity in vivo. PMID:24222525

Evensen, Lasse; Odlo, Kristin; Micklem, David R; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda; Wood, Jeanette; Kuzniewski, Christian; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Lorens, James B

2013-12-16

79

An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

Ian T. Durham

2014-09-01

80

Templates and Queries in Contextual Hypermedia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new definition of context for context-aware computing based on a model that relies on dynamic queries over structured objects. This new model enables developers to flexibly specify the relationship between context and context data for their context-aware applications. We discuss a framework, HyConSC, that implements this model and describe how it can be used to build new contextual hypermedia systems. Our framework aids the developer in the iterative development of contextual queries (via a dynamic query browser) and offers support for con-text matching, a key feature of contextual hypermedia. We have tested the framework with data and sensors taken from the HyCon contextual hypermedia system and are now migrating HyCon to this new framework.

Anderson, Kenneth Mark; Hansen, Frank Allan

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Contextualization of Physics and Astronomy Through Nature  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis focuses on the need for enriched learning environments in science education through the integrated setting of a physics course that is included in the training program for physics teachers. The participants are researchers, prospective physics teachers, civil defence volunteers and astronomers as collaborators. In this course an approach is adopted to incorporate indoor and outdoor settings in the same process to support one another with the purpose of contextualizing physics through nature. In the heart of the course is experience and observation, particularly in nature, in the form of a residential camp. Nature is a setting where students are faced with the sky and a telescope and do sky observations throughout the night. The part of the course involving astronomy is based on this engagement with the problems that arise from the topic of sky and telescope and are brought into the class in ill-structured form as a result of experience and observation. Within this thesis, the data gathered in two consecutive years, 2008 and 2009, are evaluated qualitatively. The problems were formed around a core experience but with the same core experience, problems varied from year to year depending on the human factor within the experience, namely the different characteristics of different people in different conditions, and environmental factors; geography and weather conditions, and the increasing experience of the researchers. Furthermore IYA2009 was also effective on the program of the course in 2009. Through this thesis prospective physics teachers’ participation in astronomy was broadened and it resulted in the formation of new knowledge, better understanding and led to the advancement of the use of astronomy in physics education. It is consistent with the inclusion of astronomy in new secondary and high school physics curriculum in our country as well.

Dogan, Yasemin; Gurel, Z.

2010-01-01

82

Public and Private Sector IT Governance: Identifying Contextual Differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar managerial-level IT issues and challenges, we argue that there are systemic differences between private and public sector organizations suggesting that a one size fits all approach to IT Governance may not apply.

John Campbell

2010-01-01

83

Paddling upstream: a contextual analysis of implementation of a workplace ergonomic policy at a large newspaper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to implement workplace ergonomic programs aimed at reducing the burden of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) have to address multiple physical and psychosocial aspects of work environments yet often contextual factors limit their success. We describe the processes involved in an ergonomic program to reduce neck and upper limb WMSDs at a large Canadian newspaper. Using qualitative data collection and analysis methods, we illustrate the impact of key contextual characteristics of: (1) the program (management commitment, union involvement, experience and skill of program leaders, and researcher involvement); (2) the organization (drive for productivity, management control, organizational culture); and (3) the broader social context (economic climate, nature of newspaper work, technology and nature of WMSD). We argue for increased attention to identification and response to the contextual factors affecting program implementation in order to more successfully address upstream determinants of WMSD. PMID:15694078

Polanyi, Michael F; Cole, Donald C; Ferrier, Sue E; Facey, Marcia

2005-03-01

84

HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level <11years (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 2.4 [CI = 1.28-4.53]), who stayed in joint families (AOR = 1.89 [CI = 1.12-3.12]), who had experienced insult or hurt from the partner (AOR = 1.91 [CI = 1.11-3.27]) and whose partner were alcoholic (AOR = 2.19 [CI = 1.31-3.66]) were significantly more likely to perceive themselves at risk of HIV. Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples. PMID:24215183

Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

2014-01-01

85

Transcultural categorization in contextualized domains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. This study takes classifications of musical instruments from three different cultural regions to show that the model of knowledge organization in use is not appropriated for cultural integration. Method. The set of categories used for the analysed instruments have been taken from previous work of M. Kartomi and M. López-Huertas. Analysis. The selected categories have been processed according to the concept theory developed by Dalhberg as a departure point. Categories from...

Lo?pez-huertas Pe?rez, Mari?a Jose?

2013-01-01

86

Knowledge Integration in Virtual Teams: The Potential Role of KMS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses knowledge management and identifies four challenges to knowledge integration in virtual team environments: constraints in transactive memory, insufficient mutual understanding, failure in sharing and retaining contextual knowledge, and inflexibility of organizational ties. Proposes a knowledge management systems approach to meet these…

Alavi, Maryam; Tiwana, Amrit

2002-01-01

87

Contextual object understanding through geospatial analysis and reasoning (COUGAR)  

Science.gov (United States)

Military operations in urban areas often require detailed knowledge of the location and identity of commonly occurring objects and spatial features. The ability to rapidly acquire and reason over urban scenes is critically important to such tasks as mission and route planning, visibility prediction, communications simulation, target recognition, and inference of higher-level form and function. Under DARPA's Urban Reasoning and Geospatial ExploitatioN Technology (URGENT) Program, the BAE Systems team has developed a system that combines a suite of complementary feature extraction and matching algorithms with higher-level inference and contextual reasoning to detect, segment, and classify urban entities of interest in a fully automated fashion. Our system operates solely on colored 3D point clouds, and considers object categories with a wide range of specificity (fire hydrants, windows, parking lots), scale (street lights, roads, buildings, forests), and shape (compact shapes, extended regions, terrain). As no single method can recognize the diverse set of categories under consideration, we have integrated multiple state-of-the-art technologies that couple hierarchical associative reasoning with robust computer vision and machine learning techniques. Our solution leverages contextual cues and evidence propagation from features to objects to scenes in order to exploit the combined descriptive power of 3D shape, appearance, and learned inter-object spatial relationships. The result is a set of tools designed to significantly enhance the productivity of analysts in exploiting emerging 3D data sources.

Douglas, Joel; Antone, Matthew; Coggins, James; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Sobel, Erik; Stolle, Frank; Vinciguerra, Lori; Zandipour, Majid; Zhong, Yu

2009-05-01

88

Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

2013-01-01

89

Locality and realism in contextual theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of contextual theories are distinguished and shown to be related. For theories of each type a criterion of locality is formulated which is weaker than the classical requirement of separability at spacelike intervals. The relations between the concepts of locality, realism, and ontic chance are discussed

90

Does contextual information bias bitemark comparisons?  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of research suggests that the interpretation of fingerprint evidence is open to contextual bias. While there has been suggestion in the literature that the same might apply to bitemarks - a form of identification evidence in which a degree of contextual information during the comparison phase is generally unavoidable - there have so far been no empirical studies to test this assertion. We explored dental and non-dental students' ability to state whether two bitemarks matched, while manipulating task ambiguity and the presence and emotional intensity of additional contextual information. Provision of the contextual information influenced participants' decisions on the ambiguous bitemarks. Interestingly, when participants were presented with highly emotional images and subliminally primed with the words 'same' and 'guilty', they made fewer matches relative to our control condition. Dental experience also played a role in decision-making, with dental students making more matches as the experiment progressed, regardless of context or task ambiguity. We discuss ways that this exploratory research can be extended in future studies. PMID:25002044

Osborne, Nikola K P; Woods, Sally; Kieser, Jules; Zajac, Rachel

2014-07-01

91

Locality and realism in contextual theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two types of contextual theories are distinguished and shown to be related. For theories of each type a criterion of locality is formulated which is weaker than the classical requirement of separability at spacelike intervals. The relations between the concepts of locality, realism, and ontic chance are discussed.

Hoekzema, D.

1987-08-01

92

Current smoking among young adolescents: assessing school based contextual norms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model.

Pokorny, S.; Jason, L.; Schoeny, M.

2004-01-01

93

The Effect of Contextual Learning in Civic Education on Students' Civic Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Globalization demands civic education to develop civic competence involving civic knowledge, civic skills and civic disposition, which are multidimensional. Civic education learning oriented to ?contextualized multiple intelligences? concept opened the view of the needs to manage more creative, active participation, meaningful and pleasant learning. This research aimed to describe the effects of contextual learning on civic education of Junior High School students? civic competence. Specifically, this research aimed at examining and finding the influence of the application of contextual teaching and learning component in civic education involving the concept applications of interrelationship, direct experience, application, cooperation, self-regulation and authentic assessment towards citizenship competence of Junior High School students. Approach: Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adapted in this study. A survey was used as the Quantitative approach and for the in-depth understanding, interviews were used as the qualitative approach. The population of this research was students from Junior High School in West Java Indonesia. Sample was chosen by using cluster, proportional and systematic random samplings and 1004 Junior High School students were involved. Results: The survey showed that contextual learning in civic education influenced positively and significantly and contributed 26% to the civic competence of Junior High School students. The highest contribution given by applying of cooperation concept (21% and self-regulating concept (20%. Conclusion: It was suggested that contextual teaching and learning in civic education significantly influenced civic competence, the concepts of cooperation and self-regulation were the important factors of civic competence, because they were in accordance with the socio-cultural values. The implications of these findings showed that contextual teaching and learning in civic education was the essence of value education.

Kokom Komalasari

2009-01-01

94

Entourage: Visualizing Relationships between Biological Pathways using Contextual Subsets  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological pathway maps are highly relevant tools for many tasks in molecular biology. They reduce the complexity of the overall biological network by partitioning it into smaller manageable parts. While this reduction of complexity is their biggest strength, it is, at the same time, their biggest weakness. By removing what is deemed not important for the primary function of the pathway, biologists lose the ability to follow and understand cross-talks between pathways. Considering these cross-talks is, however, critical in many analysis scenarios, such as judging effects of drugs. In this paper we introduce Entourage, a novel visualization technique that provides contextual information lost due to the artificial partitioning of the biological network, but at the same time limits the presented information to what is relevant to the analyst’s task. We use one pathway map as the focus of an analysis and allow a larger set of contextual pathways. For these context pathways we only show the contextual subsets, i.e., the parts of the graph that are relevant to a selection. Entourage suggests related pathways based on similarities and highlights parts of a pathway that are interesting in terms of mapped experimental data. We visualize interdependencies between pathways using stubs of visual links, which we found effective yet not obtrusive. By combining this approach with visualization of experimental data, we can provide domain experts with a highly valuable tool. We demonstrate the utility of Entourage with case studies conducted with a biochemist who researches the effects of drugs on pathways. We show that the technique is well suited to investigate interdependencies between pathways and to analyze, understand, and predict the effect that drugs have on different cell types. PMID:24051820

Lex, Alexander; Partl, Christian; Kalkofen, Denis; Streit, Marc; Gratzl, Samuel; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Pfister, Hanspeter

2014-01-01

95

Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. Previous efforts of social psychologists are thus expanded by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among political parties on us–them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical out-group members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce anti-foreigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship becomes more effective in reducing anti-foreigner sentiment when intergroup relations are politicized. These findings demonstrate the need for widening the scope of the intergroup contact theory in order to cover macro-political conditions.

SØnderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter FrØlund

2014-01-01

96

Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.

C. Shannon Stokes

2004-12-01

97

Contextual influences on the development of obesity in children: A case study of UK South Asian communities?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

? We examined contextual influences on childhood obesity in South Asian communities. ? We held focus groups with stakeholders from UK South Asian communities. ? Knowledge of context is critical for childhood obesity intervention development. ? Cultural influences on childhood obesity need to be understood in detail.

Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Adab, Peymane

2012-01-01

98

Contextual Risk and Its Relevance in Economics  

CERN Document Server

Uncertainty in economics still poses some fundamental problems illustrated, e.g., by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. To overcome these difficulties, economists have introduced an interesting distinction between 'risk' and 'ambiguity' depending on the existence of a (classical Kolmogorovian) probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainty situations. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that 'context' plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian quantum-like framework. In this paper we introduce the notion of 'contextual risk' with the aim of modeling a substantial part of the situations in which usually only 'ambiguity' is present. More precisely, we firstly introduce the essentials of an operational formalism called 'the hidden measurement approach' in which probability is introduced as a consequence of fluct...

Aerts, Diederik

2011-01-01

99

Contextualized attention metadata in learning environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the notion of contextualized attention metadata (CAM) in learning environments. CAM describes observations about the handling of digital information in relation to the context in which the respective activities took place. The usage of CAM is exemplified in three scenarios: (1) using CAM to support the learning process of employees in agile business process execution, (2) enriching learning resource description with CAM and (3) identifying usage patterns of architectural l...

Wolpers, M.

2008-01-01

100

Contextual Service Loading by Dependency Graph Colouring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While installing applications on mobiles devices, we may face issues due to the limit of the device resources. In this paper, we propose AxSeL: A conteXtual Service Loader that considers services-oriented applications and loads them from a distant repository. Services dependencies are represented in a graph that is coloured considering the devices and ser- vices constraints. The graph colouring aims to take services loading decisions.

Ben Hamida, Amira; Le Moue?l, Fre?de?ric; Fre?not, Ste?phane; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Parallel Contextual Hexagonal Array Grammars and Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexagonal patterns are known to occur in the literature on picture processing and image analysis. Siromoney et al. constructed hexagonal array grammars for generating hexagonal arrays and hexagonal patterns. On the other hand, Marcus introduced a class of grammars called contextual grammars in contrast to Chomskian grammars that generate words by starting with an initial word and adding iteratively pairs of words called contexts associated to a set of words called selector to the words already obtained.

Thomas, D. G.; Begam, M. H.; David, N. G.

102

Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further de...

Moed, Henk F.

2009-01-01

103

Contextualizing the Higgs at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Recent excesses across different search modes of the collaborations at the LHC seem to indicate the presence of a Higgs-like scalar particle at 125 GeV. Using the current data sets, we review and update analyses addressing the extent to which this state is compatible with the Standard Model, and provide two contextual answers for how it might instead fit into alternative scenarios with enlarged electroweak symmetry breaking sectors.

Azatov, Aleksandr; Galloway, Jamison

2012-01-01

104

Contextual Influences on Superintendents' Time Usage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using data from a survey of superintendents in four states, this study explored how contextual factors and the real and perceived stringency of accountability measures influence the attention superintendents pay to the different roles comprising their work. A major concern was the extent to which stringent accountability was associated with superintendents’ tendency to emphasize educational leadership rather than managerial functions. Recognizing that other circumstances also might contribute to superintendents’ decisions about how to balance their work, the study included five contextual variables: enrollment, locale, SES, funding, and percentage minority. From a sample of 941 superintendents, 68% returned questionnaires. Findings: although superintendents’ perceptions of the stringency of state accountability measures were related to their location in high- or low-stringency states, contextual factors and especially enrollment and the location of a district in a rural region had the most pronounced effects on their attention to managerial tasks. Allocation of time varied by state; however, across states very few superintendents’ devoted the majority of their time to educational leadership.

Kim Jones

2009-12-01

105

Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa  

Science.gov (United States)

Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

Klopfenstein, Marie

2005-09-01

106

Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-01

107

Socio-Cultural Knowledge in Conversational Inference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to words and grammar, socio-cultural knowledge is also of vital importance in the interpretation of conversations. Socio-cultural knowledge helps participants to get contextualization cues and together with other signaling channels, participants will be able to perceive the context-bound information and prepare their appropriate responses. Socio-cultural knowledge is indispensable in our modern society where people have widely varying communicative and cultural backgrounds, which needs to be further studied.

Xiaomei Yang

2009-07-01

108

Socio-Cultural Knowledge in Conversational Inference  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In addition to words and grammar, socio-cultural knowledge is also of vital importance in the interpretation of conversations. Socio-cultural knowledge helps participants to get contextualization cues and together with other signaling channels, participants will be able to perceive the context-bound information and prepare their appropriate responses. Socio-cultural knowledge is indispensable in our modern society where people have widely varying communicative and cultural backgrounds, which ...

Xiaomei Yang

2009-01-01

109

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. OBJECTIVES: The current study [...] aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. METHOD: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. RESULTS: Nurse researchers (N = 100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. CONCLUSION: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R., Uys; Robin P., Newhouse; Arwa, Oweis; Xiaokun, Liang.

2013-01-01

110

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enablethe conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on aliterature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used.Results: Nurse researchers (N = 100 from 22 countries were invited to participate. Theresponse rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97. The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100. The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22. This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research.Conclusion: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used tostrategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R. Uys

2013-01-01

111

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. OBJECTIVES: The current study [...] aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. METHOD: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. RESULTS: Nurse researchers (N = 100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. CONCLUSION: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R., Uys; Robin P., Newhouse; Arwa, Oweis; Xiaokun, Liang.

112

Twelve-dimensional Pauli group contextuality with eleven rays  

CERN Document Server

The goal of the paper is to check whether the real eigenstates of the observables in the single qudit Pauli group may lead to quantum contextuality, the property that mutually compatible and independent experiments depend on each other. We find that quantum contextuality crops up at dimension twelve in a 6-color 11-ray orthogonality graph build over the complete graphs $K_5$ and $K_6$. Some arithmetical properties underlying the qudit contextuality are outlined.

Planat, Michel

2012-01-01

113

Contextual Normalization Applied to Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Diagnosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diagnosing faults in aircraft gas turbine engines is a complex problem. It involves several tasks, including rapid and accurate interpretation of patterns in engine sensor data. We have investigated contextual normalization for the development of a software tool to help engine repair technicians with interpretation of sensor data. Contextual normalization is a new strategy for employing machine learning. It handles variation in data that is due to contextual factors, rather ...

Turney, Peter D.; Halasz, Michael

2002-01-01

114

Contextual advertisement placement in printed media  

Science.gov (United States)

Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

2010-02-01

115

Explicit Substitutions for Contextual Type Theory  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we present an explicit substitution calculus which distinguishes between ordinary bound variables and meta-variables. Its typing discipline is derived from contextual modal type theory. We first present a dependently typed lambda calculus with explicit substitutions for ordinary variables and explicit meta-substitutions for meta-variables. We then present a weak head normalization procedure which performs both substitutions lazily and in a single pass thereby combining substitution walks for the two different classes of variables. Finally, we describe a bidirectional type checking algorithm which uses weak head normalization and prove soundness.

Abel, Andreas; 10.4204/EPTCS.34.3

2010-01-01

116

Contextual design defining customer-centered systems  

CERN Document Server

This book introduces a customer-centered approach to business by showing how data gathered from people while they work can drive the definition of a product or process while supporting the needs of teams and their organizations. This is a practical, hands-on guide for anyone trying to design systems that reflect the way customers want to do their work. The authors developed Contextual Design, the method discussed here, through their work with teams struggling to design products and internal systems. In this book, you'll find the underlying principles of the method and how to apply them to diff

Beyer, Hugh

1997-01-01

117

Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective  

CERN Document Server

All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

2012-01-01

118

Multi-level Contextual Type Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

Mathieu Boespflug

2011-10-01

119

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01

120

Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42 received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle and skin conductance responses. In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on fear potentiated startle data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by skin conductance responses, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events.

VanessaAnnaVan Ast

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

Peck, Rick

2009-01-01

122

Translating Contextualized Arabic Euphemisms into English: Socio-Cultural Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the role context plays in determining the translation strategies pursued by translators of Arabic euphemisms into English. Due to different cultural backgrounds, adherence to the employment of euphemism in a social context may differ in both Arabic and English. While some situations call for the use of euphemism in one culture, the other culture finds no point in using such euphemisms for such situations; preserving the original Arabic euphemisms when rendered into English in this case could lead to misunderstanding and may deprive the Source Language (SL from a cultural trait. The study derives evidence from 11 Arabic euphemistic expressions taken from five literary masterpieces written by the Egyptian novelist and Noble Prize winner Najib Mahfouz, and it looks into the English translation of these euphemisms. The present study attempts to advance the proposition that Arabic euphemisms in their context  exhibit fluctuating, unstable meaning, which emanates from various contextual factors such as speakers, addressees, shared knowledge and background information, and hence these factors combined dictate on translators the chosen translation strategy.  

Ekrema Shehab

2014-08-01

123

The Effects of Word Frequency and Contextual Types on Vocabulary Acquisition from Extensive Reading: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L1 research has indicated that learners acquire most of their vocabulary by means of incidental learning, in which the learners learn different aspects of lexical knowledge through repeated exposures as well as the surrounding contextual information of the unfamiliar words. However, L2 learners are at a disadvantage of this incidental learning due to their limited opportunities to repeatedly encounter the same target words in different contexts. As a result, researchers encourage L2 learners to use extensive reading as a route to promote and complement their vocabulary learning. This case study investigated the effects of word exposures and contextual richness on the acquisition of different aspects of vocabulary knowledge from extensive reading. Three aspects of knowledge are examined: orthography, form-meaning connection, and grammatical functions. The results indicated that word frequency affected more on orthographical knowledge than on the other two aspects, whereas contextual richness had a greater impact on form-meaning connections and grammatical functions. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for future studies are suggested. 

Hsueh-chao Marcella Hu

2013-05-01

124

Contextual Bandit Learning with Predictable Rewards  

CERN Document Server

Contextual bandit learning is a reinforcement learning problem where the learner repeatedly receives a set of features (context), takes an action and receives a reward based on the action and context. We consider this problem under a realizability assumption: there exists a function in a (known) function class, always capable of predicting the expected reward, given the action and context. Under this assumption, we show three things. We present a new algorithm---Regressor Elimination--- with a regret similar to the agnostic setting (i.e. in the absence of realizability assumption). We prove a new lower bound showing no algorithm can achieve superior performance in the worst case even with the realizability assumption. However, we do show that for any set of policies (mapping contexts to actions), there is a distribution over rewards (given context) such that our new algorithm has constant regret unlike the previous approaches.

Agarwal, Alekh; Kale, Satyen; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

2012-01-01

125

Active Architecture for Pervasive Contextual Services  

CERN Document Server

Pervasive services may be defined as services that are available "to any client (anytime, anywhere)". Here we focus on the software and network infrastructure required to support pervasive contextual services operating over a wide area. One of the key requirements is a matching service capable of as-similating and filtering information from various sources and determining matches relevant to those services. We consider some of the challenges in engineering a globally distributed matching service that is scalable, manageable, and able to evolve incrementally as usage patterns, data formats, services, network topologies and deployment technologies change. We outline an approach based on the use of a peer-to-peer architecture to distribute user events and data, and to support the deployment and evolution of the infrastructure itself.

Kirby, Graham; Morrison, Ron; Dunlop, Mark; Connor, Richard; Nixon, Paddy

2010-01-01

126

Ontological models and the interpretation of contextuality  

CERN Document Server

Studying the extent to which realism is compatible with quantum mechanics teaches us something about the quantum mechanical universe, regardless of the validity of such realistic assumptions. It has also recently been appreciated that these kinds of studies are fruitful for questions relating to quantum information and computation. Motivated by this, we extend the ontological model formalism for realistic theories to describe a set of theories emphasizing the role of measurement and preparation devices by introducing `hidden variables' to describe them. We illustrate both the ontological model formalism and our generalization of it through a series of example models taken from the literature. Our extension of the formalism allows us to quantitatively analyze the meaning contextuality (a constraint on successful realistic theories), finding that - taken at face-value - it can be realized as a natural interaction between the configurations of a system and measurement device. However, we also describe a property...

Harrigan, Nicholas

2007-01-01

127

Interactive Visual Contextualization of Space Weather Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Linköping University, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating on a new open source visualization software for astrovisualization. The CCMC is providing real-time and historical space weather data from the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), including timely modeled coronal mass ejection events simulated by the Space Weather Research Center at NASA GSFC. Linköping University is developing a new modular visualization tool with multi-channel capabilities to support planetarium exhibits, displaying the real-time space weather data contextualized using fieldlines, volumetric visualization techniques, and planetary information. This collaboration aims to engage the public about space weather and real-time events at the AMNH. We present an overview of this collaboration and demo some of the capabilities.

Törnros, M.; Ynnerman, A.; Emmart, C.; Berrios, D.; Harberts, R.

2012-12-01

128

Contextual learning in ground-penetrating radar data using Dirichlet process priors  

Science.gov (United States)

In landmine detection applications, fluctuation of environmental and operating conditions can limit the performance of sensors based on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology. As these conditions vary, the classification and fusion rules necessary for achieving high detection and low false alarm rates may change. Therefore, context-dependent learning algorithms that exploit contextual variations of GPR data to alter decision rules have been considered for improving the performance of landmine detection systems. Past approaches to contextual learning have used both generative and discriminative methods to learn a probabilistic mixture of contexts, such as a Gaussian mixture, fuzzy c-means clustering, or a mixture of random sets. However, in these approaches the number of mixture components is pre-defined, which could be problematic if the number of contexts in a data collection is unknown a priori. In this work, a generative context model is proposed which requires no a priori knowledge in the number of mixture components. This was achieved through modeling the contextual distribution in a physics-based feature space with a Gaussian mixture, while also incorporating a Dirichlet process prior to model uncertainty in the number of mixture components. This Dirichlet process Gaussian mixture model (DPGMM) was then incorporated in the previously-developed Context-Dependent Feature Selection (CDFS) framework for fusion of multiple landmine detection algorithms. Experimental results suggest that when the DPGMM was incorporated into CDFS, the degree of performance improvement over conventional fusion was greater than when a conventional fixed-order context model was used.

Ratto, Christopher R.; Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

2011-06-01

129

Contextual control of conflicting associations in the developing rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments examined the effects of manipulations of contextual cues on the expression of conflicting associations in 18-, 26-, and 35-day-old rats. Subjects learned to GO RIGHT in a water-filled T-maze, then were trained to reverse this position habit (GO LEFT). When the competing responses were learned in the same visual context, all age groups displayed a recency effect on a subsequent test in extinction; they behaved in accordance with the last-learned GO LEFT habit. If the competing responses were learned in different visual contexts, and testing took place in the context of the first problem, 35-day-old subjects behaved in a manner consistent with the GO RIGHT context (reduced recency). However, similarly trained 18-day-old subjects showed no evidence of a reduced recency effect. Given that 18-day-old rats are sensitive to other context manipulations, the present results suggest that the ability to "disambiguate" conflicting associations by context may depend upon the maturation of a relatively late-developing configural learning system. PMID:1618368

Moye, T B; Brasser, S M; Palmer, L; Zeisset, C

1992-04-01

130

Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion“ approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

MatthiasJWieser

2012-11-01

131

Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. PMID:22899567

Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

2013-01-01

132

The Effectiveness Of High Levels Of Knowledge Regarding Hiv/Aids In Reducing Discriminatory Attitudes And Behaviour Towards Hiv-Infected People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between increasing levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and perceptions of discriminatory attitudes and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS. Employees (3662 from a large accounting firm were exposed to a survey and a response rate of 41% or 1532 was received. The secondary objective of the study was to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in the mean difference of knowledge scores of groups created in terms of the different biographical variables. ANOVA’S (to determine the significance of differences between the means, t-tests (two groups only and F-statistics were used for the analysis. Given the large sample size an F-test is not conclusive and the effect of the difference in sample size needs to be taken into account. For this reason it was also necessary to look at the Partial Eta Squared. Results indicate that respondents are generally knowledgeable about the prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS and that respondents’ level of knowledge correlates negatively with discriminatory practices.

W. J. Coetsee

2006-11-01

133

Unified approach to contextuality, nonlocality, and temporal correlations  

Science.gov (United States)

We highlight the existence of a joint probability distribution as the common underpinning assumption behind Bell-type, contextuality, and Leggett-Garg-type tests. We then present a procedure to translate contextual scenarios into temporal Leggett-Garg-type and spatial Bell-type ones. To demonstrate the generality of this approach we construct a family of spatial Bell-type inequalities. We show that in the Leggett-Garg scenario a necessary condition for contextuality in time is given by a violation of consistency conditions in the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics.

Markiewicz, M.; Kurzy?ski, P.; Thompson, J.; Lee, S.-Y.; Soeda, A.; Paterek, T.; Kaszlikowski, D.

2014-04-01

134

Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker’s profile. We further discuss the proposed system structure, supportive process and context-driven engine. Finally, we describe a scenario using our contextual mobile learning system.

Rene Chalon

2013-08-01

135

Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. We present our approach in this paper and highlight a number of future extensions with additional contextual information.

Bogers, Toine

136

THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE SAMPLE OF CALL CENTERS IN TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emerging of knowledge societies brought about a lot of transformations in societies in the last decades. At first, these effects have been appeared in the developed and then in the developing world not only urban area also rural. The diffusion of the technologies that is invented on the mentality of knowledge society, have been effecting all life and promising to have major changes by providing access the opportunities for training and education, media and social networks and remodeling the way we do business, the nature of work and economy. In this concept, the internet, as a tool of the knowledge society, has also been regarded an important instrument in developing the rural regions around the globe. By connecting different parts of the world, the internet and other tools of information technologies create new job opportunities for individuals and companies. There are many people who cannot have and reach to the good education as well as the job opportunities in the rural areas as much as there is in urban areas. Many state institutions and companies have easily been investing to the rural area because of information technologies’ low level entry costs. Especially, many of them open new call centers in the poor areas of countries. the purpose of this paper is that the role of information technologies in the rural area is going to be evaluated on the call centers sample in Turkey. First part of the study, the literature is reviewed about knowledge society and information technologies. In the second part, the benefits of information technologies for individuals who live in the rural areas and some model applications are explained. In the final part, call centers that established by state and private companies are investigated according to their employment and training effects for the poor in the rural areas.

ORHAN KOÇAK

2011-04-01

137

Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection  

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Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

StefanPollmann

2009-10-01

138

Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups managing shared image collections or other types of information.

Larsen, Jakob Eg

2009-01-01

139

Comparison of Frequency-based Contextual and Maximum Likelihood Methods for Land Cover Classification in Arid Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classification accuracy obtained from the classification of satellite images using pixel-by-pixel conventional methods can be improved if the contextual information is considered during the classification process. This study presents a comparison of frequency-based contextual and maximum likelihood approaches to identify the land cover patterns in arid environment of multi-spectral images collected by SPOT-2 satellite. In image classification, in order to obtain a good result, not only the image resolution is considered but the selection of the classifier to be used during decision making process is important as well. In present study, two classifiers have been experimented in order to evaluate their performances which is Maximum Likelihood classifier representing as conventional method whereas contextual approach representing as advanced method. Conventional classification methods commonly cannot handle the complex landscape environment in the image. The result of each method has often a salt and pepper appearances which is a main characteristic of misclassification. It seems clear that information from neighbouring pixels should increase the discrimination capabilities of the pixel based measured and thus, improve the classification accuracy and the interpretation efficiency. This information is referred to as spatial contextual information. The experimental results indicated that frequency-based contextual algorithm with 83.7% overall accuracy and 0.693 Kappa coefficient is more reliable than the maximum likelihood algorithm with 72.1% and 0.527 overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient, respectively. The high value of the frequency-based contextual classification is due to the fact that this algorithm could overcome the mixed pixel problem and reduce the speckle error in the image significantly.

M.Z. Mat Jafri

2011-01-01

140

Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization  

Science.gov (United States)

We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generaliasurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

142

Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication. PMID:23505959

Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

2013-01-01

143

A Contextual Behavioral Approach for Obesity Surgery Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates a contextual behavioral approach for obesity surgery patients. In a contextual approach a behavior is interpreted as inseparable from its current and historical context. Candidates for bariatric surgery often have a history of self-stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating for emotional relief. Despite losing a large amount of weight post surgery, psychological problems may still be present for some patients. One possible common underlying process observed in body conce...

Weineland, Sandra

2012-01-01

144

Windows Phone Application Development for the Contextual Activity Sampling System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The project was carried out to develop a Windows Phone application for CASS-Query tool. The Contextual Activity Sampling System is a research methodology for the contextual tracking of activities. The main purpose of the project was to make the query tool available on Windows platform as requested by University of Helsinki. The goal of the project was to develop the application in a way that users could smoothly interact with it giving them full functionality, making the whole query tool mor...

Damena, Michael

2013-01-01

145

Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph...

Bogers, Toine

2011-01-01

146

Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph...

Bogers, Toine

2010-01-01

147

VOLUNTARY WHEEL RUNNING ENHANCES CONTEXTUAL BUT NOT TRACE FEAR CONDITIONING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exercise improves performance on a number of hippocampus involved cognitive tasks including contextual fear conditioning, but whether exercise enhances contextual fear when the retention interval is longer than 1 day is not known. Also unknown is whether exercise improves trace conditioning, a task that requires the hippocampus to bridge the time interval between stimuli. Hence, 4-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were housed with or without running wheels. To assess whether hippocampal neurogenes...

Kohman, Rachel A.; Clark, Peter J.; Deyoung, Erin K.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Venghaus, Christine E.; Rhodes, Justin S.

2012-01-01

148

Contextual profiles of young adult Ecstasy users: a multisite study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, t...

Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W.; Cottler, Linda B.

2011-01-01

149

Contextual Information and Specific Language Models for Spoken Language Understanding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we explain how contextual expectations are generated and used in the task-oriented spoken language understanding system Dialogos. The hard task of recognizing spontaneous speech on the telephone may greatly benefit from the use of specific language models during the recognition of callers' utterances. By 'specific language models' we mean a set of language models that are trained on contextually appropriated data, and that are used during different states of th...

Baggia, Paolo; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta; Moisa, Loreta M.; Popovici, Cosmin

1997-01-01

150

Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued, fear following post-training whole body irradiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.. To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear-conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation 24 hours later. Animals were given two weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22 days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

Jacob Raber

2014-07-01

151

Knowledge scenarios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge management consist nowadays in a wide range of practices. However there are two basic concepts in the Knowledge literature: Tacit and Explicit knowledge. This article suggests to conceptualize both concepts related to ‘the reality’, and proposes a basic model for acquisition, creation and transmission of knowledge, introducing the ideas of ‘Organic knowledge’ and ‘Inorganic knowledge’.

Baiget, Joan

2005-01-01

152

Efeito de estratégias de codificação sobre a memória contextual em idosos / Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudos recentes mostram que a memória contextual parece ser especialmente suscetível aos efeitos negativos do envelhecimento sobre a cognição. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do uso de estratégias de codificação no desempenho de idosos em uma tarefa de memória contextual. Vinte e qu [...] atro idosos e vinte e um jovens foram divididos em dois subgrupos para a realização da tarefa: um que recebeu orientação específica para estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto e outro que não recebeu essa orientação na fase de codificação. Na fase de teste, os participantes foram submetidos às tarefas de reconhecimento do objeto e do contexto. Os resultados indicam que a estratégia de estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto foi capaz de reverter os déficits de memória contextual dos idosos. Abstract in english Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memo [...] ry task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.

Rosane Papaleo, Freire; Joana Bisol, Balardin; Fábio, Caldana; Cristiane Moro dos, Santos; Luciana Cunha, Krebs; Valdemarina Bidone de Azevedo e, Souza; Nadja, Schröder; Elke, Bromberg.

153

The Costs of Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology, almost infinite amounts of information are instantly available, it still takes the same amount of time and work to learn French as it did in the year 1800-or to master physics or philosophy.

Prusak, Laurence

2008-01-01

154

Knowledge crash and knowledge management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

Ermine, Jean-louis

2010-01-01

155

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança / The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples i [...] deia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro. Abstract in english Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of [...] teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Maria Eveline de Castro, Pereira; Pedro César Teixeira, Silva; Marco Antonio Ferreira da, Costa; Claudia, Jurberg; Cintia de Moraes, Borba.

156

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança / The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples i [...] deia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro. Abstract in english Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of [...] teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Maria Eveline de Castro, Pereira; Pedro César Teixeira, Silva; Marco Antonio Ferreira da, Costa; Claudia, Jurberg; Cintia de Moraes, Borba.

157

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples ideia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro.Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Maria Eveline de Castro Pereira

2012-06-01

158

Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive  

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Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende, desde una perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente la categoría de género. En los seis apartados que lo componen, se realiza una crítica profunda de la ciencia social pero desde una óptica menos rígida en el planteamiento de categorías dicotómicas excluyentes como masculino-femenino, racional-afectivo, privado-público, o liberal - comunitario, por mencionar algunos tópicos centrales en los que se han suscitado varios de los debates sobre género. La metodología utilizada es la comparativa, a partir de la cual se analizan autores como Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre otros. Una de las principales conclusiones a la que se arriba en este artículo es que los tradicionales esquematismos, aun existentes en la actualidad, hacen muy difícil la posibilidad de alcanzar consensos amplios y postergan riesgosamente el tratamiento de problemas prácticos como los que, en el caso peruano, suponen la traducción del discurso de equidad en acciones y prácticas cotidianas concretas que permitan a los ciudadanos un real acceso a la justicia.Este artigo pretende, desde uma perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente a categoria gênero. Nas seis seções que o compõem procura realizar uma crítica profunda da ciência social, a partir, porém, de uma ótica menos rígida no tratamento de categorias dicotômicas excludentes tais como masculino-feminino, racional-afetivo, privado-público, liberal-comunitário, para mencionar alguns dos tópicos centrais suscitados pelos vários debates sobre gênero. A metodologia utilizada é a comparativa, a partir da qual se analisam autores como Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre outros. Uma das principais conclusões alcançadas neste trabalho é a de que os esquemas teóricos tradicionais, ainda existentes, dificultam a possibilidade de se alcançar amplos consensos e atrasam o equacionamento de problemas práticos, tais quais, no caso peruano, aqueles oriundos da tradução do discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça.This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

Soledad Escalante Beltrán

2006-06-01

159

From knowledge to action: participant stories of a population health intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV in three southern African countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes implementation research of an intervention in a complex HIV prevention randomised trial in southern Africa. Researchers collected stories of change attributed by 106 community members to an audio-drama edutainment intervention in 41 sites in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland. The team analysed themes in the stories following a behaviour change model of conscious knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, intention to change, agency, discussion and action (CASCADA). Storytellers attributed positive changes to the intervention in the areas of gender violence, multiple sexual partners, transactional and intergenerational sex and condom use. Their stories illustrate each of the steps in the CASCADA behaviour change model. As well as supporting an enabling environment for other interventions in the trial, the audio-drama also helped some participants to make personal changes. Collecting and discussing the stories were encouraging for the trial fieldworkers. Documenting the experiences of participants and framing the analysis of stories in an explicit behaviour change model allowed us to reflect on potential mechanisms and pathways through which the intervention impacts on individuals and communities. It helped in the design of the quantitative instruments to measure intermediate outcomes of the trial. PMID:24991886

Cameron, Mary; Cockcroft, Anne; Waichigo, Grace Wanjiru; Marokoane, Nobantu; Laetsang, Ditiro; Andersson, Neil

2014-12-01

160

Contextualization of visualizations of climate data  

Science.gov (United States)

The CHARMe project (http://www.charme.org.uk) is developing tools and approaches to allow users to contextualize climate datasets by linking them to publications, documents, datasets, and other related information (we call this "commentary metadata"). This allows users to benefit from the existing expertise accumulated within the community. In this presentation we describe how we enhance the visualization of climate data by combining interactive web-based visualizations with commentary information, enabling the user to see data in its full context. Visualization tools satisfying the following specific use cases are currently being developed in the context of the CHARMe project: - Plotting timeseries data alongside "significant events" that might affect the quality of the data. This tool is subject of a different abstract submitted by ECMWF. - Visualization of climate data user's commentary related to a subset of a dataset. For many applications it is very useful to be able to provide commentary about specific geographic regions, time windows or even specific pixels within a dataset. For example: recording instances of poor data quality, inaccurate pixel classification or effects of cirrus cloud and sun-glint, etc. This tool is aimed mainly at scientific users and analysts who wish to understand climate datasets in detail, from new users who want to find out more about a feature found in a dataset to experts who want to record, disseminate and evaluate the results of their research work, especially when related to a specific area of the world. The development of this tool is based in existing projects developed at University of Reading, such as ncWMS and BlogMyData. - Visual intercomparison of data and metadata, allowing synchronized interaction with several comparable climate datasets. This will assist users in judging which dataset is best fitted for their purpose as well as provide users with a better understanding of a dataset by measuring observational difference between datasets. This tool will focus on specific examples such as comparison of ESA's CCI SST and Cloud datasets, intercomparison of Climate Impact variables, and Obs4MIPS and CMIP5 data. The presentation will briefly introduce the CHARMe project and explore in more detail the work undergone so far in the development of the tools mentioned above.

Alegre, Raquel; Blower, Jon; Kratzenstein, Frank; Rozum, Iryna; Clifford, Debbie; O'Neil, Alan

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Contextualizing a MALL: Practice Design and Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile technologies have been successfully implemented in language learning, and have supported various innovative designs. However, many of these designs require considerable technical knowledge and support that are beyond the workload capacity of most language teachers. This paper discusses a study using an over-the-market mobile device combined…

Tai, Yaming

2012-01-01

162

Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual / Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive / Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo pretende, desde uma perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente a categoria gênero. Nas seis seções que o compõem procura realizar uma crítica profunda da ciência social, a partir, porém, de uma ótica menos rígida no tratamento de categorias dicotômicas excludentes tais como masculino- [...] feminino, racional-afetivo, privado-público, liberal-comunitário, para mencionar alguns dos tópicos centrais suscitados pelos vários debates sobre gênero. A metodologia utilizada é a comparativa, a partir da qual se analisam autores como Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre outros. Uma das principais conclusões alcançadas neste trabalho é a de que os esquemas teóricos tradicionais, ainda existentes, dificultam a possibilidade de se alcançar amplos consensos e atrasam o equacionamento de problemas práticos, tais quais, no caso peruano, aqueles oriundos da tradução do discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo pretende, desde una perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente la categoría de género. En los seis apartados que lo componen, se realiza una crítica profunda de la ciencia social pero desde una óptica menos rígida en el planteamiento de categorías dicotómicas excluyentes como [...] masculino-femenino, racional-afectivo, privado-público, o liberal - comunitario, por mencionar algunos tópicos centrales en los que se han suscitado varios de los debates sobre género. La metodología utilizada es la comparativa, a partir de la cual se analizan autores como Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre otros. Una de las principales conclusiones a la que se arriba en este artículo es que los tradicionales esquematismos, aun existentes en la actualidad, hacen muy difícil la posibilidad de alcanzar consensos amplios y postergan riesgosamente el tratamiento de problemas prácticos como los que, en el caso peruano, suponen la traducción del discurso de equidad en acciones y prácticas cotidianas concretas que permitan a los ciudadanos un real acceso a la justicia. Abstract in english This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional [...] , private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

Soledad, Escalante Beltrán.

163

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

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Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

2011-04-01

164

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

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Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU

2012-11-01

165

Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents  

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Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59?992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30?days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15?years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12?years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

2011-01-01

166

Contextual factors and immigrants' health status: double jeopardy.  

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Poor health among immigrants may be accounted for not only by socio-economic factors affecting individuals but also by the environment in which they live. We investigated the association of contextual factors with disparities in self-rated health between native and immigrant groups. The findings indicated that, compared with native-born Belgians, immigrant groups from Turkey and Morocco were more likely to have poorer self-rated health. When contextual factors and individual socio-economic status were allowed for, all immigrant groups had a health status that was similar to or even better than that of native-born Belgians. Immigrants face a double jeopardy at both the individual and the contextual level. PMID:18036866

Lorant, Vincent; Van Oyen, Herman; Thomas, Isabelle

2008-12-01

167

A Contextual-Bandit Approach to Personalized News Article Recommendation  

CERN Document Server

Personalized web services strive to adapt their services (advertisements, news articles, etc) to individual users by making use of both content and user information. Despite a few recent advances, this problem remains challenging for at least two reasons. First, web service is featured with dynamically changing pools of content, rendering traditional collaborative filtering methods inapplicable. Second, the scale of most web services of practical interest calls for solutions that are both fast in learning and computation. In this work, we model personalized recommendation of news articles as a contextual bandit problem, a principled approach in which a learning algorithm sequentially selects articles to serve users based on contextual information about the users and articles, while simultaneously adapting its article-selection strategy based on user-click feedback to maximize total user clicks. The contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we propose a new, general contextual bandit algorithm that is ...

Li, Lihong; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

2010-01-01

168

Contextual Normalization Applied to Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Diagnosis  

CERN Document Server

Diagnosing faults in aircraft gas turbine engines is a complex problem. It involves several tasks, including rapid and accurate interpretation of patterns in engine sensor data. We have investigated contextual normalization for the development of a software tool to help engine repair technicians with interpretation of sensor data. Contextual normalization is a new strategy for employing machine learning. It handles variation in data that is due to contextual factors, rather than the health of the engine. It does this by normalizing the data in a context-sensitive manner. This learning strategy was developed and tested using 242 observations of an aircraft gas turbine engine in a test cell, where each observation consists of roughly 12,000 numbers, gathered over a 12 second interval. There were eight classes of observations: seven deliberately implanted classes of faults and a healthy class. We compared two approaches to implementing our learning strategy: linear regression and instance-based learning. We have...

Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Halasz, Michael

1993-01-01

169

Accumulating Research: A Systematic Account of How Cumulative Meta-Analyses Would Have Provided Knowledge, Improved Health, Reduced Harm and Saved Resources  

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Background “Cumulative meta-analysis” describes a statistical procedure to calculate, retrospectively, summary estimates from the results of similar trials every time the results of a further trial in the series had become available. In the early 1990s, comparisons of cumulative meta-analyses of treatments for myocardial infarction with advice promulgated through medical textbooks showed that research had continued long after robust estimates of treatment effects had accumulated, and that medical textbooks had overlooked strong, existing evidence from trials. Cumulative meta-analyses have subsequently been used to assess what could have been known had new studies been informed by systematic reviews of relevant existing evidence and how waste might have been reduced. Methods and Findings We used a systematic approach to identify and summarise the findings of cumulative meta-analyses of studies of the effects of clinical interventions, published from 1992 to 2012. Searches were done of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Methodology Register and Science Citation Index. A total of 50 eligible reports were identified, including more than 1,500 cumulative meta-analyses. A variety of themes are illustrated with specific examples. The studies showed that initially positive results became null or negative in meta-analyses as more trials were done; that early null or negative results were over-turned; that stable results (beneficial, harmful and neutral) would have been seen had a meta-analysis been done before the new trial; and that additional trials had been much too small to resolve the remaining uncertainties. Conclusions This large, unique collection of cumulative meta-analyses highlights how a review of the existing evidence might have helped researchers, practitioners, patients and funders make more informed decisions and choices about new trials over decades of research. This would have led to earlier uptake of effective interventions in practice, less exposure of trial participants to less effective treatments, and reduced waste resulting from unjustified research. PMID:25068257

Clarke, Mike; Brice, Anne; Chalmers, Iain

2014-01-01

170

Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

Joseph Pamela

2012-11-01

171

Category of «Context» and Contextual Approach in Psychology  

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Full Text Available The article contains a brief review of the concept «context» which is gaining itsplace among the key concepts in modern theoretical and empirical psychology. Acomprehensive analysis of scientific literature leads the authors to distinguish twocomplementary conceptions of context – structural (which regards a fragmentof a text as a semantic system and functional (which treats it as a mental sensegeneratingmechanism. The authors suggest an understanding of mentality as arecursive-contextual phenomenon, where each fragment of its subject matter existsin the context of other fragments – parallel, preceding or ensuing. Such understandingmay form a basis for the contextual approach in psychology.

Vitaly G. Kalashnikov Sholohov

2012-01-01

172

Contextual Factors in the Open Approach-Based Mathematics Classroom Affecting Development of Students’ Metacognitive Strategies  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect that contextual factors have on the development of students’ metacognitive strategies in the open approach-based mathematics classroom: the framework for learning and teaching activities in the class, the teacher’s role, and students’ role. The methodology was based on ethnographic research and Begle’s conceptual framework (1969, which focused on observation and study on the nature of occurrences. In the context, the researcher conducted participatory classroom observation. The target groups were a mathematics teacher, who is a student as a math teaching practitioner, and four elementary school students at Grade 1 ranging from 6 to 7 years of age from Koo Kham Pittayasan School. Data were collected from 3 learning units totaling 6 study periods. Qualitative data analysis procedures were based on analyzing videos, protocols, students’ written work, and time units for dealing with activities and narrative description. The concept of 4 open approach-based teaching steps (Inprasitha, 2010 was considered for the analysis of the teacher’s teaching behavior and students’ problem solving behavior. The study findings suggest that contextual factors in the open approach-based mathematics classroom affect the development of students’ metacognitive strategies in which the teacher has planned learning management related to learning unit structures and focused on instructional activities allowing students “to create knowledge from learning how to solve problems by themselves”. In addition, the study demonstrates that the teacher and students have different roles in each teaching step.

Ariya Suriyon

2013-09-01

173

Knowledge Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

Mohsen Gerami

2010-01-01

174

Knowledge management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emergence of the Information Age necessitates the need to manage the organisation’s knowledge asset. The competitive advantage of the organisation depends on the quality of the organisation’s knowledge asset and the successful exploitation of it. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this explicit and tacit knowledge asset to the collective benefit of the organisation by developing an infrastructure to facilitate knowledge processes. Elements such as company know-how, employee compe...

Breedt, Marlize; Janse Rensburg, Antonie C.

2006-01-01

175

Person-Organization Fit and Contextual Performance: Do Shared Values Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

In a study of 221 employees, perceptions of organizational culture and discrepancy between ideal and actual culture predicted both task performance and contextual (altruism, conscientiousness, organizational citizenship) performance. Organizational warmth, organizational competence, and reward were significant predictors of contextual performance.…

Goodman, Scott A.; Svyantek, Daniel J.

1999-01-01

176

Representing Contextualized Information in the NSDL  

CERN Document Server

The NSDL (National Science Digital Library) is funded by the National Science Foundation to advance science and match education. The inital product was a metadata-based digital library providing search and access to distributed resources. Our recent work recognizes the importance of context - relations, metadata, annotations - for the pedagogical value of a digital library. This new architecture uses Fedora, a tool for representing complex content, data, metadata, web-based services, and semantic relationships, as the basis of an information network overlay (INO). The INO provides an extensible knowl-edge base for an expanding suite of digital library services.

Lagoze, C; Cornwell, T; Eckstrom, D; Jesuroga, S; Wilper, C; Lagoze, Carl; Krafft, Dean; Cornwell, Tim; Eckstrom, Dean; Jesuroga, Susan; Wilper, Chris

2006-01-01

177

O efeito da interferência contextual em idosos / The contextual interference effect in elderly people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da interferência contextual (EIC) na aquisição de habilidades motoras em idosos. Foi utilizada uma tarefa de posicionamento manual, caracterizada pelo transporte de três bolas de tênis em uma seqüência e tempo alvo pré-determinados. O experimen [...] to constou de 4 fases: 1) aquisição, 2) transferência 1 (T1), 3) transferência 2 (T2) e 4) retenção da aquisição. Os sujeitos foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=12): grupo de prática aleatória-aleatória (A-A), que realizou a tarefa de forma aleatória na aquisição e na retenção; grupo de prática aleatória-blocos (A-B), que realizou a aquisição de forma aleatória e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-blocos (B-B), que realizou a aquisição e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-aleatória (B-A), que realizou a aquisição em blocos e a retenção de forma aleatória. Os resultados mostraram que um dos grupos que praticou em regime aleatório apresentou-se mais variável durante a fase de aquisição que os grupos que praticaram em blocos. Entretanto, este mesmo grupo aleatório, no primeiro bloco do teste de retenção da aquisição, mostrou-se mais preciso que um dos grupos em blocos. Esses resultados confirmaram parcialmente o EIC em idosos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference effect (CIE) in the acquisition of motor skills in elderly people. A manual positioning task was used, it was characterized by the transport of three tennis ball in a movement sequence and predetermined target times. The experi [...] ment consisted of 4 phases: 1) acquisition, 2) transfer 1 (T1), 3) transfer 2 (T2) and 4) retention of the acquisition. The subjects were randomly distributed into four groups: random-random group (R-R), which performed the tasks in a random order in the acquisition and retention; random-blocked group (R-B), which performed the acquisition in a random order and the retention in a blocked order; blocked-blocked group (B-B), which performed the tasks in a blocked order in the acquisition and retention; blocked-random group (B-R), which performed the acquisition in a blocked order and the retention in a random order. The results showed that one of the random groups was more variable during the acquisition compared to the both blocked groups. However, this random group, in the first block of the retention was more precise than one of the blocked groups. These results partially confirm the CIE in elderly people.

Wesley R., Gonçalves; Guilherme M., Lage; Alexandro B. da, Silva; Herbert, Ugrinowitsch; Rodolfo N., Benda.

2007-08-01

178

Parenting during Toddlerhood: Contributions of Parental, Contextual, and Child Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, positive discipline, psychological control, and…

Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Van Aken, Marcel A. G.

2007-01-01

179

Formas de construtivismo: mudança conceitual e construtivismo contextual  

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Full Text Available In Geelan¿s (1997 two-dimensional model of forms of constructivism, William Cobern¿s contextual constructivism is opposed to conceptual change pedagogy, which Geelan associates with personal constructivism. In this paper, we discuss the relationships between these two forms of constructivism, highlighting some consequences to science teaching.

Charbel Ni\\u00F1o El-Hani

2002-01-01

180

Political ideology is contextually variable and flexible rather than fixed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hibbing et al. argue that the liberal-conservative continuum is (a) universal and (b) grounded in psychological differences in sensitivity to negative stimuli. Our commentary argues that both claims overlook the importance of context. We review evidence that the liberal-conservative continuum is far from universal and that ideological differences are contextually flexible rather than fixed. PMID:24970444

Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J; Wisneski, Daniel C

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Contextualizing Critical Action Research: Lessons from Urban Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we argue that teacher-researchers, especially those in politically contested school communities, should be encouraged to conduct critical action research that is contextually bound. Such a research methodology includes tenets of critical action research, postmodern and feminist theory, and attention to how oppression manifests in…

Esposito, Jennifer; Evans-Winters, Venus

2007-01-01

182

Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control  

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Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

2010-01-01

183

Contextual Religious Education and the Actuality of Religions  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual religious educators tend to view discrete religious traditions as artificially constructed systems disconnected from the ordinary experiences of children. This article sets out the case for the continued representation of religions as substantial social facts in religious education classrooms. Accepting Robert Jackson's critique of…

Wright, Andrew

2008-01-01

184

Survival of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect after Contextual Shifts  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of contextual shifts on the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) were studied in autoshaping with rats. Experiment 1 established that the two contexts used subsequently were easily discriminable and equally salient. In Experiment 2, independent groups of rats received acquisition training under partial reinforcement (PRF) or…

Boughner, Robert L.; Papini, Mauricio R.

2006-01-01

185

Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist Arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA). Co-infusion of ACEA and the IkappaB kinase (IKK) inhibitor sulfasalazine (Sulf) into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioral conditions that, by themselves, did not result in a reconsolidation impairment by Sulf alone. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential. PMID:24808841

Lee, Jonathan L C; Flavell, Charlotte R

2014-01-01

186

Comparative Effectiveness of Contextual and Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out effectiveness of contextual an, structural method of teaching vocabulary in English at secondary level. It was an experimental study in which the pretest posttest design was used. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Government secondary schools of Rawalpindi District. Purposive and random sampling was applied to select the school and subjects. The significance of difference between the scores of groups at 0.05 level was tested applying t test. The study revealed that the contextual method is more useful for high achievers (HA whereas structural method is more useful for average and low achievers. The HA performed better with the contextual method due to study of words in different contexts and taking help from contextual clues that has prompted spoken and written fluency. Better performance of the average and low achievers with the structural method was due to the morphological analyses of a word, role of the students as the partner in the learning process, generation and active processing of vocabulary, provision of multiple exposure of different intensity for practice and personalization of word learning. 

Malik Behlol

2011-02-01

187

Absorptive Capacity and Contextual Factors that Influence Green IT Assimilation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first wave of research in Green IT has often focused on organisational adoption. As Green IT matures in organisations it is important to look beyond adoption and to investigate the assimilation of Green IT. To this end we draw from and compare two theories – contextual theory and absorptive capacity – and investigate which of the two theories better explains the level of Green IT assimilation in organisations. Results from an international survey of 148 large organisations show that both theories explain Green IT assimilation with a medium effect size and that while contextual theory has a slightly higher R2 value than absorptive capacity, the difference is not statistically significant. We then propose a parsimonious and integrated model of Green IT assimilation drawing on contextual and absorptive capacity theories and outline implications for practitioners. The integrated model is parsimonious and has a higher explanatory power implying that a combination of contextual and absorptive capacity factors influences why and how widely and deeply Green IT practices, technologies and values are embedded in the IT people, in the IT management and IT infrastructure of organisations.

Vanessa A Cooper

2014-11-01

188

Contextualizing Practices across Epistemic Levels in the Chemistry Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of construction of meanings for the concepts of concentration and neutralization is explored in terms of "contextualizing practices" (Lemke, 1990, "Talking Science. Language, Learning and Values," Norwood, NJ: Ablex) creation of meanings through connections established among actions and their context. This notion is expanded to include…

Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar; Reigosa, Carlos

2006-01-01

189

Functional Contextualism in Context: A Reply to Fox  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author presents Fox (2005) argument on functional contextualism and his assessment of the current conceptual frameworks in the field of instructional design and technology. The often unquestioning espousal of constructivism in the field of instructional design and technology has caused problems for a number of reasons. Fox…

Winn, William

2006-01-01

190

Contextualizing Reflective Dialogue in a Spoken Conversational Tutor  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we describe the ways that SCoT, a Spoken Conversational Tutor, uses flexible and adaptive planning as well as multimodal task modeling to support the contextualization of learning in reflective dialogues. Past research on human tutoring has shown reflective discussions (discussions occurring after problem-solving) to be effective in…

Pon-Barry, Heather; Clark, Brady; Schultz, Karl; Bratt, Elizabeth Owen; Peters, Stanley; Haley, David

2005-01-01

191

Testing a Model of Employee Selection: A Contextual Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined selection practices applied to education. The selected contextual factors were tested to see whether school administrators took consideration of person-organization fit (POF) factors when they select applicants during the selection process. The results showed that POF factors affected selection when school size was under…

Harada, Kiyoe; Bowman, Jeffry S.

2004-01-01

192

Knowledge Technologies  

CERN Document Server

Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

Milton, Nick

2008-01-01

193

The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2009-01-01

194

Knowledge Flows and Knowledge Externalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diffusion of knowledge in the world generates positive externalities if knowledge flows increase the productivity of R&D. Our work analyzes knowledge diffusion and knowledge externalities in generating innovation and in determining productivity. We first estimate the determinants of knowledge flows across 141 sub-national regions in 19 countries of Europe and North America as revealed by patent citation between US-granted patents. Then we estimate the impact of these flows on productivity...

Peri, Giovanni

2002-01-01

195

The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. PMID:25271215

Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

2014-11-01

196

Experiencing Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

The experience of engaging with the knowledge and views of others is arguably as important as the actual knowledge with which one engages. Engagement is shaped by social and organizational norms, past experiences, personal preferences, and other factors. These authors each select a particular mixture of knowledge-engaging experiences (such as…

Norris, Donald; Mason, Jon; Lefrere, Paul

2004-01-01

197

Classical systems can be contextual too: Analogue of the Mermin-Peres square  

CERN Document Server

Contextuality lays at the heart of quantum mechanics. In the prevailing opinion it is considered as a signature of "quantumness" that classical theories lack. However, this assertion is hardly justified. Although contextuality is certainly true of quantum mechanics, it can not be taken by itself as discriminating against classical theories. Here we consider a representative example of contextual behavior, the so-called Mermin-Peres square, and present a simple discrete model which faithfully reproduces quantum predictions that lead to contradiction with the assumption of non-contextuality. This shows that quantum-like contextual effects have their analogues in the classical realm too.

Blasiak, Pawel

2013-01-01

198

The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption and intensity, over and above the variation associated with the contextual factors. This study also had implications in program implementation theory, and revealed that resource availability, stringency and adherence had significant impacts on program outcomes. Using seven classification tables, this study categorized and matched the predictors of electricity consumption and intensity with the specific energy sectors in which they demonstrated significance. Project developers, energy advocates, policy makers, program administrators, building occupants and other stakeholders could use study findings in conjunction with other empirical findings, to make informed decisions regarding the adoption, continuation or discontinuation of energy programs, while taking contextual factors into consideration. The adoption and efficient implementation of the most significant programs could reduce U.S. electricity consumption, and in the long term, probably reduce U.S. energy waste, environmental degradation, energy imports, energy prices, and demands for expanding energy generation and distribution infrastructure.

Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

199

Dinámica contextual de la educción de requisitos software / Contextual dynamic of the software requirements elicitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La educción de requisitos software desde los stakeholders ha sido declarada como una actividad clave que influye poderosamente sobre la calidad de los requisitos especificados y, por lo tanto, del producto final del desarrollo. Por esta razón, es incuestionable la necesidad de contar con guías clara [...] s para conducir la interacción con los propietarios de la información del dominio y de las necesidades a las que se pretende dar solución. Este trabajo se centra en la modelación de la educción considerando la influencia de los agentes contextuales del proceso tales como: eductor, quien conduce la actividad; informante, quien posee la información relevante; dominio del problema, características de la problemática a atacar; y proceso, características y restricciones de la actividad misma. El artículo analiza la dinámica que relaciona y condiciona estos factores para seleccionar la técnica a aplicar en cada sesión de educción. Finalmente, el trabajo contribuye con un modelo temporal del proceso y con la representación de la casuística principal del proceso de educción. Abstract in english The software requirements elicitation from stakeholders has been stated as a key activity influencing strongly on quality of specified requirements and, therefore, of the final development product. For this raison, is undoubtly the necessity to dispose clear guidelines to drive the interrelationship [...] with the owners of the domain information and the needs that require solutions.This work focuses on the model of the elicitation considering the influence of the contextual agents of the process, such as: elicitor, who drive the activity; informant, who possess the relevant information; problem domain, characteristics of the problematic to tackle; and process, characteristics and restrictions of the activity itself. The article analyses the dynamic that relates these factors to select the technique to use in each elicitation session. Finally, the work contributes with a time model of the process and with the representation of the main casuistic of elicitation process.

Dante, Carrizo.

2013-12-01

200

Dinámica contextual de la educción de requisitos software / Contextual dynamic of the software requirements elicitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La educción de requisitos software desde los stakeholders ha sido declarada como una actividad clave que influye poderosamente sobre la calidad de los requisitos especificados y, por lo tanto, del producto final del desarrollo. Por esta razón, es incuestionable la necesidad de contar con guías clara [...] s para conducir la interacción con los propietarios de la información del dominio y de las necesidades a las que se pretende dar solución. Este trabajo se centra en la modelación de la educción considerando la influencia de los agentes contextuales del proceso tales como: eductor, quien conduce la actividad; informante, quien posee la información relevante; dominio del problema, características de la problemática a atacar; y proceso, características y restricciones de la actividad misma. El artículo analiza la dinámica que relaciona y condiciona estos factores para seleccionar la técnica a aplicar en cada sesión de educción. Finalmente, el trabajo contribuye con un modelo temporal del proceso y con la representación de la casuística principal del proceso de educción. Abstract in english The software requirements elicitation from stakeholders has been stated as a key activity influencing strongly on quality of specified requirements and, therefore, of the final development product. For this raison, is undoubtly the necessity to dispose clear guidelines to drive the interrelationship [...] with the owners of the domain information and the needs that require solutions.This work focuses on the model of the elicitation considering the influence of the contextual agents of the process, such as: elicitor, who drive the activity; informant, who possess the relevant information; problem domain, characteristics of the problematic to tackle; and process, characteristics and restrictions of the activity itself. The article analyses the dynamic that relates these factors to select the technique to use in each elicitation session. Finally, the work contributes with a time model of the process and with the representation of the main casuistic of elicitation process.

Dante, Carrizo.

 
 
 
 
201

Knowledge Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

202

The contextual determinants of sexually transmissible infections among street-involved youth in North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young people living on the urban street are at a significantly increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Much research examining the epidemiological basis for their heightened susceptibility has concentrated on the individual behaviours and characteristics associated with acquiring these infections. However, contextual factors, including the social, structural and environmental forces that influence sexual risk behaviour, are increasingly found to play an important role in shaping the transmission dynamics of HIV and STIs within these marginalised populations. This paper reviews research describing the individual and contextual factors that have been shown to influence street youth sexual behaviour and provides an analysis of the potential impact of such factors on HIV and STI transmission. In order to implement effective sexual health programmes for street-involved young people, innovative programmes are required that take into account the unique social and structural context of youth homelessness. Interventions to reduce the elevated prevalence and incidence of HIV and STIs among this population must explicitly target multi-level factors influencing the transmission dynamics of these diseases. PMID:18975227

Marshall, Brandon D L

2008-11-01

203

KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

Nicolescu, Ovidiu

2007-01-01

204

Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

205

“Inter-Communicating”: Phenomenological Perspectives on Embodied Communication and Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on phenomenological perspectives on embodied communication and con-textuality, this paper contributes to a more integral understanding of the constitutive role of communicating in organising and organisations. Relating to the recent turn towards interpreting emergent communication as constitutive for organisation, the paper shows the supplementing role of advanced phenomenology of the body, embodiment and inter-corporeity as well as creative expression for transcending the materialist-idealist dualism and interpreting relational communication. After presenting a phenomenological understanding of embodied communication the status of language as a living process is discussed. Then communication is interpreted as embodied, intentional and responsive practice and as such being part of a specific contextuality in organizations. Finally the process of “inter-communicating” and further implications will be discussed.

Wendelin M. Küpers

2012-11-01

206

Recognition of Arabic handwritten words using contextual character models  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a system for the off-line recognition of cursive Arabic handwritten words. This system in an enhanced version of our reference system presented in [El-Hajj et al., 05] which is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and uses a sliding window approach. The enhanced version proposed here uses contextual character models. This approach is motivated by the fact that the set of Arabic characters includes a lot of ascending and descending strokes which overlap with one or two neighboring characters. Additional character models are constructed according to characters in their left or right neighborhood. Our experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database of handwritten villages/towns names show that using contextual character models improves recognition. For a lexicon of 306 name classes, accuracy is increased by 0.6% in absolute value which corresponds to a 7.8% reduction in error rate.

El-Hajj, Ramy; Mokbel, Chafic; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

2008-01-01

207

Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design : a Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer relations. Involving customer relations in the design project had a powerful effect: it was revealed that the system the organization believed they needed was irrelevant, while they needed another system nobody had thought of beforehand. The paper presents the case by describing the setting and starting point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design.

Simonsen, Jesper

1996-01-01

208

TECHNOLOGICAL INTEGRATION FOR INCREASING THE CONTEXTUAL LEVEL OF INFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile devices and applications are becoming increasingly present in everyday life and they represent an important success factor in business. Through this work we aim to provide end users a significant increase in the level of contextual information using the Android platform for mobile application development. The idea of the "Where?" application is based on a collaborative architecture involving actors from the business (pharmacies, banks, restaurants, hospitals, etc. and the end users as primary beneficiaries of the system. In essence, the user needs a service that will be able to locate the best deal to suit its contextual and temporal and spatial availability of the service provider. The proposed new architecture and the application have the possibility to integrate into a single system the local customer needs and business opportunities, directing the beneficiary to the most appropriate location, taking into account the custom criteria.

Octavian DOSPINESCU

2011-01-01

209

The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has become identical as “Bengal Style” among the other styles practiced in Indian sub-continent and outside of India in other Muslim countriesduring 12th-15th century. This paper is an outcome of the search on contextual issues of Bengal mosques practiced from 12th -15th century and put light on the existing practice of mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

Saiful Hasan Tariq

2013-06-01

210

KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

Ovidiu NICOLESCU

2007-01-01

211

Teaching Physics for Agronomy Students: Contextualizing Laboratory Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we discuss a method of teaching physics to agronomy majors. We use laboratory classes to apply basic physics concepts to common situations in agronomy. As an example, we report a project developed by the students involving the construction of a device, frequently used on farms, to transport water without burning fuel or using electricity. We believe that contextualizing helps to improve physics classes and increase students' motivation.

Lúcia Nogueira, Ana; Dickman, Adriana

2008-03-01

212

The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has beco...

Saiful Hasan Tariq; Mahbuba Afroz Jinia

2013-01-01

213

It from Qubit: How to Draw Quantum Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wheeler’s observer-participancy and the related it from bit credo refer to quantum non-locality and contextuality. The mystery of these concepts slightly starts unveiling if one encodes the (incompatibilities between qubit observables in the relevant finite geometries. The main objective of this treatise is to outline another conceptual step forward by employing Grothendieck’s dessins d’enfants to reveal the topological and (nonalgebraic machinery underlying the measurement acts and their information content.

Michel Planat

2014-04-01

214

Contextualizing an EFL teacher's beliefs about grammar teaching  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo reporta um estudo qualitativo que enfocou as crenças e práticas de uma professora de inglês-LE relacionadas ao ensino da gramática. O estudo objetivou investigar como as crenças da professora poderiam ser contextualizadas com dados da sala de aula. No primeiro estágio de análise e coleta [...] de dados, um questionário foi aplicado à professora. Posteriormente, para contextualizar as crenças encontradas na análise do questionário, o segundo estágio de análise e coleta de dados enfocou episódios das aulas da professora. A análise dos dados mostrou que, de acordo com essa professora, o ensino da gramática deveria ser usado como um recurso facilitador para ajudar os alunos em seus processos de aprendizagem. Os resultados também indicaram que as crenças da professora são influenciadas por três fatores interativos: cognitivo, contextual e experiencial. Abstract in english This article reports on a qualitative study that focused on an EFL teacher's beliefs and her practices concerning grammar teaching. The study aimed at investigating how the teacher's beliefs could be contextualized with classroom data. In the first stage of data collection and analysis, an open ques [...] tionnaire was given to the teacher. Then, as a means of contextualizing the beliefs found in the analysis of the questionnaire data, the second stage of data collection and analysis focused on episodes from the teacher's classes. The analysis of the data shows that, according to this teacher, grammar teaching should be used as a facilitative device in order to help students in their learning process. The results of this study also indicate that the teacher's beliefs are influenced by three interactive sources: cognitive, contextual and experiential.

Gloria, Gil; Marcia Regina Pawlas, Carazzai.

215

Contextualizing Risk in the Assessment of Intellectually Disabled Individuals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we examine the idea of expanding structured clinical judgement from primarily offender variables to a broader framework in which environmental (including staff variables are given equal consideration in a comprehensive risk appraisal conducted for risk management purposes of intellectually disabled individuals. It is posited that only by contextualizing the individual’s risk within environmental variables can an accurate portrayal of current dynamic risk (and hence the management of that risk be construed.

Douglas P. Boer

2007-12-01

216

Contextualizing an EFL teacher's beliefs about grammar teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reports on a qualitative study that focused on an EFL teacher's beliefs and her practices concerning grammar teaching. The study aimed at investigating how the teacher's beliefs could be contextualized with classroom data. In the first stage of data collection and analysis, an open questionnaire was given to the teacher. Then, as a means of contextualizing the beliefs found in the analysis of the questionnaire data, the second stage of data collection and analysis focused on episodes from the teacher's classes. The analysis of the data shows that, according to this teacher, grammar teaching should be used as a facilitative device in order to help students in their learning process. The results of this study also indicate that the teacher's beliefs are influenced by three interactive sources: cognitive, contextual and experiential.Este artigo reporta um estudo qualitativo que enfocou as crenças e práticas de uma professora de inglês-LE relacionadas ao ensino da gramática. O estudo objetivou investigar como as crenças da professora poderiam ser contextualizadas com dados da sala de aula. No primeiro estágio de análise e coleta de dados, um questionário foi aplicado à professora. Posteriormente, para contextualizar as crenças encontradas na análise do questionário, o segundo estágio de análise e coleta de dados enfocou episódios das aulas da professora. A análise dos dados mostrou que, de acordo com essa professora, o ensino da gramática deveria ser usado como um recurso facilitador para ajudar os alunos em seus processos de aprendizagem. Os resultados também indicaram que as crenças da professora são influenciadas por três fatores interativos: cognitivo, contextual e experiencial.

Gloria Gil

2007-01-01

217

Medical ultrasound image compression using contextual vector quantization.  

Science.gov (United States)

With ever increasing use of medical ultrasound (US) images, a challenge exists to deal with storage and transmission of these images while still maintaining high diagnostic quality. In this article, a state-of-the-art context based method is proposed to overcome this challenge called contextual vector quantization (CVQ). In this method, a contextual region is defined as a region containing the most important information and must be encoded without considerable quality loss. Attempts are made to encode this region with high priority and high resolution (low compression ratio and high bit rate) CVQ algorithm; and the background, which has a lower priority, is separately encoded with a low resolution (high compression ratio and low bit rate) version of the CVQ algorithm. Finally both of the encoded contextual region and the encoded background region is merged together to reconstruct the output image. As a result, very good diagnostic image quality with lower image size and enhanced performance parameters including mean square error (MSE), pick signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and coefficient of correlation (CoC) are gained. The experimental results show that the proposed CVQ methodology is superior as compared to other existing methods (general methods such as JPEG and JPEG2K, and ROI based methods such as EBCOT and CSPIHT) in terms of measured performance parameters. This makes CVQ compression method a feasible technique to overcome storage and transmission limitations. PMID:22608347

Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad-Reza

2012-07-01

218

Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

219

Specificity and variability of practice, and contextual interference in acquisition and transfer of an underhand volleyball serve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the effects of practice composition on acquisition and transfer of the underhand volleyball serve in a standard high school physical education setting. 72 middle-school students (M age = 14.1 yr., SD = 0.7) were selected and assigned to six groups: five experimental (Random, Serial, Blocked, Constant, Specific), and one Control group all pretested. The five experimental groups received 45 acquisition trials over three class periods. Directional quantitative knowledge of results was provided to the students after each trial. After a 72-hr. retention interval, all groups performed 15 underhand volleyball serves without knowledge of results. Analyses indicated (a) better acquisition in the Specific and Constant groups relative to the Serial, Random, and Blocked groups, and (b) significantly superior transfer performance in the Specific and Random groups relative to the Serial, Blocked, Constant, and Control groups. This provides partial support for specificity of learning and contextual interference hypotheses. Practice in accord with the contextual interference hypothesis permits differentiations among varied practice schedules only during transfer. PMID:20391893

Travlos, Antonios K

2010-02-01

220

Knowledge Alive  

Science.gov (United States)

The strategies that expose learners to the large volume of knowledge, enables them for creative thinking, self-management and deep reading. The different ways of creating knowledge with the help of creativity, communication, organization, problem solving and decision-making are discussed.

Perkins, David

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Lack of contextual-word predictability during reading in patients with mild Alzheimer disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work we analyzed the effect of contextual word predictability on the eye movement behavior of patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to age-matched controls, by using the eyetracking technique and lineal mixed models. Twenty AD patients and 40 age-matched controls participated in the study. We first evaluated gaze duration during reading low and highly predictable sentences. AD patients showed an increase in gaze duration, compared to controls, both in sentences of low or high predictability. In controls, highly predictable sentences led to shorter gaze durations; by contrary, AD patients showed similar gaze durations in both types of sentences. Similarly, gaze duration in controls was affected by the cloze predictability of word N and N+1, whereas it was the same in AD patients. In contrast, the effects of word frequency and word length were similar in controls and AD patients. Our results imply that contextual-word predictability, whose processing is proposed to require memory retrieval, facilitated reading behavior in healthy subjects, but this facilitation was lost in early AD patients. This loss might reveal impairments in brain areas such as those corresponding to working memory, memory retrieval, and semantic memory functions that are already present at early stages of AD. In contrast, word frequency and length processing might require less complex mechanisms, which were still retained by AD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study measuring how patients with early AD process well-defined words embedded in sentences of high and low predictability. Evaluation of the resulting changes in eye movement behavior might provide a useful tool for a more precise early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25080188

Fernández, Gerardo; Manes, Facundo; Rotstein, Nora P; Colombo, Oscar; Mandolesi, Pablo; Politi, Luis E; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

2014-09-01

222

Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

223

Evidence of social contextual effects on adolescent smoking in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the effect of psychological and social factors on smoking behavior among male and female adolescents in South Korea. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out via multilevel logistic regression with pupils at the first level and schools at the second level. The data were collected in 2003 using a nationally representative sample of 3449 students from 100 South Korean middle schools. For both genders, adolescents were more likely to smoke if and when they had lower academic grades, had a higher disposable monetary allowance from their parents, had more friends who smoked, and if the smoking rate at their school was higher. Psychological factors, however, were not factors that significantly influenced smoking. Consequently, the principal contextual factors related to adolescent smoking are the smoking rates in schools and among peer groups. Thus, an antismoking campaign incorporating social environmental factors may be useful in reducing the rates of adolescent smoking. PMID:23070756

Jung, Minsoo; Chung, Dongjun

2013-05-01

224

Leitura contextual e o processamento metalinguístico: considerações teóricas Lectura contextual y proceso metalingüístico: consideraciones teóricas Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing: theorectical considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O ato de ler não é um processo simples, pois envolve uma série de operações cognitivas, principalmente operações metalinguísticas. Estudos que investigam o papel dessas habilidades, na leitura, demonstram que a capacidade de refletir sobre os sons da fala, a consciência fonológica, contribui para leitura de palavras isoladas e compreensão de texto, ajudando a decodificação. Já outros estudos apontam que as pistas sintáticas e semânticas presentes no contexto são um forte recurso para a leitura, principalmente em leitores com dificuldades, pois ajudam a criança a reconhecer as palavras sem mediação fonológica. Recentemente, modelos interativos sugerem que a leitura contextual envolve a mediação fonológica que interage com as informações sintático-semânticas. Este estudo discute as implicações teóricas dessa questão.El acto de leer no es un proceso simple, por que engloba una clase de operaciones cognitivas, principalmente de las acciones metalingüísticas. Estudios que investigan el papel de estas habilidades en la lectura demuestran que la capacidad de reflecións sobre los sonidos de hablar, la consciencia fonológica, contribuye para lectura de palabras aislados y comprensión de textos, ayudando a decodificación. Ya otros estudios apuntan que las pistas semánticas e sintácticas del contexto, consciencia morfosintáctica, son un fuerte recurso para la lectura, principalmente en lectores, con dificultades, pues ayudan los niños reconocer las palabras sin mediación fonológica. Recientemente, modelos interactivos sugieren que la lectura contextual engloba la mediación fonológica que interactúa con las informaciones sintáctico/semántico. Ese artigo discute las implicaciones teóricas de la cuestión.The act of reading is not a simple process, as it involves a series of cognitive operations, specially metalinguisticoperations. Studies that investigate the role that these abilities play in reading show that the capacity to reflect upon word's sounds, phonological awareness, contributes to reading single words and reading comprehension. Others point out that syntact and semantic cues from context are a powerful resource for aiding reading, especially for readers, that experience difficulties, as they help the child to recognize words without phonological mediation. Recently, interactive models suggest that contextual reading interact with syntactic/semantic information. This papers discuss this issue theoretical implications.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

2011-08-01

225

Leitura contextual e o processamento metalinguístico: considerações teóricas / Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing: theorectical considerations / Lectura contextual y proceso metalingüístico: consideraciones teóricas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O ato de ler não é um processo simples, pois envolve uma série de operações cognitivas, principalmente operações metalinguísticas. Estudos que investigam o papel dessas habilidades, na leitura, demonstram que a capacidade de refletir sobre os sons da fala, a consciência fonológica, contribui para le [...] itura de palavras isoladas e compreensão de texto, ajudando a decodificação. Já outros estudos apontam que as pistas sintáticas e semânticas presentes no contexto são um forte recurso para a leitura, principalmente em leitores com dificuldades, pois ajudam a criança a reconhecer as palavras sem mediação fonológica. Recentemente, modelos interativos sugerem que a leitura contextual envolve a mediação fonológica que interage com as informações sintático-semânticas. Este estudo discute as implicações teóricas dessa questão. Abstract in spanish El acto de leer no es un proceso simple, por que engloba una clase de operaciones cognitivas, principalmente de las acciones metalingüísticas. Estudios que investigan el papel de estas habilidades en la lectura demuestran que la capacidad de reflecións sobre los sonidos de hablar, la consciencia fon [...] ológica, contribuye para lectura de palabras aislados y comprensión de textos, ayudando a decodificación. Ya otros estudios apuntan que las pistas semánticas e sintácticas del contexto, consciencia morfosintáctica, son un fuerte recurso para la lectura, principalmente en lectores, con dificultades, pues ayudan los niños reconocer las palabras sin mediación fonológica. Recientemente, modelos interactivos sugieren que la lectura contextual engloba la mediación fonológica que interactúa con las informaciones sintáctico/semántico. Ese artigo discute las implicaciones teóricas de la cuestión. Abstract in english The act of reading is not a simple process, as it involves a series of cognitive operations, specially metalinguisticoperations. Studies that investigate the role that these abilities play in reading show that the capacity to reflect upon word's sounds, phonological awareness, contributes to reading [...] single words and reading comprehension. Others point out that syntact and semantic cues from context are a powerful resource for aiding reading, especially for readers, that experience difficulties, as they help the child to recognize words without phonological mediation. Recently, interactive models suggest that contextual reading interact with syntactic/semantic information. This papers discuss this issue theoretical implications.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da, Mota; Silvia Brilhante, Guimarães.

226

Teaching Intercultural Communication in China and Australia: Intellectual and Contextual Constraints and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the world turns more towards China through trade, tourism and knowledge exchange, Chinese professionals will increasingly need to communicate directly with foreigners inside China. This face-to-face communication will require not only linguistic and communicative competence, but also a deep cultural knowledge of China as well as of other cultures, to help strangers adapt effectively to Chinese cultural contexts and to improve mutual understanding. In this paper we suggest that it might be useful for Chinese teachers of intercultural communication to examine their assumptions and practices by comparing them with those in other countries. We illustrate this argument through a comparison of the teaching of intercultural communication in Yunnan with an equivalent program in professional education in Melbourne. We argue that there are many similarities in the two programs, reflecting their common disciplinary basis. There are also differences between the programs reflecting different assumptions about teaching and learning, and different contexts of intercultural communication. This comparison helps identify the cultural and contextual influences on what is currently identified as appropriate in Yunnan, and the possible constraints on how much the program could be altered without clashing with acceptable aims, strategies and outcomes.
Key words: Intercultural Communication; Communicative Competence; Professional Education; Globalization

Ying HUANG

2011-06-01

227

Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

Meliha Handzic

2001-11-01

228

Remote temporal camouflage: Contextual flicker disrupts perceived visual temporal order.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correctly perceiving the temporal order of events is essential to many tasks. Despite this, the factors constraining our ability to make timing judgments remain largely unspecified. Here we present a new phenomenon demonstrating that perceived timing of visual events may be profoundly impaired by the mere presence of irrelevant events elsewhere in the visual field. Human observers saw two abrupt luminance events presented across a range of onset asynchronies. Temporal order judgment (TOJ) just noticeable differences (JNDs) provided a behavioural index of temporal precision. When target events were presented in isolation or in static distractor environments temporal resolution was very precise (JNDs ?20ms). However, when surrounded by dynamic distractor events, performance deteriorated more than a factor of four. This contextual effect we refer to as Remote Temporal Camouflage (RTC) operates across large spatial and temporal distances and possesses a unique spatial distribution conforming to neither the predictions of attentional capture by transient events, nor by stimulus dependencies associated with other contextual phenomena such as surround suppression, crowding, object-substitution masking or motion-induced blindness. We propose that RTC is a consequence of motion-related masking whereby irrelevant motion signals evoked by dynamic distractors interfere with TOJ-relevant target-related apparent motion. Consistent with this we also show that dynamic visual distractors do not interfere with audio-visual TOJs. Not only is RTC the most spatially extensive contextual effect ever reported, it offers vision science a new technique with which to investigate temporal order performance, free of motion-related sensory contributions. PMID:25175116

Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik

2014-10-01

229

Voluntary wheel running enhances contextual but not trace fear conditioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exercise improves performance on a number of hippocampus involved cognitive tasks including contextual fear conditioning, but whether exercise enhances contextual fear when the retention interval is longer than 1 day is not known. Also unknown is whether exercise improves trace conditioning, a task that requires the hippocampus to bridge the time interval between stimuli. Hence, 4-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were housed with or without running wheels. To assess whether hippocampal neurogenesis was associated with behavioral outcomes, during the initial 10 days, mice received Bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. After 30 days, one group of mice was trained in a contextual fear conditioning task. Freezing to context was assessed 1, 7, or 21 days post-training. A separate group was trained on a trace procedure, in which a tone and footshock were separated by a 15, 30, or 45s interval. Freezing to the tone was measured 24h later in a novel environment, and freezing to the training context was measured 48h later. Running enhanced freezing to context when the retention interval was 1, but not 7 or 21 days. Running had no effect on trace conditioning even though runners displayed enhanced freezing to the training context 48h later. Wheel running increased survival of new neurons in the hippocampus. Collectively, findings indicate that wheel running enhances cognitive performance on some tasks but not others and that enhanced neurogenesis is not always associated with improved performance on hippocampus tasks, one example of which is trace conditioning. PMID:21896289

Kohman, Rachel A; Clark, Peter J; Deyoung, Erin K; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Venghaus, Christine E; Rhodes, Justin S

2012-01-01

230

Intelligent management in the knowledge economy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The knowledge economy is a notion that has been used, since the 1990s, to describe a new economic order perceived by scholars and practitioners. The authors argue that this order, triggered by new information and communication technologies, has resulted in a different set of challenges for effective management of the contemporary firm. Knowledge will play an important role in managing these challenges, with the onus being on new hardware and software as much as how businesses can be organized with regard to relationships with customers and suppliers. This volume shows how "intelligent management will be the key to how internal operations can be organized, in order to take advantage of opportunities brought about by new technologies. This change in management is discussed throughout the book from a wide array of perspectives ranging from contextual and philosophical aspects, through tools and methods to case studies concerning the organization of business, its management and application in the knowledge economy.

Junghagen, Sven; Linderoth, Henrik

2003-01-01

231

Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Knowledge, and Children's Subsequent Developmental Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M[subscript age] = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M[subscript age] = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child…

Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.

2014-01-01

232

Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting "hybrid" entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion, by employing a $q$-plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also non-local, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022115

2011-01-01

233

The Preventive Health Education and Medical Home Project: a predictive and contextual model for low-income families.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Preventive Health Education and Medical Home Project (PHEMHP) is a predictive and contextual model intended to reduce low levels of health services utilization and improve preventive health techniques and disease self-management for low-income families in South Central Los Angeles, with the ultimate goal of attaching each child to a medical home. The model is designed to be implemented through educational and case management strategies. This paper presents the conceptual framework, critical intervention activities, and the different implementation variations the PHEMHP has already assumed. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:19821189

Tataw, David B; James, Frederick; Bazargan, Shahrzad

2009-01-01

234

Leveraging Wikipedia concept and category information to enhance contextual advertising  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As a prevalent type of Web advertising, contextual advertising refers to the placement of the most relevant ads into a Web page, so as to increase the number of ad-clicks. However, some problems of homonymy and polysemy, low intersection of keywords etc., can lead to the selection of irrelevant ads for a page. In this paper, we present a new contextual advertising approach to overcome the problems, which uses Wikipedia concept and category information to enrich the content representation of an ad (or a page). First, we map each ad and page into a keyword vector, a concept vector and a category vector. Next, we select the relevant ads for a given page based on a similarity metric that combines the above three feature vectors together. Last, we evaluate our approach by using real ads, pages, as well as a great number of concepts and categories of Wikipedia. Experimental results show that our approach can improve the precision of ads-selection effectively.

Wu, Zongda; Xu, Guandong

2011-01-01

235

Secondary Students' Stable and Unstable Optics Conceptions Using Contextualized Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on elucidating and explaining reasons for the stability of and interrelationships between students' conceptions about Light Propagation and Visibility of Objects using contextualized questions across 3 years of secondary schooling from Years 7 to 9. In a large-scale quantitative study involving 1,233 Korean students and 1,149 Singaporean students, data were analyzed from responses to the Light Propagation Diagnostic Instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different problem situations. Findings show that only about 10-45 % of students could apply their conceptions of basic optics in contextualized problem situations giving rise to both stable and unstable alternative conceptions. Students' understanding of Light Propagation concepts compared with Visibility of Objects concepts was more stable in different problem situations. The concepts of Light Propagation and Visibility of Objects were only moderately correlated. School grade was not a strong predictive variable, but students' school achievement correlated strongly with their conceptual understanding in optics. The teaching and learning approach and education systems in the two countries may have had some influence on students' conceptual understanding.

Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.

2014-04-01

236

Land Cover Classification of Satellite Images Using Contextual Information  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a method for the classification of satellite images into multiple predefined land cover classes. The proposed approach results in a fully automatic segmentation and classification of each pixel, using a small amount of training data. Therefore, semantic segmentation techniques are used, which are already successful applied to other computer vision tasks like facade recognition. We explain some simple modifications made to the method for the adaption of remote sensing data. Besides local features, the proposed method also includes contextual properties of multiple classes. Our method is flexible and can be extended for any amount of channels and combinations of those. Furthermore, it is possible to adapt the approach to several scenarios, different image scales, or other earth observation applications, using spatially resolved data. However, the focus of the current work is on high resolution satellite images of urban areas. Experiments on a QuickBird-image and LiDAR data of the city of Rostock show the flexibility of the method. A significant better accuracy can be achieved using contextual features.

Fröhlich, B.; Bach, E.; Walde, I.; Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.; Denzler, J.

2013-05-01

237

Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

2009-01-01

238

The knowledge of critical care nurses regarding legal liability issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge of critical care nurses regarding forensic and liability issues in the critical care environment in order to design an education programme on the topic. A quantitative, descriptive, contextual research design was used and convenience sampling implemented. A survey, using a questionnaire as measuring instrument, was conducted among critical care nurses in selected private hospitals in South Africa. The response rate was 85%. Validity and rel...

Hyde, Elizabeth Maria Charlotta

2006-01-01

239

The knowledge of critical care nurses regarding legal liability issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge of critical care nurses regarding forensic and liability issues in the critical care environment in order to design an education programme on the topic. A quantitative, descriptive, contextual research design was used and convenience sampling implemented. A survey, using a questionnaire as measuring instrument, was conducted among critical care nurses in selected private hospitals in South Africa. The response rate was 85%. Validity and rel...

Hyde, Elizabeth Maria Charlotta

2007-01-01

240

Knowledge Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

orale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations

 
 
 
 
241

Knowledge Innovative Organization: The Effect of Constant Organization Renewal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term ‘knowledge’ is getting increased importance as the economy is becoming progressively knowledge intensive. Contemporary view of innovation management is acknowledging knowledge as the most effective source of innovation. Success of the business depends on how successfully knowledge is used for innovation. As a result, organizations are increasingly embracing knowledge strategy for their innovation scheme. Incorporating knowledge in the innovation process; building innovative capabilities and identifying essential features of a knowledge innovative organization are the key concerns of this study. Knowledge is a context specific notion. In this case study, the use of knowledge for innovation has been analyzed from an individual organization point of view so that contextual elements of a knowledge in-novative organization can be identified more precisely along with the institutional implications. Thus, this article would be able to provide a good number of meaningful indications in using knowledge for innovation; it would also shed light on constant capability building for innovation; nurturing of creativity and developing of knowledge infrastructure of a knowledge innovative organization. In addition, this study will be revealing the true nature of knowledge strategy and its application in the context of a developing country.

Umana Anjalin

2009-12-01

242

Contextual classification on a CDC Flexible Processor system. [for photomapped remote sensing data  

Science.gov (United States)

A potential hardware organization for the Flexible Processor Array is presented. An algorithm that implements a contextual classifier for remote sensing data analysis is given, along with uniprocessor classification algorithms. The Flexible Processor algorithm is provided, as are simulated timings for contextual classifiers run on the Flexible Processor Array and another system. The timings are analyzed for context neighborhoods of sizes three and nine.

Smith, B. W.; Siegel, H. J.; Swain, P. H.

1981-01-01

243

Linear and nonlinear analogues of the Schroedinger equation in the contextual approach in quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One derived the general evolutionary differential equation within the Hilbert space describing dynamics of the wave function. The derived contextual model is more comprehensive in contrast to a quantum one. The contextual equation may be a nonlinear one. Paper presents the conditions ensuring linearity of the evolution and derivation of the Schroedinger equation

244

Principals' Self-Efficacy: Relations with Job Autonomy, Job Satisfaction, and Contextual Constraints  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual

Federici, Roger A.

2013-01-01

245

Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

2008-01-01

246

The Use of Contextual Learning to Teach Biochemistry to Dietetic Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the use of contextualized and "blended" learning to teach biochemistry to dietetic students during the second year of their professional training in a 4-year undergraduate degree (Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics). Contextualized content was used to engage students and motivate them to learn biochemistry, which many…

Macaulay, J. O.; Van Damme, M. -P.; Walker, K. Z.

2009-01-01

247

Contextual Admissions and Affirmative Action: Developments in Higher Education Policy in England  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the value of explaining contextual admissions policy directives through the conceptual lenses of meritocracy and social reproduction. It is suggested that examining these concepts can assist in highlighting some of the ideological and practical complexities associated with contextual admissions whilst providing opportunities to…

Lane, Laura; Birds, Rachel

2013-01-01

248

A Pilot Study of a Functional Contextual Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the initial development of a treatment for bulimia nervosa using a functional contextual treatment approach. Seven women (6 with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and 1 with a diagnosis of eating disorder not otherwise specified) completed 12 sessions of functional contextual treatment. Participants were assessed with the Eating…

Anderson, Drew A.; Simmons, Angela M.

2008-01-01

249

The Contextual Effect of School Satisfaction on Health-Risk Behaviors in Japanese High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The importance of school contextual effects on health and well-being among young people is currently recognized. This study examines the contextual effects of school satisfaction as well as the effects of individual-level school satisfaction on health-risk behaviors in Japanese high school students. Methods: Self-administered…

Takakura, Minoru; Wake, Norie; Kobayashi, Minoru

2010-01-01

250

Contextual Modulation During Processing of Facial Expressions. Behavioral, fMRI and ERP Investigations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expressions of emotions are assumed to be processed rapidly and automatically and therefore should be immune to simultaneous task induced interference. Recent functional and electrophysiological studies however reported that contextual features modulate the processing of emotional expressions when presented in the temporal and spatial context of these expressions. Therefore, additional contextual features which specifically signal incongruent emotional information compared to task-rele...

Fru?hholz, Sascha

2008-01-01

251

The Effects of Contextualization on Fluency in Three Groups of Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of contextualization on fluency in 35 school-age children with either stuttering, language impairment, or normal fluency. Analysis of the children's discourse samples, half of which were produced with contextual cues, found stutterers demonstrated a significant reduction in frequency of stuttering in the…

Trautman, Lisa Scott; Healey, E. Charles; Norris, Janet A.

2001-01-01

252

Contextual Learning Theory: Concrete Form and a Software Prototype to Improve Early Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In "contextual learning theory" three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and systemic aspects). The resulting structure consists…

Mooij, Ton

2007-01-01

253

Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

2012-01-01

254

The impact of invisible illness on identity and contextual age across the life span.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the impact invisible illness has on identity, specifically contextual age, throughout the life span. It was grounded in the assumption that an individual's identity is formed through communicative interaction. Using social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) as a framework, individuals' identities after disclosure of invisible illness were explored. Rubin and Rubin's (1986) Contextual Age Questionnaire was used to determine self-perceived as well as other-perceived contextual age. Invisibly ill individuals reported significantly "higher" contextual age scores than did same chronologically aged, matched non-ill individuals. In addition, the friends of invisibly ill individuals reported "higher" contextual age scores for the invisibly ill individuals than the self-reported scores of the same chronologically aged non-ill individuals. Interviews further revealed that illness instilled insight and that disclosure of illness provoked comments from others that led invisibly ill individuals to identify with older individuals. Future directions and limitations of this study are also discussed. PMID:12788678

Kundrat, Amanda L; Nussbaum, Jon F

2003-01-01

255

Effect of ablated hippocampal neurogenesis on the formation and extinction of contextual fear memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Newborn neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampus incorporate into the dentate gyrus and mature. Numerous studies have focused on hippocampal neurogenesis because of its importance in learning and memory. However, it is largely unknown whether hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in memory extinction per se. Here, we sought to examine the possibility that hippocampal neurogenesis may play a critical role in the formation and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory. By methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM or gamma-ray irradiation, hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in adult mice. Under our experimental conditions, only a severe impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis inhibited the formation of contextual fear memory. However, the extinction of contextual fear memory was not affected. These results suggest that although adult newborn neurons contribute to contextual fear memory, they may not be involved in the extinction or erasure of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory.

Ko Hyoung-Gon

2009-01-01

256

Compositional and contextual predictors for emotional problems among adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from a random sample of Danish schools. Students answered a questionnaire including mental health and the classroom environment. The outcome measure emotional problems was defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having difficulties falling asleep. Further, school-administrators answered a questionnaire on school environment and characteristics, e.g. policies against bullying. We applied multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at individual, classroom and school levels. Results Initially a large variation in emotional problems was observed from one school to another. The proportion of students with daily experience of emotional problems varied between 7% and 32% across schools. Individual level variables such as socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Students from low (OR=1.74 (CI:1.37;2.22)) and medium (OR=1.53 (CI:1.24;1.87)) social class, girls (OR=1.37 (CI:1.15;1.63)) and students exposed to bullying (OR=3.20 (CI:2.17;4.72)), had increased odds of experiencing emotional problems. At the classroom level, a high proportion of students who reported a negative classroom climate was significantly associated with emotional problems (OR=1.43 (CI:1.07;1.92)). Further, bullying seems to reach beyond the individual. In classes with a high prevalence of bullying, students have significantly higher odds (OR=1.33 (CI:1.05;1.70)) of experiencing emotional problems compared to classes where bullying didn´t appear. These findings suggest that contextual exposure affects emotional problems. Conclusions We expected compositional factors to explain much of the variation in prevalence of emotional problems between schools. This study suggests that contextual factors at the school and class level are important to take into account in studies of emotional problems among children and adolescents.

Meilstrup, Charlotte; ErsbØll, Annette Kjær

257

Links between Content Knowledge and Practice in a Mathematics Teacher Education Course: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examined the link between content knowledge and classroom practice from the perceptions of two university lecturers. The study was contextualized at a higher education institution in South Africa where the two university lecturers were lecturing to a second year undergraduate teacher trainee class (n = 78). The research was…

Brijlall, D.; Isaac, V.

2011-01-01

258

Traditional Arts Knowledge, Traditional Ecological Lore: The Intersection of Art Education and Environmental Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…

Bequette, James W.

2007-01-01

259

The Effect of Contextual Interference on Acquisition and Learning Badminton Skills among Children aged from 10 to 12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Age may limit the effect of contextual interference, but the accurate effect of age on contextual interference is not completely identified. Therefore, the purpose of the study was the effect of contextual interference practice orders on acquisition and learning of badminton skills of 45 female students aged from 10 to 12. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups of blocked, random, and systematically increasing contextual interference. They trained three skills of badmi...

Kimiya Sadri; Hassan Mohommadzadeh; Mostafa Khani

2013-01-01

260

Assessing historical empathy through simulation – How do Finnish teacher students achieve contextual historical empathy?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a great deal of international debate about introducing historical empathy as the focus in teaching history. However, as it is, the contents of the concept have been included in the curricula in many countries. Nevertheless, practising stepping into the shoes of a person from a previous era is still in its infancy in schools in many locations – Finland included. This article discusses Finnish class teacher students' understanding of historical empathy. The article is based on a study where 360 class teacher students played a game simulating the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their task was to assume the roles of the superpower leaders and make decisions on the basis of these roles. The simulation showed that a majority of the student teachers are able to attain a level of contextual historical empathy. They were able to empathize with the historical context in question and make such decisions that would have been possible for the historical actors. Some of the playing groups on the other hand, referred to their current knowledge and attitudes, which, according to Ashby and Lee's empathy classification, shows lower-level empathy. The study corroborates previous research results concerning great discrepancies in the understanding of empathy prevalent within one age group. Moreover, the study raises the question of how historical empathy should be handled in teaching if many future teachers have difficulties in understanding it.

Jukka Rantala

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Evaluating a Contextual-Based Course on Data Analysis for the Physics Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The interpretation of data and construction and understanding of graphs are central practices in science; therefore, an important skill needed in the undergraduate physics laboratory is the ability to analyze data obtained from experiments. Often students are not able to reach logical deductions based on data, acquired from the experiments that they conducted, because they lack appropriate analysis skills. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a short teaching unit developed for this purpose, among undergraduate students. Learning in context approach was implemented in building the unit. Also, both procedural and conceptual knowledge were given emphasis. The "data analysis" questionnaire was used to compare the results between the experimental group and control group. The findings indicate that students who participated in the teaching unit arrived at significantly better results in the data analysis questionnaire as compared to students in the control group. This study may contribute to those who wish to design a contextual-based learning environment for physics laboratory data analysis.

Kukliansky, Ida; Eshach, Haim

2013-06-01

262

On pigs and packers: Radically contextualizing a practice of science with Mexican immigrant students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on instructional practices observed in a high school English Learner (EL) Science course serving newcomer Mexican immigrant youth. The school is located in a rural Midwestern meatpacking community in which labor at the hog plant is economically- and racially-segmented; it is the town's Mexican residents, many of them undocumented, who comprise most of the unskilled labor force. The general purpose of the paper is to document how the economic and racial context of this community influences science instruction in the EL Science course and to describe how this presents particular challenges in achieving equitable science instruction for Mexican immigrant youth in these rural, globalizing places. Entering the data via critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995) and then utilizing Barton's (2003) "practice of science" perspective, with an eye toward achieving "radical contextuality" (Grossberg, 1997), we describe the science events, identities, and structures of the pig dissection lesson and detail how what these students could do with science, as rendered by that lesson, was limited by the roles the teacher attributed to the students, her inability to draw on their funds of knowledge as resources for learning, and the voice and position she allowed them to take up. The data reinforce conventional understandings of schools as sites of cultural reproduction (Bowels & Gintis, 1976), as well as of resistance (Giroux, 1983), but afford us a glimpse of the particularity of those mechanisms within the demographically-transitioning American Heartland, iconic of the era of global capitalism.

Richardson Bruna, Katherine; Vann, Roberta

2007-01-01

263

Knowledge management - a programmatic view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation give a programmatic view of knowledge management in the nuclear industry. A knowledge management program must deal with forecasting needs, acquisition, retention, training and supporting elements of culture, process, codification error prevention, information management and networks to reduce exposure

264

INSEAD Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Touted as "your portal to today's most prominent business," INSEAD Knowledge is a publication of INSEAD business school, which is based in France with campuses in Europe and Asia. INSEAD Knowledge prides itself on its easy-to-use format including simple, intuitive navigation, quick-reading abstracts of working papers and case studies, professors' insights into a variety of business-related issues, and in-depth examinations of business research. Along the left side of the Website, users will find eighteen themes including globalization, Asia focus, corporate development, and marketing. Each theme links to a variety of articles and related research sites. Users must complete the short free registration in order to view the full text of articles.

265

Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

We continue the development of a so-called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric cos-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic cos-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability. We also discuss possibilities of experimental verification of hyperbolic quantum mechanics: in physics of elementary particles, string theory as well as in experiments with nonphysical systems, e.g., in psychology, cognitive sciences, and economy.

Khrennikov, Andrei

2005-06-01

266

Airport runway recognition in complex infrared image using contextual information  

Science.gov (United States)

Airport runway recognition is of great significance in fields like remote sensing, navigation and traffic monitoring. An airport runway recognition method using the "hypothesize-and-verify" paradigm is proposed. Firstly, local line segments of runway contour are extracted in complex infrared image. Secondly, basing on a new Line Segment Hough Transform, local line segments vote fuzzily in the parameter space to obtain global line segment clustering, and then parallel straight lines are extracted on the basis of parameter space to form hypotheses of potential airport runways. Finally, using contextual information of airport constructions, hypotheses disambiguation and verification of runway is accomplished primarily by extraction of runway markings and segmentation of transportation network, i.e. taxiways and apron. Experimental results demonstrate the good performance of our method on a variety of complex scenes.

Niu, Zhaodong; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Dinghe; Tang, Da; Chen, Zengping

2013-10-01

267

The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

Vourdas, A. [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)

2013-08-15

268

An Optimal High Probability Algorithm for the Contextual Bandit Problem  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of learning to predict with expert advice in an adversarial, on-line bandit setting. We study how to behave in a way that achieves nearly as much reward as the best expert with high probability, rather than in expectation. We provide the algorithm Exp4.P for solving this contextual bandit problem. We prove that Exp4.P competes with any set of policies or experts of size $N$ while incurring regret at most $O(\\sqrt{KT\\ln(N/\\delta)})$ with probability $1-\\delta$, where $K$ is the number of actions and $T$ is the number of rounds of interaction. This guarantee improves on all previous algorithms for this problem, whether in a stochastic or adversarial setting. We also test the new algorithm experimentally.

Beygelzimer, Alina; Li, Lihong; Reyzin, Lev; Schapire, Robert E

2010-01-01

269

Personalization and Contextualization of Learning Experiences based on Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.

Nicola Capuano

2014-04-01

270

Contextual variability during speech-in-speech recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the influence of background language variation on speech recognition. English listeners performed an English sentence recognition task in either "pure" background conditions in which all trials had either English or Dutch background babble or in mixed background conditions in which the background language varied across trials (i.e., a mix of English and Dutch or one of these background languages mixed with quiet trials). This design allowed the authors to compare performance on identical trials across pure and mixed conditions. The data reveal that speech-in-speech recognition is sensitive to contextual variation in terms of the target-background language (mis)match depending on the relative ease/difficulty of the test trials in relation to the surrounding trials. PMID:24993234

Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R

2014-07-01

271

Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

Hans Martens

2012-12-01

272

Redesign of A Seismic Monitor Using Contextual Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses a user-centered approach to requirements gathering and design and its application toan agile software development project. The approach used in this paper is based on Contextual Design(CD, a user-centered design technique, developed by Beyer and Holtzblatt. The benefits of using CD torequirements gathering and usability are explained using a case study, a Web-based seismic monitor,which allows a user to monitor earthquakes all around the world in real time. This case study demonstratesthe benefits of CD by the improved design and usability of the application. CD shares some of thefundamental principles of agile software development processes, such as continuous user feedback andrapid prototyping. This makes CD a natural candidate to be used in agile software development.

Ozgur Aktunc

2012-12-01

273

Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We continue the development of a so-called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric cos-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic cos-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability. We also discuss possibilities of experimental verification of hyperbolic quantum mechanics: in physics of elementary particles, string theory as well as in experiments with nonphysical systems, e.g., in psychology, cognitive sciences, and economy

274

Simple unified proof of state-independent contextuality  

CERN Document Server

For years, the statement that quantum mechanics exhibits state-independent contextuality (SIC) has been based on a mathematical result pointed out by Kochen and Specker (KS) and Bell: the existence of the so-called KS sets. Recently, Yu and Oh have observed that KS sets are not necessary to prove SIC. Here we show that a set of observables in dimension d represented by rank-1 projectors reveals SIC if and only if the graph in which vertices represent vectors and edges link orthogonal ones has chromatic number larger than d. This provides a simple unified characterization of all SIC proofs, including KS, Peres-Mermin, Yu-Oh, and others' proofs. We apply this result to prove Yu and Oh's conjecture about the simplest SIC proof and to prove that any SIC set assisted with maximum entanglement generates nonlocality which cannot be improved by nonsignaling resources.

Cabello, Adan

2011-01-01

275

Justice in context: assessing contextualism as an approach to justice  

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Full Text Available Moral and political philosophers are increasingly using empirical data to inform their normative theories. This has sparked renewed interest into questions concerning the relationship between facts and principles. A recent attempt to frame these questions within a broader approach to normative theory comes from David Miller, who has on several occasions defended ‘contextualism’ as the best approach to justice. Miller argues that the context of distribution itself brings one or another political principle into play. This paper examines this claim. It considers several plausible strategies for carrying out Miller's general project and argues that each strategy fails. Nevertheless, the author maintains that an investigation into why they fail paves the way for a philosophically plausible account of the relationship between facts and principles.

Michael Buckley

2012-05-01

276

Dynamic Capitalization and Visualization Strategy in Collaborative Knowledge Management System for EI Process  

CERN Document Server

Knowledge is attributed to human whose problem-solving behavior is subjective and complex. In today's knowledge economy, the need to manage knowledge produced by a community of actors cannot be overemphasized. This is due to the fact that actors possess some level of tacit knowledge which is generally difficult to articulate. Problem-solving requires searching and sharing of knowledge among a group of actors in a particular context. Knowledge expressed within the context of a problem resolution must be capitalized for future reuse. In this paper, an approach that permits dynamic capitalization of relevant and reliable actors' knowledge in solving decision problem following Economic Intelligence process is proposed. Knowledge annotation method and temporal attributes are used for handling the complexity in the communication among actors and in contextualizing expressed knowledge. A prototype is built to demonstrate the functionalities of a collaborative Knowledge Management system based on this approach. It is...

Oladejo, Bolanle; David, Amos

2010-01-01

277

Contextual and time dependent pain in fibromyalgia: An explorative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about contextual effects on chronic pain, and how vulnerability factors influence pain in different contexts. We wanted to examine if fibromyalgia (FM pain varied between two social contexts, i.e. at home versus in a doctor office, when it was measured the same day, and if pain was stable for 14 years when measured in similar contexts (doctor office. Our secondary aim was to explore if pain vulnerability factors varied in the two different contexts. Findings Fifty-five female FM patients were included in the study and scored pain in both contexts at baseline. Their age ranged between 21–68 years (mean 45.7, mean education level was 11 years and mean FM-duration was 15.6 years. Their mean pain was perceived significantly lower at home than in a doctor context the same day. However, pain was much more stable when measured in two similar contexts 14 year apart where 30 subjects (54.5% completed. Predictor analyses revealed that pain vulnerability factors apparently varied by home and doctor contexts. Conclusion Pain and pain predictors seem to vary by contexts and time, with less pain at home than to a doctor the same day, but with unchanged pain in the same context after 14 years. Thus, contextual pain cues should be accounted for when pain is measured and treated, e.g. by focusing more on home-measured pain and by optimizing the doctor office context. This explorative study should be followed up by a larger full-scale study.

Fors Egil A

2012-11-01

278

Atender o cuidar. Un problema contextual por discernir en la práctica profesional de enfermería / To assist or to care. A contextual problem to discern in the nursing professional practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objeto de una ciencia comprende fenómenos tanto de la naturaleza como de la vida social; incluye las propiedades de la actividad mental de los hombres como resultado de la imaginación, y entraña operaciones del pensamiento abstracto, tales como: concepto, juicio y razonamiento. No constituye una [...] certidumbre dada para siempre, es transformable; preserva cierto grado de estabilidad y designa la esencia de la actuación científica direccional del actor cultural, pero si en la ciencia existe bilateralidad terminológica, entonces habrá disgregación de la esencia de su surgimiento y desarrollo. El modo lógico básico de formación del conocimiento será difuso, y distinguir la singularidad del saber al cual se apega creará dispersión del pensamiento. Por tales razones se realizó este trabajo para desentrañar el problema contextual existente entre los conceptos cuidar/atender que rectoran la práctica profesional de enfermería en Cuba. Abstract in english The object of a science comprises phenomena either from nature as from social life; it includes properties from mental activity of men as a result of the imagination, and it involves functions of the abstract thought, such as: concept, judgment and reasoning. It doesn't constitute a certainty given [...] forever, it is transformable; it preserves certain degree of stability and it designs the essence of the cultural actor's directional scientific performance, but if in science terminological bilaterality exists, then there will be disintegration of the essence of its emergence and development. The basic logical way of emergence of knowledge will be diffuse, and to distinguish the singularity of the knowledge to which it joints will create dispersion in thinking. For such reasons this work was carried out to decipher the existent contextual problem between the concepts to care/to assist which guide the nursing professional practice in Cuba.

Félix, Kindelán Delís.

279

How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changing urban development in more sustainable directions poses numerous challenges for planning practitioners. Expert knowledge could be helpful for planners aiming at facing up to these challenges by developing innovative ways of meeting seemingly contradictive objectives and solving planning problems. This paper examines how planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge affect the content and goal achievement of plans, and discusses how changes in planning practice and research practice can contribute to improve goal achievement potentials. Goal achievement potential refers to whether the plans (if implemented) contribute to achieve defined objectives, which in this paper concern transition toward more sustainable mobility patterns and reduction of traffic volumes. The expert knowledge in question concerns how land use and transport systems developments influence traffic volumes in urban regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning this issue have emerged, but few empirical studies have been presented. The research in this paper involves case studies of strategic plan-making processes in three Scandinavian cities. A main finding is that whether the expert knowledge in question is used or not, and how it is used, indeed affect the goal achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call fortraffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge in question for explaining that these measures reduce the goal achievement potential of plans, for several reasons. It may seem as if the knowledge sometimes is ousted when it challenges the contextual agenda. Further, planners do not turn to written or research- based sources of knowledge for help in solving their planning problems. Instead, they rely on their embedded professional knowledge, which is sometimes outdated or misleading. It is found that changing towards land use and transport systems developments contributing to more sustainable mobility patterns requires considerable efforts from planning practitioners, as well as from planning researchers.

TennØy, Aud; Lissandrello, Enza

2014-01-01

280

Knowledge and Learning in Engineering Practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the 20th century, traditional epistemological theories of knowledge have been under siege. In recent years, efforts have been made to reconstruct the concept of 'knowledge' to emphasize its contextual, situated and social character. Drawing on the results and methods of these efforts, this chapter discusses the cencept of learning and purports to theorize learning in a Social Theory of Learning (STL). The attempt to reconstruct learning in an STL addresses three main issues: an STL must try to specify the subject-world relationship, describe the 'mechanism' of learning, and identify the 'telos' of learning. This attempt will in fact give answers to three fundamental questions: 1) What is learning? 2) How do we learn? and 3) Why do we learn? These questions are discussed in relation to engineering practices of getting to know and learning.

Buch, Anders

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

No association between autistic traits and contextual influences on eye-movements during reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are claimed to show a local cognitive bias, termed “weak central coherence”, which manifests in a reduced influence of contextual information on linguistic processing. Here, we investigated whether this bias might also be demonstrated by individuals who exhibit sub-clinical levels of autistic traits, as has been found for other aspects of autistic cognition. The eye-movements of 71 university students were monitored as they completed a reading comprehension task. Consistent with previous studies, participants made shorter fixations on words that were highly predicted on the basis of preceding sentence context. However, contrary to the weak central coherence account, this effect was not reduced amongst individuals with high levels of autistic traits, as measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Further exploratory analyses revealed that participants with high AQ scores fixated longer on words that resolved the meaning of an earlier homograph. However, this was only the case for sentences where the two potential meanings of the homograph result in different pronunciations. The results provide tentative evidence for differences in reading style that are associated with autistic traits, but fail to support the notion of weak central coherence extending into the non-autistic population. PMID:25024927

Caruana, Nathan

2014-01-01

282

Cross-modal contextual coherence of information integration in people with Williams syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to explore the generalization of contextual integration from within-modality (visual-visual) to cross-modal (visual-auditory) processing in people with Williams syndrome (WS), and to clarify whether the concreteness or social relatedness of stimuli contributed to contextual coherence using pictures. Contextual coherence was evaluated in accordance with context-appropriateness between visual backgrounds and auditory targets. The ability to judge appropriateness was defined as contextual integration ability, which leads to contextual coherence. The congruent conditions (e.g., a swimming pool vs. swimming goggles) and incongruent conditions (e.g., a movie theater vs. a hot-pot) were presented to people with WS and to typical controls. The results revealed a congruency effect in people with WS similar to that found in the typical controls matched by mental age. The generalization of contextual integration ability across modalities was demonstrated by comparing the findings on cross-modal presentation with those obtained in a within-modality visual study of people with WS. It was further clarified that the social relatedness of stimuli, and not concreteness, led to contextual coherence among people with WS. PMID:24377100

Hsu, Ching-Fen

2013-12-01

283

Entorhinal cortex contribution to contextual fear conditioning extinction and reconsolidation in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

During contextual fear conditioning a rat learns a temporal contiguity association between the exposition to a previously neutral context (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) as a footshock. This condition determines in the rat the freezing reaction during the subsequent re-exposition to the context. Potentially the re-exposition without US presentation initiates two opposing and competing processes: reconsolidation and extinction. Reconsolidation process re-stabilizes and strengthens the original memory and it is initiated by a brief re-exposure to context. Instead the extinction process leads to the decrease of the expression of the original memory and it is triggered by prolonged re-exposure to the context. Here we analyzed the entorhinal cortex (ENT) participation in contextual fear conditioning reconsolidation and extinction. The rats were trained in contextual fear conditioning and 24h later they were subjected either to a brief (2 min) reactivation session or to a prolonged (120 min) re-exposition to context to induce extinction of the contextual fear memory. Immediately after the reactivation or the extinction session, the animals were submitted to bilateral ENT TTX inactivation. Memory retention was assessed as conditioned freezing duration measured 72 h after TTX administration. The results showed that ENT inactivation both after reactivation and extinction session was followed by contextual freezing retention impairment. Thus, the present findings point out that ENT is involved in contextual fear memory reconsolidation and extinction. This neural structure might be part of parallel circuits underlying two phases of contextual fear memory processing. PMID:24569052

Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado

2014-04-01

284

The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3 the effect of the living values-based contextual learning model on students? character improvement. Approach: This study used Research and Development design. The technique of data collection used observation, documentation, Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative data used data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion stages. Meanwhile, quantitative data analysis used correlation and regression analysis. The subjects of study were 98 students of Civic Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education of academic year 2011/2012. Results: The finding showed that: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing was the integration of living values into material, method, media, learning source and lecturing evaluation conceptually; (2 the living values-based contextual learning model was implemented through value learning variation in contextual learning (problem-based learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, service learning and work-based learning; (3 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model had an effect by 26% on the students? character development Conclusion: The living values-based contextual learning is an alternative of character education integration model in university learning process. This model can be applied in lecturing to develop the students? characters including religious, honest, tolerant, well-mannered, discipline, hard working, creative, independent, democratic, homeland love, respecting achievement, collaborating and responsible.

Kokom Komalasari

2012-01-01

285

MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3. Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.

Kottmann Renzo

2010-06-01

286

Combining Global and Local Information for Knowledge-Assisted Image Analysis and Classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A learning approach to knowledge-assisted image analysis and classification is proposed that combines global and local information with explicitly defined knowledge in the form of an ontology. The ontology specifies the domain of interest, its subdomains, the concepts related to each subdomain as well as contextual information. Support vector machines (SVMs) are employed in order to provide image classification to the ontology subdomains based on global image descriptions. In parallel...

Mezaris V; Kompatsiaris I; Th, Papadopoulos G.; Mg, Strintzis

2007-01-01

287

Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries : The Tension between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed.

Andersson, Ulf

2012-01-01

288

A Novel Culture Algorithm for Knowledge Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From different subjects and multiple sources, knowledge integration can get an efficient knowledge base which is the key to improve the quality of decision making and enhance the core competitiveness of organizations. knowledge integration Algorithm is proposed in the framework of cultural strategy, unity of knowledge encoded by the believe space and population space and establish mechanisms for communication between two spaces to generate an effective, concise knowledge base . Experiments show that, compared to the traditional genetic algorithm, the model will be more accurate classification of knowledge, reduce redundancy, eliminate contradictory knowledge.

Si-hua CHEN

2012-05-01

289

Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goals of Digital Earth, GLOBE has the capability to assess the global relevance of local case-study findings within the context of over 50 global biophysical, land-use, climate, and socio-economic datasets. We demonstrate the implementation of one such assessment - a representativeness analysis - with a recently published meta-study of changes in swidden agriculture in tropical forests. The analysis provides a standardized indicator to judge the global representativeness of the trends reported in the meta-study, and a geovisualization is presented that highlights areas for which sampling efforts can be reduced and those in need of further study. GLOBE will enable researchers and institutions to rapidly share, compare, and synthesize local and regional studies within the global context, as well as contributing to the larger goal of creating a Digital Earth.

Magliocca, N. R.; Ellis, E. C.; Oates, T.; Schmill, M.

2014-02-01

290

Against "knowledge"  

CERN Document Server

Quantum "states" are objective probability measures. Because their dependence on a time is not the time dependence of an evolving state, they are neither states of Nature nor "states of knowledge." There is no such thing as an evolving state. This disposes of the problem posed by the apparent existence of two modes of evolution. What essentially stands in the way of a consistent ontological interpretation of the quantum theory is our habit of projecting into the quantum world the detached, intrinsically differentiated spatiotemporal background of classical physics, for this is what entails the existence of an evolving state. An objective probability measure is the formal expression of an objective indefiniteness, such as the positional indefiniteness that contributes to "fluff out" matter. An objective indefiniteness entails that the values of certain observables are extrinsic (possessed because they are indicated) rather than intrinsic (indicated because they are possessed). This dependence on value-indicati...

Mohrhoff, U

2001-01-01

291

Knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge in school  

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Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of school knowledge from the point of view of scientific knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The starting point is that neither school nor curricula pay attention to what knowledge is, what types of knowledge there are, and what kind of relationship exists between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The first part offers an answer to the question what knowledge is. In the second part presented are some theoretical viewpoints on knowledge: gnoseological, sociological and psychological. The third part deals with the notions of ignorance and "faulty" knowledge. Pointed out are some forms of mystical ignorance. The forms of faulty knowledge are: erroneous notions, prejudices, illusions. In the final part, the author considers their relationship in school education. The starting point is that ignorance is a predecessor of any knowledge. The difference between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge exists in every system of school education, but differs in extent and mode when it comes to nature, society, man and art. The author maintains that school should not be defined as an absolute carrier of knowledge, or the system of foolproof knowledge that the student should acquire uncritically. Instead of absolute confidence in scientific knowledge, the paper concludes with suggesting the option of an "elastic form" of school knowledge. This is a type of knowledge which, in its programme, counts on both ignorance and faulty knowledge and their differing roles in studying and real life of students.

Avramovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

292

Exploring Knowledge Exchange at the Research-Policy-Practice Interface in Children's Behavioral Health Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study explored core components of knowledge exchange among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners within the context of the Rosie D. versus Romney class action lawsuit in Massachusetts and the development and implementation of its remedial plan. We identified three distinct, sequential knowledge exchange episodes with different purposes, stakeholders, and knowledge exchanged, as decision-making moved from Federal Medicaid policy to state Medicaid program standards and to community-level practice. The knowledge exchanged included research regarding Wraparound, a key component of the remedial plan, as well as contextual information critical for implementation (e.g., Federal Medicaid policy, managed care requirements, community organizations' characteristics). PMID:24464480

Leslie, Laurel K; Maciolek, Susan; Biebel, Kathleen; Debordes-Jackson, Gifty; Nicholson, Joanne

2014-11-01

293

Contextuality in Generalized Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type Systems  

CERN Document Server

We present a formal theory of contextuality for a set of random variables grouped into different subsets (contexts) corresponding to different, mutually incompatible conditions. Within each context the random variables are jointly distributed, but across different contexts they are stochastically unrelated. The theory of contextuality is based on the analysis of the extent to which some of these random variables can be viewed as preserving their identity across different contexts when one considers all possible joint distributions imposed on the entire set of the random variables. We illustrate the theory on three systems of traditional interest in quantum physics (and also in non-physical, e.g., behavioral studies). These are systems of the Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type. Listed in this order, each of them is formally a special case of the previous one. For each of them we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for contextuality while allowing for experimental errors and contextual biase...

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N

2014-01-01

294

The Glocalization of Responsible Investment : Contextualization Work in France and Québec  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actor–network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work that sustains RI glocalization. Empirical data from two case studies highlight how entrepreneurial actors imported the notion of RI from the US to France and Québec. Our findings uncover three types of contextualization work—filtering, repurposing, and coupling—that sustain RI glocalization, and show how actors employed them in both settings to overcome the lack of technical, cultural, or political fit between the imported practice and their local context. Our results explain how divergent glocalized versions of RI are developed and adapted through contextualization work. Last, we discuss how our repertoire of contextualization work can account for local forms of a global concept and the uneven pattern of its diffusion.

Boxenbaum, Eva

2013-01-01

295

A teologia da missão integral como teologia evangélica contextual latino-americano  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este artigo inicia com uma análise da reflexão teológica da Fraternidade Teológica Latino-Americana (FTL), numa perspectiva contextual e aborda questões históricas e metodológicas. A seguir, estuda os documentos finais dos Congressos Latino-americanos de Evangelização (CLADES).

Sidney Moraes Sanches

2010-01-01

296

Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking  

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Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

R. Savolainen

2006-01-01

297

Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Eriksson, I. [Maelardalen University (Sweden)

2004-04-01

298

The clinical investigator-subject relationship: a contextual approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol. Results and conclusion In this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty to provide the patient/subject with clinical care can vary from one situation to the next, as a function of several factors, including: the research design, benefits and risks of the research; the subject's reasonable expectations, motivations, and vulnerabilities; the investigator's ability to benefit the subject; and the investigator's prior relationship with the subject. These and other factors need to be considered when determining the clinical investigator's obligations to provide clinical care to human research subjects. In some research contexts, the investigator has extensive clinical obligations to the patient/subject; in others, the investigator has minimal ones.

Resnik David B

2009-12-01

299

Contextual or universal ethics: a non-issue? Viewpoint.  

Science.gov (United States)

A universal ethical principle is the respect of the individual, and this implies universal rules: informed consent, confidentiality, scientific rigor and the limiting of risks. Applying them involves difficulties which are not limited just to the developing countries and which sometimes pose real problems. To assess the quality of means implemented for making sure that these rules are respected, indicators exist which are either direct (evaluation of good practice, recourse to ethical committees) or indirect (quality of patient management, choice of subjects to be studied). Doubts concerning the application of these rules and the value of these indicators in some developing countries have led to an over-simplification of the issue on the part of those countries which consider themselves as paragons of ethical virtue. This has resulted in the concept of "contextual ethics". This concept is dangerous because: (1) it creates the impression that any doubts expressed or questions unresolved can only be encountered in poor countries, whereas they underpin all thinking about ethics; (2) it precludes the need for rich countries to call into question the research they perform intra muros without making any reference to the universal right to health care. PMID:19803066

Anglaret, Xavier; Msellati, Philippe

2009-01-01

300

Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( [...] TRC) South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a postapartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

Christoffel H., Thesnaar.

 
 
 
 
301

Risk perceptions and technological hazards: a contextual view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: the study of public perceptions of risk has given rise to a number of different (and sometimes conflicting) perspectives. Although the differences between these approaches are not trivial, recent reviews have suggested that there may be some points of convergence. In particular, recent work within the different traditions has emphasised the importance of factors such as trust and power for understanding public perceptions of risk. These factors take us beyond the characteristics of the risks themselves, which were the focus of influential work in the psychometric tradition and into a consideration of the social and cultural context within which potentially hazardous technologies are encountered and evaluated. In this paper we examine the way in which the lay public understand and respond to a particular class of technological risks - those associated with site-based major accident hazards. On the basis of empirical research, we argue that an appreciation of the different contexts within which citizens encounter such risks is crucial to understanding the dynamics of public concerns. We illustrate our argument by examining the different ways in which contextual factors influence perceptions. The discussion draws upon a recently completed study of public perceptions of the risks at seven major hazard sites in the UK, which was funded the by UK Health and Safety Executive. (authors)

302

Dynamics of unconscious contextual effects in orientation processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual effects abound in the real world; how we perceive an object depends on what surrounds it. A classic example of this is the tilt illusion (TI) whereby the presence of a surround shifts the perceived orientation of a target. Surprisingly, the magnitude and direction of this shift depend on the orientation difference between the target and surround: when their orientations are similar, the perceived difference is amplified and the target appears repelled in orientation from the surround (i.e., the TI). However, when their orientations are close to perpendicular, the difference is decreased and the target appears attracted in orientation toward the surround (i.e., the indirect TI). These misperceptions of orientation have revealed much about the underlying detectors involved in visual processing and how they interact with each other. What remains at stake are the levels of processing involved. To examine this, we designed a reverse-correlation technique whereby observers are blind to the orientation of the surround. We find that the TI and indirect TI occur reliably and over a similar time course, supporting the role of a single mechanism underlying orientation biases that operates in the early stages of visual processing before the conscious extraction of the surround orientation. PMID:22529393

Mareschal, Isabelle; Clifford, Colin W G

2012-05-01

303

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand th [...] e pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv) teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Seugnet, Blignaut; Christo, Els; Sarah, Howie.

304

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Seugnet Blignaut

2010-01-01

305

Study of career development in children from a developmental-contextual perspective Estudio del desarrollo de la orientación vocacional en la infancia desde la perspectiva evolutivo-contextual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Career development is a longitudinal process, from childhood to adulthood, which is influenced by personal and contextual factors. Vocational literature has described childhood as a formative period for career development, as the bases of career exploration and vocational interests, values, attitudes and skills are established in the first years of life. This study starts with an overview of the major theoretical approaches and research trends in the study of children’s career development. A particular focus on the developmental-contextual approach to career development is adopted, as an integrative framework to capture the complexity of career developmental processes and results that occur in the first years of life. The application of such a perspective to the study of children’s career development leads to a discussion of the nature of change in the first years of life, of the child as a shaper of development and context, and of the impact of contexts on children’s development. Finally, we present implications of the adoption of a developmental-contextual approach to the study of children’s career development for future research.

Keywords: Career development, vocational guidance, childhood, contextual theories.
El desarrollo de la orientación vocacional debemos entenderlo como un proceso longitudinal, que se extiende desde la infancia hasta la edad adulta y que está influido por factores personales y contextuales. La literatura existente, ha descrito la infancia como un período clave para este proceso, pues las bases de la exploración profesional, los intereses, los valores, las actitudes y las habilidades vocacionales, se forman en los primeros años de vida. Este estudio, describe los principales enfoques teóricos y las tendencias de la investigación en la actualidad sobre este tema y su relación con la infancia, poniendo especial énfasis en el enfoque contextual, como marco integrador explicativo de la complejidad de los procesos que se ven implicados en el desarrollo vocacional y la importancia que tienen los primeros años de vida. El uso de esa perspectiva, en el estudio de la orientación profesional en la infancia, surge a raíz de las controversias existente en referencia a la naturaleza del cambio en los primeros años de vida, de la idea del niño como regulador del desarrollo y del contexto, así como también, del impacto contextual en los procesos evolutivos. Finalmente, el trabajo presenta las implicaciones -para futuras investigaciones- de la relevancia de la teoría contextual.

Palabras clave: Desarrollo, orientación vocacional, infancia, teoría contextual.

Alexandra M. Araújo

2009-06-01

306

Children's responses to social atypicality among group members - advantages of a contextualized social developmental account.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abrams, Rutland, Palmer, Ferrell, and Pelletier (2014) showed that better second-order mental state understanding facilitates 6-7-year-olds' ability to link a partially disloyal child's atypicality to inclusive or exclusive reactions by in-group or outgroup members. This finding is interpreted in terms of predictions from the developmental subjective group dynamics model. We respond to thoughtful commentaries by Rhodes and Chalik, Patterson, and Rakoczy. Children face a significant developmental challenge in becoming able to recognize and interpret social atypicality in intergroup contexts. Researching that ability to contextualize judgements raises new questions about the nature of peer inclusion and exclusion, about children's social cognition, and about the way that social cognitive development and social experience combine. Rather than individual-focused cognition taking priority over category-based cognition, we argue the two become more systematically integrated during development. We note that loyalty is but one example of typicality, and we also consider the role of more advanced perspective taking among older children, and the role of multiple classification skill among younger children, as well as potential implications for intervention to reduce peer victimization and prejudice. PMID:24954093

Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B; Purewal, Kiran

2014-09-01

307

Contextual Information and Covariance Descriptors for People Surveillance: An Application for Safety of Construction Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In computer science, contextual information can be used both to reduce computations and to increase accuracy. This paper discusses how it can be exploited for people surveillance in very cluttered environments in terms of perspective (i.e., weak scene calibration and appearance of the objects of interest (i.e., relevance feedback on the training of a classifier. These techniques are applied to a pedestrian detector that uses a LogitBoost classifier, appropriately modified to work with covariance descriptors which lie on Riemannian manifolds. On each detected pedestrian, a similar classifier is employed to obtain a precise localization of the head. Two novelties on the algorithms are proposed in this case: polar image transformations to better exploit the circular feature of the head appearance and multispectral image derivatives that catch not only luminance but also chrominance variations. The complete approach has been tested on the surveillance of a construction site to detect workers that do not wear the hard hat: in such scenarios, the complexity and dynamics are very high, making pedestrian detection a real challenge.

Prati Andrea

2011-01-01

308

Contextual effects and psychological features influencing decoy options: A review and research agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop future research proposals aiming to contribute the extant theory which explains decoy effects.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, a review of the existing literature about decoy options and its interactions with contextual effects that could affect their performance is presented. Next, two research proposals are presented: the introduction of a double decoy choice set and the evaluation of decoy effect under different levels of cognitive effort in a purchasing process.Findings and Originality/value: For the research proposal concerning double decoy choice sets, different hypothesis are introduced based on the different theories aiming to explain the effect of simple decoy choice sets. This hypothesis predict different outcomes for the same experimental design, fact that could provide further support for at least one of the current explanations for decoy effects. Regarding the effect of decoy options under different levels of cognitive effort, implications for experimental design for sequential purchasing process are expected. Especially for those designed with complex options, with many steps or high number of options.Originality/value: Two new research proposal approaches are presented in order enhance the current theory. Moreover, both have managerial implications concerning the real usage of decoy options in reduced choice sets as well as in sequential purchasing processes.

David Gonzalez-Prieto

2013-01-01

309

The schooling of children of immigrants: Contextual effects on the educational attainment of the second generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We supplement earlier published findings on the academic achievement of the immigrant second generation with an analysis of school contextual effects based on the same large data set used by the best-known prior analyses, the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study. A hierarchical model of contextual and individual-level effects on academic achievement and school attrition reveals patterns that reproduce those found in national student surveys but also others that are unique to the second g...

Portes, Alejandro; Hao, Lingxin

2004-01-01

310

Individual and Contextual Factors of Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth Perinatally Infected with HIV  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV?infected (PHIV+), HIV?affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV? caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the eff...

Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose? A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J.; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A.

2012-01-01

311

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RISK AND DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR, CERTAIN CONTEXTUAL FACTORS RELATED TO FAMILY AND PARENTING METHODS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper had two aims. The first aim was to examine whether there is a direct contribution of some family contextual factors (parents' education, perceived family financial situation, parental frequency of drinking, and family size) to the risky and delinquent child behavior. The second aim of the paper was to determine whether there is an indirect contribution of these family contextual factors through parental rearing practices (emotional warmth, rejection, overprotection). The study was ...

Ivana Vrselja; Renata Glavak Tkali?

2011-01-01

312

Disentangling Ethnic and Contextual Influences Among Parents Raising Youth in High-Risk Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on analyses examining contextual influences on parenting with an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of parents (predominantly mothers) raising 387 children (49% ethnic minority; 51% male) in high-risk communities. Parents and children were followed longitudinally from first through tenth grades. Contextual influences included geographical location, neighborhood risk, SES, and family stress. The cultural variable was racial socialization. Parenting constructs cre...

Hurley, Sean; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; Mcmahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

2008-01-01

313

Both ?1- and ?1-adrenoceptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are involved in the expression of conditioned contextual fear  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic structure that is involved in the expression of conditioned contextual fear. Among the numerous neural inputs to the BNST, noradrenergic synaptic terminals are prominent and some evidence suggests an activation of this noradrenergic neurotransmission in the BNST during aversive situations. Here, we have investigated the involvement of the BNST noradrenergic system in the modulation of behavioural and autonomic responses induced by conditioned contextual fear in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Male Wistar rats with cannulae bilaterally implanted into the BNST were submitted to a 10 min conditioning session (6 footshocks, 1.5 ma/ 3 s). Twenty-four hours later freezing and autonomic responses (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cutaneous temperature) to the conditioning box were measured for 10 min. The adrenoceptor antagonists were administered 10 min before the re-exposure to the aversive context. KEY RESULTS L-propranolol, a non-selective ?-adrenoceptor antagonist, and phentolamine, a non-selective ?-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduced both freezing and autonomic responses induced by aversive context. Similar results were observed with CGP20712, a selective ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist, and WB4101, a selective ?1-antagonist, but not with ICI118,551, a selective ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist or RX821002, a selective ?2-antagonist. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings support the idea that noradrenergic neurotransmission in the BNST via ?1- and ?1-adrenoceptors is involved in the expression of conditioned contextual fear. PMID:22506532

Hott, Sara C; Gomes, Felipe V; Fabri, Denise RS; Reis, Daniel G; Crestani, Carlos C; Côrrea, Fernando MA; Resstel, Leonardo BM

2012-01-01

314

Glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of contextual fear memory consolidation in rats: Involvement of D1 receptor activity of hippocampal area CA1.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the role of dopamine (DA) receptors in area CA1 of the hippocampus in modulating the effects of glucocorticoids on the contextual fear memory consolidation. Adult male rats were given systemic injections of corticosterone (CORT; 3mg/kg) immediately after training in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) task and the percentage of time spent freezing in the CFC context was recorded 24h after training. Intra-CA1 infusion of the DA type 1 (D1) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (SCH; 30ng/0.5µl per side) immediately after CORT injection attenuated CORT-induced enhancement of memory consolidation. However, intra-CA1 infusion of the DA type 2 (D2) receptor antagonist sulpiride (SUL; 60ng/0.5µl per side) was ineffective. Neither antagonist alone altered freezing behavior in the 24h CFC retention test. Furthermore, the memory enhancing dose of CORT used in these experiments reduced D1, but not D2, receptor mRNA expression in area CA1. Neither D1 nor D2 antagonism in area CA1 affected total locomotor activity. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of hippocampal D1 receptor activity in area CA1 in CORT-induced enhancement of contextual fear memory consolidation. PMID:23727402

Liao, Ying; Shi, Yan-Wei; Liu, Qiu-Ling; Zhao, Hu

2013-08-01

315

Working Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

What can Harvard Business School (HBS) do for you? Quite a bit as it turns out, particularly for parties with interest in business practice. The Working Knowledge site is "a forum for innovation in business practice, offering readers a first look at cutting-edge thinking from HBS faculty." Every weekday the site offers new work from over 200 HBS faculty, and the reports, updates, and commentaries include pieces like "Five Imperatives for Improving Health Care" and "Is your iPhone Turning You into a Wimp?" First-time visitors should note that they may browse by topic, industry, or geography. Moving on, the New Working Papers section brings together helpful new scholarly works like "Helping You Help Me" and "Cumulative Innovation & Open Disclosure of Intermediate Results." The conversational aspects of this site come to life in the What Do You Think? area, which encourages curious parties to comment on pieces such as "What are the Limits Of Transparency?" The site is rounded out by a place where visitors can get a "First Look" at new faculty working papers and case studies before they enter mainstream practice.

316

Knowledge Management: An Introduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

Mac Morrow, Noreen

2001-01-01

317

Contextualizing Smoking Behaviour over Time: A Smoking Journey from Pleasuring to Suffering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports a qualitative study describing the basic psychosocial process of contextualizing smoking behaviour in the life fabric of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. A classical grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze the data derived from a theoretical (purposeful sample of eight Jordanian psychiatric nurses in 2009-2010. The constant comparative method of data analysis was used; thus, data collection, coding and analysis occurred simultaneously. Strategies were used throughout the study to ensure trustworthiness; that is, fulfill the requirements for credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. “Contextualizing smoking behaviour over time” was the core concept that explained how JPNs integrate smoking behaviour into their life fabric. For these nurses, smoking is contextualized in four phases: becoming a novice smoker, becoming a formal smoker as a nursing student, becoming a heavy smoking psychiatric nurse, and becoming an exhausted smoker. Contextualizing smoking among JPNs demonstrates that those nurses frequently normalize smoking as part of the fabric of everyday life. Participants described their smoking as a journey in a manner that reflected how it started with pleasuring and ended with suffering. Although this study presents a deep understanding of smoking behaviour, further studies are required to develop the theory of contextualized smoking. A developed contextualized theory of smoking is required to guide culturally sensitive smoking cessation and prevention programmes capable of influencing smoking behaviours.

Khaldoun Aldiabat

2012-01-01

318

Dopamine D2 receptors modulate the expression of contextual conditioned fear: role of the ventral tegmental area and the basolateral amygdala.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although dopaminergic systems are more commonly associated with the reinforcing effects of various stimuli, numerous reports have demonstrated a relationship between changes in dopaminergic transmission and aversive situations. In the present study, we examined the involvement of D1-like and D2-like receptors in the expression of conditioned freezing using the context as the conditioned stimulus. Intraperitoneal injections of the D1 agonist SKF38393 or the D1 antagonist SCH23390 did not change the conditioned freezing in rats subjected to the contextual fear paradigm. In contrast, intraperitoneal injections of the D2 agonist quinpirole and the D2 antagonist sulpiride caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in the expression of contextual conditioned freezing. As these data may reflect that the systemic manipulations acted on dopaminergic receptors in different brain areas, the effects of administration of quinpirole and sulpiride into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) on the expression of contextual conditioned freezing were also evaluated. Intra-VTA quinpirole and intra-BLA sulpiride injections reduced the conditioned freezing response; intra-VTA sulpiride and intra-BLA quinpirole injections had no significant effects. These data suggest that D2-like receptors, but not D1-like receptors, play an important role in the expression of contextual conditioned freezing. Quinpirole may act at D2 presynaptic receptors located in the VTA, decreasing dopamine levels in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic pathway. The effects of sulpiride, in contrast, appear to be triggered by an action on postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors located in the BLA. However, it cannot be totally excluded that the injected solutions did not also affect neighboring amygdalar regions. Together with previous findings, the present data suggest the need to consider dopaminergic mechanisms in the mesolimbic circuit as novel targets for the pharmacological treatment of fear-related disorders, especially post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23751519

de Souza Caetano, Kátia A; de Oliveira, Amanda R; Brandão, Marcus L

2013-08-01

319

Making Knowledge Services Work in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past three years, knowledge-based practices in higher education have advanced, driving the development of low/no-cost, mass-market tools for knowledge sharing and reducing some barriers to change. New investors in higher education are developing strategies to exploit the knowledge-driven value propositions. Existing institutions, anxious…

Norris, Donald M.; Lefrere, Paul; Mason, Jon

2006-01-01

320

Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange, between communities, community-based organizations, decision makers, and researchers is likely to be beneficial when ensuring that 'evidence' meets the needs of all end users and that decisions are based on both relevant research and community requirements. Further exploratory work is needed to identify alternative methods for evaluating these strategies when applied within community-based settings.

Armstrong Rebecca

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Using Teachers' Prior Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs to Develop In-Service Teacher Education Courses for Inclusion  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines one important dimension of inclusive education: the development of in-service teacher education courses. Using an example from Cyprus, it discusses the issue of contextualizing teacher training courses to suit teachers' prior knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about inclusion. The paper considers some of the findings of a survey…

Symeonidou, Simoni; Phtiaka, Helen

2009-01-01

322

Using the DOE Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DOE Knowledge Base is a library of detailed information whose purpose is to support the United States National Data Center (USNDC) in its mission to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). One of the important tasks which the USNDC must accomplish is to periodically perform detailed analysis of events of high interest, so-called "Special Events", to provide the national authority with information needed to make policy decisions. In this paper we investigate some possible uses of the Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis (SEA), and make recommendations for improving Knowledge Base support for SEA. To analyze an event in detail, there are two basic types of data which must be used sensor-derived data (wave- forms, arrivals, events, etc.) and regiohalized contextual data (known sources, geological characteristics, etc.). Cur- rently there is no single package which can provide full access to both types of data, so for our study we use a separate package for each MatSeis, the Sandia Labs-developed MATLAB-based seismic analysis package, for wave- form data analysis, and ArcView, an ESRI product, for contextual data analysis. Both packages are well-suited to pro- totyping because they provide a rich set of currently available functionality and yet are also flexible and easily extensible, . Using these tools and Phase I Knowledge Base data sets, we show how the Knowledge Base can improve both the speed and the quality of SEA. Empirically-derived interpolated correction information can be accessed to improve both location estimates and associated error estimates. This information can in turn be used to identi~ any known nearby sources (e.g. mines, volcanos), which may then trigger specialized processing of the sensor data. Based on the location estimate, preferred magnitude formulas and discriminants can be retrieved, and any known blockages can be identified to prevent miscalculations. Relevant historic events can be identilled either by spatial proximity searches or through waveform correlation processing. The locations and waveforms of these events can then be made available for side-by-side comparison and processing. If synthetic modeling is thought to be warranted, a wide variety of rele- vant contextu~l information (e.g. crustal thickness and layering, seismic velocities, attenuation factors) can be retrieved and sent to the appropriate applications. Once formedj the synthetics can then be brought in for side-by-side comparison and fhrther processing. Based on our study, we make two general recommendations. First, proper inter-process communication between sensor data analysis software and contextual data analysis sofisvare should be developed. Second, some of the Knowl- edge Base data sets should be prioritized or winnowed to streamline comparison with observed quantities.

Armstrong, H.M.; Harris, J.M.; Young, C.J.

1998-10-20

323

Tool Support for Automating Architectural Knowledge Extraction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Development of large projects is a knowledge intensive task. Applying knowledge management techniques to project activities can enhance productivity and reduce risks of failures. However, it has been observed that knowledge management activities suffer from problems such as unavailability of structured information and lack of incentives to put extra efforts for these activities. In this paper, we present a tool that captures architectural knowledge from documents an...

Ul-haq, Aman; Ali Babar, Muhammad

2009-01-01

324

Knowledge management, codification and tacit knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method. The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who have studied the transformation of knowledge into information through the process of codification and the knowledge transaction topography they...

Kimble, Chris

2013-01-01

325

Maintaining knowledge of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: [Knowledge - 'awareness or familiarity gained by experience (of a person, fact or thing)... a person's range of information ... the sum of what is known ... true, justified belief; certain understanding, as opposed to opinion.' The Oxford Concise English Dictionary.] Organisations responsible for the safe and effective management of radioactive waste will be aware of the value of information characterising the waste and the need for its preservation. In the United Kingdom the principal legal instrument controlling nuclear site activities is the Nuclear Installations Act (1990), which requires certain licence conditions to be fulfilled. One of the 35 conditions of the nuclear site licence demands that operators ensure that adequate records are kept relating to, inter alia, 'the location of all radioactive material, including nuclear fuel and radioactive waste'. Through the application of this licence condition, the relevant nuclear regulator, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), requires licensees to make arrangements for recording and preserving all the information that may be required in the future to ensure the safe management of radioactive material and radioactive waste. The majority of operators responsible for the long-term management of radioactive waste will establish systems for preserving information. In order for the system to deliver real benefits, there must be absolute clarity concerning what information is to be preserved, the reasons why it must be preserved, how it is to be managed over the long-term and who is responsible for its management. However, the decisive characteristic of this information management system that could make the difference between preserved liability and valued asset is the ability to access and interpret the information now and in the future. On first inspection, this characteristic appears obvious but how often are these systems established with the primary objective of preserving information when it should be ensuring future access to knowledge? Radioactive waste data, recorded in isolation, may have restricted value especially if its provenance is unknown, its significance is unclear, the originators cannot be consulted and its authenticity and trustworthiness are not verifiable. It is therefore necessary to combine this raw data with contextual information that will enable future generations to determine the significance of the record, distinguish it as valuable asset and create their own, contemporary knowledge base. Only when equipped with comprehensive, reliable and accurate knowledge will future generations have the confidence to make informed judgments about the impact of our waste on their society and environment. The mismanagement of our knowledge today could have significant repercussions in terms of cost, radiation dose and damage to the environment in the future. This presentation defines terms such as 'data', 'information', 'knowledge' and 'wisdom' and provides a simple model illustrating their relationship. This model is then used as the basis for an examination of the inputs and the ways in which they may be optimised. The nuclear industry, and even society, has developed an 'implicit' understanding of radioactive waste, at a variety of levels, and it may seem inconceivable that future societies would not retain this understanding in sufficient detail that it could adequately protect itself and the environment. History shows, however, that as societies evolve and other priorities emerge previously implicit knowledge can decline. This leads us towards identifying present 'implicit' radioactive waste knowledge and developing means for capturing it. The presentation will conclude with an argument for the development of strategies that encourage the sharing of trustworthy radioactive waste-related knowledge. These strategies, supported national governments, whilst being both practical and cost-effective to implement must be cognisant of the need for local and regional security. (author)

326

Properties of Contextual Memory Formed in the Absence of ?CaMKII Autophosphorylation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (?CaMKII is a major synaptic kinase that undergoes autophosphorylation after NMDA receptor activation, switching the kinase into a calcium-independent activity state. This ?CaMKII autophosphorylation is essential for NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP, induced by a single tetanus, in hippocampal area CA1 and in neocortex. Furthermore, the ?CaMKII autophosphorylation is essential for contextual long-term memory (LTM formation after a single training trial but not after a massed training session. Here, we show that in the absence of ?CaMKII autophosphorylation contextual fear conditioning is hippocampus dependent and that multi-tetanus-dependent late-LTP cannot be induced in hippocampal area CA1. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of ?CaMKII autophosphorylation contextual LTM persists for 30 days, the latest time point tested. Additionally, contextual, but not cued, LTM formation in the absence of ?CaMKII autophosphorylation appears to be impaired in 18 month-old mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that ?CaMKII autophosphorylation-independent plasticity in the hippocampus is sufficient for contextual LTM formation and that ?CaMKII autophosphorylation may be important for delaying age-related impairments in hippocampal memory formation. Furthermore, they propose that NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in hippocampal area CA1 is essential for contextual LTM formation after a single trial but not after massed training. Finally, our results challenge the proposal that NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in neocortex is required for remote contextual LTM.

Irvine Elaine E

2011-01-01

327

Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal explanations, assumptions, models and evidence in engineering analysis need to include and interpret also non-numerical and contextual data

Sanne, Johan M.

2008-09-15

328

Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type of management- knowledge based management and a new type of enterprise-knowledge based enterprise.Taking in consideration these predictable evolutions, this paper will try to present: • The main ideas of the researches the field of the knowledge based economy • The characteristics and principles of the knowledge based organizations and knowledge based management • The challenges and opportunities for knowledge based organizations.The first part of the paper will present the principles of the new economy- knowledge base economy, the essential and interrelated elements necessary to build and to implement a strategy in a knowledge economy and the opportunities and challenges to the countries as they seek to build regionally and globally competitive knowledge-based economies.The second part of the paper will present the characteristics of the knowledge based organizations, the principles and characteristics of their management. For many organizations, knowledge management is a relatively new concept, because they are discovering the knowledge value in their operations. Many firms have undertaken formal and informal knowledge management initiatives designed to improve process performance, increase customer responsiveness and spur innovation. But while some organizations have reaped significant benefits from their investment in knowledge efforts, others have run into noteworthy challenges.

Madalina Cristina Tocan

2012-12-01

329

Effects of context on implicit and explicit lexical knowledge: An event-related potential study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. PMID:25218952

Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin

2014-10-01

330

Individual and contextual factors of sexual risk behavior in youth perinatally infected with HIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV-infected (PHIV+), HIV-affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV- caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV- youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV- youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22694193

Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Robbins, Reuben N; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A

2012-07-01

331

The componential processing of fractions in adults and children: Effects of stimuli variability and contextual interference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that people have a strong tendency to compare fractions based on constituent numerators or denominators. This is called componential processing. This study explored whether componential processing was preferred in tasks involving high stimuli variability and high contextual interference, when fractions could be compared based either on the holistic values of fractions or on their denominators. Here, stimuli variability referred to the fact that fractions were not monotonous but diversiform. Contextual interference referred to the fact that the processing of fractions was interfered by other stimuli. To our ends, three tasks were used. In Task 1, participants compared a standard fraction 1/5 to unit fractions. This task was used as a low stimuli variability and low contextual interference task. In Task 2 stimuli variability was increased by mixing unit and non-unit fractions. In Task 3, high contextual interference was created by incorporating decimals into fractions. The RT results showed that the processing patterns of fractions were very similar for adults and children. In task 1 and task 3, only componential processing was utilzied. In contrast, both holistic processing and componential processing were utilized in task 2. These results suggest that, if individuals are presented with the opportunity to perform componential processing, both adults and children will tend to do so, even if they are faced with high variability of fractions or high contextual interference.

LiZhang

2014-09-01

332

Multi-class multi-scale series contextual model for image segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual information has been widely used as a rich source of information to segment multiple objects in an image. A contextual model uses the relationships between the objects in a scene to facilitate object detection and segmentation. Using contextual information from different objects in an effective way for object segmentation, however, remains a difficult problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework, called multiclass multiscale (MCMS) series contextual model, which uses contextual information from multiple objects and at different scales for learning discriminative models in a supervised setting. The MCMS model incorporates cross-object and inter-object information into one probabilistic framework and thus is able to capture geometrical relationships and dependencies among multiple objects in addition to local information from each single object present in an image. We demonstrate that our MCMS model improves object segmentation performance in electron microscopy images and provides a coherent segmentation of multiple objects. Through speeding up the segmentation process, the proposed method will allow neurobiologists to move beyond individual specimens and analyze populations paving the way for understanding neurodegenerative diseases at the microscopic level. PMID:23893724

Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga

2013-11-01

333

The classification of knowledge and expertise in Finnish nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The difficulties in sharing tacit knowledge may compromise the safe performance of high-reliability organisations. This threat has been recognised in nuclear power plants worldwide, owing to the risk of simultaneous retirements. In this study, the nature of tacit knowledge in Finnish nuclear power plants was examined and the expertise of nuclear workers modelled. The results of this interview study showed that the tacit nuclear knowledge can be classified in two dimensions: technical and contextual. According to this classification, the employees in plants can be categorised in four categories: the experts; the novices; the technical specialists; the context sensitives. (author)

334

Auto-caotización en la sociedad mundial: Lineamientos para una teoría de la diferenciación contextual / Self-chaotization in World Society: An Outline for a Theory of Contextual Differentiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sociedad mundial moderna se caracteriza por su alta complejidad, es decir, por la continuamente cambiante interrelación de sus elementos. El resultado de ello es una constante diferenciación y especialización de espacios sociales orientada a manejar la incertidumbre que esa complejidad genera. Pa [...] radójicamente, la diferenciación y especialización es nuevamente una fuente de complejidad. Para enfrentar esta ambigüedad auto-producida, determinadas operaciones sociales se distinguen por generar interdependencias estructurales que logran una estabilidad operacional suficiente para distinguirlas de su entorno. A ello se le denomina en este artículo diferenciación contextual, esto es, la emergencia de contextos diferenciados de interacción, decisión y simbolización que posibilitan una concretización múltiple de funciones sociales en espacios supranacionales. Esto se observa especialmente a propósito de la diferenciación del derecho, la economía y el deporte, y se ilustra con cuatro estudios de caso: la Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, el Bank for International Settlements, la FIFA, el juego y sus públicos, y el arbitraje comercial internacional. Abstract in english A high level of complexity and a continuous and always changing relationship among its elements characterizes modern world society. As a result, a constant differentiation and specialization of diverging social fields aiming to reduce the uncertainty emerging from that complexity takes place. Parado [...] xically, as differentiation and specialization increase, they become a new source of uncertainty. In order to confront this self-producing ambiguity, some social operations develop structural interdependencies with a sufficient level of operational stability that distinguish them from their environment. In this paper this is called contextual differentiation, i.e. the emergence of differentiated contexts of interaction, decision and symbolization that make possible a mutilayered concretization of social functions in supranational contexts. With regard to the differentiation of law, economy and sports this process is analyzed and illustrated in four case studies: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Bank for International Settlements, FIFA, the game and its publics, and the international commercial arbitration.

Aldo, Mascareño.

2012-09-01

335

Auto-caotización en la sociedad mundial: Lineamientos para una teoría de la diferenciación contextual / Self-chaotization in World Society: An Outline for a Theory of Contextual Differentiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sociedad mundial moderna se caracteriza por su alta complejidad, es decir, por la continuamente cambiante interrelación de sus elementos. El resultado de ello es una constante diferenciación y especialización de espacios sociales orientada a manejar la incertidumbre que esa complejidad genera. Pa [...] radójicamente, la diferenciación y especialización es nuevamente una fuente de complejidad. Para enfrentar esta ambigüedad auto-producida, determinadas operaciones sociales se distinguen por generar interdependencias estructurales que logran una estabilidad operacional suficiente para distinguirlas de su entorno. A ello se le denomina en este artículo diferenciación contextual, esto es, la emergencia de contextos diferenciados de interacción, decisión y simbolización que posibilitan una concretización múltiple de funciones sociales en espacios supranacionales. Esto se observa especialmente a propósito de la diferenciación del derecho, la economía y el deporte, y se ilustra con cuatro estudios de caso: la Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, el Bank for International Settlements, la FIFA, el juego y sus públicos, y el arbitraje comercial internacional. Abstract in english A high level of complexity and a continuous and always changing relationship among its elements characterizes modern world society. As a result, a constant differentiation and specialization of diverging social fields aiming to reduce the uncertainty emerging from that complexity takes place. Parado [...] xically, as differentiation and specialization increase, they become a new source of uncertainty. In order to confront this self-producing ambiguity, some social operations develop structural interdependencies with a sufficient level of operational stability that distinguish them from their environment. In this paper this is called contextual differentiation, i.e. the emergence of differentiated contexts of interaction, decision and symbolization that make possible a mutilayered concretization of social functions in supranational contexts. With regard to the differentiation of law, economy and sports this process is analyzed and illustrated in four case studies: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Bank for International Settlements, FIFA, the game and its publics, and the international commercial arbitration.

Aldo, Mascareño.

336

Tacit knowledge emergence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

337

Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type...

Madalina Cristina Tocan

2012-01-01

338

Effect of the coadministration of citalopram with mirtazapine or atipamezole on rat contextual conditioned fear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Takahiro Masuda,1,2 Takeshi Inoue,1 Yan An,1 Naoki Takamura,1,3 Shin Nakagawa,1 Yuji Kitaichi,1 Tsukasa Koyama,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Japan; 2Medical Affairs, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Regenerative and Cellular Medicine Office, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan Background: Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, which blocks the ?2-adrenergic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, has shown anxiolytic properties in clinical trials and preclinical animal experiments. The addition of mirtazapine to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is clinically suggested to be more effective for anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the combined effects of mirtazapine and citalopram, an SSRI, on the freezing behavior of rats, which was induced by contextual conditioned fear as an index of anxiety or fear. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats individually received footshocks in a shock chamber, and 24 hours later, they were given citalopram and/or mirtazapine injections. One hour after citalopram and 30 minutes after mirtazapine administration, freezing behavior was analyzed in the same shock chamber without shocks. Results: Mirtazapine decreased freezing in a dose-dependent manner, which is consistent with a previous report; it also enhanced an anxiolytic-like effect at a high dose (30 mg/kg of citalopram. Because mirtazapine blocks ?2-adrenoreceptors, the combined effect of atipamezole, a selective ?2 receptor antagonist, with citalopram was also examined. Similar to mirtazapine, atipamezole reduced freezing dose-dependently, but the enhancement of citalopram's effects by atipamezole was not clear when compared with mirtazapine. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that mirtazapine has an anxiolytic-like effect and may enhance the anxiolytic-like effect of SSRIs, but this enhancement may not be explained by its anti-?2 property alone. Keywords: anxiety, conditioned fear, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, mirtazapine, ?2-adrenoreceptor

Masuda T

2014-02-01

339

Different brain activity in response to emotional faces alone and augmented by contextual information.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the extent to which emotional face stimuli differ from the neural reactivity associated with more ecological contextually augmented stimuli. Participants were scanned when they viewed contextually rich pictures depicting both emotional faces and context, and pictures of emotional faces presented alone. Emotional faces alone were more strongly associated with brain activity in paralimbic and social information processing regions, whereas emotional faces augmented by context were associated with increased and sustained activity in regions potentially representing increased complexity and subjective emotional experience. Furthermore, context effects were modulated by emotional intensity and valence. These findings suggest that cortical elaboration that is apparent in contextually augmented stimuli may be missed in studies of emotional faces alone, whereas emotional faces may more selectively recruit limbic reactivity. PMID:24964216

Lee, Kyung Hwa; Siegle, Greg J

2014-11-01

340

Gender differences and the effect of contextual features on game enjoyment and responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the effect of gender and contextual features on emotional reactions, identification toward game characters, and game enjoyment. Two aspects of contextual features are specifically examined: the moral justification of game characters and violence. An experiment was conducted by allowing participants to play either a morally justified character of a non-violent game, a morally justified character of a violent game, or a morally unjustified character of a violent game. The results show that participants felt less guilty and identified with the characters more when playing the morally justified characters of the non-violent game. Furthermore, males and females demonstrate different patterns of enjoyment to different contextual features of video games. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20950177

Lin, Shu-Fang

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Paradigm shifts: from pre-web information systems to recent web-based contextual information retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the types of user accessible data and information escalates, so does the variety of Information Retrieval (IR practices which can match to achieve the challenges instigated. By expanding its applicability which can broaden the use, integrating technologies and methods and as long as the quest for the perfectly accurate system continues to exist it is quite possible and likely that Information Retrieval can become one of the key technology areas for current and future research and practice. This paper expounds the recent research advances in the area of Contextual Information Retrieval. It tracks and investigates the evolution of retrieval models from the pre-web (traditional Information Retrieval paradigm and Web information retrieval to the most prominent interactive Web information retrieval field of contextual information retrieval focusing on developing models and strategies of contextual IR.

MPS Bhatia

2010-06-01

342

Implicit Motives, Explicit Traits, and Task and Contextual Performance at Work  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Lang, J.W.B.; Zettler, Ingo

2012-01-01

343

Using Puppet to contextualize computing resources for ATLAS analysis on Google Compute Engine  

CERN Document Server

With the advent of commercial as well as institutional and national clouds, new opportunities for on-demand computing resources for the HEP community become available. With the new cloud technologies come also new challenges, and one such is the contextualization of cloud resources with regard to requirements of the user and his experiment. In particular on Google's new cloud platform Google Compute Engine (GCE) upload of user's virtual machine images is not possible, which precludes application of ready to use technologies like CernVM and forces users to build and contextualize their own VM images from scratch. We investigate the use of Puppet to facilitate contextualization of cloud resources on GCE, with particular regard to ease of configuration, dynamic resource scaling, and high degree of scalability.

Öhman, H; The ATLAS collaboration; Hendrix, V

2013-01-01

344

Effects of contextual interference on acquisition and retention of three volleyball skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manipulating the organization of practice conditions, through contextual interference, was identified as a method to promote motor skill acquisition by Brady in 1998. The generalizability of this learning effect is questionable and the amount of repetition versus the amount of change in task presentation requires investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore explanations for the performance of learners practicing the AAHPERD volleyball skills test when the change in task presentation varied. High school students were randomly assigned to blocked, random, and random-blocked practice groups. While all groups significantly improved all skills during acquisition, there was no support for the contextual interference effect. Potential explanations might be dependent upon the learners' skill and the complexity of the task to be learned. Further research is warranted examining contextual interference effect on practice organization at levels of difficulty appropriate to facilitate cognitive processing of task-related information. PMID:18229542

Jones, Laura L; French, Karen E

2007-12-01

345

?-Amyloid pathology alters neural network activation during retrieval of contextual fear memories in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although episodic memory deficits are the most conspicuous cognitive change in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients also display alterations in emotional expression, including anxiety and impaired conditioned fear behaviours. The neural circuitry underlying emotional learning is known to involve the amygdala and hippocampus, although the precise impact of amyloid pathology on the interaction between these brain regions remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that Tg2576 mice, which express a human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation associated with early-onset AD, demonstrate normal acquisition of conditioned freezing to auditory and contextual stimuli paired with footshock. However, examination of the expression of c-Fos revealed altered neural network activity in transgenic mice. In the present study we examined the effects of the APP mutation on the expression of c-Fos following the retrieval of emotional memories. To this end, stimulus-induced cellular activity was measured by analysing expression of the immediate-early gene c-Fos after the retrieval of auditory or contextual fear memories. To characterize regional interdependencies of c-Fos expression, structural equation modelling was used to compare patterns of neural network activity. Consistent with previous findings, Tg2576 mice displayed reduced freezing elicited by the auditory stimulus but not by the conditioning context. Interestingly, the analysis of c-Fos expression revealed that the APPswe mutation disrupted dentate gyrus and amygdala function, as well as altering the influence of these regions on the neural network dynamics activated during context memory retrieval. These results provide novel insight into the influence of excess amyloid production on neural network activity during memory retrieval. PMID:24628842

Lelos, Mariah J; Good, Mark A

2014-05-01

346

Map Your Knowledge Strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the history and uses of knowledge mapping, defined as any visualization of knowledge beyond textual for the purpose of eliciting, codifying, sharing, using, and expanding knowledge. Applies knowledge mapping to organizations, including the mapping of a knowledge management strategy. (LRW)

Stanford, Xenia

2001-01-01

347

The sheaf-theoretic structure of non-locality and contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting that generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples—due to Bell, Hardy and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively—occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for the Kochen-Specker-type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the ‘paritygiven, which generalizes the ‘parity proofs’ commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product. (paper)

348

Exposure to violence reduces empathetic responses to other's pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past researches showed that empathy for pain not only triggers a resonance mechanism between other and self, but also is modulated by contextual factors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study demonstrated that short-term media violence exposure reduced both pain ratings and also the activation of anterior insula and anterior mid-cingulate cortex to other's pain. Thus, violence exposure modulated empathic responses to other's pain based on a physiological desensitization. PMID:23673251

Guo, Xiuyan; Zheng, Li; Wang, Hongyi; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Qianfeng; Dienes, Zoltan; Yang, Zhiliang

2013-07-01

349

Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process.

Weichselbraun, A.; Gindl, S.; Scharl, A.

2014-01-01

350

Spike count distributions, factorizability, and contextual effects in area V1  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural models of contextual integration typically incorporate a mean firing rate representation. We examine representation of the full spike count distribution, and its usefulness in explaining contextual integration of color stimuli in primary visual cortex. Specifically, we demonstrate that a factorizable model conditioned on the number of spikes can account for both the onset and sustained portions of the response. We also consider a simplified factorizable model that parametrizes the mean of a Gaussian distribution and incorporates a logistic nonlinearity. The model can account for the sustained response but does not fair as well in accounting for onset nonlinearities. We discuss implications for neural coding. PMID:21113307

Schwartz, Odelia; Movellan, Javier R.; Wachtler, Thomas; Albright, Thomas D.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

2010-01-01

351

Using Activity Theory as Analytical Framework for Evaluating Contextual Online Collaborative Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, Activity Theory is used as analytical framework for developing and evaluating the model of contextual online collaborative learning. Activity Theory is useful particularly because it provided the researcher with tool to structure human activities in relation to computer within a context. As in the context of this study, Activity Theory proved to be useful for developing and evaluating the incorporation of online collaborative learning within a particular chosen context, i.e. conventional tertiary classroom. Discussions on findings based on the analysis of contextual online collaborative learning are also provided.

Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohamad Said

2014-09-01

352

A Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for Simulated HJ-1B Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HJ-1B satellite, which was launched on September 6, 2008, is one of the small ones placed in the constellation for disaster prediction and monitoring. HJ-1B imagery was simulated in this paper, which contains fires of various sizes and temperatures in a wide range of terrestrial biomes and climates, including RED, NIR, MIR and TIR channels. Based on the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm and the characteristics of HJ-1B sensor, a contextual fire detection algorithm was proposed and test...

Xiangsheng Kong; Sibo Duan; Guangjian Yan; Yonggang Qian

2009-01-01

353

Knowledge Management and Employees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge management requires analysis of what is necessary knowledge, who possesses it, who profits from it, and what is the role of mistakes. Successful knowledge management must acknowledge that people are the most important factor. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

Van Buskirk, Mary Ellen; Lee, Doris

2001-01-01

354

The Knowledge of Composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that college freshmen are generally inexperienced writers writing on topics about which they are not knowledgeable. Explores college freshmen's concomitant process of acquiring knowledge. Argues that composition should be conceptualized as an interweaving of writing and knowledge acquisition. (RS)

Landis, Kathleen

1990-01-01

355

What Do Urban/Inner-City Physical Education Teachers Teach? A Contextual Analysis of One Elementary/Primary School District  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: It is critical to understand the contextual factors in schools that influence teaching behaviours and student learning outcomes. This study uses a contextual framework with four domain areas (personal, instructional, institutional, and societal) to take an in-depth look at urban/inner-city teachers' context and the enacted curriculum.…

Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McCaughtry, Nate; Cothran, Donetta; Martin, Jeffrey

2006-01-01

356

Youth Education Attainment and Participation in Europe: The Role of Contextual Factors and the Scope of Education Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…

Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard

2014-01-01

357

Overview of Knowledge Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defines knowledge management, its components, processes, and outcomes. Addresses the importance of knowledge management for higher education in general and for institutional research in particular. (EV)

Serban, Andreea M.; Luan, Jing

2002-01-01

358

Governing knowledge for development: Knowledge clusters in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the dwindling of natural resources, like oil and gas, even resource-rich countries like Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia have to re-adjust their development strategies. Governing knowledge for development (K4D) is seen as a way out of the dilemma of reduced revenues from natural resources. This paper analyses the attempts to create knowledge clusters as a strategy to move Brunei and Malaysia towards knowledge-based economies. Our study shows that several knowledge clusters have already bee...

Ariff, Syamimi; Hans-dieter, Evers; Anthony Banyouko, Ngah; Farah, Purwaningrum

2014-01-01

359

Leitura contextual e processamento metalingüístico no português do Brasil: um estudo longitudinal Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing in Brazilian portuguese: a longitudinal study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Habilidade metalingüística é a habilidade de refletir sobre a linguagem como objeto do pensamento. Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas duas parecem estar associadas à leitura e a escrita: a consciência morfológica e consciência fonológica. Consciência fonológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os fonemas que compõem a fala e a consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta última parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre essas habilidades e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze em um estudo longitudinal. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação utilizando-se regressões múltiplas. Os resultados dão certo apoio à hipótese de que a consciência morfológica contribui independentemente da fonológica para leitura contextual no português.Metalinguistic skill is the ability to reflect upon language as an object of thought. Amongst metalinguistic skills, two seem to be associated with reading and spelling: morphological awareness and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the phonemes that compose words, and morphological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the morphemes that compose the words. The latter seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading, as beyond phonological information, syntactic and semantic information are required. This study is set to investigate - with a longitudinal design - the relation between those abilities and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test. The first part of the study explores the relationship between morphological awareness tasks and Cloze scores through simple correlations and, in the second part, the specificity of such relationship was inquired using multiple regressions. The results give some support to the hypothesis that morphological awareness offers an independent contribution regarding phonological awareness to contextual reading in Brazilian Portuguese.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

2012-01-01

360

Leitura contextual e processamento metalingüístico no português do Brasil: um estudo longitudinal / Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing in Brazilian portuguese: a longitudinal study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Habilidade metalingüística é a habilidade de refletir sobre a linguagem como objeto do pensamento. Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas duas parecem estar associadas à leitura e a escrita: a consciência morfológica e consciência fonológica. Consciência fonológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre o [...] s fonemas que compõem a fala e a consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta última parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre essas habilidades e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze em um estudo longitudinal. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação utilizando-se regressões múltiplas. Os resultados dão certo apoio à hipótese de que a consciência morfológica contribui independentemente da fonológica para leitura contextual no português. Abstract in english Metalinguistic skill is the ability to reflect upon language as an object of thought. Amongst metalinguistic skills, two seem to be associated with reading and spelling: morphological awareness and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the phonemes that com [...] pose words, and morphological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the morphemes that compose the words. The latter seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading, as beyond phonological information, syntactic and semantic information are required. This study is set to investigate - with a longitudinal design - the relation between those abilities and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test. The first part of the study explores the relationship between morphological awareness tasks and Cloze scores through simple correlations and, in the second part, the specificity of such relationship was inquired using multiple regressions. The results give some support to the hypothesis that morphological awareness offers an independent contribution regarding phonological awareness to contextual reading in Brazilian Portuguese.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da, Mota; Marcel de Toledo, Vieira; Ronaldo Rocha, Bastos; Jaqueline, Dias; Nádia, Paiva; Stella, Mansur-Lisboa; Danielle, Andrade-Silva.

 
 
 
 
361

Scientific Foundations of Knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose that knowledge can be initially designed like any scientific object such a rudimentary automobile, airplane or spacecraft. The premise is based on the theme that a specific body of knowledge rests on the embedded noun objects and the structural relation between these keygroups of knowledge centric objects (KCOs. The events, interactions and forces in the society alter such KCOs and their structural relationships. The design of knowledge deploys a very pragmatic approach that knowledge based on these key objects, their interrelationships, and their interactions can be processed by knowledge machines. Knowledge thus undergoes dynamic changes in the society, the minds of human beings and in the knowledge structures stored in the memories and knowledge banks. Structures of knowledge can be altered in the KPUs of knowledge machines much like data structures are altered in the CPU’s of traditional computers

Victor B. Lawrence, Syed V. Ahamed

2011-06-01

362

One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local/global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation.

Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

2006-01-01

363

Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

The attention paid to the burgeoning "knowledge economy" continues to grow, particularly within the halls of higher education, the federal government, and in the private sector. This past January, the National Science Foundation (in collaboration with other institutions) convened a conference designed "to broaden and deepen common understanding of how difficult-to-measure knowledge resources drive an increasing virtualized economy and to assess prospects for advancing and regenerating knowledge infrastructure, institutions, and policies." While the conference itself is finished, users interested in these themes will appreciate this site, which offers some material about these various issues, along with material on the program itself and the work presented there. After examining these background materials, visitors will want to peruse the draft papers presented at the conference, which deal with networks of knowledge, measuring knowledge, and knowledge clusters.

364

Predicting Parenting Stress in Families of Children with ADHD: Parent and Contextual Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined parental ADHD symptoms and contextual (parental education, social support, marital status) predictors of parent domain parenting stress (parental distress) as a function of child ADHD symptoms in a sample of 95 parents of 8 to 12 year-old children with and without ADHD. Parents' perceptions of parental distress and social support were…

Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria A.; Marton, Imola

2011-01-01

365

Understanding the Contextual Factors that Influence School Counselors' Multicultural Diversity Integration Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the contextual factors that influence a school counselor's decision to actively integrate multicultural diversity in his/her work. Through using the Integrating Multicultural Diversity Questionnaire (IMDQ) the effectiveness of multicultural diversity training, the types of multicultural diversity practices that are used with…

Packer-Williams, Catherine L.; Jay, Michelle L.; Evans, Kathy M.

2010-01-01

366

Contextual Factors Relevant to Elementary Teachers Using Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classroom Discourse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using…

Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri

2014-01-01

367

The Relations between Persistent Poverty and Contextual Risk and Children's Behavior in Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

Does persistent adversity over time have effects on children's behavior beyond the effects of intermittent or concurrent adversity? This study examined the relations between school behavior in 5th grade (mean age = 11 years 0 months) and indexes representing persistent poverty and contextual risk. The indexes described 2-year intervals of family…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Brown, Eleanor D.; Izard, Carroll E.

2004-01-01

368

Contextualized Emotional Images in Children's Dreams: Psychological Adjustment in Conditions of Military Trauma  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the impact of military trauma on contextualized emotional images in children's dreams, and the function of the intensity and valence of the emotional images in protecting mental health from negative trauma impact. Participants were 345 Palestinian children and adolescents (aged 5-16 years) belonging to high trauma (Gaza) and…

Helminen, Elisa; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

2008-01-01

369

Equity, Ethnicity and the Hidden Dangers of "Contextual" Measures of School Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

"Contextual value added" (CVA) scores have been used as a means of monitoring school performance in England since 2007. This article explains how these scores are calculated using biographical pupil data (including ethnicity, gender and Free School Meal status) in order to judge the impact of a school on pupils' attainment. This article argues…

Bradbury, Alice

2011-01-01

370

Perceptions of Contextual Features Related to Implementation and Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived importance of specific contextual variables for initial implementation and sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). A large, national sample of 257 school team members completed the "School-Wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index: School Teams", a…

McIntosh, Kent; Predy, Larissa K.; Upreti, Gita; Hume, Amanda E.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna

2014-01-01

371

Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

Daha, Maryam

2011-01-01

372

Can Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Extract Emotions out of Contextual Cues?  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are able to recognize facial expressions of emotion and objects missing on the basis of contextual cues. While most of these studies focused on facial emotion recognition, here we examined the ability to extract emotional information on the basis…

Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Rondan, Cecilie; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

2009-01-01

373

More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

2009-01-01

374

Contextual Variation in Stereotype Content: An Investigation of Children's Central Tendency and Group Variability Judgements  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing upon self-categorization theory, we predicted that the content of children's stereotypes concerning the gender in-group would be contextually variable. Two studies are reported, each looking at five-, seven-, and 10-year-old children's stereotypes of the gender in-group in two different contexts. Study 1 examined judgements of the…

Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

2006-01-01

375

Relations between Student Learning Patterns and Personal and Contextual Factors and Academic Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at clarifying relations between the way students learn and personal, contextual and performance variables. Students from seven different academic disciplines completed the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS). Besides, data about their age, gender, academic discipline, prior education and exam performance were gathered.…

Vermunt, Jan D.

2005-01-01

376

Contextualizing Community Violence and Its Effects: An Ecological Model of Parent-Child Interdependent Coping  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an integrated conceptual framework that contextualizes exposure to community violence and the interpersonal and interdependent processes of parent and child response to community violence. This model posits that parental distress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, is a significant mediator of…

Aisenberg, Eugene; Ell, Kathleen

2005-01-01

377

Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

2013-01-01

378

Longitudinal Links between Contextual Risks, Parenting, and Youth Outcomes in Rural African American Families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collected longitudinal data from rural, African American, single mother-headed families with young adolescents to examine longitudinal links between contextual risks, parenting, and youth outcome. Accumulated risks related to lower levels of the competence-promoting parenting practices that were linked directly with youth outcomes via youth…

Kim, Sooyeon; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride

2003-01-01

379

The Effect of Contextual Organization on Spatial Memory of Middle Aged and Older Adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although age-related memory differences in adulthood occur in a variety of memory tasks, most of these tasks represent uncommon memory demands. An investigation of everyday memory demands explored the effect of contextual organization on memory performance of middle aged (N=20) and older (N=20) women. Tasks involved reconstruction of spatial…

Waddell, Kathryn J.; Rogoff, Barbara

380

Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Specker's parable of the overprotective seer: A road to contextuality, nonlocality and complementarity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ker theorem from pentagrams to a family of star polygons; a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem in the style of Hardy's proof of Bell's theorem (i.e., one that makes use of the failure of the transitivity of implication for counterfactual statements); a categorization of contextual and Bell-nonlocal correlations in terms of frustrated networks; a derivation of a new inequality testing preparation noncontextuality; some novel results on the joint measurability of POVMs and the question of whether these can be modeled noncontextually. Finally, we emphasize that Specker's parable of the overprotective seer provides a novel type of foil to quantum theory, challenging us to explain why the particular sort of contextuality and complementarity embodied therein does not arise in a quantum world. -- Highlights: ? Prior to his work on quantum contextuality, Ernst Specker introduced nonclassical correlations. ? He dramatized these in a parable about an overprotective seer. ? We use this to unify many results on contextuality, Bell-nonlocality, and complementarity. ? Specker's parable provides a novel type of foil to quantum theory.

382

Contextual Factors in the Activation of First Hypotheses: Expert-Novice Differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of contextual information in the generation of early hypotheses during the clinical interview was studied with expert and novice medical diagnosticians: 18 experienced family physicians versus 5 new physicians and 12 final-year medical students. The 18 experts and 17 novices were presented with 32 short case histories each presented on…

Hobus, Pie P. M.; And Others

383

Individual and Contextual Factors Influencing Special Education Teacher Learning in Literacy Learning Cohorts  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, researchers operated from cognitive and situated perspectives to understand how individual qualities and contextual factors influenced elementary special education teachers' learning in a multifaceted professional development (PD) project, Literacy Learning Cohort, focused on word study and fluency instruction. Grounded theory…

Brownell, Mary T.; Lauterbach, Alexandra A.; Dingle, Mary P.; Boardman, Alison G.; Urbach, Jennifer E.; Leko, Melinda M.; Benedict, Amber E.; Park, Yujeong

2014-01-01

384

College Men's Meanings of Masculinities and Contextual Influences: Toward a Conceptual Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a grounded theory study involving 68 male undergraduates, a conceptual model of the meanings college men ascribe to masculinities is proposed in this article. The participants equated masculinities with "being respected," "being confident and self-assured," "assuming responsibility," and "embodying physical prowess." Contextual factors…

Harris, Frank, III

2010-01-01

385

Enhanced extinction of contextual fear conditioning in Clock?19 mutant mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clock genes have been implicated in several disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and drug dependence. However, few studies to date have examined the role of clock genes in fear-related behaviors. The authors used mice with the Clock?19 mutation to assess the involvement of this gene in contextual fear conditioning. Male wild-type (WT) and Clock?19 mutant mice underwent a single session of contextual fear conditioning (12 min, 4 unsignaled shocks), followed by daily 12-min retention trials. There were no differences between mutant and WT mice in the acquisition of contextual fear, and WT and mutant mice demonstrated similar freezing during the first retention session. However, extinction of contextual fear was accelerated in mutant mice across the remaining retention sessions, as compared to WT mice, suggesting a role for Clock in extinction following aversive learning. Because the Clock?19 mutation has previously been demonstrated to result in an increase in dopamine signaling, the authors confirmed the role of dopamine in extinction learning using preretention session administration of a low dose of the dopamine transport reuptake inhibitor modafinil (0.75 mg/kg), which resulted in decreased freezing across retention sessions. These findings are consistent with an emerging portrayal of the importance of Clock genes in noncircadian functions, as well as the important role of dopamine in extinction learning. PMID:24865659

Bernardi, Rick E; Spanagel, Rainer

2014-08-01

386

Affective and contextual values modulate spatial frequency use in object recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual object recognition is of fundamental importance in our everyday interaction with the environment. Recent models of visual perception emphasize the role of top-down predictions facilitating object recognition via initial guesses that limit the number of object representations that need to be considered. Several results suggest that this rapid and efficient object processing relies on the early extraction and processing of low spatial frequencies (LSF). The present study aimed to investigate the SF content of visual object representations and its modulation by contextual and affective values of the perceived object during a picture-name verification task. Stimuli consisted of pictures of objects equalized in SF content and categorized as having low or high affective and contextual values. To access the SF content of stored visual representations of objects, SFs of each image were then randomly sampled on a trial-by-trial basis. Results reveal that intermediate SFs between 14 and 24 cycles per object (2.3-4 cycles per degree) are correlated with fast and accurate identification for all categories of objects. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between affective and contextual values over the SFs correlating with fast recognition. These results suggest that affective and contextual values of a visual object modulate the SF content of its internal representation, thus highlighting the flexibility of the visual recognition system. PMID:24904514

Caplette, Laurent; West, Gregory; Gomot, Marie; Gosselin, Frédéric; Wicker, Bruno

2014-01-01

387

Expert-Novice Differences in the Role of Contextual Factors in Early Medical Diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined reasons why novice physicians, even after 6 years of medical education, are apparently unable to utilize a patient's contextual information (age, sex, profession, previous diseases, operations, and medical therapy) in the same accurate manner in disease diagnosis as their more experienced colleagues. Sixteen family physicians,…

Hobus, Pie P. M.; And Others

388

French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

2011-01-01

389

The Effect of Contextual Variety on the Practice, Retention, and Transfer of an Applied Motor Skill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers examined the effect of contextual variety on practice, retention, and transfer of the long and short badminton service in a college physical education class. Results indicated a practice schedule requiring students to change the plan of action from trial to trial facilitated retention and transfer of motor skills. (SM)

Wrisberg, Craig A.; Liu, Zhan

1991-01-01

390

A teologia da missão integral como teologia evangélica contextual latino-americano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo inicia com uma análise da reflexão teológica da Fraternidade Teológica Latino-Americana (FTL, numa perspectiva contextual e aborda questões históricas e metodológicas. A seguir, estuda os documentos finais dos Congressos Latino-americanos de Evangelização (CLADES.

Sidney de Moraes Sanches

2010-05-01

391

Temporal and region-specific requirements of ?CaMKII in spatial and contextual learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ? isoform of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (?CaMKII) has been implicated extensively in molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying spatial and contextual learning in a wide variety of species. Germline deletion of Camk2a leads to severe deficits in spatial and contextual learning in mice. However, the temporal and region-specific requirements for ?CaMKII have remained largely unexplored. Here, we generated conditional Camk2a mutants to examine the influence of spatially restricted and temporally controlled expression of ?CaMKII. Forebrain-specific deletion of the Camk2a gene resulted in severe deficits in water maze and contextual fear learning, whereas mice with deletion restricted to the cerebellum learned normally. Furthermore, we found that temporally controlled deletion of the Camk2a gene in adult mice is as detrimental as germline deletion for learning and synaptic plasticity. Together, we confirm the requirement for ?CaMKII in the forebrain, but not the cerebellum, in spatial and contextual learning. Moreover, we highlight the absolute requirement for intact ?CaMKII expression at the time of learning. PMID:25143599

Achterberg, Katharina G; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Kool, Martijn J; Goorden, Susanna M I; Post, Laura; Slump, Denise E; Silva, Alcino J; van Woerden, Geeske M; Kushner, Steven A; Elgersma, Ype

2014-08-20

392

Finding and Contextualizing Resources: A Digital Literacy Tool's Impact in Ninth-Grade World History  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Internet has been touted as a boon to social studies education, little research exists that documents the impact of using it as a contextualizing tool for analyzing primary sources and developing Web sites on high school students' achievement. In this article, the authors address both issues by using a quasi-experimental design to…

Friedman, Adam M.; Heafner, Tina L.

2008-01-01

393

Three Strategies for Interdisciplinary Teaching: Contextualizing, Conceptualizing, and Problem-Centring  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper distinguishes among "contextualizing", "conceptualizing", and "problem-centring" as three basic approaches to interdisciplinary curriculum. This typology is based on the type of inquiry that takes place in the classroom. For example, if the guiding epistemology in the interdisciplinary work is that of the humanities, the mode of…

Nikitina, Svetlana

2006-01-01

394

Historicizing and Contextualizing Global Policy Discourses: Test- and Standards-Based Accountabilities in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper in commenting on the contributions to this special number demonstrates the necessity of historicizing and contextualizing the rise of test- and standards-based modes of accountability in contemporary education policy globally. Both are imperative for understanding specific national manifestations of what has become a globalized…

Lingard, Bob

2013-01-01

395

Contextual and Intrapersonal Predictors of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as…

Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J.

2013-01-01

396

Developmental and Contextual Risks of Social Physique Anxiety among Female Athletes  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined developmental and contextual factors that may increase the odds of reporting higher social physique anxiety (SPA) among 404 adolescent athletes 11 to 16 years old. Findings showed older, later maturing athletes past peak height velocity and with greater body mass index (BMI) reported higher SPA. Individual…

Gay, Jennifer L.; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni M.

2011-01-01

397

Developmental and Contextual Correlates of Elders' Anticipated End-of-Life Treatment Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to gain insight into developmental and contextual correlates of the aggressiveness in treatment that community-based elders anticipate they will desire at the end of life. Elders completed questionnaires to measure 4 developmental factors (integrated moral reasoning, self-transcendence, past experience with…

Decker, Ilene M.; Reed, Pamela G.

2005-01-01

398

Individual and Contextual Predictors of Inhalant Use among 8th Graders: A Multilevel Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies of inhalant use have examined a large number of predictors at the individual level, including risk and protective factors and delinquent behavior, while also taking into account contextual variables (such as school size and poverty rates). This exploratory study uses 8th grade data from a large-scale survey of students in Kentucky to…

Collins, David; Pan, Zhenfeng; Johnson, Knowlton; Courser, Matthew; Shamblen, Steve

2009-01-01

399

Affective and contextual values modulate spatial frequency use in object recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual object recognition is of fundamental importance in our everyday interaction with the environment. Recent models of visual perception emphasize the role of top-down predictions facilitating object recognition via initial guesses that limit the number of object representations that need to be considered. Several results suggest that this rapid and efficient object processing relies on the early extraction and processing of low spatial frequencies (SF. The present study aimed to investigate the SF content of visual object representations and its modulation by contextual and affective values of the perceived object during a picture-name verification task. Stimuli consisted of pictures of objects equalized in SF content and categorised as having low or high affective and contextual values. To access the SF content of stored visual representations of objects, SFs of each image were then randomly sampled on a trial-by-trial basis. Results reveal that intermediate SFs between 14 and 24 cycles per object (2.3 to 4 cycles per degree are correlated with fast and accurate identification for all categories of objects. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between affective and contextual values over the SFs correlating with fast recognition. These results suggest that affective and contextual values of a visual object modulate the SF content of its internal representation, thus highlighting the flexibility of the visual recognition system.

BrunoWicker

2014-05-01

400

Teaching Engineering Statistics with Technology, Group Learning, Contextual Projects, Simulation Models and Student Presentations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses our teaching approach in graduate level Engineering Statistics. It is based on the use of modern technology, learning groups, contextual projects, simulation models, and statistical and simulation software to entice student motivation. The use of technology to facilitate group projects and presentations, and to generate,…

Romeu, Jorge Luis

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Sport Education and Extracurricular Sport Participation: An Examination Using the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we used the trans-contextual model of motivation (TCM) to examine the effect of Sport Education (SE) on students' participation in a voluntary lunch recess sport club. A total of 192 participants (ages 9-14 years) completed measures of the TCM constructs before and after a 12-week SE intervention period. Participants had the…

Wallhead, Tristan L.; Hagger, Martin; Smith, Derek T.

2010-01-01

402

Exploring contextual factors and patient activation: evidence from a nationally representative sample of patients with depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with mental health care access and utilization. However, evidence of their association with patient activation is still lacking. Using data from the Health Tracking Household Survey 2007 and Area Health Resource File 2008, we examine the association between contextual factors and self-reported activation levels among patients with depression. We investigate two types of contextual factors-(a) site of usual source of care and (b) community characteristics, measured by mental health care resources availability, population demographics, and socioeconomic characteristics at the county level. Results show significant variation in activation levels by contextual factors. The availability of community mental health centers, lower proportion of foreign-born individuals, and higher income in the local community are associated with higher patient activation. Our results also show that depressed patients having a usual source of care at a physician's office have significantly higher patient activation levels than those with a usual source of care in the emergency department or hospital outpatient clinics. Results suggest that primary care setting is critical to having a sustained relationship between patients and physicians in order to enhance patient engagement in mental health care. Interventions in communities with low income and high immigrant populations are necessary. PMID:24786791

Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin

2014-12-01

403

The NEA knowledge management project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Over the last 50 years significant knowledge has been accumulated in nuclear technology. This knowledge can be categorized as explicit and tacit. Explicit knowledge includes documented information while tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge acquired by experts over a long time and is more difficult to capture. The goals of knowledge management program are to retain explicit and tacit knowledge, encourage sharing of this knowledge, create and facilitate communities of practice and insure that knowledge is easy to find and readily accessible. The NEA committees have had extensive involvement in the accumulation of technical information in the scientific research, engineering studies, state of the art reports and many other endeavours that contribute to the technical basis for many safety and technology decisions. Many of the NEA reports (SOARs, Survey reports on safety topics, etc.) are in fact examples of knowledge management activities. The NEA committees' working groups are an excellent example of communities of practice. Over the past decade or more there has been an erosion of scientific resources due to reductions in budgets, aging and retirement of many outstanding scientists, engineers and managers, loss of experimental facilities and reductions in educational programs in nuclear engineering. The NEA has fully recognized this concern and has published many reports on this topic (e.g. Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, Future Nuclear Regulatory Challenges). With the industry push to reduce conservatisms in decisions and increased interest in building new nuclear power plants it becomes imperative that additional mechanisms be developed to make available both the tacit and the explicit knowledge to the new generation of engineers and scientists for safety and technology decisions. The NEA strategic plan (also the individual committees' strategic plans) recognizes the importance of this issue and recommends: - Promote the transfer and management of knowledge; - Promote the collection and safeguarding of important and well documented results from experimental studies. A small magnitude of effort pilot project, focused on documented (codifiable and explicit) activities of three committees, was undertaken. Boron Dilution was selected as the pilot topic based on previously agreed to prioritization criteria by the three committees. This presentation provides the lessons learned regarding the ease or the difficulty of accessibility of the documented information on the pilot topic as well as the clarity of purpose and the relevance of the results as documented. This project also examined the degree of integration and linking of the documented activities of the three committees on boron dilution. These lessons will be considered by the NEA to determine what NEA processes could be improved to ease access and transfer of relevant NEA generated scientific information. (author)

404

Knowledge and Its Enemies  

Science.gov (United States)

As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

Kruk, Miroslav

2007-01-01

405

"Yo Soy Indígena": Identifying and Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to Make the Teaching of Science Culturally Responsive for Maya Girls  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge--TEK--can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes

Hamlin, Maria L.

2013-01-01

406

Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors. Most research focus on individual level factors and little research concern contextual level factors. The objective of this presentation is to identify individual level and school level factors associated with mental distress. Methods We used the Danish HBSC study 2010 including 11, 13 and 15 year old students in a random sample of schools, n=4922. Students answered the standardized HBSC questionnaire including several items about their mental health and the psychosocial school environment. Further, school-leaders answered a questionnaire on school environment. We applied multilevel analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at three levels, individuals nested in classes nested in schools. Results Large variations in psychological complaints from one school to another were found. One example is that the proportion of students with at daily experience of emotional complaints varied between 7% and 32% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together, there was a high prevalence of psychological complaints (P=0.0076). This finding suggests contextual effects on psychological complaints. Conclusion and implications for research Although we expected individual level factors to explain much of the variation in psychological complaints between schools (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.

Meilstrup, Charlotte; ErsbØll, Annette Kjær

407

Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.

Yeager, Dorian P.

1987-01-01