Sample records for contextual knowledge reduces

  1. Contextual Knowledge Reduces Demands on Working Memory during Reading

    Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Cohen, Jason A.; Wingfield, Arthur


    An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title which supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per propos...

  2. Knowledge Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    Kréta: WSEAS Press, 2007, s. 326-330. ISBN 978-960-8457-90-4. [CSCC 2007. Agios Nikolaos (GR), 23.07.2007-28.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * uncertainty * knowledge management * contextual modelling * temporal modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  3. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    Søberg, Peder Veng


    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can...... have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries. A...... proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...

  4. Integration of Funds of Knowledge as Contextual Knowledge

    Mohd Norawi Ali


    Full Text Available This study discussed the importance of funds of knowledge as contextual knowledge to generate the impact of ‘resonance’ in sustaining students’ interest and motivation towards science, especially Physics. The funds of knowledge that comprises of cultural and language knowledge, which are richly embedded within the students due to daily interaction with family members, friends and community activities should be addressed, explored and utilized by science educators to generate the relationship between the science curriculum in school and students’ experience in community. The teaching and learning processes should be based on students’ cultural experiences and be contextually related to their rich community knowledge, so that an intersection occurs between the science curriculum and their community experiences. Example of a lesson plan integrating funds of knowledge in teaching Archimedes Principle was produced. The awareness and creativity of educators in adapting the repertoire of their own cultural experiences as well as students’ funds of knowledge would eliminate negative perceptions and difficulties in the understanding of Physics concepts.

  5. Appropriating Technologies for Contextual Knowledge: Mobile Personal Learning Environments

    Attwell, Graham; Cook, John; Ravenscroft, Andrew

    The development of Technology Enhanced Learning has been dominated by the education paradigm. However social software and new forms of knowledge development and collaborative meaning making are challenging such domination. Technology is increasingly being used to mediate the development of work process knowledge and these processes are leading to the evolution of rhizomatic forms of community based knowledge development. Technologies can support different forms of contextual knowledge development through Personal Learning Environments. The appropriation or shaping of technologies to develop Personal Learning Environments may be seen as an outcome of learning in itself. Mobile devices have the potential to support situated and context based learning, as exemplified in projects undertaken at London Metropolitan University. This work provides the basis for the development of a Work Orientated MoBile Learning Environment (WOMBLE).

  6. Cloud-Savvy Contextual Spaces as Agile Personal Learning Environments or Informal Knowledge Management Solutions

    Gillet D.; Bogdanov E.


    This paper presents how advanced social media platforms can be exploited to construct and share contextual spaces enabling the instantiation of agile personal learning environments or informal knowledge management solutions. The usefulness of open plugins to collect resources from the cloud in such dedicated contextual spaces is discussed. The mechanisms for the personalization of spaces from an interaction point of view once populated with resources and their sharing across platforms are als...

  7. Better contextual suggestions in ClueWeb12 using domain knowledge inferred from the open web

    Samar, Thaer; Bellogín, Alejandro; de Vries, Arjen P.


    This paper provides an overview of our participation in the Contextual Suggestion Track. The TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track allowed participants to submit personalized rankings using documents either from the OpenWeb or from an archived, static Web collection, the ClueWeb12 dataset. In this paper, we focus on filtering the entire ClueWeb12 collection to exploit domain knowledge from touristic sites available in the Open Web. We show that the generated recommendations ...

  8. Contextual Factors, Knowledge Processes and Performance in Global Sourcing of IT Services: An Investigation in China

    Rong Du; Shizhong Ai; Pamela Abbott; Yingqin Zheng


    Copyright @ 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited. Reuse of this article has been approved by the publisher. In this paper, the authors explore the influences of two major contextual factors—supplier team members’ cultural understanding and trust relationship—on knowledge processes and performance in global sourcing of IT services. The authors discuss a joint investigation conducted by a cross-cultur...

  9. Role of contextual cues on the perception of spectrally reduced interrupted speech.

    Patro, Chhayakanta; Mendel, Lisa Lucks


    Understanding speech within an auditory scene is constantly challenged by interfering noise in suboptimal listening environments when noise hinders the continuity of the speech stream. In such instances, a typical auditory-cognitive system perceptually integrates available speech information and "fills in" missing information in the light of semantic context. However, individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) find it difficult and effortful to understand interrupted speech compared to their normal hearing counterparts. This inefficiency in perceptual integration of speech could be attributed to further degradations in the spectral-temporal domain imposed by CIs making it difficult to utilize the contextual evidence effectively. To address these issues, 20 normal hearing adults listened to speech that was spectrally reduced and spectrally reduced interrupted in a manner similar to CI processing. The Revised Speech Perception in Noise test, which includes contextually rich and contextually poor sentences, was used to evaluate the influence of semantic context on speech perception. Results indicated that listeners benefited more from semantic context when they listened to spectrally reduced speech alone. For the spectrally reduced interrupted speech, contextual information was not as helpful under significant spectral reductions, but became beneficial as the spectral resolution improved. These results suggest top-down processing facilitates speech perception up to a point, and it fails to facilitate speech understanding when the speech signals are significantly degraded. PMID:27586760

  10. Query Answering over Contextualized RDF/OWL Knowledge with Forall-Existential Bridge Rules: Decidable Finite Extension Classes (Post Print)

    Joseph, Mathew; Kuper, Gabriel; Mossakowski, Till; Serafini, Luciano


    The proliferation of contextualized knowledge in the Semantic Web (SW) has led to the popularity of knowledge formats such as \\emph{quads} in the SW community. A quad is an extension of an RDF triple with contextual information of the triple. In this paper, we study the problem of query answering over quads augmented with forall-existential bridge rules that enable interoperability of reasoning between triples in various contexts. We call a set of quads together with such expressive bridge ru...

  11. The role of contextual risk, impulsivity, and parental knowledge in the development of adolescent antisocial behavior.

    Neumann, Anna; Barker, Edward D; Koot, Hans M; Maughan, Barbara


    The present study (a) tests main and moderational effects of neighborhood and family risk, and adolescent impulsivity on the development of male and female antisocial behavior (ASB) and (b) examines the extent to which these effects work indirectly through parental knowledge. Adolescents (N = 4,597; 51% male) reported on informal social control in their neighborhoods, their family types, and impulsivity at age 12, and on parental monitoring and ASB at ages 13 and 15 years. Neighborhoods were further defined as risk and nonrisk in economic deprivation by census-level data. Main effects of neighborhood risk, single parenthood, and impulsivity on ASB were found for male and female adolescents. For female adolescents, impulsivity interacted with neighborhood economic deprivation and with family type in the prediction of parental knowledge. Impulsivity and contextual risk factors in part increased adolescent ASB through decreasing parental knowledge. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20677842

  12. Discrete Logic Modelling Optimization to Contextualize Prior Knowledge Networks Using PRUNET.

    Rodriguez, Ana; Crespo, Isaac; Androsova, Ganna; del Sol, Antonio


    High-throughput technologies have led to the generation of an increasing amount of data in different areas of biology. Datasets capturing the cell's response to its intra- and extra-cellular microenvironment allows such data to be incorporated as signed and directed graphs or influence networks. These prior knowledge networks (PKNs) represent our current knowledge of the causality of cellular signal transduction. New signalling data is often examined and interpreted in conjunction with PKNs. However, different biological contexts, such as cell type or disease states, may have distinct variants of signalling pathways, resulting in the misinterpretation of new data. The identification of inconsistencies between measured data and signalling topologies, as well as the training of PKNs using context specific datasets (PKN contextualization), are necessary conditions to construct reliable, predictive models, which are current challenges in the systems biology of cell signalling. Here we present PRUNET, a user-friendly software tool designed to address the contextualization of a PKNs to specific experimental conditions. As the input, the algorithm takes a PKN and the expression profile of two given stable steady states or cellular phenotypes. The PKN is iteratively pruned using an evolutionary algorithm to perform an optimization process. This optimization rests in a match between predicted attractors in a discrete logic model (Boolean) and a Booleanized representation of the phenotypes, within a population of alternative subnetworks that evolves iteratively. We validated the algorithm applying PRUNET to four biological examples and using the resulting contextualized networks to predict missing expression values and to simulate well-characterized perturbations. PRUNET constitutes a tool for the automatic curation of a PKN to make it suitable for describing biological processes under particular experimental conditions. The general applicability of the implemented algorithm

  13. Discrete Logic Modelling Optimization to Contextualize Prior Knowledge Networks Using PRUNET.

    Ana Rodriguez

    Full Text Available High-throughput technologies have led to the generation of an increasing amount of data in different areas of biology. Datasets capturing the cell's response to its intra- and extra-cellular microenvironment allows such data to be incorporated as signed and directed graphs or influence networks. These prior knowledge networks (PKNs represent our current knowledge of the causality of cellular signal transduction. New signalling data is often examined and interpreted in conjunction with PKNs. However, different biological contexts, such as cell type or disease states, may have distinct variants of signalling pathways, resulting in the misinterpretation of new data. The identification of inconsistencies between measured data and signalling topologies, as well as the training of PKNs using context specific datasets (PKN contextualization, are necessary conditions to construct reliable, predictive models, which are current challenges in the systems biology of cell signalling. Here we present PRUNET, a user-friendly software tool designed to address the contextualization of a PKNs to specific experimental conditions. As the input, the algorithm takes a PKN and the expression profile of two given stable steady states or cellular phenotypes. The PKN is iteratively pruned using an evolutionary algorithm to perform an optimization process. This optimization rests in a match between predicted attractors in a discrete logic model (Boolean and a Booleanized representation of the phenotypes, within a population of alternative subnetworks that evolves iteratively. We validated the algorithm applying PRUNET to four biological examples and using the resulting contextualized networks to predict missing expression values and to simulate well-characterized perturbations. PRUNET constitutes a tool for the automatic curation of a PKN to make it suitable for describing biological processes under particular experimental conditions. The general applicability of the

  14. Experimental Activities in Astronomy for the Construction of Knowledge through an Interdisciplinary and Contextualized Proposal

    Daiana Pellenz


    Full Text Available This paper discusses experimental activities developed in astronomy for Scientific Presentation as a didactic resource for teaching science and math in elementary education in state schools. One of the key strategic elements used during the execution of this proposal was to initiate approaches for the identification of students' prior knowledge, resuming astronomical concepts covered during the elementary school. For development of the proposed activities was the interaction between different disciplines, seeking to promote the active and meaningful learning. Through contextualized astronomical activities, students develop different skills and competencies. These activities are a contribution to the teaching of science and mathematics, as we feel the need to demonstrate the importance of an educational approach that gives meaning to student learning.

  15. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P


    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  16. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    Kampf, Constance

    foot, the radio an extension of the ear, the television an extension of the eye. From this perspective, exploring the internet as an extension of identity produces fruitful questions about the role of on-line writing in Web presences. The Web changes writing as a knowledge-making practice by offering......Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension of the...... writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream...

  17. How writing records reduces clinical knowledge

    Buus, Niels


    Through the practices of recording, psychiatric nurses produce clinical knowledge about the patients in their care. The objective of this study was to examine the conventionalized practices of recording among psychiatric nurses and the typical linguistic organization of their records. The study...... drew on data from an extended fieldwork on two Danish "special observation" wards. The results indicated that the nurses' recording produced "stereotyping" representations of the patients and reduced the nurses' clinical knowledge but that this particular way of recording made good sense in relation to...

  18. Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, Søsser


    Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science ba...... the Technical University of Denmark, the paper argues that teaching contextual knowledge needs to overcome several barriers that tend to be neglected in engineering educations.......Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science...

  19. Contextual Education

    Janani Harish


    Full Text Available When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be intelligible to the intellect, but is incomprehensible to the imagination, creativity and emotional intelligence, all of which are important to the full development of personality. A study of Economics without the human and social dimensions, industrialization detached from ecology, or science devoid of moral accountability results in problems. Education of each part must be in the context of the whole. Knowing the whole context helps one get the right perspective to address the issue effectively. In the education of the future, the gap between abstract concept and social relevance must be bridged. The following article explores the need for contextual education and the ways in which it can be implemented.

  20. The Development of a Contextual Information Framework Model as a Potential IAEA Strategy to Maintain Radioactive Waste Knowledge

    A contextual framework comprises 'entities' that exhibit one or more definable relationships with a particular 'event'. People, organisations, concepts, ideas, places, natural phenomena, events themselves, cultural artefacts including records, books, works of art can all be conceptualised as entities. If these entities are registered in an information management system where the relationships between them can be defined and systematically managed then it is possible to create a contextual information framework that represents a particular view of what occurs in real life. The careful identifying and mapping of the relationships between these entities and the selected event can lead rapidly to the creation of an information network that closely reflects the human approach to knowledge acquisition and application. The 'event' referred to in this paper is the safe management of radioactive waste. It is widely accepted that society will expect that knowledge about the waste will be maintained for many decades, if not centuries. Delivering on this expectation will demand the application of management approaches that are both innovative and sustainable. Effective inter-generational transfer of information using many 'conventional' techniques will be highly dependent on societal stability - something that cannot be guaranteed over such long periods of time. Consequently, alternative approaches should be explored and, where appropriate, implemented to give reasonable assurance that future generations of waste custodians will not be unduly burdened by the need to recreate information about the waste long after its disposal. In actual fact, the contextual information framework model is not 'new technology' but simply a means for rationalising and representing the way humans naturally tend to use information in the pursuit of knowledge enhancement. By making use of multiple information entities and their relationships, it is often possible to convert otherwise impossibly

  1. Vpliv razvoja kontekstualnega znanja na razlikovalne kompetence = The Influence of the Development of Contextual Knowledge on Differentiating Competencies

    Ramon Podreka


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is based on the definition of competence asthe individual’s ability to activate, utilize and merge the knowledge andskills acquired when faced with complex, diverse and unpredictablework situations. The purpose of this study is to determine whether thedevelopment of specific contextual knowledge and skills within an organizationleads to the adoption of specific differentiating competenciesby individuals. The survey included marketers employed by threemedium-sized Slovenian enterprises, who function in three differentwork contexts, according to our findings. The results of the researchshow that the differentiating competencies that distinguish the superiorjob performance marketing employee from an average one interms of work success are subject to the development of specific contextualknowledge and skills.

  2. Post-training gamma irradiation-enhanced contextual fear memory associated with reduced neuronal activation of the infralimbic cortex.

    Kugelman, Tara; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob


    The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects. Brain immunoreactivity patterns of the immediately early gene c-Fos, a marker of cellular activity was used to determine which brain areas might be altered in post-training irradiation memory retention tasks. In this study, we show that post-training gamma irradiation exposure (1 Gy) enhanced contextual fear memory 24h later and is associated with reduced cellular activation in the infralimbic cortex. Reduced GABA-ergic neurotransmission in parvalbumin-positive cells in the infralimbic cortex might play a role in this post-training radiation-enhanced contextual fear memory. PMID:26522840

  3. Reducing Quantization Error and Contextual Bias problems in Software Development Processes by Applying Fuzzy Logic

    Marcelloni, Francesco; Aksit, Mehmet


    Object-oriented methods define a considerable number of rules, which are generally expressed using two-valued logic. For example, an entity in a requirement specification is either accepted or rejected as a class. There are two major problems how rules are defined and applied in current methods. Firstly, two-valued logic cannot effectively express the approximate and inexact nature of a typical software development process. Secondly, the influence of contextual factors on rules is generally n...

  4. Statistical synthesis of contextual knowledge to increase the effectiveness of theory-based behaviour change interventions.

    Hanbury, Andria; Thompson, Carl; Mannion, Russell


    Tailored implementation strategies targeting health professionals' adoption of evidence-based recommendations are currently being developed. Research has focused on how to select an appropriate theoretical base, how to use that theoretical base to explore the local context, and how to translate theoretical constructs associated with the key factors found to influence innovation adoption into feasible and tailored implementation strategies. The reasons why an intervention is thought not to have worked are often cited as being: inappropriate choice of theoretical base; unsystematic development of the implementation strategies; and a poor evidence base to guide the process. One area of implementation research that is commonly overlooked is how to synthesize the data collected in a local context in order to identify what factors to target with the implementation strategies. This is suggested to be a critical process in the development of a theory-based intervention. The potential of multilevel modelling techniques to synthesize data collected at different hierarchical levels, for example, individual attitudes and team level variables, is discussed. Future research is needed to explore further the potential of multilevel modelling for synthesizing contextual data in implementation studies, as well as techniques for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:21543383

  5. Reduced Contextual Discrimination following Alcohol Consumption or MDMA Administration in Mice

    Johansson, Emily M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Moscoso-Castro, María; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga


    The recreational drugs, alcohol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have both been shown to cause immune activation in vivo, and they are linked to cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The neuronal effects of these drugs in the hippocampal area, an area that has been a focus of studies aiming to explain the mechanisms underlying anxiety related-disorders, remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the specific inflammatory impact of alcohol and MDMA on this area of the brain and on a hippocampal-related behavioral task. We centered our study on two inflammatory factors linked to anxiety-related disorders, namely Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We subjected drug-consuming mice to a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, anxiety-like and depressive-live behaviors. We then introduced them to a contextual fear discrimination task and immune-related effects were examined by immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of immune activated pathways by voluntary alcohol consumption and a high-dose MDMA. Furthermore, the ability of mice to perform a contextual fear discrimination task was impaired by drug consumption and we report long term inflammatory alterations in the hippocampus even several weeks after drug intake. This information will be helpful for discovering new selective drug targets, and to develop treatments and preventive approaches for patients with anxiety-related disorders. PMID:26566284

  6. Discrete Logic Modelling Optimization to Contextualize Prior Knowledge Networks Using PRUNET

    Rodriguez, Ana; Crespo, Isaac; Androsova, Ganna; del Sol Mesa, Antonio


    High-throughput technologies have led to the generation of an increasing amount of data in different areas of biology. Datasets capturing the cell’s response to its intra- and extra-cellular microenvironment allows such data to be incorporated as signed and directed graphs or influence networks. These prior knowledge networks (PKNs) represent our current knowledge of the causality of cellular signal transduction. New signalling data is often examined and interpreted in conjunction with PKNs. ...

  7. A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Bidwell, Nicola J.;


    Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics and...... which users can store, organize and retrieve user-generated videos in ways that are compatible with their knowledge system. The structure embeds videos in a scenario-based 3D visualization of a rural village. It accounts for some of the ways this rural community manages information, socially, spatially...... opportunities for local appropriation and may facilitate knowledge sharing between IK holders and more youthful IK assimilators. Simultaneously differing interpretations of scenarios and modeled objects reveal the limitations of our modeling decisions and raises various questions regarding graphic design...

  8. Knowledge sharing via interactive systems in China : The impact of individual contextual preferences

    Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Wong, L.H.M.


    Based on the communicative ecology framework and theories related to guanxi and communication context in China, we investigate the moderating effects of individual preference for communication context (IPCC) on knowledge sharing via interactive systems (KSIS) behavior. Drawing on survey data from a

  9. Using interactive systems for knowledge sharing : The impact of individual contextual preferences in China

    Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Wong, L.H.M.


    Based on the communicative ecology framework and theories related to guanxi and communication context in China, we investigate the moderating effects of individual preference for communication context (IPCC) on knowledge sharing via interactive systems (KSIS) behavior. Drawing on survey data from a

  10. Story Constellations: A Narrative Approach to Contextualizing Teachers' Knowledge of School Reform

    Craig, Cheryl J.


    This article traces the roots of narrative research in the social sciences and education, then centers on "story constellations," a version of narrative inquiry that uncovers teachers' knowledge of school reform in context. A fluid form of investigation that unfolds in a three-dimensional inquiry space, story constellations consists of a flexible…

  11. Experimental Activities in Astronomy for the Construction of Knowledge through an Interdisciplinary and Contextualized Proposal

    Daiana Pellenz; Josie Cristina Tisott


    This paper discusses experimental activities developed in astronomy for Scientific Presentation as a didactic resource for teaching science and math in elementary education in state schools. One of the key strategic elements used during the execution of this proposal was to initiate approaches for the identification of students' prior knowledge, resuming astronomical concepts covered during the elementary school. For development of the proposed activities was the interaction between different...

  12. Contextualizing Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalizing Learning Economy: On Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks

    Asheim, Bjørn; Coenen, Lars


    In order to advance the understanding of which types of regional innovation system represent effective innovation support for what kinds of industry in different regions analyses must be contextualised by reference to the actual knowledge base of various industries as well as to the regional and national institutional framework, which strongly shape the innovation processes of firms. Of special importance is the linkage between the larger institutional frameworks of the national innovation an...

  13. Reducing Friction for Knowledge Workers with Task Context

    Kersten, Mik; Tasktop Technologies; Murphy, Gail C.; University of British Columbia


    Knowledge workers perform work on many tasks per day and often switch between tasks. When performing work on a task, a knowledge worker must typically search, navigate and dig through file systems, documents and emails, all of which introduce friction into the flow of work. This friction can be reduced, and productivity improved, by capturing and modeling the context of a knowledge worker’s task based on how the knowledge worker interacts with an information space. Captured task contexts can ...

  14. Context aware decision system in a smart home : knowledge representation and decision making using uncertain contextual information

    Chahuara, Pedro; Portet, François; Vacher, Michel


    International audience This research addresses the issue of building home automation systems reactive to voice for improved comfort and autonomy at home. The paper presents a complete framework that acquires data from sensors and interprets them, by means of IA techniques, to provide contextual information for decision making. The system uses a two-level ontology to represent the different concepts handled during the processing which also contains SWRL instances to automatise some of the r...

  15. Contextual Text Mining

    Mei, Qiaozhu


    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  16. Contextualizing Concepts

    Gabora, Liane; Aerts, Diederik


    To cope with problems arising in the description of (1) contextual interactions, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when quantum entities become entangled, the mathematics of quantum mechanics was developed. Similar problems arise with concepts. We use a generalization of standard quantum mechanics, the mathematical lattice theoretic formalism, to develop a formal description of the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning.

  17. Macroeconomic Knowledge of Higher Education Students in Germany and Japan--A Multilevel Analysis of Contextual and Personal Effects

    Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Schmidt, Susanne; Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi


    Recent trends towards harmonising and internationalising business and economics studies in higher education are affecting the structure and content of programmes and courses, and necessitate more transparent and comparable information on students' economic knowledge and skills. In this study, we examine by linear multilevel regression modelling…

  18. Measuring knowledge: investigative research into the quantification of performance within a contextual multi-source PED fusion process

    Scarff, Larry A.; Burke, Dustin; Jones, Eric; Gilfillan, Lynne; Pratt, Stephanie; Jackson, Cullen; Weil, Shawn; Fiore, Stephen


    Most intelligence analysts currently use Information Products (IP) from multiple sources with very different characteristics to perform a variety of intelligence tasks. In order to maximize the analysts' efficacy (and ultimately provide intelligent automation), it is important to understand how and what each IP within the set of IPs contributes to the accuracy and validity of the analytic result. This paper describes initial research toward the development of a scale, analogous to the National Imagery Interpretability Scale (NIIRS), which will measure the knowledge contribution of each of the multi-source IPs, as well as measuring the extent to which the IP set as a whole meets the enduser's intelligence need - which is actionable knowledge. This scale, the Knowledge-NIIRS (KnIIRS), when completed, will support the measurement of the quality and quantity of information gained through multi-source IP fusion and enables the development of smart (automated) tools for analysts using the next generation of PED workstations. The results of this initial study indicate that analysts are capable of making judgments that reflect the "value" of fused information, and that the judgments they make vary along at least two dimensions. Furthermore, there are substantial and significant differences among analysts in how they make these judgments that must be considered for further scale development. We suggest that the KnIIRS objectives and its derived understandings offer important and critical insights to enable automation that will achieve the goal to deliver actionable knowledge.

  19. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.


    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model

  20. Study on Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.


    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2007), s. 12-15. ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * contextual modelling * temporal modelling * uncertainty * knowledge management Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  1. The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school

    Whitcher, Carrie Lynn


    Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0

  2. Introduction to Contextual Processing Theory and Applications

    Vert, Gregory


    Develops a comprehensive, global model for contextually based processing systems. This title presents a new perspective on global information systems operation. Helping to advance a valuable paradigm shift in the next generation and processing of knowledge, "Introduction to Contextual Processing: Theory and Applications" provides a comprehensive model for constructing a contextually based processing system. It explores the components of this system, the interactions of the components, key mathematical foundations behind the model, and new concepts necessary for operating the system.

  3. Reducing Language Knowledge Asymmetries in a Temporary Setting

    Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim; Shaw, Philip

    , plurilingualism (Spolsky 2004) and, by implication, a program intended to strengthen the building at an individual level of the specialized knowledge that the learning of any second or foreign language requires. Recent research has shown, however, that the motivation of students whose disciplinary fields...... are not language or philology and who go to Denmark or Sweden on exchange does not necessarily lie in an interest in learning the official language of the host country (Caudery et al., 2008). On the basis of semi-structured individual interviews, picture description and basic vocabulary tests, this paper reports...... on a longitudinal study of 240 incoming non-language exchange students in Scandinavia. It analyses a few exceptional cases of students whose level of performance in the Scandinavian language of their host country was higher than the average performance of the cohort. The paper investigates the characteristics...

  4. Contextual Autism

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie


    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...... the spectre: ”It is something that one does not know, precisely, and one does not know if precisely it is, if it exists, if it responds to a name and corresponds to an essence.” (Derrida 1994:5). The ghost is hollow, it is not what it seems to be, and it seems to point to something that you don’t know....... As a non-present presence the ghost flavours its host with ghastly sensations of something dim, vague, and indifferently deadpan. On the basis of an ongoing anthropological research project about Haunted Houses and a parallel artistic artwork-process, joining forces in museum exhibitions and publishing...

  5. Knowledge about aerosol injection does not reduce individual mitigation efforts

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert; Rehdanz, Katrin


    Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) is a climate engineering method that is reputed to be very effective in cooling the planet but is also thought to involve major risks and side effects. As a new option in the bid to counter climate change, it has attracted an increasing amount of research and the debate on its potential gained momentum after it was referred to in the 5th IPCC assessment report (IPCC 2013). One major objection to SAI and the research done on it is that it could undermine commitment to the mitigation of greenhouse gases. Policymakers, interest groups or individuals might wrongly perceive SAI as an easy fix for climate change and accordingly reduce their mitigation efforts. This is the first study to provide an empirical evaluation of this claim for individuals. In a large-scale framed field experiment with more than 650 participants, we provide evidence that people do not back-pedal on mitigation when they are told that the climate change problem could be partly addressed via SAI. Instead, we observe that people who have been informed about SAI mitigate more than people who have not. Our data suggest that the increase is driven by a perception of SAI as potential threat.

  6. Do students use contextual protective behaviors to reduce alcohol-related sexual risk? Examination of a dual-process decision-making model.

    Scaglione, Nichole M; Hultgren, Brittney A; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Sell, Nichole M


    Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students' decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine (a) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use and (b) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Students (n = 508) completed Web-based baseline (mid-Spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization. PMID:26415062

  7. Revisiting the Importance of Knowledge: From Namibia, a Case for Promoting Knowledge by Campaigns to Reduce Stigma

    Chung, Adrienne H.; Rimal, Rajiv N.


    Reducing stigma against people living with HIV is key to encouraging HIV testing, which in turn is an important component in the treatment-as-prevention approach. We analyzed nationally representative survey data of participants aged 15 years and older in Namibia (N = 4,300) to determine whether knowledge about HIV and self-efficacy to protect…

  8. Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams

    Michael E. Kyobe


    Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging

  9. Negative Probabilities and Contextuality

    de Barros, J Acacio; Oas, Gary


    There has been a growing interest, both in physics and psychology, in understanding contextuality in experimentally observed quantities. Different approaches have been proposed to deal with contextual systems, and a promising one is contextuality-by-default, put forth by Dzhafarov and Kujala. The goal of this paper is to present a tutorial on a different approach: negative probabilities. We do so by presenting the overall theory of negative probabilities in a way that is consistent with contextuality-by-default and by examining with this theory some simple examples where contextuality appears, both in physics and psychology.

  10. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    Nolan, Jessica M.


    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

  11. Contextual alignment of cognitive and neural dynamics.

    Ames, Daniel L; Honey, Christopher J; Chow, Michael A; Todorov, Alexander; Hasson, Uri


    Effective real-world communication requires the alignment of multiple individuals to a common perspective or mental framework. To study how this alignment occurs at the level of the brain, we measured BOLD response during fMRI while participants (n = 24) listened to a series of vignettes either in the presence or absence of a valid contextual cue. The valid contextual cue was necessary to understand the information in each vignette. We then examined where and to what extent the shared valid context led to greater intersubject similarity of neural processing. Regions of the default mode network including posterior cingulate cortex and medial pFC became more aligned when participants shared a valid contextual framework, whereas other regions, including primary sensory cortices, responded to the stimuli reliably regardless of contextual factors. Taken in conjunction with previous research, the present results suggest that default mode regions help the brain to organize incoming verbal information in the context of previous knowledge. PMID:25244122

  12. A Laboratory Study Designed for Reducing the Gap between Information Security Knowledge and Implementation

    Revital Elitzur


    Full Text Available Companies often have the knowledge on procedures to prevent or mitigate against information technology security risks. Yet these companies may not take adequate measures to implement these procedures, and instead, leave themselves vulnerable to security breaches. Potential reasons for this gap between information security knowledge and implementation are provided based on interviews with information technology managers at a global automobile sales and marketing company. Four mechanisms to reduce this gap are proposed, along with a new approach to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of these mechanisms, applied independently and in combinations.

  13. De/Contextualizing Information

    Marton, Attila; Mariategui, Jose-Carlos


    television broadcast brought about by the digitization of the video production process. As craft editing is mediated by digital images, its contextual embeddedness is transformed by context-independent standards of computation and metadata resulting in the erosion of the contextual boundaries of the practice...

  14. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Jerrett Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  15. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA. METHODS: Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana. RESULTS: Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05. CONCLUSION: This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  16. An Empirical Study on Influence of Contextual Performance Appraisal on Individual Knowledge Sharing%关系绩效考核对员工知识共享行为影响的实证研究

    赵书松; 廖建桥


    基于社会交换理论、动机理论以及心理契约理论,通过结构方程分析探讨关系绩效考核如何影响员工知识共享行为.研究发现,规则服从、集体情感与责任2类动机在关系绩效考核(职务奉献)影响员工知识共享行为过程中发挥部分中介作用;人际促进维度对员工知识共享行为没有显著影响;工作控制点没有显著调节关系绩效考核、知识共享动机和知识共享行为之间的关系.%Based on social exchange theory,psychological contract theory and motivation theory,the influence of contextual performance appraisal on employees' knowledge sharing is studied by means of Structural Equation Modeling.The result indicates that job dedication performance appraisal has positive effect on employees' knowledge sharing partly mediated by the motivations of submission to rules,attachment and responsibility for collectivity; interpersonal facilitation performance appraisal has not significant influence on knowledge sharing.The moderator effects of work locus of control on the relationship between team-based performance appraisal and knowledge sharing has not been found.

  17. Inviting backchat: how schools and communities in Ghana, Swaziland and Kenya support children to contextualize knowledge and create agency through sexuality education

    McLaughlin, Colleen; Schwartz, Sharlene; Cobbett, Mary; Kiragu, Susan


    Education about sex, relationships and HIV and AIDS in African contexts is riddled with socio-cultural complexity. In this paper the authors argue that in extreme contexts education can lead change further by developing young people as significant actors in their own lives and in the lives of the community by bringing bring about change in attitudes in the community, as well as practices in schools. A qualitative study was undertaken in eight primary schools of the use of student knowledge an...

  18. Testing quantum entanglement with contextuality

    Xie, Qing; Ding, X -M; Yang, W -L; Yue, R -H; Fan, H


    Quantum mechanics is contextual which conflicts with non-contextual hidden variable theories. We find that contextuality can detect efficiently the entangled states for both discrete and continuous variable systems. The contextuality does not depend on interference of decoherence from noise and detection loss in some systems, which allows a loophole-free test in real experiments. In addition, the contextuality is responsible for the violation of some generalized Bell inequalities.

  19. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Behaviour: Have Information Campaigns Reduced HIV Infection? The Case of Kenya

    Vazquez-Alvarez, Rosalia; Froelich, Markus


    AIDS continues to have a devastating effect on developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of a proven effective vaccine to stop HIV transmission has lead to much of public policy putting an emphasis on information campaigns in order to reduce HIV-prevalence. In this paper we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS-knowledge from two sides. First, we examine to what extent the campaigns have been successful at inducing the expected behavioural change with regards to HIV-related ...

  20. Incorporating Prior Knowledge for Quantifying and Reducing Model-Form Uncertainty in RANS Simulations

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Xiao, Heng


    Simulations based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) models have been used to support high-consequence decisions related to turbulent flows. Apart from the deterministic model predictions, the decision makers are often equally concerned about the predictions confidence. Among the uncertainties in RANS simulations, the model-form uncertainty is an important or even a dominant source. Therefore, quantifying and reducing the model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations are of critical importance to make risk-informed decisions. Researchers in statistics communities have made efforts on this issue by considering numerical models as black boxes. However, this physics-neutral approach is not a most efficient use of data, and is not practical for most engineering problems. Recently, we proposed an open-box, Bayesian framework for quantifying and reducing model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations by incorporating observation data and physics-prior knowledge. It can incorporate the information from the vast...

  1. Reducing a Knowledge-Base Search Space When Data Are Missing

    James, Mark


    This software addresses the problem of how to efficiently execute a knowledge base in the presence of missing data. Computationally, this is an exponentially expensive operation that without heuristics generates a search space of 1 + 2n possible scenarios, where n is the number of rules in the knowledge base. Even for a knowledge base of the most modest size, say 16 rules, it would produce 65,537 possible scenarios. The purpose of this software is to reduce the complexity of this operation to a more manageable size. The problem that this system solves is to develop an automated approach that can reason in the presence of missing data. This is a meta-reasoning capability that repeatedly calls a diagnostic engine/model to provide prognoses and prognosis tracking. In the big picture, the scenario generator takes as its input the current state of a system, including probabilistic information from Data Forecasting. Using model-based reasoning techniques, it returns an ordered list of fault scenarios that could be generated from the current state, i.e., the plausible future failure modes of the system as it presently stands. The scenario generator models a Potential Fault Scenario (PFS) as a black box, the input of which is a set of states tagged with priorities and the output of which is one or more potential fault scenarios tagged by a confidence factor. The results from the system are used by a model-based diagnostician to predict the future health of the monitored system.

  2. Tools of Contextualization

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Hansen, Frank Allan;


    Project based education is growing in importance in elementary schools though it is still quite poorly technologically supported, particularly with respect to actively taking advantage of contextual information. Based on an empirical study of teaching and in particular project based education in...... Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. More specifically, the HyCon-Explorer provides means for: browsing with your feet, annotating the...

  3. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  4. Structuring mobile and contextual learning

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus


    Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2011). Structuring mobile and contextual learning. In Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (pp. 188-195). October, 18-21, 2011, Beijing, China.

  5. Semantic Relationships between Contextual Synonyms

    Zeng, Xian-mo


    Contextual synonym is a linguistic phenomenon often applied but rarely discussed. This paper is to discuss the semantic relationships between contextual synonyms and the requirements under which words can be used as contextual synonyms between each other. The three basic relationships are embedment, intersection and non-coherence. The requirements…

  6. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    Binderup, Lars Grassme


    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is...... equally non-objectivist, but less revisionist, since it takes the semantics of moral discourse at face value, and can also explain all of Brogaard's other linguistic evidence....

  7. Knowledges

    Berling, Trine Villumsen


    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as...... a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and...... reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on...

  8. On contextuality in behavioural data.

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V; Cervantes, Víctor H; Zhang, Ru; Jones, Matt


    Dzhafarovet al.(Dzhafarovet al.2016Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A374, 20150099. (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0099)) reviewed several behavioural datasets imitating the formal design of the quantum-mechanical contextuality experiments. The conclusion was that none of these datasets exhibited contextuality if understood in the generalized sense proposed by Dzhafarovet al.(2015Found. Phys.7, 762-782. (doi:10.1007/s10701-015-9882-9)), while the traditional definition of contextuality does not apply to these data because they violate the condition of consistent connectedness (also known as marginal selectivity, no-signalling condition, no-disturbance principle, etc.). In this paper, we clarify the relationship between (in)consistent connectedness and (non)contextuality, as well as between the traditional and extended definitions of (non)contextuality, using as an example the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequalities originally designed for detecting contextuality in entangled particles. PMID:27091164

  9. Contextual Meaning and Word Meaning

    Istvan Kecskes


    The paper has three goals: 1 ) Explain the role of context and word in meaning construction and comprehension. 2) Present a model that can explain meaning generated by both monolingual and multilingual meaning construction systems. 3) Discuss how the model can be applied to explain major issues in pragmatics.Pragmatics is understood here in a narrow sense as defined by Sperber & Noveck: "...pragmatics is the study of how linguistic properties and contextual factors interact in the interpretation of utterances" ( Sperber & Noveck 2004:1 ). It is argued that world knowledge is available to interlocutors in two forms: as encapsulated in lexical items based on prior encounters and experience (conventionalized cognitive context), and as provided by the actual situational context framed by the situation in which the interaction takes place. Meaning formally expressed in the linguistic interactional context is created on-the-spot, and is the result of the interaction of the two sides of world knowledge and the actual situational context.The paper makes three claims: First, supremacy of context is not unconditional in language processing. Second,salient meaning rather than literal meaning of lexical units plays a central role in comprehension. Third, intercultural communication differs from intracultural communication in the conceptual content of conventionalized cognitive contexts rather than in communicative means.

  10. Contextual consistency facilitates long-term memory of perceptual detail in barely seen images.

    Gronau, Nurit; Shachar, Meytal


    It is long known that contextual information affects memory for an object's identity (e.g., its basic level category), yet it is unclear whether schematic knowledge additionally enhances memory for the precise visual appearance of an item. Here we investigated memory for visual detail of merely glimpsed objects. Participants viewed pairs of contextually related and unrelated stimuli, presented for an extremely brief duration (24 ms, masked). They then performed a forced-choice memory-recognition test for the precise perceptual appearance of 1 of 2 objects within each pair (i.e., the "memory-target" item). In 3 experiments, we show that memory-target stimuli originally appearing within contextually related pairs are remembered better than targets appearing within unrelated pairs. These effects are obtained whether the target is presented at test with its counterpart pair object (i.e., when reiterating the original context at encoding) or whether the target is presented alone, implying that the contextual consistency effects are mediated predominantly by processes occurring during stimulus encoding, rather than during stimulus retrieval. Furthermore, visual detail encoding is improved whether object relations involve implied action or not, suggesting that, contrary to some prior suggestions, action is not a necessary component for object-to-object associative "grouping" processes. Our findings suggest that during a brief glimpse, but not under long viewing conditions, contextual associations may play a critical role in reducing stimulus competition for attention selection and in facilitating rapid encoding of sensory details. Theoretical implications with respect to classic frame theories are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010591

  11. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  12. A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning

    Eicke Godehardt


    Full Text Available The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues. This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition state context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization. To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees may benefit from such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

  13. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine;


    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......-centered perspective. The main focus has been on developing content-based algorithms similar to document search. These algorithms identify matching experts primarily on the basis of the textual content of documents with which experts are associated. Other factors, such as the ones identified by expertise......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content-based...

  14. Practice cannot be reduced to theory: Knowledge, representations, and change in the workplace.

    Clancey, William J.


    Changing views of the nature of human knowledge change how we design organizations, facilities, and technology to promote learning: Learning is not transfer; using a plan is not executing a program; explanation is not reciting rules from memory. Such rationalist views of knowledge inhibit change and stifle innovate uses of technology. Representations of work (plans, policies, procedures) and their meaning develop in work itself. Representations guide, but do not strictly control human behavio...

  15. Contextualism in Normative Political Theory

    Lægaard, Sune


    Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context, in this case contextualism in normative political theory and/or philosophy. The question is what does contextualism mean in relation to the part of political theory concerned with systematic political argument for...... normative claims, for example, evaluative claims about the legitimacy, justice, or relative goodness of acts, policies, or institutions; and prescriptive claims about what we should do, which decision procedures we should follow, or how institutions should be reformed. Context denotes facts concerning...... particular cases that can be invoked to contextualize a specific object of political discussion such as a law, an institution, or the like. Contextualism denotes any view that political theory should take context, thus understood, into account. There are, however, many different views about what this means...

  16. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain


    As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainabl...

  17. From Research to Practice: A Framework for Contextualizing Teaching and Learning

    Ambrose, Valerie K.; Davis, C. Amelia; Ziegler, Mary F.


    Developmental reading instructors are increasingly pressured to include real-world content in their curriculum to bring contextualized teaching and learning to life. The purpose of this practitioner-focused article is to tie knowledge about contextualized teaching and learning with classroom application techniques. We present a framework that…

  18. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility.

    Van Bavel, Jay J; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J; Reinero, Diego A


    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher's degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed "hidden moderators") between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility. PMID:27217556

  19. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager;


    knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses.......Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...

  20. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain


    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  1. Effects of reducing frequency of intrinsic knowledge of results on the learning of a motor skill.

    Butki, Brian D; Hoffman, Shirl J


    The guidance hypothesis suggests too much knowledge of results during skill acquisition can be detrimental to long-term performance. Possibly, the learner becomes dependent on augmented KR and is unable to use intrinsic feedback. This study examined this hypothesis with three groups performing a golf putting task. One group received continuous KR about ball path and final location; the other groups were deprived of specific KR on 50% or 100% of the acquisition trials. As expected, the continuous KR group performed better during acquisition, but the KR-deprived groups performed better on delayed retention trials, especially when KR was absent. PMID:14620246

  2. Contextual Observables and Quantum Information

    Kupczynski, M.


    In this short paper we present the main features of a new quantum programming language proposed recently by Peter Selinger which gives a good idea about the difficulties of constructing a scalable quantum computer. We show how some of these difficulties are related to the contextuality of quantum observables and to the abstract and statistical character of quantun theory (QT). We discuss also, in some detail, the statistical interpretation (SI) of QT and the contextuality of observables indic...

  3. Contextual viewpoint to quantum stochastics

    Khrennikov, Andrei


    We study the role of context, complex of physical conditions, in quantum as well as classical experiments. It is shown that by taking into account contextual dependence of experimental probabilities we can derive the quantum rule for the addition of probabilities of alternatives. Thus we obtain quantum interference without applying to wave or Hilbert space approach. The Hilbert space representation of contextual probabilities is obtained as a consequence of the elementary geometric fact: $\\co...

  4. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim


    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  5. The Knowledge of Teachers about Rights of Children to Reducing Child Abuse in Homeless Students

    Masoumeh Pourrajab, Bahare Fallahi


    Full Text Available The aim of this review paper is to identify the important role of teachers about reporting child abuse in their classroom to reduce and prevention of child abuse with considers the homeless students. The findings of this study show that teachers have an important role to intervene and prevent of child abuse, because they spend a lot of time with students and contact with them in classroom. This study also finds that, teachers believed that the appropriate training has not been taught them in colleges, universities or teachers training centers. Furthermore, this paper pursues the professional abilities of teachers in order to find the child abuse signs of their students as well as the homeless ones and the skills of reporting them.

  6. Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' Knowledge

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  7. Empathy and contextual social cognition.

    Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin


    Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM. PMID:23955101

  8. Reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results without visual feedback in learning a golf-putting task.

    Ishikura, Tadao


    This study examined the effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results (KR) on learning to putt in golf. Participants (19 men and 15 women) putted a golf ball, stopping the ball on a line at a distance of 3.5 m from the starting position, which included an uphill portion. After a pretest, participants were assigned as they arrived in balanced order by sex to one of two groups (100% KR, 33% KR) and practiced 60 trials. Those in the 100% KR group performed the task in its natural context, while others assigned to the 33% KR were shown the location of the putted ball after every third trial. All participants then performed a posttest and two retention tests, done 10 min. and 24 hr. after the posttest. Analysis at posttest showed each group had a constant error and an absolute constant error (/CE/) less than those at pretest. Also, in the retention test conducted the following day, the constant error of the 33% KR group was less than that of the 100% KR group. Third, in the posttest and both retention tests, the /CE/ of the 100% KR group was larger than that of the 33% KR group. These results suggest that reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results is effective in learning the accuracy of the golf putt. PMID:18459371

  9. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya

    Elise M van der Elst


    in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions: Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Recent Advances in Contextuality Tests

    Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir


    Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell [1] and Kochen-Specker [2] captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.

  11. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Ron Wilburn


    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  12. A contextual normalised edit distance

    Higuera, Colin de la; Micó Andrés, Luisa


    In order to better fit a variety of pattern recognition problems over strings, using a normalised version of the edit or Levenshtein distance is considered to be an appropriate approach. The goal of normalisation is to take into account the lengths of the strings. We define a new normalisation, contextual, where each edit operation is divided by the length of the string on which the edit operation takes place. We prove that this contextual edit distance is a metric and that it can be...

  13. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    Larsen, Rasmus


    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  14. Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States

    Jiri Vala


    Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.

  15. Linear contextual modal type theory

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  16. Contextual Bandits for Information Retrieval

    K. Hofmann; S. Whiteson; M. de Rijke


    In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it pr

  17. Contextuality: Wheeler's universal regulating principle

    Durham, Ian T


    In this essay I develop quantum contextuality as a potential candidate for Wheeler's universal regulating principle, arguing -- \\textit{contrary} to Wheeler -- that this ultimately implies that `bit' comes from `it.' In the process I develop a formal definition of physical determinism in the languages of domain theory and category theory.

  18. Mobile and contextual learning

    Agnes Kukulska-Hulme


    Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

  19. Primary Contextualization of Science Learning through Immersion in Content-Rich Settings

    Giamellaro, Michael


    This paper reports on a study of primary contextualization processes during science immersion trips and the resultant student learning. Four High School Ecology classes (n = 67) and teachers participated. Through a pre-/post-assessment of science concept knowledge (Pathfinder Network Modeling) and follow-up interviews with students, it was determined that (1) significant learning was associated with these immersion experiences, though overcontextualization was problematic for some, (2) there was a positive interaction between degree of contextualization (primary vs. secondary) and degree of learning, and (3) key primary contextualization processes included the situating of knowledge in time and place as well as the collection of personalized visual or embodied evidence for science concepts. The study contributes to our understanding of contextualization in the learning process and has the potential to inform field, classroom, and virtual learning environments.

  20. Data mining based on gradual itemsets extraction : contextualization and enrichment

    Oudni, Amal


    This thesis's works belongs to the framework of knowledge extraction and data mining applied to numerical or fuzzy data in order to extract linguistic summaries in the form of gradual itemsets: the latter express correlation between attribute values of the form « the more the temperature increases, the more the pressure increases ». Our goal is to contextualize and enrich these gradual itemsets by proposing different types of additional information so as to increase their quality and provide ...

  1. Visual Contextualization of Library Data: Designing an Augmented Reality App

    Büttner, Stephan; Treude, Linda; Wolf, Sabine


    The role of libraries changed tremendously in the digital age. Search engine technology and full text availability now define the standards for information research. Libraries as knowledge providers have to face the challenges of the new technologies. Our poster contribution takes the example of Augmented Reality (AR) to show a way to use the potential of digital technology for library services. AR offers new possibilities to contextualize library data. Hence the transfer of...

  2. CWI and TU Delft at TREC 2013: Contextual Suggestion, Federated Web Search, KBA, and Web Tracks

    Bellogín Kouki, Alejandro; Gebremeskel, Gebre; He, Jiyin; Lin, Jimmy; Said, Alan; Samar, Thaer; De, Vries; Vuurens, Jeroen


    This paper provides an overview of the work done at the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) and Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) for different tracks of TREC 2013. We participated in the Contextual Suggestion Track, the Federated Web Search Track, the Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Track, and the Web Ad-hoc Track. In the Contextual Suggestion track, we focused on filtering the entire ClueWeb12 collection to generate recommendations according to the provided user profiles and cont...

  3. Task duration in contextual interference.

    Smith, Peter J K


    Duration of practice trial on a pursuit rotor task in contextual interference was investigated. Participants practiced at each of 4 angular velocities, with 24 participants completing 28 trials lasting 20 sec., and 24 participants completing 112 trials of 5 sec. Half of the participants in each trial-duration condition practiced in a blocked format and half practiced in a random format. After random practice posttest performance was better than blocked practice when practice-trial duration was 20 sec., but worse when practice-trial duration was 5 sec. This result is not consistent with theoretical explanations of the contextual interference effect and is discussed with reference to the task characteristics and demands of the pursuit rotor. PMID:12578255

  4. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    Khrennikov, Andrei


    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  5. A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT

    Hamill, James J [Siemens Medical Solutions, Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN (United States); Brunken, Richard C [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Bybel, Bohdan [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFilippo, Frank P [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Faul, David D [Siemens Medical Solutions, Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by

  6. A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT

    Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two

  7. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    Kupczynski, Marian


    The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.

  8. Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children.

    Lengua, Liliana J; Honorado, Elizabeth; Bush, Nicole R


    Using a short-term longitudinal design (6 months), this study examined cumulative contextual risk as a predictor of effortful control (EC) and social competence in a community sample of children (N = 80, ages 33-40 months at time 1). Maternal parenting was examined as a mediator of contextual risk. EC was assessed using laboratory tasks, and parenting was assessed using observational ratings. Time 1 contextual risk was negatively related to time 2 EC after controlling for time 1 EC. Mothers' limit setting and scaffolding predicted higher time 2 EC and accounted for the effect of contextual risk. Time 1 EC, contextual risk, and parenting predicted time 2 social competence, and contextual risk had an indirect effect on social competence through parenting. Results suggest that contextual risk predicts smaller relative increases in EC and that parenting accounts for this effect. Knowledge of the factors that divert or promote effortful control can provide targets for intervention to enhance effortful control abilities and better adjustment. PMID:21687825

  9. Contextual localization through network traffic analysis

    Das, AK; Pathak, PH; Chuah, CN; Mohapatra, P.


    The rise of location-based services has enabled many opportunities for content service providers to optimize the content delivery based on user's location. Since sharing precise location remains a major privacy concern among the users, many location-based services rely on contextual location (e.g. residence, cafe etc.) as opposed to acquiring user's exact physical location. In this paper, we present PACL (Privacy-Aware Contextual Localizer), which can learn user's contextual location just by ...


    Kaya, Cahit


    Coping skills cover an important area in rehabilitation counseling field. Bipolarity of coping skills as being adaptive or not adaptive has been prevalent throughout the literature. On the other hand, influence of contextual factors on coping skills has been underemphasized.  Recent researches indicate that contextual factors play major role in coping skills. This paper examines importance of contextual factors on coping skills particularly in relation to assessment issues in rehabilitation c...

  11. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    Privitera, Mary Beth


    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  12. Contextual Errors in Medical Decision Making: Overlooked and Understudied.

    Weiner, Saul J; Schwartz, Alan


    Although it is widely recognized that effective clinical practice requires attending to the circumstances and needs of individual patients-their life context-rather than just treating disease, the implications of not doing so are rarely assessed. What are, for instance, the consequences of prescribing a medication that is appropriate for treating a clinical condition but inappropriate for a particular individual either because she or he cannot afford it, lacks the skills to administer it correctly, or is unable to adhere to the regimen because of competing responsibilities such as working the night shift? Conversely, what are the gains to health and health care when such contextual factors are addressed? Finally, can performance measures be employed and developed for the clinician behaviors associated with contextualizing care to guide improvements in care? The authors have explored these questions through observational and experimental studies to define the parameters of patient context, introduce strategies for measuring clinician attention to patient context, and assess the impact of that attention on care planning, patient health care outcomes, and costs. The authors suggest that inattention to patient context is an underrecognized cause of medical error ("contextual error"), that detecting its presence usually requires listening in on the visit, and that it has significant implications for quality of care. Also described is preliminary work to reduce contextual errors. Evidence suggests that this nascent area of research has significant implications for performance assessment and medical education in addressing deficits in quality of care. PMID:26630603

  13. Does the Transition to an Active-Learning Environment for the Introductory Course Reduce Students’ Overall Knowledge of the Various Disciplines in Biology?

    Maryanne C. Simurda


    As biology education is being redesigned toward an interdisciplinary focus and as pedagogical trends move toward active-learning strategies and investigative experiences, a restructuring of the course content for the Introductory Biology course is necessary. The introductory course in biology has typically been a survey of all the biosciences. If the total number of topics covered is reduced, is the students’ overall knowledge of biology also reduced? Our introductory course has been substant...

  14. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    Greve, Linda


    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...... reducing complexity and dividing knowledge into to dichotomies or hierarchies, knowledge workers should be enabled to use different strategies for knowledge sharing, -transfer and –creation depending on the task and the nature of the knowledge. However if the ambition is to have a strategy for sharing...

  15. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  16. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Grimshaw Jeremy M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  17. Knowledge Uncertainty and Composed Classifier

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.


    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2007), s. 101-105. ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Boosting architecture * contextual modelling * composed classifier * knowledge management , * knowledge * uncertainty Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  18. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Anna Voigt


    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  19. Contextual Modelling of Collaboration System

    Wafaa DACHRY


    Full Text Available Faced with new environmental constraints, firms decide to collaborate in collective entities and adopt new patterns of behavior. So, this firms’ collaboration becomes an unavoidable approach. Indeed, our aim interest in our study is to propose a collaborative information system for supply chain. Our proposed platform ensures cooperation and information sharing between partners in real time. In fact, several questions have to be asked: What is the information nature may be shared between partners? What processes are implemented between actors? What functional services are supported by the platform? In order to answer these questions, we present, in this article, our methodological approach of modelling, called CMCS (Contextual Modelling of Collaborative System




    Full Text Available The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communication. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y acumulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos lingüísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que

  1. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis

    Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz


    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. METHODS We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. RESULTS The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. CONCLUSIONS Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence. PMID:27007684


    Natal’ja N. Jel’jash


    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is a verification of new model necessity of vocational training within the graduates of technical branches of study in high schools. Expert’s activity unlike educational activity is not structured-indetail. Knowledge from the diversified areas and based on it skills to find out appropriate, uncommon decisions of current problems and arising problems are required for effective work on present-day production with constantly improved and becoming complicated technologies. The traditional reproductive training focused on presentation of a set of information and given algorithms for completing different activities presented by the teacher does not allow forming properly creative research way of thinking, abilities to master professional innovations and readiness for regular self-education of trainees. The author notes that it is necessary to work out and introduce essentially alternate methods of preparation that would provide systematic integrity of the systematised theoretical knowledge with acquirable practical skills and its application. The author considers the contextual model of training as one of the most appropriate and reasoned. Methods. The core theory of contextual training is the statute of sensemaking influence of professional work context on educational activity of the student. Theoretically training is to be carried out in the closest field and in forms to real activity; as a peculiar kind of immersion to the future professional sphere. The proposed model of contextual training is installed on the basis of activity approach. The activity approach in contrast to traditional system preparation isn’t broken up to two stages (firstly, overlearning, then its practical application, but is posed to be indivisible: mastery to theoretical readiness and required practical skills acquisition refer a concurrent process under the performance of any tutorial activity or task at the training subject. Results. The

  3. Mice lacking the PSD-95–interacting E3 ligase, Dorfin/Rnf19a, display reduced adult neurogenesis, enhanced long-term potentiation, and impaired contextual fear conditioning

    Hanwool Park; Jinhee Yang; Ryunhee Kim; Yan Li; Yeunkum Lee; Chungwoo Lee; Jongil Park; Dongmin Lee; Hyun Kim; Eunjoon Kim


    Protein ubiquitination has a significant influence on diverse aspects of neuronal development and function. Dorfin, also known as Rnf19a, is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, but its in vivo functions have not been explored. We report here that Dorfin is a novel binding partner of the excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95. Dorfin-mutant (Dorfin −/−) mice show reduced adult neurogenesis and enhanced long-term pot...

  4. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    Arthur Stamps


    Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  5. Contextualizing Action for the Abstraction of Scientific Knowledge

    Saglam, Yilmaz


    In this paper, abstraction is associated with an activity in the sense of activity theory by Vygotsky. To him, participation in social activities is a fundamental act for the child in order to achieve higher mental functions. The present paper aimed to experimentally investigate the abstraction process and illustrate how meaning emerges on social…

  6. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar;


    -reported symptoms after pesticide handling. Similar though less pronounced improvements was seen among neighbor farmers having had less training and information on pesticide handling and alternatives than the FFS trained farmers. Training of farmers on IPM and good agricultural practices has positive effects, but...... changes in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using χ2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS...

  7. Reducing drug related deaths: a pre-implementation assessment of knowledge,barriers and enablers for naloxone distribution through general practice

    Matheson, Catriona; Pflanz-Sinclair, Christiane; Aucott, Lorna; Wilson, Philip; Watson, Richard; Malloy, Stephen; Dickie, Elinor; McAuley, Andrew


    Background The Scottish Naloxone Programme aims to reduce Scotland’s high number of drug-related deaths (DRDs) caused by opiate overdose. It is currently implemented through specialist drug services but General Practitioners (GPs) are likely to have contact with drug using patients and their families and are therefore in an ideal position to direct them to naloxone schemes, or provide it themselves. This research gathered baseline data on GP’s knowledge of and willingness to be involved in DR...

  8. Primary Contextualization of Science Learning through Immersion in Content-Rich Settings

    Giamellaro, Michael


    This paper reports on a study of primary contextualization processes during science immersion trips and the resultant student learning. Four High School Ecology classes (n?=?67) and teachers participated. Through a pre-/post-assessment of science concept knowledge (Pathfinder Network Modeling) and follow-up interviews with students, it was…

  9. An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality

    Ian T. Durham


    Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

  10. Knowledge Sharing

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple as...... that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing is...... considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  11. Implicit Spatial Contextual Learning in Healthy Aging

    Howard, James H.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Darlene V. Howard; Yankovich, Helen; Vaidya, Chandan J.


    Three experiments investigated the aging of implicit spatial and spatiotemporal context learning in 2 tasks. In contextual cuing, people learn to use repeated spatial configurations to facilitate search for a target, whereas in higher order serial learning, they learn to use subtle sequence regularities to respond more quickly and accurately to a series of events. Results reveal a dissociation; overall contextual cuing is spared in healthy aging, whereas higher order sequence learning is impa...

  12. Contextual Deep CNN Based Hyperspectral Classification

    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung


    In this paper, we describe a novel deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) based approach called contextual deep CNN that can jointly exploit spatial and spectral features for hyperspectral image classification. The contextual deep CNN first concurrently applies multiple 3-dimensional local convolutional filters with different sizes jointly exploiting spatial and spectral features of a hyperspectral image. The initial spatial and spectral feature maps obtained from applying the variable size...

  13. Conceptions Of Knowledge And Scepticism

    Roth, Hans Ingvar


    This study deals essentially with the problem of how to assess the strength of certain global sceptical arguments, such as, the infinite regress argument. The thesis consists of a critical discussion of four prominent theories of knowledge in the current epistemological debate. The discussed theories are: Laurence Bon Jour's coherence theory of knowledge, Robert Nozick's tracking-the-truth theory, Barry Stroud's Cartesian theory of knowledge and Edward Craig's contextualism. The critical disc...

  14. Contextual social cognition impairments in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Sandra Baez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients' depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed.

  15. Semantic Image Segmentation with Contextual Hierarchical Models.

    Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga


    Semantic segmentation is the problem of assigning an object label to each pixel. It unifies the image segmentation and object recognition problems. The importance of using contextual information in semantic segmentation frameworks has been widely realized in the field. We propose a contextual framework, called contextual hierarchical model (CHM), which learns contextual information in a hierarchical framework for semantic segmentation. At each level of the hierarchy, a classifier is trained based on downsampled input images and outputs of previous levels. Our model then incorporates the resulting multi-resolution contextual information into a classifier to segment the input image at original resolution. This training strategy allows for optimization of a joint posterior probability at multiple resolutions through the hierarchy. Contextual hierarchical model is purely based on the input image patches and does not make use of any fragments or shape examples. Hence, it is applicable to a variety of problems such as object segmentation and edge detection. We demonstrate that CHM performs at par with state-of-the-art on Stanford background and Weizmann horse datasets. It also outperforms state-of-the-art edge detection methods on NYU depth dataset and achieves state-of-the-art on Berkeley segmentation dataset (BSDS 500). PMID:26336116

  16. Applying contextual interference to the Pawlata roll.

    Smith, P J; Davies, M


    Contextual interference is manipulated by changing the practice order of a number of similar motor tasks, so that the learning context of each interferes with that of the other. The effect has been found to generalize to baseball batting, badminton serving and volleyball skills. The present study examined whether this practice technique could be applied to a Pawlata roll in a kayak. The study was further motivated by the fact that many instructors in Britain currently advocate learning the Pawlata roll in one direction only to a criterion of accuracy, thereafter transferring to the opposite direction. Contextual interference literature predicts that skill retention would be better served by practising on alternate sides. Accordingly, 16 undergraduate students with no kayaking experience were randomly allocated to either a low contextual interference group, which followed U'ren's (1993) recommendations, or a high contextual interference group, which practised the skill on alternate sides. The high contextual interference group took less time to acquire the skill, and were also quicker to achieve successful performance in retention (full roll) and transfer (half roll) tests, regardless of the direction of the roll, 1 week later. The time savings in practice were not expected, as acquisition under high contextual interference was improved rather than impaired. This finding suggests that bilateral transfer was increased by randomizing practice. These results are worthy of further investigation, in that they suggest that the recommended training methods may not be optimal. PMID:8850571

  17. Contextualization of Physics and Astronomy Through Nature

    Dogan, Yasemin; Gurel, Z.


    This thesis focuses on the need for enriched learning environments in science education through the integrated setting of a physics course that is included in the training program for physics teachers. The participants are researchers, prospective physics teachers, civil defence volunteers and astronomers as collaborators. In this course an approach is adopted to incorporate indoor and outdoor settings in the same process to support one another with the purpose of contextualizing physics through nature. In the heart of the course is experience and observation, particularly in nature, in the form of a residential camp. Nature is a setting where students are faced with the sky and a telescope and do sky observations throughout the night. The part of the course involving astronomy is based on this engagement with the problems that arise from the topic of sky and telescope and are brought into the class in ill-structured form as a result of experience and observation. Within this thesis, the data gathered in two consecutive years, 2008 and 2009, are evaluated qualitatively. The problems were formed around a core experience but with the same core experience, problems varied from year to year depending on the human factor within the experience, namely the different characteristics of different people in different conditions, and environmental factors; geography and weather conditions, and the increasing experience of the researchers. Furthermore IYA2009 was also effective on the program of the course in 2009. Through this thesis prospective physics teachers’ participation in astronomy was broadened and it resulted in the formation of new knowledge, better understanding and led to the advancement of the use of astronomy in physics education. It is consistent with the inclusion of astronomy in new secondary and high school physics curriculum in our country as well.

  18. Does the Transition to an Active-Learning Environment for the Introductory Course Reduce Students’ Overall Knowledge of the Various Disciplines in Biology?

    Maryanne C. Simurda


    Full Text Available As biology education is being redesigned toward an interdisciplinary focus and as pedagogical trends move toward active-learning strategies and investigative experiences, a restructuring of the course content for the Introductory Biology course is necessary. The introductory course in biology has typically been a survey of all the biosciences. If the total number of topics covered is reduced, is the students’ overall knowledge of biology also reduced? Our introductory course has been substantially modified away from surveying the biological sciences and toward providing a deep understanding of a particular biological topic, as well as focusing on developing students’ analytical and communication skills. Because of this shift to a topic-driven approach for the introductory course, we were interested in assessing our graduating students’ overall knowledge of the various biological disciplines. Using the Major Field Test - Biology (Educational Testing Service (ETS, Princeton, NJ, we compared the test performance of graduating students who had a traditional lecture-based introductory course to those who had a topic-driven active-learning introductory course. Our results suggest that eliminating the traditional survey of biology and, instead, focusing on quantitative and writing skills at the introductory level do not affect our graduating students’ overall breadth of knowledge of the various biosciences.

  19. Consuming knowledge claims across contexts

    Møller, Emil Frederik Lundbjerg


    Williamson and others have argued that contextualist theories of the semantics of ‘know’ have a special problem of accounting for our practices of ‘consuming’ knowledge attributions and denials made in other contexts. In what follows, I shall understand the objection as the idea that contextualism...... has a special problem of accounting for how we are able to acquire epistemically useful information from knowledge claims made in other contexts. I respond to the objection by arguing (a) that the defeasibility of knowledge makes it difficult for everyone to acquire epistemically useful information...... from knowledge claims made in other contexts, and (b) that there is no special problem for contextualism when it comes to acquiring epistemically useful information from knowledge claims made in other contexts....

  20. HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!

    Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna


    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level partner (AOR = 1.91 [CI = 1.11-3.27]) and whose partner were alcoholic (AOR = 2.19 [CI = 1.31-3.66]) were significantly more likely to perceive themselves at risk of HIV. Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples. PMID:24215183

  1. ESL Distance Learners’ Participation in an Online Forum: The Interplay of Contextual Factors

    Sadhna Nair-Prakash


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the findings of a study examining the contextual factors that mediated distance learners’ participation in an online forum (OLF. Contextual factors are elements that emerge as a result of distance learners’ interaction with their social environment. The study drew on a sociocultural perspective that encompassed the concepts of communities of practice, mediation and dialogic interaction. These concepts advocate that both learning for knowledge and language learning are processes of social interaction. The participants of the study were adult ESL learners enrolled in a distance learning institution that employs a blended learning pedagogy. Multiple sources of information comprising semi-structured interview, text-based interview and informal chats were used for data collection purposes. Data was analysed using the constant comparative method. Through this approach, contextual factors mediating distance learners’ participation in the OLF were uncovered. 

  2. Knowledge Management

    Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation

  3. Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia: A Participative Workshop to Reduce Volcanic Risk

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.


    Galeras has been in nearly constant activity during modern historic times (roughly the past 500 years). Approximately 10,000 people live within an area designated as the highest-hazard and nearly 400,000 people are within areas of potential harmful effects. A wide variety of stakeholders are affected by the hazards, including: farmers, indigenous villagers, and people in urban environments. Hazards assessment and volcano monitoring are the responsibility of the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS), whereas decisions regarding mitigation and response procedures are the responsibility of various governmental offices and the national emergency system (SNPAD). According to the current plan, when the risk level rises to a high level the people in the highest risk zone are required to evacuate. The volcano currently is in a very active, but fluctuating, condition and a future large eruption in a medium time frame (years to decades) is possible. There is a growing level of discomfort among many of the affected groups, including indigenous communities, farmers, and urban dwellers, related to the risk assessment. The general opinion prior to July 2009 was quite polarized as the decision makers saw the people of the region as poorly prepared to understand this hazard, whereas the population felt that their views were not being heard. The result was that the people in the hazardous areas decided not to evacuate, even during the current period of explosive activity. To resolve this situation the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop named "Knowledge, Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia" that was held in Pasto (Colombia), between 6 and 11 July, 2009. The general objective of this workshop was to analyze the existing hazard maps and safety plans for Galeras and form a bridge connecting scientists, decision makers, and other stake holders to promote a better

  4. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti


    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research, a worldwide consensus about the content of NOS teaching is said to be reached. This consensus content is listed as a general statement of science, which students are supposed to understand during their education. Unfortunately, decades of research has demonstrated that teachers and students alike do not possess an appropriate understanding of NOS, at least as far as it is defined at the general level. One reason for such failure might be that formal statements about the NOS and scientific knowledge can really be understood after having been contextualized in the actual cases. Typically NOS is studied as contextualized in the reconstructed historical case stories. When the objective is to educate scientifically and technologically literate citizens, as well as scientists of the near future, studying NOS in the contexts of contemporary science is encouraged. Such contextualizations call for revision of the characterization of NOS and the goals of teaching about NOS. As a consequence, this article gives two examples for studying NOS in the contexts of scientific practices with practicing scientists: an interview study with nanomodellers considering NOS in the context of their actual practices and a course on nature of scientific modelling for science teachers employing the same interview method as a studying method. Such scrutinization opens rarely discussed areas and viewpoints to NOS as well as aspects that practising scientists consider as important.

  5. Low Literacy Decision Aid Enhances Knowledge and Reduces Decisional Conflict among Diverse Population of Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Pilot Study

    Barton, Jennifer L.; Trupin, Laura; Schillinger, Dean; Evans-Young, Gina; Imboden, John; Montori, Victor M.; Yelin, Edward


    Objective Despite innovations in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), adherence is poor and disparities persist. Shared decision making (SDM) promotes patient engagement and enhances adherence, however few tools support SDM in RA. Our objective was to pilot a low literacy medication guide and decision aid to facilitate patient-clinician conversations about RA medications. Methods RA patients were consecutively enrolled into one of three arms: (1) control, patients received existing medication guide prior to clinic visit; (2) adapted guide prior to visit; (3) adapted guide prior plus decision aid during visit. Outcomes were collected immediately post-visit, at 1-week, 3- and 6-month interviews. Eligible adults had to have failed at least one DMARD and fulfill one of the following: age >65, immigrant, non-English speaker, immigrants (66%), non-English speakers (54%), and had limited health literacy (71%). Adequate RA knowledge post visit in arm 3 was higher (78%) than arm 1 (53%, adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1). Among patients with a medication change, there was lower (better) mean decisional conflict in arms 2 and 3 (p=0.03). No significant differences in acceptability. Conclusion A low literacy medication guide and decision aid was acceptable, improved knowledge, and reduced decisional conflict among vulnerable RA patients. Enhancing knowledge and patient engagement with decision support tools may lead to medication choices better aligned with patient values and preferences in RA. PMID:26605752

  6. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Ritin Fernandez


    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  7. Context Awareness Framework Based on Contextual Graph

    Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai


    Nowadays computing becomes increasingly mobile and pervasive. One of the important steps in pervasive computing is context-awareness. Context-aware pervasive systems rely on information about the context and user preferences to adapt their behavior. However, context-aware applications do not always behave as user's desire, and can cause users to feel dissatisfied with unexpected actions. To solve these problems, context-aware systems must provide mechanisms to adapt automatically when the context changes significantly. The interesting characteristic of context is its own behaviors which depend on various aspects of the surrounding contexts. This paper uses contextual graphs to solve the problem "the mutual relationships among the contexts". We describe the most relevant work in this area, as well as ongoing research on developing context-aware system for ubiquitous computing based on contextual graph. The usage of contextual graph in context-awareness is expected to make it effective for developers to develop...

  8. Improving Acquisition Outcomes with Contextual Ambidexterity

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    The results of research on mergers and acquisitions often point to a need to improve acquisition outcomes and lessen the organizational turmoil that can often follow integration efforts. We assert that viewing acquisition integration through the lens of contextual ambidexterity may improve...... acquisition outcomes in two ways: by providing an integrated solution to the economic and social tensions in acquisitions, and by enabling managers to effectively confront the competing needs of task and human integration. We also posit that by building on contextual ambidexterity, we can extend the...... possibilities for both research and practice regarding task and human integration in acquisitions. We also emphasize the role of an integration manager and integration mechanisms in enabling contextual ambidexterity for successful acquisition integration. Finally, we identify implications for research and...

  9. The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust

    Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin


    cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The empirical results, based on a hierarchical linear model with a sample of 444 employees from 82 firms in......In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule, and...... China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of context–trust–behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences....

  10. Knowledge-Based Query Construction Using the CDSS Knowledge Base for Efficient Evidence Retrieval

    Muhammad Afzal


    Full Text Available Finding appropriate evidence to support clinical practices is always challenging, and the construction of a query to retrieve such evidence is a fundamental step. Typically, evidence is found using manual or semi-automatic methods, which are time-consuming and sometimes make it difficult to construct knowledge-based complex queries. To overcome the difficulty in constructing knowledge-based complex queries, we utilized the knowledge base (KB of the clinical decision support system (CDSS, which has the potential to provide sufficient contextual information. To automatically construct knowledge-based complex queries, we designed methods to parse rule structure in KB of CDSS in order to determine an executable path and extract the terms by parsing the control structures and logic connectives used in the logic. The automatically constructed knowledge-based complex queries were executed on the PubMed search service to evaluate the results on the reduction of retrieved citations with high relevance. The average number of citations was reduced from 56,249 citations to 330 citations with the knowledge-based query construction approach, and relevance increased from 1 term to 6 terms on average. The ability to automatically retrieve relevant evidence maximizes efficiency for clinicians in terms of time, based on feedback collected from clinicians. This approach is generally useful in evidence-based medicine, especially in ambient assisted living environments where automation is highly important.

  11. Exploring the role of leadership in enabling contextual ambidexterity

    L.A. Havermans; D.N. den Hartog; A. Keegan; M. Uhl-Bien


    Sustainable success calls for contextually ambidextrous organizing. According to theory, this entails enabling simultaneous high levels of exploration and exploitation within a subsystem. The practices involved in enabling contextual ambidexterity form a major and relatively unexplored leadership ch

  12. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    Klemke, Roland


    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices a

  13. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    Klemke, Roland; Börner, Dirk; Suarez, Angel; Schneider, Jan; Antonaci, Alessandra


    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices

  14. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study.

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas


    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral) that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces. PMID:26388751

  15. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study

    Huiyan eLin


    Full Text Available Previous event-related potential (ERP studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces.

  16. Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover

    Partlow, Michelle C.


    The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

  17. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James


    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  18. Scene-based contextual cueing in pigeons.

    Wasserman, Edward A; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I


    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target, which could appear in 1 of 4 locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of 4 scenes was consistently paired with 1 of 4 possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of 4 different scenes was randomly paired with the same 4 possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  19. Does contextual information bias bitemark comparisons?

    Osborne, Nikola K P; Woods, Sally; Kieser, Jules; Zajac, Rachel


    A growing body of research suggests that the interpretation of fingerprint evidence is open to contextual bias. While there has been suggestion in the literature that the same might apply to bitemarks - a form of identification evidence in which a degree of contextual information during the comparison phase is generally unavoidable - there have so far been no empirical studies to test this assertion. We explored dental and non-dental students' ability to state whether two bitemarks matched, while manipulating task ambiguity and the presence and emotional intensity of additional contextual information. Provision of the contextual information influenced participants' decisions on the ambiguous bitemarks. Interestingly, when participants were presented with highly emotional images and subliminally primed with the words 'same' and 'guilty', they made fewer matches relative to our control condition. Dental experience also played a role in decision-making, with dental students making more matches as the experiment progressed, regardless of context or task ambiguity. We discuss ways that this exploratory research can be extended in future studies. PMID:25002044

  20. Designing Self-Organized Contextualized Feedback Loops

    Kalz, Marco


    Kalz, M. (2013). Designing Self-Organized Contextualized Feedback Loops. In D. Whitelock, W. Warburton, G. Wills, & L. Gilbert (Eds.), International Conference on Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA 2013). July, 9-10, 2013, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

  1. Grounded Contextual Reasoning enabling Innovative Mobile Services

    Kranenburg, van Herma; Salden, Alfons; Broens, Tom; Koolwaaij, Johan


    This paper reflects our findings on the technological feasibility of a mobile service scenario. We will show that despite the scenario being quite ordinary for endusers, the required service support functionality is rather complex. The realisation hinges on intricate grounded contextual reasoning ab

  2. The Use of Contextual Problems to Support Mathematical Learning

    Widjaja, Wanty


    This paper examines the use of contextual problems to support mathematical learning based on current classroom practice. The use of contextual problems offers some potentials to engage and motivate students in learning mathematics but it also presents some challenges for students in classrooms. Examples of the use of contextual problems from…

  3. Bupropion Dose-Dependently Reverses Nicotine Withdrawal Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.


    Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, facilitates smoking cessation and reduces some symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. However, the effects of bupropion on nicotine withdrawal-associated deficits in learning remain unclear. The present study investigated whether bupropion has effects on contextual and cued fear conditioning following withdrawal from chronic nicotine or when administered alone. Bupropion was administered alo...

  4. Contextual Influences on the Individual Life Course: Building a Research Framework for Social Epidemiology

    Juan Merlo


    Full Text Available Individual health is not only individual responsibility, but also depends on the social contexts that condition the individual across the life course. However, while it is of high public health relevance to identify these contextual influences, they still remain poorly understood, and the research performed so far has suffered from severe limitations. This paper presents a research agenda for social epidemiology that underlines a number of novel concepts, ideas, and unanswered questions deserving future investigation. The paper presents a conceptual framework intended to organize the investigation of geographical, socioeconomic, and cultural disparities in health. This framework identifies five main areas of research: (1 identifying the relevant contexts that influence individual health by measuring general contextual effects, (2 measuring contextual characteristics, the specific effects of these characteristics on individual health and their underlying cross-level mechanisms, (3 investigating general and specific contextual effects from a longitudinal, a life-course perspective and across generations, (4 developing quasi-experimental methods (e.g., family-based designs for the analysis of causal effects in contextual analyses, and (5 using the achieved scientific knowledge for planning and evaluating interventions. The proposed framework emphasizes that future research in social epidemiology should question the current means-centric reductionism that is mostly concerned with the identification of (contextual risk factors, and it stresses the need to deliberately investigate determinants of variance. In fact, social epidemiology is not only interested in increasing the (mean health of the population, but also in understanding and decreasing inappropriate health inequalities (variance.

  5. The Effect of Contextual Learning in Civic Education on Students' Civic Competence

    Kokom Komalasari


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Globalization demands civic education to develop civic competence involving civic knowledge, civic skills and civic disposition, which are multidimensional. Civic education learning oriented to “contextualized multiple intelligences” concept opened the view of the needs to manage more creative, active participation, meaningful and pleasant learning. This research aimed to describe the effects of contextual learning on civic education of Junior High School students’ civic competence. Specifically, this research aimed at examining and finding the influence of the application of contextual teaching and learning component in civic education involving the concept applications of interrelationship, direct experience, application, cooperation, self-regulation and authentic assessment towards citizenship competence of Junior High School students. Approach: Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adapted in this study. A survey was used as the Quantitative approach and for the in-depth understanding, interviews were used as the qualitative approach. The population of this research was students from Junior High School in West Java Indonesia. Sample was chosen by using cluster, proportional and systematic random samplings and 1004 Junior High School students were involved. Results: The survey showed that contextual learning in civic education influenced positively and significantly and contributed 26% to the civic competence of Junior High School students. The highest contribution given by applying of cooperation concept (21% and self-regulating concept (20%. Conclusion: It was suggested that contextual teaching and learning in civic education significantly influenced civic competence, the concepts of cooperation and self-regulation were the important factors of civic competence, because they were in accordance with the socio-cultural values. The implications of these findings showed that contextual teaching and learning in

  6. Reasons for Pacifier Use and Non-Use in African-Americans: Does Knowledge of Reduced SIDS Risk Change Parents' Minds?

    Joyner, Brandi L; Oden, Rosalind P; Moon, Rachel Y


    To investigate African-American parental reasons for pacifier use or non-use, and whether knowledge of the association with decreased SIDS risk changes decisions about pacifier use. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with mothers. Grounded theory methodology was used. 83 mothers participated; 72.3 % of infants used pacifiers. Reasons for pacifier use included comfort/soothing, safety/SIDS, and preference over digit-sucking. Reasons for pacifier non-use included infant refusal, fear of attachment, nipple confusion, and germs. Many parents were unaware that pacifier use reduces SIDS risk; however, most parents of non-users did not think that this knowledge would have changed their decision. Reasons included skepticism about the pacifier-SIDS link. Many reasons underlie African-American parental decisions about pacifier use. Providers should provide information about the benefits of pacifiers. Establishing for parents any plausible link between the protective mechanism of pacifiers and SIDS pathophysiology may be important in promoting pacifier use. PMID:25864091

  7. Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis

    C. Shannon Stokes


    Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.

  8. Conceptualizing and contextualizing research and policy for links between climate change and migration

    Upadhyay, Himani; Kelman, Ilan; Lingaraj, G. J.; Mishra, Arabinda; Liu, Cheney Shreve; Stojanov, Robert


    Purpose – This paper aims to present a critical review of some literature on climate change and migration through conceptualizing and contextualizing the linkages between the two topics. Much literature on links between climate change and migration tends to downplay ambiguities in the terms and the limited empirical evidence. Conceptualizing refers to the knowledge gaps and the need to understand and detail (even if not agreeing on) conceptual issues such as terminology, definitions, linka...

  9. Contextual Risk and Its Relevance in Economics

    Aerts, Diederik


    Uncertainty in economics still poses some fundamental problems illustrated, e.g., by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. To overcome these difficulties, economists have introduced an interesting distinction between 'risk' and 'ambiguity' depending on the existence of a (classical Kolmogorovian) probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainty situations. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that 'context' plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian quantum-like framework. In this paper we introduce the notion of 'contextual risk' with the aim of modeling a substantial part of the situations in which usually only 'ambiguity' is present. More precisely, we firstly introduce the essentials of an operational formalism called 'the hidden measurement approach' in which probability is introduced as a consequence of fluct...

  10. Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging

    Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco; Brandt, Sami;


    In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods h...... relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images....

  11. Enhanced Twitter Sentiment Classification Using Contextual Information

    Vosoughi, Soroush; Zhou, Helen; Roy, Deb


    The rise in popularity and ubiquity of Twitter has made sentiment analysis of tweets an important and well-covered area of research. However, the 140 character limit imposed on tweets makes it hard to use standard linguistic methods for sentiment classification. On the other hand, what tweets lack in structure they make up with sheer volume and rich metadata. This metadata includes geolocation, temporal and author information. We hypothesize that sentiment is dependent on all these contextual...

  12. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew


    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  13. Contextual-Analysis for Infrastructure Awareness Systems

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurelien; Alt, Florian

    Infrastructures are persistent socio-technical systems used to deliver different kinds of services. Researchers have looked into how awareness of infrastructures in the areas of sustainability [6, 10] and software appropriation [11] can be provided. However, designing infrastructure-aware systems...... has specific requirements, which are often ignored. In this paper we explore the challenges when developing infrastructure awareness systems based on contextual analysis, and propose guidelines for enhancing the design process....

  14. Contextuality is about identity of random variables

    Contextual situations are those in which seemingly ‘the same’ random variable changes its identity depending on the conditions under which it is recorded. Such a change of identity is observed whenever the assumption that the variable is one and the same under different conditions leads to contradictions when one considers its joint distribution with other random variables (this is the essence of all Bell-type theorems). In our Contextuality-by-Default approach, instead of asking why or how the conditions force ‘one and the same’ random variable to change ‘its’ identity, any two random variables recorded under different conditions are considered different ‘automatically.’ They are never the same, nor are they jointly distributed, but one can always impose on them a joint distribution (probabilistic coupling). The special situations when there is a coupling in which these random variables are equal with probability 1 are considered noncontextual. Contextuality means that such couplings do not exist. We argue that the determination of the identity of random variables by conditions under which they are recorded is not a causal relationship and cannot violate laws of physics. (paper)

  15. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    taiga etsuchiai


    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  16. Contextuality is about identity of random variables

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.


    Contextual situations are those in which seemingly ‘the same’ random variable changes its identity depending on the conditions under which it is recorded. Such a change of identity is observed whenever the assumption that the variable is one and the same under different conditions leads to contradictions when one considers its joint distribution with other random variables (this is the essence of all Bell-type theorems). In our Contextuality-by-Default approach, instead of asking why or how the conditions force ‘one and the same’ random variable to change ‘its’ identity, any two random variables recorded under different conditions are considered different ‘automatically.’ They are never the same, nor are they jointly distributed, but one can always impose on them a joint distribution (probabilistic coupling). The special situations when there is a coupling in which these random variables are equal with probability 1 are considered noncontextual. Contextuality means that such couplings do not exist. We argue that the determination of the identity of random variables by conditions under which they are recorded is not a causal relationship and cannot violate laws of physics.

  17. Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph


    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

  18. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    Klopfenstein, Marie


    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  19. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value


    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  20. Socio-Cultural Knowledge in Conversational Inference

    Xiaomei Yang


    In addition to words and grammar, socio-cultural knowledge is also of vital importance in the interpretation of conversations. Socio-cultural knowledge helps participants to get contextualization cues and together with other signaling channels, participants will be able to perceive the context-bound information and prepare their appropriate responses. Socio-cultural knowledge is indispensable in our modern society where people have widely varying communicative and cultural backgrounds, which ...

  1. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Günther Sagl


    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  2. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas


    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  3. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Klassen, Stephen


    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  4. Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries

    Leana R. Uys


    Full Text Available Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enablethe conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on aliterature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used.Results: Nurse researchers (N = 100 from 22 countries were invited to participate. Theresponse rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97. The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100. The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22. This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research.Conclusion: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used tostrategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

  5. Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.

    Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias


    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research

  6. Knowledge brokering

    Bergenholtz, Carsten


    implications – An organization that can span both technological boundaries and weak ties is in a unique knowledge brokering position. The findings indicate how the barriers of an open transfer of complex knowledge across weak ties can be partially overcome by letting an R&D department be the networking......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...

  7. Knowledge about knowledge

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  8. Analysis and Design of Mobile Collaborative Applications Using Contextual Elements

    Rosa Alarcón; LUIS A. GUERRERO; Sergio F. Ochoa; JOSÉ A. PINO


    Collaborative mobile applications support users on the move in order to perform a collaborative task. One of the challenges when designing such applications is to consider the context where they will execute. Contextualized applications are easy to adopt by the users; unfortunately the design of contextualized tools is not evident. This paper presents a framework of contextual elements to be considered during the conception, analysis and design phases of a mobile collaborative application. Th...

  9. Experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality on an NMR qutrit

    Dogra, Shruti; Dorai, Kavita; Arvind


    We experimentally test quantum contextuality of a single qutrit using NMR. The contextuality inequalities based on nine observables developed by Kurzynski et al. are first reformulated in terms of traceless observables which can be measured in an NMR experiment. These inequalities reveal the contextuality of almost all single-qutrit states. We demonstrate the violation of the inequality on four different initial states of a spin-1 deuterium nucleus oriented in a liquid crystal matrix, and follow the violation as the states evolve in time. We also describe and experimentally perform a single-shot test of contextuality for a subclass of qutrit states whose density matrix is diagonal in the energy basis.

  10. Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem

    Moch. Lutfianto


    Full Text Available Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be usedto enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving contextual mathematics problem. The results showed that 75% students can not solve contextual mathematics problems precisely (unfinished. Students stop and feel that it was completed when they are able to solve problems mathematically, but mathematical solution has not answered the requested context.

  11. Contextual advertisement placement in printed media

    Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag


    Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

  12. Knowledge Economy Dimensions

    Constantin BRATIANU; Violeta Mihaela DINCA


    The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the emergent knowledge economy and its dimensions. The knowledge economy is based primarily on the development of intangibles, and knowledge processing. The knowledge revolution is changing the way we think and work, and the knowledge worker reflects the nature of the new economic driving forces. The knowledge economy opens new directions, and offers unprecedented opportunities to produce and sell on a mass scale, reduce costs, and custom...

  13. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.


    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired w...

  14. Explicit Substitutions for Contextual Type Theory

    Abel, Andreas; 10.4204/EPTCS.34.3


    In this paper, we present an explicit substitution calculus which distinguishes between ordinary bound variables and meta-variables. Its typing discipline is derived from contextual modal type theory. We first present a dependently typed lambda calculus with explicit substitutions for ordinary variables and explicit meta-substitutions for meta-variables. We then present a weak head normalization procedure which performs both substitutions lazily and in a single pass thereby combining substitution walks for the two different classes of variables. Finally, we describe a bidirectional type checking algorithm which uses weak head normalization and prove soundness.

  15. The Contextualization of Archetypes: Clinical Template Governance.

    Pedersen, Rune; Ulriksen, Gro-Hilde; Ellingsen, Gunnar


    This paper is a status report from a large-scale openEHR-based EPR project from the North Norway Regional Health Authority. It concerns the standardization of a regional ICT portfolio and the ongoing development of a new process oriented EPR systems encouraged by the unfolding of a national repository for openEHR archetypes. Subject of interest; the contextualization of clinical templates is governed over multiple national boundaries which is complex due to the dependency of clinical resources. From the outset of this, we are interested in how local, regional, and national organizers maneuver to standardize while applying OpenEHR technology. PMID:26262546

  16. Contextual design defining customer-centered systems

    Beyer, Hugh


    This book introduces a customer-centered approach to business by showing how data gathered from people while they work can drive the definition of a product or process while supporting the needs of teams and their organizations. This is a practical, hands-on guide for anyone trying to design systems that reflect the way customers want to do their work. The authors developed Contextual Design, the method discussed here, through their work with teams struggling to design products and internal systems. In this book, you'll find the underlying principles of the method and how to apply them to diff

  17. Modestia, principio de caridad y sensibilidad contextual

    Rivera, Ángel


    Este artículo muestra que una teoría modesta del lenguaje implica el conocimiento previo de un lenguaje cuando se intenta explicar el dominio de un lenguaje radicalmente desconocido. En segundo lugar, el artículo muestra que una teoría de interpretación radical, como solución al problema anterior, tiene implicaciones etnocentristas. Por último, el artículo propone la hipótesis de la "sensibilidad contextual" como solución al problema.

  18. Contextual Action Recognition with R*CNN

    Gkioxari, Georgia; Girshick, Ross; Malik, Jitendra


    There are multiple cues in an image which reveal what action a person is performing. For example, a jogger has a pose that is characteristic for jogging, but the scene (e.g. road, trail) and the presence of other joggers can be an additional source of information. In this work, we exploit the simple observation that actions are accompanied by contextual cues to build a strong action recognition system. We adapt RCNN to use more than one region for classification while still maintaining the ab...

  19. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang


    Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law or as a...... such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning...... actions and programs on accident prevention....

  20. Examining contextual control in roulette gambling.

    Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R


    We examined the influence of derived rules on roulette betting. Twelve college students selected between red and black bets on a roulette wheel in a pretest, then participated in a relational training procedure that established functions of more than for the color bet least often and less than for the color bet more frequently. When playing roulette again, 11 of the 12 participants increased betting on the color with the same formal properties of the contextual cue for more than in relational training. PMID:25477290

  1. Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David


    All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

  2. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth


    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities. PMID:26332933

  3. Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women

    Papaioannou Alexandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

  4. Contextual poverty, nutrition, and chronic kidney disease.

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M


    Nutrition plays an important role in CKD outcomes. One of the strongest factors that affects nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast-food restaurants within particular regions markedly affect the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium, and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to affect CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods, and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

  5. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    Boespflug, Mathieu; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.3


    Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable ...

  6. Contextual modulation of pain in masochists: involvement of the parietal operculum and insula

    Kamping, Sandra; Andoh, Jamila; Bomba, Isabelle C.; Diers, Martin; Diesch, Eugen; Flor, Herta


    Abstract Pain can be modulated by contextual stimuli, such as emotions, social factors, or specific bodily perceptions. We presented painful laser stimuli together with body-related masochistic visual stimuli to persons with and without preferred masochistic sexual behavior and used neutral, positive, and negative pictures with and without painful stimuli as control. Masochists reported substantially reduced pain intensity and unpleasantness in the masochistic context compared with controls b...

  7. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis

    Daniel Kim; Baum, Christopher F.; Michael Ganz; Subramanian, S.V.; Ichiro Kawachi


    Past observational studies of the associations of area-level/contextual social capital with health have revealed conflicting findings. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applyi...

  8. Understanding the Outcomes of Leadership Development - a Contextual Approach

    Golden, John D.


    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the outcomes of leadership development in the context of a global building materials company. The study utilises a contextual approach to more fully understand the outcomes of leadership development. The value of a contextual approach is highlighted in the literature.

  9. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.


    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  10. Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph

    Bogers, Toine

    algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. We present our approach in this paper and highlight a number of future extensions with additional...

  11. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas


    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  12. O wrażliwośco kontekstowej zdań typu 'S wie, że p' (ON CONTEXTUAL SENSITIVITY OF SENTENCE TYPE 'S KNOWS THAT P'

    Rafał Palczewski


    Full Text Available Semantic contextualism is recently one of the most discussed epistemological theories. So far, the main part of discussion concerns contextualist solution of the skeptical problem. Nowadays it has become more clear that this theory needs strong and independent justification from a linguistic and language-philosophical point of view. In this paper The author outlines several treads concerning linguistic basis for contextualism. In part one there are presented some fundamental contextualism thesis and an example proposed by S. Cohen which has to support it. Next the following question is considered: which semantic feature is responsible for context dependence of knowledge ascription sentences? Is it indexicality, vagueness, ambiguity, ellipticity or unspecificity? Debate sketched in part three is concentrated on an analogy between linguistic behavior of knowledge ascription sentences and other context-dependent expressions, especially indexicals and gradable adjectives. The last part of this paper contains a new argument for contextualism proposed by K. De Rose. In addition such argument points out that contextualism does not confuse a truth conditions of knowledge ascribing sentences with their condition of warranted assertability.

  13. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth


    . To look at how knowledge about virtual work is established in a multinational context, we interviewed members of a team that connects Finland and India. Results reveal five objects shared between the team members with varying knowledge about them. By making these differences in knowledge visible......How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from...... contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective...

  14. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    Peck, Rick


    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  15. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    A Elizabeth Bond

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice question (MCQ examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the

  16. Microdevelopment of Complex Featural and Spatial Integration with Contextual Support

    Pamela L. Hirsch


    Full Text Available Complex spatial decisions involve the ability to combine featural and spatial information in a scene. In the present work, 4- through 9-year-old children completed a complex map-scene correspondence task under baseline and supported conditions. Children compared a photographed scene with a correct map and with map-foils that made salient an object feature or spatial property. Map-scene matches were analyzed for the effects of age and featural-spatial information on children’s selections. In both conditions children significantly favored maps that highlighted object detail and object perspective rather than color, landmark, and metric elements. Children’s correct performance did not differ by age and was suboptimal, but their ability to choose correct maps improved significantly when contextual support was provided. Strategy variability was prominent for all age groups, but at age 9 with support children were more likely to give up their focus on features and transition to the use of spatial strategies. These findings suggest the possibility of a U-shaped curve for children’s development of geometric knowledge: geometric coding is predominant early on, diminishes for a time in middle childhood in favor of a preference for features, and then reemerges along with the more advanced abilities to combine featural and spatial information.

  17. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Barrett, H. Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C.; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen


    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  18. Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals

    Moed, Henk F


    This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further develops Eugene Garfield's notions of a field's 'citation potential' defined as the average length of references lists in a field and determining the probability of being cited, and the need in fair performance assessments to correct for differences between subject fields. A journal's subject field is defined as the set of papers citing that journal. SNIP is defined as the ratio of the journal's citation count per paper and the citation potential in its subject field. It aims to allow direct comparison of sources in different subject fields....

  19. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

    Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

  20. Probabilistic generation of quantum contextual sets

    We give a method for exhaustive generation of a huge number of Kochen-Specker contextual sets, based on the 600-cell, for possible experiments and quantum gates. The method is complementary to our previous parity proof generation of these sets, and it gives all sets while the parity proof method gives only sets with an odd number of edges in their hypergraph representation. Thus we obtain 35 new kinds of critical KS sets with an even number of edges. We also give a statistical estimate of the number of sets that might be obtained in an eventual exhaustive enumeration. -- Highlights: → We generate millions of new Kochen-Specker noncontextual set. → We find thousands of novel critical Kochen-Specker (KS) sets. → We give algorithms for generating KS sets from a new 4-dim class. → We represent KS sets by means of hypergraphs and their figures. → We give a new exact estimation method for random sampling of sets.

  1. Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization

    Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew


    Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...

  2. Knowledge management

    Jarošová, Milena


    Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...

  3. Contextual Land Use Classification: how Detailed can the Class Structure Be?

    Albert, L.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.


    The goal of this paper is to investigate the maximum level of semantic resolution that can be achieved in an automated land use change detection process based on mono-temporal, multi-spectral, high-resolution aerial image data. For this purpose, we perform a step-wise refinement of the land use classes that follows the hierarchical structure of most object catalogues for land use databases. The investigation is based on our previous work for the simultaneous contextual classification of aerial imagery to determine land cover and land use. Land cover is determined at the level of small image segments. Land use classification is applied to objects from the geospatial database. Experiments are carried out on two test areas with different characteristics and are intended to evaluate the step-wise refinement of the land use classes empirically. The experiments show that a semantic resolution of ten classes still delivers acceptable results, where the accuracy of the results depends on the characteristics of the test areas used. Furthermore, we confirm that the incorporation of contextual knowledge, especially in the form of contextual features, is beneficial for land use classification.

  4. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Matthias J Wieser


    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  5. Geo-technologies for spatial knowledge: challenges for inclusive and sustainable urban development

    K. Pfeffer; J. Martinez; D. O'Sullivan; D. Scott


    Critical to governance for sustainable and inclusive urban development is access to, and management of, relevant contextual spatial knowledge. Digital geo-technologies such as geographical information systems, online applications and spatial simulation models are increasingly becoming embedded in ur

  6. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    Omar Jridi


    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  7. Configural learning in contextual cuing of visual search.

    Beesley, Tom; Vadillo, Miguel A; Pearson, Daniel; Shanks, David R


    Two experiments were conducted to explore the role of configural representations in contextual cuing of visual search. Repeating patterns of distractors (contexts) were trained incidentally as predictive of the target location. Training participants with repeating contexts of consistent configurations led to stronger contextual cuing than when participants were trained with contexts of inconsistent configurations. Computational simulations with an elemental associative learning model of contextual cuing demonstrated that purely elemental representations could not account for the results. However, a configural model of associative learning was able to simulate the ordinal pattern of data. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913779

  8. Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation

    Edwards Nancy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an

  9. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Marincola Francesco M


    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  10. Effects of Contextual Factors on Information Seeking Behavior on the Web by Postgraduate Students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    Mozhgan Rahimi


    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the influence of contextual factors on information seeking behavior. This survey investigates search tactics used and users’ perceptions of the search results on the Web by postgraduate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted through a mixed method. Thirty postgraduate students voluntarily participated. The study was carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2012-2013. The data was gathered using two questionnaires and log files recorded with Camtasia Studio software. The findings indicated more than half of the participants (53.3 percent used Google, short queries were more used than long queries, advanced search options were used rarely (23 percent, and the participants view few search result pages. According to the results, the contextual factors significantly influenced the search time, search tactics (including querying and navigating and users’ perceptions of the search results (including ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction and relevance judgment. Navigating tactic was primarily used by the participants. Among different aspects of users’ perceptions of the search results, ease of use and relevance judgments were significantly different based on the contextual factors, whereas scanning, extracting, and confidence were less affected by the contextual factors. The findings suggest practical implications for information retrieval systems designers that can design of systems with better user interface in order to meet the needs of users with different knowledge and skills, in this way it leads in promotion of search process and improvement of search results quality.

  11. Assessment of the magnitude of geographical variations in the duration of non-work-related sickness absence by individual and contextual factors

    Isabel Torá-Rocamora


    Conclusions: County-level variation in the duration of NWRSA was small and was explained more by individual than by contextual variables. Knowledge of geographic differences in NWRSA duration is needed to plan specific programs and interventions to minimize these differences.

  12. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Stefan Pollmann


    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  13. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    Börner, Dirk


    Börner, D. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Presented at the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.

  14. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    Sanchez, Ron


    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...

  15. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  16. Contextualized Language and Transferential Aspects of Context.

    Movahedi, Siamak


    The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words--words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences. PMID:26263926

  17. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  18. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C


    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. PMID:22487485

  19. Contextual LSTM (CLSTM) models for Large scale NLP tasks

    Ghosh, Shalini; Vinyals, Oriol; Strope, Brian; Roy, Scott; Dean, Tom; Heck, Larry


    Documents exhibit sequential structure at multiple levels of abstraction (e.g., sentences, paragraphs, sections). These abstractions constitute a natural hierarchy for representing the context in which to infer the meaning of words and larger fragments of text. In this paper, we present CLSTM (Contextual LSTM), an extension of the recurrent neural network LSTM (Long-Short Term Memory) model, where we incorporate contextual features (e.g., topics) into the model. We evaluate CLSTM on three spe...

  20. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination

    Kutlu, Munir G.; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J.


    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Followi...

  1. Teoria reprezentacji dyskursu a kontekstualizm [Discourse Representation Theory and contextualism

    Joanna Odrowaz-Sypniewska


    In this paper I informally present Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) and assess its usefulness for contextualism. First I sketch DRT’s analysis of nominal and temporal anafora, definite descriptions,proper names, universal statements, conditionals and negated statements. Next I discuss some philosophical consequences of DRT and consider whether analysis offered by this theory can be used in the debate between semantic minimalism and contextualism.

  2. The Idea of Code in Contextualism and Minimalism

    Mácha Jakub


    In this paper I discuss the idea of a semantic code in the contemporary debate between contextualism and minimalism. First, I identify historical sources of these positions in Grice's pragmatics and in Davidson's theory of meaning in order to sketch the role of a semantic code there. Then I argue that contextualism is committed to the idea of an ad hoc code, while minimalism involves a persistent code. However, the latter approach to a code requires disambiguation which must be carried out in...

  3. Contextual Information and Specific Language Models for Spoken Language Understanding

    Baggia, Paolo; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta; Moisa, Loreta M.; Popovici, Cosmin


    In this paper we explain how contextual expectations are generated and used in the task-oriented spoken language understanding system Dialogos. The hard task of recognizing spontaneous speech on the telephone may greatly benefit from the use of specific language models during the recognition of callers' utterances. By 'specific language models' we mean a set of language models that are trained on contextually appropriated data, and that are used during different states of the dialogue on the ...

  4. Teoria reprezentacji dyskursu a kontekstualizm [Discourse Representation Theory and contextualism

    Joanna Odrowaz-Sypniewska


    Full Text Available In this paper I informally present Discourse Representation Theory (DRT and assess its usefulness for contextualism. First I sketch DRT’s analysis of nominal and temporal anafora, definite descriptions,proper names, universal statements, conditionals and negated statements. Next I discuss some philosophical consequences of DRT and consider whether analysis offered by this theory can be used in the debate between semantic minimalism and contextualism.

  5. Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization

    Lee, Jonathan L. C.; Charlotte eFlavell


    The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA. Co-infusion of ACEA and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioural conditions that, by themselves, did not result...

  6. A contextual modeling approach for model-based recommender systems

    Fernández-Tobías, Ignacio; Campos Soto, Pedro G.; Cantador, Iván; Díez, Fernando


    The final publication is available at Springer via Proceedings of 15th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2013, Madrid, Spain, September 17-20, 2013. In this paper we present a contextual modeling approach for model-based recommender systems that integrates and exploits both user preferences and contextual signals in a common vector space. Differently to previous work, we conduct a user study acquiring ...


    Meira, Cassio M; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Perez, Carlos R


    The Introversion/Extraversion dimension may interact with contextual interference, as random and blocked practice schedules imply distinct levels of variation. This study investigated the effect of different practice schedules in the acquisition of a motor skill in extraverts and introverts. Forty male undergraduate students (M = 24.3 yr., SD = 5.6) were classified as extraverts (n = 20) and introverts (n = 20) by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and allocated in one of two practice schedules with different levels of contextual interference: blocked (low contextual interference) and random (high contextual interference). Half of each group was assigned to a blocked practice schedule, and the other half was assigned to a random practice schedule. The design had two phases: acquisition and transfer (5 min. and 24 hr.). The participants learned variations of a sequential timing keypressing task. Each variation required the same sequence but different timing; three variations were used in acquisition, and one variation of intermediate length was used in transfer. Results for absolute error and overall timing error (root mean square error) indicated that the contextual interference effect was more pronounced for introverts. In addition, introverts who practiced according to the blocked schedule committed more errors during the 24-hr. transfer, suggesting that introverts did not appear to be challenged by a low contextual interference practice schedule. PMID:26447746

  8. Opportunistic Adaptation Knowledge Discovery

    Badra, Fadi; Cordier, Amélie; Lieber, Jean


    The original publication is available at International audience Adaptation has long been considered as the Achilles' heel of case-based reasoning since it requires some domain-specific knowledge that is difficult to acquire. In this paper, two strategies are combined in order to reduce the knowledge engineering cost induced by the adaptation knowledge (CA) acquisition task: CA is learned from the case base by the means of knowledge discovery techniques, and the CA a...

  9. Knowledge crash and knowledge management

    Ermine, Jean-Louis


    This article, by including the problem of “Knowledge Crash” in the more general framework of “Knowledge Management”, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

  10. The Costs of Knowledge

    Prusak, Laurence


    Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology

  11. The Cohomology of Non-Locality and Contextuality

    Samson Abramsky


    Full Text Available In a previous paper with Adam Brandenburger, we used sheaf theory to analyze the structure of non-locality and contextuality. Moreover, on the basis of this formulation, we showed that the phenomena of non-locality and contextuality can be characterized precisely in terms of obstructions to the existence of global sections. Our aim in the present work is to build on these results, and to use the powerful tools of sheaf cohomology to study the structure of non-locality and contextuality. We use the Cech cohomology on an abelian presheaf derived from the support of a probabilistic model, viewed as a compatible family of distributions, in order to define a cohomological obstruction for the family as a certain cohomology class. This class vanishes if the family has a global section. Thus the non-vanishing of the obstruction provides a sufficient (but not necessary condition for the model to be contextual. We show that for a number of salient examples, including PR boxes, GHZ states, the Peres-Mermin magic square, and the 18-vector configuration due to Cabello et al. giving a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem in four dimensions, the obstruction does not vanish, thus yielding cohomological witnesses for contextuality.

  12. The Metaphor and Reality of Contextual Transfer

    Down, Catherine Mary


    The article reports on the first phase of a large-scale qualitative research project that explored the perceptions of training practitioners on how they understood the process by which we carry our knowledge and skill across different contexts. Clearly, this is a process of transition, where it is the individual who moves across the contexts and…

  13. Knowledge management

    Lubojacký, Roman


    Knowledge management is a way to effectively manage corporate knowledge. Goal of the thesis is to analyze tasks and ways of knowledge management and technological means to support it and test chosen software tools for creation of knowledge base of business terms. First part of the work is dealing with analysis of knowledge management, technics and tools, which are used and technologies for its support. Second part is focused on testing tools for creation of business terms knowledge base for n...


    Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU; Viorel CORNESCU


    For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which manag...




    Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

  16. Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

  17. Contextual Values Approach to the Generalized Measurement of Observables

    Dressel, J


    We present a detailed motivation for and definition of the contextual values of an observable, which were introduced in Dressel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040402 (2010). The theory extends the well-established theory of generalized state measurements by bridging the gap between partial state collapse and the observables that represent physically relevant information about the system. To emphasize the general utility of the concept, we first construct the full theory of contextual values within an operational formulation of classical probability theory, paying special attention to observable construction, detector coupling, generalized measurement, and measurement disturbance. We then extend the results to quantum probability theory built as a superstructure on the classical theory, pointing out both the classical correspondences to and the full quantum generalizations of both Lueder's rule and the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz rule in the process. In both cases the contextual values of a system observable for...

  18. A Contextual-Bandit Approach to Personalized News Article Recommendation

    Li, Lihong; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E


    Personalized web services strive to adapt their services (advertisements, news articles, etc) to individual users by making use of both content and user information. Despite a few recent advances, this problem remains challenging for at least two reasons. First, web service is featured with dynamically changing pools of content, rendering traditional collaborative filtering methods inapplicable. Second, the scale of most web services of practical interest calls for solutions that are both fast in learning and computation. In this work, we model personalized recommendation of news articles as a contextual bandit problem, a principled approach in which a learning algorithm sequentially selects articles to serve users based on contextual information about the users and articles, while simultaneously adapting its article-selection strategy based on user-click feedback to maximize total user clicks. The contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we propose a new, general contextual bandit algorithm that is ...

  19. Contextual Information and Specific Language Models for Spoken Language Understanding

    Baggia, P; Gerbino, E; Moisa, L M; Popovici, C; Baggia, Paolo; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta; Moisa, Loreta M.; Popovici, Cosmin


    In this paper we explain how contextual expectations are generated and used in the task-oriented spoken language understanding system Dialogos. The hard task of recognizing spontaneous speech on the telephone may greatly benefit from the use of specific language models during the recognition of callers' utterances. By 'specific language models' we mean a set of language models that are trained on contextually appropriated data, and that are used during different states of the dialogue on the basis of the information sent to the acoustic level by the dialogue management module. In this paper we describe how the specific language models are obtained on the basis of contextual information. The experimental result we report show that recognition and understanding performance are improved thanks to the use of specific language models.

  20. Contextualization processes and the initial education of physics teachers

    Cristina Cândida de Macedo


    Full Text Available Contextualization of school contents has been seen as a possibility of facilitating students’ learning, since it makes the educative process more significant to them. However, there is no agreement as to the meaning and the forms of applying such processes. Particularly in the area of Science teaching, the creation of thematic projects has been seen as a way of contextualizing school contents. It is noteworthy that the experience with the education of Physics teachers shows that the creation and execution of such projects brings many difficulties to teachers, the main obstacle being the understanding of what contextualized educative processes are. Having this in mind, a project has been elaborated with the objective of analyzing the comprehension Physics teachers that are going through teacher education courses have of the processes of contextualization. The data for this investigation has been obtained from students who attended a course of the Physics Teacher Education module at the Federal University of Itajubá. It is significant to mention that in this course students are asked to create three versions of a thematic project. In order to analyze the data, the procedure of Thematic Content and Category Analysis was adopted. This research shows that Physics teachers to be incorporate the discourses of the educative ideas throughout the course. However, there is a series of obstacles they face as they attempt to understand and carry out contextualized educative processes. Those difficulties are connected to their experience with this kind of educative process throughout the years they spend at school and in the teacher education course. We conclude thus that it is essential that contextualized educative activities be part of the reality of teacher education programs.

  1. An adaptive contextual quantum language model

    Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Peng; Song, Dawei; Hou, Yuexian


    User interactions in search system represent a rich source of implicit knowledge about the user's cognitive state and information need that continuously evolves over time. Despite massive efforts that have been made to exploiting and incorporating this implicit knowledge in information retrieval, it is still a challenge to effectively capture the term dependencies and the user's dynamic information need (reflected by query modifications) in the context of user interaction. To tackle these issues, motivated by the recent Quantum Language Model (QLM), we develop a QLM based retrieval model for session search, which naturally incorporates the complex term dependencies occurring in user's historical queries and clicked documents with density matrices. In order to capture the dynamic information within users' search session, we propose a density matrix transformation framework and further develop an adaptive QLM ranking model. Extensive comparative experiments show the effectiveness of our session quantum language models.

  2. Social contextual factors contributing to child and adolescent labor: an ecological analysis

    Vilma Sousa Santana


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between social contextual factors and child and adolescent labor. METHODS: Population-based cohort study carried out with 2,512 families living in 23 subareas of a large urban city in Brazil from 2000 to 2002. A random one-stage cluster sampling was used to select families. Data were obtained through individual household interviews using questionnaires. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was estimated for each district. New child and adolescent labor cases were those who had their first job over the two-year follow-up. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was the response variable and predictors were contextual factors such as lack of social support, social deprivation, unstructured family, perceived violence, poor school quality, poor environment conditions, and poor public services. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: There were selected 943 families corresponding to 1,326 non-working children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years. Lack of social support, social deprivation, perceived violence were all positively and individually associated with the annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor. In the multiple linear regression model, however, only lack of social support and perceived violence in the neighborhood were positively associated to child and adolescent labor. No effect was found for poor school quality, poor environment conditions, poor public services or unstructured family. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty reduction programs can reduce the contextual factors associated with child and adolescent labor. Violence reduction programs and strengthening social support at the community level may contribute to reduce CAL.

  3. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    Joseph Pamela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  4. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej


    , surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved in...... personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...... managing shared image collections or other types of information....

  5. Generalized Quantum Theory, Contextual Emergence and Non-Hierarchic Alternatives

    Römer, Hartmann


    The concept of emergence is critically analyzed in particular with respect to the assumed emergence of mental properties from a neuronal basis. We argue that so-called contextual emergence is needed to avoid an eliminatory reductionism. Quantum-like features of the emergent qualities are to be expected. As a consequence, non-causal relations like entanglement correlations have to be considered as full fledged elements of reality. "Observable extension" is proposed as a contextual alternative to emergence avoiding the asymmetry between purportedly basic and emergent properties.

  6. Some Examples of Contextuality in Physics: Implications to Quantum Cognition

    Acacio de Barros, J.; Oas, Gary

    Contextuality, the impossibility of assigning a single random variable to represent the outcomes of the same measurement procedure under different experimental conditions, is a central aspect of quantum mechanics. Thus defined, it appears in well-known cases in quantum mechanics, such as the double-slit experiment, the Bell-EPR experiment, and the Kochen-Specker theorem. Here we examine contextuality in such cases, and discuss how each of them bring different conceptual issues when applied to quantum cognition. We then focus on the shortcomings of using quantum probabilities to describe social systems, and explain how negative quasi-probability distributions may address such limitations.

  7. Contextual repetition facilitates word learning via fast mapping.

    Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S


    The current study explores whether contextual repetition during fast mapping facilitates word learning. Three-year-old children completed fast mapping and test trials using a touchscreen computer. For half of the children, the non-targets (competitors) repeated across learning trials and for other children there was no repetition. All children received the same test trials. Children who experienced contextual repetition, that is, children for whom the competitors repeated during the initial fast mapping task, demonstrated word learning. These data demonstrate that children's word learning is facilitated by the presence of extraneous yet predictable information in the initial fast mapping task. PMID:25195163

  8. Function of knowledge culture in the effectiveness of knowledge management procedures: A case study of a knowledge-based organization

    Mitra Dilmaghani


    Full Text Available Effective aspects and factors on knowledge culture are identified. A model for explaining the relationship between knowledge culture and effectiveness of knowledge management procedures in a knowledge-based organization is presented. The study used a mixture of library and documentary studies, and exploratory mixed methods. First, the literature was reviewed to extract the effective aspects and factors on knowledge culture and the conceptual model was developed. Then, a questionnaire which was validated through eliciting the comments of experts and examining the status of knowledge management in the organization was distributed to the researchers who were randomly selected to be included in the sample. The collected data were examined through AMOS and SPSS software. The possible relationship between the components of the model was investigated through posing five hypotheses and correlation coefficient test. The results of structural equation modeling demonstrated a significant positive relationship between contextual factors and aspects of knowledge culture and between knowledge culture and the knowledge management effectiveness. Evaluating the variables of the conceptual model revealed that staff members’ characteristics, information technology and job characteristics would make a significant positive impact on knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. However, these factors had no significant influence on knowledge cooperation and knowledge learning.

  9. Knowledge Management.


    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  10. Knowledge Management

    Gerami, Mohsen


    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  11. A spatial-temporal contextual Markovian kernel method for multi-temporal land cover mapping

    Wehmann, Adam; Liu, Desheng


    Due to a lack of spatial-temporal consistency, the current generation of multi-temporal land cover products is subject to significant error propagation in change detection results. To address the evolving needs of land change science, the next generation of land cover products must be derived from new classification methods that are designed specifically for multi-temporal land cover mapping. In this paper, a next generation classifier is proposed that fully exploits contextual information by combining results born from the machine learning paradigm in remote sensing with domain knowledge from multi-temporal land cover mapping. This classifier, the Spatial-Temporal Markovian Support Vector Classifier, exhibits an entirely new level of accuracy of change detection when evaluated for the classification of seven Landsat images from an Appalachian Ohio study area. It exceeds previous leading techniques employing machine learning kernel methods and Markov Random Field models of image context on all accuracy metrics for the creation of a spatial-temporally consistent land cover product. It owes its performance to the greatly improved decision-making about contextual information afforded by the extension and integration of these previous techniques. With such a classifier, substantially more accurate and spatial-temporally consistent multi-temporal land cover products are possible that are suitable for the detailed study of land cover change.

  12. Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels

    Strange, Winifred


    In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  13. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    Jonhan Ho


    of processes that may possibly improve following the introduction of digital pathology systems were identified. These work processes included case management, case examination and review, and final case reporting. Furthermore, a digital slide system should integrate with the anatomic pathologic laboratory information system. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilized the contextual inquiry method to document AP workflow. Findings were used to establish key requirements for the design of digital pathology systems.

  14. Effects of the swimming exercise on the consolidation and persistence of auditory and contextual fear memory.

    Faria, Rodolfo Souza; Gutierres, Luís Felipe Soares; Sobrinho, Fernando César Faria; Miranda, Iris do Vale; Reis, Júlia Dos; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Sartori, Cesar Renato; Moreira, Dalmo Antonio Ribeiro


    consolidation as well as persistence of conditioned fear memory. In addition, rats submitted to swimming exercise over six weeks showed an improved performance in the test of auditory-cued fear memory persistence, but not in the test of contextual fear memory persistence. Moreover, no significant effect from swimming exercise was observed on consolidation of both contextual and auditory fear memory. So, our study, revealing the effect of the swimming exercise on different stages of implicit memory of tone/foot shock conditioning, contributes to and complements the current knowledge about the environmental modulation of memory process. PMID:27329240

  15. 透視官方知識之生成―高中「生活科技」教科書政治脈絡分析 Examining the Formation of Official Knowledge: A Contextual Analysis of the Politics of High School “Living Technology” Textbooks

    王雅玄 Ya-Hsuan Wan


    Full Text Available 本研究從課程綱要轉化為課程文本的教科書政治中,透視官方知識的生成。為釐清政策形塑背後各種利益團體的微觀政治,本研究以多重方法檢視高中生活科技新課程綱要對不同對象的意義,包括訪談四大出版社教科書編寫者與經理八位、分析國立編譯館教科書審查意見55件、電話調查全國高中教科書選用209所,分析教科書編寫、審查與選擇政治。歸納教科書編審選之制度外政治有立委 與企業界,制度內政治有教科書政策、國立編譯館、出版社、學校、學科專家、教師。受制於眾多政治性因素,專家學者與出版社妥協於制度外力量,學校教師終究淪為學科邊緣化的幕後推手。總結此次生活科技的課程變革,仍是由上而下的威權建構形式,並未彰顯解構威權與挑戰菁英的草根改革。臺灣科技教育仍移 植美國模式與知識建構的威權運作,缺少自己的本質與主動性。 This research examined the formation of official knowledge through textbook politics, which transformed curriculum guidelines into curriculum texts. In order to clarify the micro-politics of different interest groups hidden behind policy formation, this research employed multiple methods to examine what the new curriculum guidelines of high school Living Technology meant to different interest groups. The methods included individual interviews with 8 textbook writers and managers from 4 major publishers, document analyses of 55 textbook reviews by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation (NICT, and telephone surveys of textbook feedback from 209 high schools across Taiwan. The goal was to shed light on the politics of textbook writing, reviewing, and selection. The research data indicated that the system of textbook writing, reviewing, and selection was shaped by both extra-institutional forces, such as those from legislators and

  16. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    Mooij, Ton


    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and sy

  17. Essays on Knowledge Management

    Xiao, Wenli


    For many firms, particularly those operating in high technology and competitive markets, knowledge is cited as the most important strategic asset to the firm, which significantly drives its survival and success (Grant 1996, Webber 1993). Knowledge management (KM) impacts the firm's ability to develop process features that reduce manufacturing…

  18. Identifying Contextual Factors of Employee Satisfaction of Performance Management at a Thai State Enterprise

    Molraudee Saratun; Parisa Rungruang


    Although there has been an increase in Performance Management (PM) literature over the years arguing that PM perceptions are likely to be a function of PM process components and contextual factors, the actual relationship between the contextual factors and employee satisfaction of PM remains little explored. Extending previous research, this study examines relationships between contextual factors and employees’ PM satisfaction. Derived from the literature, these contextual factors are motivat...

  19. Knowledge Technologies

    Milton, Nick


    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

  20. Contextualizing Critical Action Research: Lessons from Urban Educators

    Esposito, Jennifer; Evans-Winters, Venus


    In this paper, we argue that teacher-researchers, especially those in politically contested school communities, should be encouraged to conduct critical action research that is contextually bound. Such a research methodology includes tenets of critical action research, postmodern and feminist theory, and attention to how oppression manifests in…

  1. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus


    Börner, D., & Specht, M. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France. [unpublished manuscript

  2. Parenting during Toddlerhood: Contributions of Parental, Contextual, and Child Characteristics

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Van Aken, Marcel A. G.


    The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, positive discipline, psychological control, and…

  3. Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control

    Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.


    Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

  4. Contextual Control of Slot-Machine Gambling: Replication and Extension

    Hoon, Alice; Dymond, Simon; Jackson, James W.; Dixon, Mark R.


    Participants were trained and tested to select stimuli of differing physical quantities in the presence of 2 color contextual cues for more than and less than. Following more than and less than relational training, participants allocated the majority of their responses to the slot machine that shared formal properties of color with the contextual…

  5. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.


    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  6. Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation

    Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.


    Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

  7. Spatial Constraints on Learning in Visual Search: Modeling Contextual Cuing

    Brady, Timothy F.; Chun, Marvin M.


    Predictive visual context facilitates visual search, a benefit termed contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998). In the original task, search arrays were repeated across blocks such that the spatial configuration (context) of all of the distractors in a display predicted an embedded target location. The authors modeled existing results using…

  8. An Intriguing Third Way: Mapping Contextual Education for Curricular Integration

    Wigg-Stevenson, Natalie


    This article emerges from the experience of incorporating doctoral students into our Contextual Education (CXE) Program at Emmanuel College (Toronto). This change, I argue, helped us to distinguish more clearly among and thus distinctly orient the different kinds of relationships and theological practices that make up our program towards the…

  9. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians

    McBee, E.; Ratcliffe, T.; Picho, K.; Artino, A.R.; Schuwirth, L.; Kelly, W.; Masel, J.; Vleuten, C. van der; Durning, S.J.


    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe wh

  10. Combining polarimetric and contextual information using autoassociative neural networks

    Avezzano, Ruggero G.; Del Frate, Fabio; Schiavon, Giovanni


    In the last decade there has been a considerable development of spaceborne SAR sensors. All the major space agencies are planning future SAR missions with polarimetric capabilities. However there is still a need to guide electromagnetic and statistics theories that take advantage of this kind of information towards operational applications. The use of contextual information is often required for automatic interpretation and target detection. The implementation of fast and reliable algorithms that exploit both polarimetric and contextual information can be limited by the increased dimensionality of the problem. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a data analysis technique that relies on a simple transformation of recorded observation, stored in a vector, to produce statistically independent variables. Non-Linear PCA is commonly seen as a non-linear generalization and extension of standard PCA. If non-linear correlations between variables exist, NLPCA will describe the data with greater accuracy and/or by fewer factors than PCA. In this work a combination of polarimetric and contextual information is performed using an Auto Associative Neural Network. A set of polarimetric input features were chosen together with contextual descriptors in order to produce an information set having lower dimensionality that can be exploited in a classification problem.

  11. Systematically increasing contextual interference is beneficial for learning sport skills.

    Porter, Jared M; Magill, Richard A


    To better understand the contextual interference effect, in two experiments we investigated a form of practice schedule that provided novices with systematic increases in contextual interference. This new type of practice schedule was compared with traditional blocked and random scheduling for two types of sports skills. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that practising variations of the same task with systematic increases in contextual interference would lead to superior performance compared with blocked or random scheduling. Participants practised golf putting tasks following a blocked, random or increasing schedule, which involved initial blocked trials, followed by serial practice trials, and ended with random scheduling. Participants who followed the increasing schedule had superior retention test performance. In Experiment 2, we tested if these learning benefits were observed when learning tasks controlled by different generalized motor programs. Participants practised three different basketball passes (chest, overhead, single arm) in a blocked, random or increasing schedule. Participants practising with gradual increases in contextual interference performed better on retention and transfer tests than participants practising with blocked or random scheduling. The results of these two expe PMID:20845219

  12. Contextual Influences on Korean College Students' Vocational Identity Development

    Song, Bora; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Ki-Hak


    This study observed the effect of contextual factors on vocational identity (VI) level in each VI status, originated by Marcia ("Handbook of adolescent psychology." Wiley, New York, 1980)'s identity status. This is an attempt to integrate status approach and dimension approach of VI development by finding within-status difference of…

  13. Contextualizing practices across epistemic levels in the chemistry laboratory

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar; Reigosa, Carlos


    The process of construction of meanings for the concepts of concentration and neutralization is explored in terms of contextualizing practices (Lemke, 1990, Talking Science. Language, Learning and Values, Norwood, NJ: Ablex) creation of meanings through connections established among actions and their context. This notion is expanded to include the connections established among concepts and their context of use, a solving problem task in a laboratory. The purpose is to document the process of meaning construction for these concepts and their transformation from mere terms into decisions and practical actions in a chemistry laboratory. We sought to combine this analysis with an epistemological focus, examining the relative epistemic status of the contextualizing practices. The conversations and actions of four grade 10 students and their teacher (second author) were recorded while solving an open task: to find the concentration of an HCl solution. The results show a progression in the process of contextualization, from an initial inability to use the concepts as part of the resources to complete the titration task, to the transformation of definitions into shared meaningful concepts that allow to take actions, combining theoretical resources with physical ones to solve the problem. A frame for categorizing contextualizing practices across epistemic levels is proposed and applied to the data.

  14. On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements

    We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

  15. On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements

    Soeda, Akihito [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Kurzyński, Paweł [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Ramanathan, Ravishankar [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Grudka, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Thompson, Jayne [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kaszlikowski, Dagomir, E-mail: [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore)


    We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

  16. A Contextual-Functional Meta-Framework for Counselling Supervision

    Chang, Jeff


    In this paper, an approach to clinical supervision, entitled the Contextual-Functional Meta-Framework (CFM), is developed and articulated, based on a consideration of current literature and the author's extensive practice experience. First, the context for the development of the CFM, and its formative influences, are examined, followed by a review…

  17. Parenting during toddlerhood: Contributions of parental, contextual and child characteristics

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.


    The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, posit

  18. Towards Computational Fronesis: Verifying Contextual Appropriateness of Emotions

    Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio


    This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…

  19. Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization

    Jonathan L C Lee


    Full Text Available The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA. Co-infusion of ACEA and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioural conditions that, by themselves, did not result in either a reconsolidation impairment by sulfasalazine alone or reactivation-induced upregulation of Zif268 expression. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential.

  20. Contextual Modulation of N400 Amplitude to Lexically Ambiguous Words

    Titone, Debra A.; Salisbury, Dean F.


    Through much is known about the N400 component, an event-related EEG potential that is sensitive to semantic manipulations, it is unclear whether modulations of N400 amplitude reflect automatic processing, controlled processing, or both. We examined this issue using a semantic judgment task that manipulated local and global contextual cues. Word…

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Contextual and Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

    Behlol, Malik; Kaini, Mohammad Munir


    The study was conducted to find out effectiveness of contextual an, structural method of teaching vocabulary in English at secondary level. It was an experimental study in which the pretest posttest design was used. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Government secondary schools of Rawalpindi District.…

  2. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    Vianen, van, A.E.M.; Bosch, J.A.; Loerbroks, A; Herr, R.M.


    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational stressor that pertains to the perceived fairness at the workplace. It is a multidimensional concept that involves aspects like fairness of distribution of outcomes like salary, benefits and rewards, f...

  3. Neural Correlates of the Encoding of Multimodal Contextual Features

    Gottlieb, Lauren J.; Wong, Jenny; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D.


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to identify neural regions engaged during the encoding of contextual features belonging to different modalities. Subjects studied objects that were presented to the left or right of fixation. Each object was paired with its name, spoken in either a male or a female voice. The test…

  4. Contextual Antecedents of Informal Feedback in the Workplace

    van der Rijt, Janine; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.


    This study brings together findings from different research angles on informal feedback in the workplace. We explore the individual and joint influences of three contextual antecedents of seeking feedback: support for learning, psychological safety, and work pressure. Based on our survey of 138 employees from various organizations, hierarchical…

  5. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    Sanchez, Ron


    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creator...... organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization....

  6. Knowledge management

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker


    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role in...... the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.......e., creating and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  7. Knowledge Management

    In 2001, SCK-CEN decided to adopt and implement a practical knowledge management approach. Knowledge management activities were identified within the organisation and a co-ordinated approach to knowledge management was applied. Such an approach requires an efficient reuse of recorded knowledge and an effective transfer of the available knowledge. This approach ensures an added value to our research work and guarantees the long-term preservation of the institutional memory. Principle results and future developments regarding knowledge management at SCK-CEN are summarised

  8. Knowledge and Learning in Engineering Practice

    Buch, Anders


    During the 20th century, traditional epistemological theories of knowledge have been under siege. In recent years, efforts have been made to reconstruct the concept of 'knowledge' to emphasize its contextual, situated and social character. Drawing on the results and methods of these efforts, this...... 'telos' of learning. This attempt will in fact give answers to three fundamental questions: 1) What is learning? 2) How do we learn? and 3) Why do we learn? These questions are discussed in relation to engineering practices of getting to know and learning....

  9. Contextually-relevant resources in Speech-language Therapy and Audiology in South Africa: Are there any?

    Michelle Pascoe


    Full Text Available In this editorial introduction we aim to explore the notion of contextually-relevant resources. We argue that it is the responsibility of Speech Language Therapists (SLTs and Audiologists (As working in South Africa to develop contextually relevant resources, and not to rely on the countries or cultures where the professions originated to do so. Language is often cited as the main barrier to contextually relevant resources: most SLTs and As are aware of the need for more resources in the indigenous local languages. However, the issue is not as straightforward as translating resources from English into other languages. The challenges related to culture, e.g. formal education, familiarity with the test situation, have to be considered; as well as the population on which norms were obtained; the nature of vocabulary or picture items. This paper introduces four original research papers that follow in this edition of the journal, and showcases them as examples of innovative development in our field. At the same time we call for the further development of assessment materials, intervention resources, and contributions to the evidence base in our context. We emphasise the importance of local knowledge to drive the development of these resources in innovative and perhaps unexpected ways, and suggest that all clinicians have an important role to play in this process.

  10. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis.

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro


    Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across

  11. Policy impacts of ecosystem services knowledge.

    Posner, Stephen M; McKenzie, Emily; Ricketts, Taylor H


    Research about ecosystem services (ES) often aims to generate knowledge that influences policies and institutions for conservation and human development. However, we have limited understanding of how decision-makers use ES knowledge or what factors facilitate use. Here we address this gap and report on, to our knowledge, the first quantitative analysis of the factors and conditions that explain the policy impact of ES knowledge. We analyze a global sample of cases where similar ES knowledge was generated and applied to decision-making. We first test whether attributes of ES knowledge themselves predict different measures of impact on decisions. We find that legitimacy of knowledge is more often associated with impact than either the credibility or salience of the knowledge. We also examine whether predictor variables related to the science-to-policy process and the contextual conditions of a case are significant in predicting impact. Our findings indicate that, although many factors are important, attributes of the knowledge and aspects of the science-to-policy process that enhance legitimacy best explain the impact of ES science on decision-making. Our results are consistent with both theory and previous qualitative assessments in suggesting that the attributes and perceptions of scientific knowledge and process within which knowledge is coproduced are important determinants of whether that knowledge leads to action. PMID:26831101

  12. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette


    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  13. Organizing knowledge processes in the multinational corporation: an introduction

    Nicolai Juul Foss; Torben Pedersen


    This Introduction discusses the contrast between, on the one hand, the current popularity of addressing MNC organization in knowledge terms and, on the other, the lack of adequate understanding of many of the causal mechanisms and contextual factors in relations between knowledge processes and organizational factors. A number of the relevant research challenges are identified, and it is clarified how the five articles in this Focused Issue addresses some of these. Journal of International Bus...

  14. Knowledge Technologies

    Milton, Nick


    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? Wha...

  15. Knowledge management

    Nádvorník, Pavel


    The main goal of this thesis is to describe implementation of the information system that will support knowledge management using KM-Beat-it methodology in Helpdesk department of the Wincor Nixdorf, Ltd. company. Due to lack of knowledge management principles usage this system will support procedures and processes of knowledge management. Setup and implementation of this system was performed using and combining of two methodologies, methodology for knowledge management implementation KM-Beat-...

  16. The Gap between Mapuche Knowledge and School Knowledge in the Mapuche Context

    Segundo Quintriqueo Millán


    Full Text Available This article describes the gap between Mapuche and school knowledge in schools of the Ninth Region of Araucanía, Chile. To that end, we examine the implications of a monocultural curriculum for the education of Mapuche children and youth who present different systems of logic for native knowledge and academic knowledge. The methodology used is educational research, based on the multi-method approach. The results provide a knowledge base for understanding the gap between school knowledge and traditional Mapuche knowledge in intercultural educational contexts. The objective is to overcome epistemological issues in the teaching and learning of sciences, through contextualized pedagogical practices that will generate intercultural dialogue in the school-based educational process of Mapuche and non-Mapuche children and youth.

  17. Classical systems can be contextual too: Analogue of the Mermin-Peres square

    Blasiak, Pawel


    Contextuality lays at the heart of quantum mechanics. In the prevailing opinion it is considered as a signature of "quantumness" that classical theories lack. However, this assertion is hardly justified. Although contextuality is certainly true of quantum mechanics, it can not be taken by itself as discriminating against classical theories. Here we consider a representative example of contextual behavior, the so-called Mermin-Peres square, and present a simple discrete model which faithfully reproduces quantum predictions that lead to contradiction with the assumption of non-contextuality. This shows that quantum-like contextual effects have their analogues in the classical realm too.

  18. Knowledge spaces

    Doignon, Jean-Paul


    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  19. Knowledge Management

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)


    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  20. Knowledge cycle and strategic knowledge within company

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU


    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  1. The duration and timing of maternal depression as a moderator of the relationship between interpersonal stress, contextual risk and early child dysregulation

    Barker, E. D.


    Risk factors that are associated with depression in the mother also negatively affect the child. This research sought to extend current knowledge by examining the duration and timing of maternal depression as a moderator of: (1) the impact of dependent interpersonal stress (DIS), such as partner conflict or low social support, and contextual risk (e.g. poverty) on child dysregulation; and (2) continuity in early child dysregulation.Mother–child pairs (n = 12 152) who participated in the Avon ...

  2. Neurabin contributes to hippocampal long-term potentiation and contextual fear memory.

    Long-Jun Wu

    Full Text Available Neurabin is a scaffolding protein that interacts with actin and protein phosphatase-1. Highly enriched in the dendritic spine, neurabin is important for spine morphogenesis and synaptic formation. However, less is known about the role of neurabin in hippocampal plasticity and its possible effect on behavioral functions. Using neurabin knockout (KO mice, here we studied the function of neurabin in hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and behavioral memory. We demonstrated that neurabin KO mice showed a deficit in contextual fear memory but not auditory fear memory. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings in the hippocampal CA1 neurons showed that long-term potentiation (LTP was significantly reduced, whereas long-term depression (LTD was unaltered in neurabin KO mice. Moreover, increased AMPA receptor but not NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission was found in neurabin KO mice, and is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of GluR1 at the PKA site (Ser845 but no change at the CaMKII/PKC site (Ser831. Pre-conditioning with LTD induction rescued the following LTP in neurabin KO mice, suggesting the loss of LTP may be due to the saturated synaptic transmission. Our results indicate that neurabin regulates contextual fear memory and LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  3. Learning contextual relationships in mammograms using a hierarchical pyramid neural network.

    Sajda, Paul; Spence, Clay; Pearson, John


    This paper describes a pattern recognition architecture, which we term hierarchical pyramid/neural network (HPNN), that learns to exploit image structure at multiple resolutions for detecting clinically significant features in digital/digitized mammograms. The HPNN architecture consists of a hierarchy of neural networks, each network receiving feature inputs at a given scale as well as features constructed by networks lower in the hierarchy. Networks are trained using a novel error function for the supervised learning of image search/detection tasks when the position of the objects to be found is uncertain or ill defined. We have evaluated the HPNN's ability to eliminate false positive (FP) regions of interest generated by the University of Chicago's (UofC) Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for microcalcification and mass detection. Results show that the HPNN architecture, trained using the uncertain object position (UOP) error function, reduces the FP rate of a mammographic CAD system by approximately 50% without significant loss in sensitivity. Investigation into the types of FPs that the HPNN eliminates suggests that the pattern recognizer is automatically learning and exploiting contextual information. Clinical utility is demonstrated through the evaluation of an integrated system in a clinical reader study. We conclude that the HPNN architecture learns contextual relationships between features at multiple scales and integrates these features for detecting microcalcifications and breast masses. PMID:11989848

  4. Role of the hippocampus in contextual modulation of fear extinction

    Lingzhi Kong; Xihong Wu; Liang Li


    Fear extinction is an important form of emotional learning, and affects neural plasticity. Cue fear extinction is a classical form of inhibitory learning that can be used as an exposure-based treatment for phobia, because the long-term extinction memory produced during cue fear extinction can limit the over-expression of fear. The expression of this inhibitory memory partly depends on the context in which the extinction learning occurs. Studies such as transient inhibition, electrophysiology and brain imaging have proved that the hippocampus - an important structure in the limbic system - facilitates memory retrieval by contextual cues.Mediation of the hippocampus-medial prefrontal lobe circuit may be the neurobiological basis of this process.This article has reviewed the role of the hippocampus in the learning and retrieval of fear extinction.Contextual modulation of fear extinction may rely on a neural network consisting of the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala.

  5. Is the contextual interference effect generalizable to computer games?

    Shewokis, P A


    The benefits of learning multiple tasks under an unstructured practice schedule have been extensively demonstrated in the laboratory. The purpose of the present study was to test contextual interference effects in a nonlaboratory setting using computer games as tasks. Undergraduate kinesiology and sport management majors (N = 19) played a computer game simulating the events of the winter Olympics. Participants were randomly assigned to either a Blocked or Random practice schedule, practicing 36 trials of three events. Delayed retention and transfer tests were performed after a 48-hr. retention interval. The dependent variable was time to complete an event. During transfer, participants in the Random schedule (M = 248 sec.) were significantly faster than Blocked (M = 263 sec.) participants. Results support and extend previous contextual interference findings. Transfer was facilitated for participants who learned the events in a Random practice order. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of task characteristics on learning. PMID:9132724

  6. The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques

    Saiful Hasan Tariq


    Full Text Available The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has become identical as “Bengal Style” among the other styles practiced in Indian sub-continent and outside of India in other Muslim countriesduring 12th-15th century. This paper is an outcome of the search on contextual issues of Bengal mosques practiced from 12th -15th century and put light on the existing practice of mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

  7. Contextual modulation of hippocampal activity during picture naming.

    Llorens, A; Dubarry, A-S; Trébuchon, A; Chauvel, P; Alario, F-X; Liégeois-Chauvel, C


    Picture naming is a standard task used to probe language processes in healthy and impaired speakers. It recruits a broad neural network of language related areas, among which the hippocampus is rarely included. However, the hippocampus could play a role during picture naming, subtending, for example, implicit learning of the links between pictured objects and their names. To test this hypothesis, we recorded hippocampal activity during plain picture naming, without memorization requirement; we further assessed whether this activity was modulated by contextual factors such as repetition priming and semantic interference. Local field potentials recorded from intracerebral electrodes implanted in the healthy hippocampi of epileptic patients revealed a specific and reliable pattern of activity, markedly modulated by repetition priming and semantic context. These results indicate that the hippocampus is recruited during picture naming, presumably in relation to implicit learning, with contextual factors promoting differential hippocampal processes, possibly subtended by different sub-circuitries. PMID:27380274

  8. Almost compatible observables in quantum tests of contextuality

    Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Kleinmann, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Larsson, Jan-Ake [Institutionen foer Systemteknik och Matematiska Institutionen, Linkoepings Universitet (Sweden); Kirchmair, Gerhard; Zaehringer, Florian; Gerritsma, Rene; Blatt, Rainer; Roos, Christian [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)


    The Kochen-Specker-Theorem proves that in a hidden variable description of a quantum system, the value of a particular property (observable) depends on the context in which the value is to be revealed. The conflict here is between the hidden variable approach and the theory of quantum mechanics. In order to establish this conflict as the inability to employ a hidden variable description of an actual experiment, it has been suggested to extend the notion of non-contextuality to sequential measurements of compatible observables. However, in an experimental implementation the requirement of perfect compatibility cannot be reached. We show that this ''compatibility loophole'' can be addressed and that a recent experiment using trapped ions then excludes a large class of non-contextual hidden variable models.

  9. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    René Chalon


    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  10. Governing Knowledge

    Nicolai J Foss; Dana B Minbaeva


    SHRM increasingly emphasizes HRM practices as means to build strategic knowledge resources such as superior capabilities. While the knowledge-based view increasingly pays attention to micro-foundations, the SHRM field neglects these and emphasizes collective constructs such as “human capital pools,” “HRM architectures”, etc. As a result, causal links between HRM practices, knowledge and organizational performance are black-boxed. We propose a program for research and identify s...



    The article contains a brief review of the concept «context» which is gaining its place among the key concepts in modern theoretical and empirical psychology. A comprehensive analysis of scientific literature leads the authors to distinguish two complementary conceptions of context structural (which regards a fragment of a text as a semantic system) and functional (which treats it as a mental sensegenerating mechanism). The authors suggest an understanding of mentality as a recursive-contextu...


    Anoop Kumar Pandey; Amit Kumar; Balaji Rajendran


    Artificial Intelligence techniques have been instrumental in helping users to handle the large amount of information on the Internet. The idea of recommendation systems, custom search engines, and intelligent software has been widely accepted among users who seek assistance in searching, sorting, classifying, filtering and sharing this vast quantity of information. In this paper, we present a contextual model of recommendation engine which keeping in mind the context and activi...

  13. Unobtrusive and ubiquitous activity recognition with enhanced contextual awareness

    John J. Guiry


    peer-reviewed This thesis examines how smart devices can be used to monitor physical activities, and enhance contextual awareness using contemporary MEMS sensors. The increasing prevalence of smart devices coupled with the recent addition of a growing range of MEMS sensors raises the question of how these devices can be used in user driven preventative healthcare applications, including activity recognition. To this end, data was collected from a total of N=39 participants, over three sepa...

  14. It from Qubit: How to Draw Quantum Contextuality

    Michel Planat


    Full Text Available Wheeler’s observer-participancy and the related it from bit credo refer to quantum non-locality and contextuality. The mystery of these concepts slightly starts unveiling if one encodes the (incompatibilities between qubit observables in the relevant finite geometries. The main objective of this treatise is to outline another conceptual step forward by employing Grothendieck’s dessins d’enfants to reveal the topological and (nonalgebraic machinery underlying the measurement acts and their information content.

  15. Exploring Quantum Contextuality to Generate True Random Numbers

    Deng, D. -L.; Zu, C.; Chang, X.-Y.; Hou, P. -Y.; Yang, H. -X.; Wang, Y.-X.; Duan, L.-M.


    Random numbers represent an indispensable resource for many applications. A recent remarkable result is the realization that non-locality in quantum mechanics can be used to certify genuine randomness through Bell's theorem, producing reliable random numbers in a device independent way. Here, we explore the contextuality aspect of quantum mechanics and show that true random numbers can be generated using only single qutrit (three-state systems) without entanglement and non-locality. In partic...

  16. Absorptive Capacity and Contextual Factors that Influence Green IT Assimilation

    Vanessa A Cooper; Alemayehu Molla


    The first wave of research in Green IT has often focused on organisational adoption. As Green IT matures in organisations it is important to look beyond adoption and to investigate the assimilation of Green IT. To this end we draw from and compare two theories – contextual theory and absorptive capacity – and investigate which of the two theories better explains the level of Green IT assimilation in organisations. Results from an international survey of 148 large organisations show that both ...

  17. Contextual interactions in a generalized energy model of complex cells

    Dellen, Babette; Clark, John W.; Wessel, Ralf


    We propose a generalized energy model of complex cells to describe modulatory contextual influences on the responses of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1). Many orientationselective cells in V1 respond to contrast of orientation and motion of stimuli exciting the classical receptive field (CRF) and the non-CRF, or surround. In the proposed model, a central spatiotemporal filter, defining the CRF, is nonlinearly combined with a spatiotemporal filter extending into the non- ...

  18. 08251 Abstracts Collection -- Contextual and Social Media Understanding and Usage

    Boll, Susanne; Mohan S. Kankanhalli; Pingali, Gopal; Venkatesh, Svetha


    From 15.06. to 20.06.2008, the Dagstuhl Seminar 08251 ``Contextual and Social Media Understanding and Usage '' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar top...

  19. Predicting contraceptive behaviour among adolescents : social, cognitive, and contextual influences


    Reports from Norway and other western countries show that many adolescents do not protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and sexual transmitted infections (STIs). The incidence of STIs such as chlamydia infections has increased in recent years in Norway and other European countries. The general aim of this thesis was to investigate the social, cognitive, and contextual factors that predict adolescents’ decisions about whether or not to use contraception. The study population of this t...

  20. Automatic Contextual Text Correction Using The Linguistic Habits Graph Lhg

    Marcin Gadamer; Adrian Horzyk


    Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG) also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were comp...




    The aim of this study is to find out the effect of individual and contextual factors in promoting motivation: socio cultural influences, teacher in fluences, classroom and school influences from a contetual perspective, in acquisition of English as a second language in the Albanian contet. First, it reviews the literature on contetual factors and gives the background to the evaluation of how they affect student motivation. Second, the findings of the questionnaires, observations and interview...

  2. Contextualizing Risk in the Assessment of Intellectually Disabled Individuals

    Boer, Douglas P.; Keith R. McVilly; Frank Lambrick


    In this article we examine the idea of expanding structured clinical judgement from primarily offender variables to a broader framework in which environmental (including staff) variables are given equal consideration in a comprehensive risk appraisal conducted for risk management purposes of intellectually disabled individuals. It is posited that only by contextualizing the individual’s risk within environmental variables can an accurate portrayal of current dynamic risk (and hence the manage...

  3. Enhanced contextual fear memory in central serotonin-deficient mice

    Dai, Jin-Xia; Han, Hui-Li; Tian, Meng; Cao, Jun; Xiu, Jian-Bo; Song, Ning-Ning; Huang, Ying; Xu, Tian-Le; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin


    Central serotonin (5-HT) dysregulation contributes to the susceptibility for mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder, and learning and memory deficits. We report that the formation of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory is compromised, but the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory are enhanced, in central 5-HT-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of serotonin in the brain was achieved by inactivating Lmx1b selectively in the raphe nuclei o...

  4. Contextual Bandit for Active Learning: Active Thompson Sampling

    Bouneffouf, Djallel; Laroche, Romain; Urvoy, Tanguy; Féraud, Raphael; Allesiardo, Robin


    The labelling of training examples is a costly task in a supervised classi cation. Active learning strategies answer this problem by selecting the most useful unlabelled examples to train a predictive model. The choice of examples to label can be seen as a dilemma between the exploration and the exploitation over the data space representation. In this paper, a novel active learning strategy manages this compromise by modelling the active learning problem as a contextual bandit problem. We pro...

  5. Knowledge Economy

    Kerr, Aphra; O'riain, Sean


    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  6. Placing knowledge

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world......; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... for studying what comes to count as e.g. relevant, good, true knowledge, to whom, where and why....

  7. Contextual Variability in Personality from Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves

    Susan M Andersen


    Full Text Available We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF–THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality (CAPS, Mischel & Shoda, 1995, by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen & Chen, 2002. Going beyond Mischel’s early research (Mischel, 1968, our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen & Cole, 1990, evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  8. "Knowledge Must Be Contextual": Some Possible Implications of Complexity and Dynamic Systems Theories for Educational Research

    Haggis, Tamsin


    It is now widely accepted that qualitative and quantitative research traditions, rather than being seen as opposed to or in competition with each other (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995; Furlong, 2004 ) should be used, where appropriate, in some kind of combination (Bryman & Cramer, 1999; Moore et al., 2003 ). How this combining is to be understood…

  9. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge

    Chenail, Ronald J.


    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  10. Collaborative Inquiry in a Socially Shared Contextual Frame, Striving toward Sensible Knowledge Creation on Dance Education

    Löytönen, Teija


    Background/Context: The tradition of dance art in Finland is characterized by values such as individuality and uniqueness, and the professional practice is structured by competition and different kinds of hierarchies, which may also add color to the culture of dance teaching. One of the most noticeable elements within the dance education community…

  11. Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.

    Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit


    To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23317835

  12. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H


    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  13. The influence of contextual reward statistics on risk preference.

    Rigoli, Francesco; Rutledge, Robb B; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J


    Decision theories mandate that organisms should adjust their behaviour in the light of the contextual reward statistics. We tested this notion using a gambling choice task involving distinct contexts with different reward distributions. The best fitting model of subjects' behaviour indicated that the subjective values of options depended on several factors, including a baseline gambling propensity, a gambling preference dependent on reward amount, and a contextual reward adaptation factor. Combining this behavioural model with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging we probed neural responses in three key regions linked to reward and value, namely ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral striatum (VST). We show that activity in the VTA/SN reflected contextual reward statistics to the extent that context affected behaviour, activity in the vmPFC represented a value difference between chosen and unchosen options while VST responses reflected a non-linear mapping between the actual objective rewards and their subjective value. The findings highlight a multifaceted basis for choice behaviour with distinct mappings between components of this behaviour and value sensitive brain regions. PMID:26707890

  14. Taking in account of contextual parameters in post accidental radioecology

    The consequences on agricultural or breeding products of a radioactive accidental release are strongly linked to the context in which radioactive deposits occur: for example conditions of deposition in relation with agricultural and feeding schedules. These contextual parameters lead to a variation of results given by models greater than transfer factors uncertainties. For example, cow milk contamination stretches on several decades during the months following deposit as a function of feeding practices. In the same way, if a wheat plant receives the deposit during grain development, harvested grains will have a contamination level 103 to 104 times higher that if deposition occurs before the growing stage. To create a decision support system like the ASTRAL software, the need to realize a modelling of these contextual parameters has been encountered. Moreover, to help experts for evaluations, default informations relative to agricultural and breeding practices for France are given through databases. However, in case of a real accident, it would be important to re-initialize these contextual parameters which change from year to year, in order to obtain more precise assessments. (authors)

  15. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M


    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  16. Scalable mobile image retrieval by exploring contextual saliency.

    Yang, Xiyu; Qian, Xueming; Xue, Yao


    Nowadays, it is very convenient to capture photos by a smart phone. As using, the smart phone is a convenient way to share what users experienced anytime and anywhere through social networks, it is very possible that we capture multiple photos to make sure the content is well photographed. In this paper, an effective scalable mobile image retrieval approach is proposed by exploring contextual salient information for the input query image. Our goal is to explore the high-level semantic information of an image by finding the contextual saliency from multiple relevant photos rather than solely using the input image. Thus, the proposed mobile image retrieval approach first determines the relevant photos according to visual similarity, then mines salient features by exploring contextual saliency from multiple relevant images, and finally determines contributions of salient features for scalable retrieval. Compared with the existing mobile-based image retrieval approaches, our approach requires less bandwidth and has better retrieval performance. We can carry out retrieval with retrieval. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25775488

  17. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis


    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.


    Intan Satriani


    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reports a study on the implementation of contextual teaching and learning approach to teaching English writing to second graders of a Junior High Shool in Bandung. The study aims to investigate the strategies of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL (as adapted from Crawford, 2001 and the advantages of using CTL approach. The study employed a qualitative case study research design. The data were obtained from several instruments, namely class observations, students’ interview and students’ writing products which were then analyzed using writing assessment criteria taken from Rose (2007, as cited by Emilia, 2011, p. 151. The findings revealed that the teaching writing program was successful to improve students’ recount writing skill. Specifically, they showed some improvement on schematic structure, grammar roles, and graphic features. Moreover, the data from observation, interview, and documentation of students’ text showed some benefits of CTL. These include: (1 engaging students in the writing activity; (2 increasing students’ motivation to participate actively in the writing class; (3 helping students to construct their writing; (4 helping students to solve their problems; (5 providing ways for students to discuss or interact with their friends; and (6 helping the students to summarize and reflect the lesson. Based on these findings, it is recommended that CTL be implemented in teaching writing.   Keywords: contextual teaching and learning, teaching writing

  19. Knowledge Management



    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…


    POPESCU, Dan; Geanina CUCU-CIUHAN,; Iulia CHIVU; Manuela CIUCUREL


    The last decade has witnessed an exponential growth of interest in organizational learning and Knowledge Management. This comes as a natural consequence of the ever more widespread understanding of the knowledge-based economy as a revolutionary change in the global economy. The rise of the service economy, the increasingly flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital are turning knowledge into a key critical resource and a source of competi...

  1. Sound knowledge

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim of the...... research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge as...... knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...

  2. Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge

    Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

  3. Knowledge Blogging

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able to...... change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  4. Knowledge Work and Knowledge Creation

    Dau, Susanne


    instructions in respectively teacher and radiographyundergraduate educations influences the student’s creativity and knowledge creation in the use of virtualmedia?The paper is based on a longitudinal case study of two classes of teacher and radiography students’wayfinding within blended learning environments......The purpose of this paper is to address how instruction influences the creative knowledge work.Based on different perspectives on instructions and the actions followed, this paper reveal how educators,having different competencies of ICT-instructions,influence students’ creative knowledge work......, andstudents’ knowledge creation.The paper's contribution to the existing knowledge is founded in a metaphorical phenomenologicalecologicalapproach to learning as wayfinding inspired by Ahmeds´ (2006) phenomenological theory oforientation and Ingold´s (2000) ecological concept of wayfinding. According...

  5. Inhibition of Rac1 Activity in the Hippocampus Impairs the Forgetting of Contextual Fear Memory.

    Jiang, Lizhu; Mao, Rongrong; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Cao, Jun; Ding, Yuqiang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Xia; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Lin


    Fear is crucial for survival, whereas hypermnesia of fear can be detrimental. Inhibition of the Rac GTPase is recently reported to impair the forgetting of initially acquired memory in Drosophila. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of Rac1 activity in rat hippocampus could contribute to the hypermnesia of contextual fear. We found that spaced but not massed training of contextual fear conditioning caused inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus and heightened contextual fear. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injection of the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 heightened contextual fear in massed training, while Rac1 activator CN04-A weakened contextual fear in spaced training rats. Our study firstly demonstrates that contextual fear memory in rats is actively regulated by Rac1 activity in the hippocampus, which suggests that the forgetting impairment of traumatic events in posttraumatic stress disorder may be contributed to the pathological inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus. PMID:25613020

  6. Contextualizing the self: the emergence of a biographical understanding in adolescence.

    Habermas, Tilmann; Hatiboğlu, Neşe


    In adolescence, remembering the personal past and understanding what kind of person one is intertwine to form a story of one's life as the most extant, informative, and flexible form of self-representation. In adolescence, the striving for self-coherence translates into a quest for global coherence of the life story. We suggest that contextualizing is a fifth means for creating global coherence in life narratives besides the cultural concept of biography, temporal, causal-motivational, and thematic coherence. We present three kinds of contextualizing in life narratives, the temporal macrostructure, sociohistorical contextualizing of one's life, and hierarchical and linear segmenting of the text and life. These three forms of contextualizing in life narratives by their authors are complemented by three forms of contextual influences on life narratives analyzed by researchers, namely the historical, personal, and communicative situation in which they are recounted. Contextualizing is exemplified by the life narrative of a young migrant. PMID:25251508

  7. Conventionalized knowledge

    Buus, Niels


    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis iden...

  8. Knowledge Gaps

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent


    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  9. Knowledge Test

    Sørensen, Ole Henning


    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  10. Knowledge Management

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  11. Engineering Knowledge

    Nathan Rosenberg; W. Edward Steinmuller


    In historical perspective, both the nature of and arrangements for the generation of engineering knowledge have evolved over the past 150 years. We examine the historical development of the search for ‘useful knowledge’ in agriculture, aeronautics and chemical engineering during the first half of this period and the evolving balance between public and private initiative in supporting this search. During this period, the US was engaged in the engineering knowledge was often empirical, practice...

  12. Carnal Knowledge

    Doniger, Wendy.


    Wendy Doniger explores how the concepts of carnal knowledge and carnal ignorance–the result of sexual betrayal, infidelity, and lies about sexual identity–are expressed in the Hebrew Bible, ancient Sanskrit literature, Shakespeare, and contemporary Hollywood film. In particular, she investigates the tension between carnal knowledge and carnal ignorance as it is expressed in the mythology of the bedtrick (that is, sex with someone who pretends to be someone else).

  13. Latent Contextual Bandits and their Application to Personalized Recommendations for New Users

    Zhou, Li; Brunskill, Emma


    Personalized recommendations for new users, also known as the cold-start problem, can be formulated as a contextual bandit problem. Existing contextual bandit algorithms generally rely on features alone to capture user variability. Such methods are inefficient in learning new users' interests. In this paper we propose Latent Contextual Bandits. We consider both the benefit of leveraging a set of learned latent user classes for new users, and how we can learn such latent classes from prior use...

  14. The interplay of contextual elements in implementation: an ethnographic case study

    McCullough, Megan B; Chou, Ann F; Solomon, Jeffrey L.; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Kim, Bo; Park, Angela M.; Benedict, Ashley J; HAMILTON, ALISON B.; Rose, Adam J.


    Background Contextual elements have significant impact on uptake of health care innovations. While existing conceptual frameworks in implementation science suggest contextual elements interact with each other, little research has described how this might look in practice. To bridge this gap, this study identifies the interconnected patterns among contextual elements that influence uptake of an anticoagulation clinic improvement initiative. Methods We completed 51 semi-structured interviews an...

  15. The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character

    Kokom Komalasari


    Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1) the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2) the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3) the effect of the living...

  16. Contextual classification on PASM. [multimicroprocessor system for image processing and pattern recognition

    Siegel, H. J.; Swain, P. H.


    The use of N microprocessors in the SIMD mode of parallel processing to do classifications almost N times faster than a single microprocessor is discussed. Examples of contextual classifiers are given, uniprocessor algorithms for performing contextual classifications are presented, and their computational complexity is analyzed. The SIMD mode of parallel processing is defined and PASM is overviewed. The presented uniprocessor algorithms are used as a basis for developing parallel algorithms for performing computationally intensive contextual classifications.

  17. A study on factors influencing implementation of knowledge management

    Behdad Gitinejad


    Full Text Available Replacement in organization’s employees can results in knowledge loss and turnover faces a serious problem in knowledge based organizations such as knowledge based sectors of governmental organizations. The increases in sizes of some governmental organizations in recent years have increased their structural and contextual dimensions. One of the biggest problems in governmental organizations is employee turnover, which could result to knowledge loss. By using knowledge management it is possible to decrease this phenomenon. This survey identifies the effective factors in implementation of knowledge management system as a solution for preventing knowledge loss. By far this study is the first of its kind in the context of information technology sectors of governmental organizations of ARAK Province of Iran.

  18. Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination

    Meliha Handzic


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

  19. Mathematics university teachers' perception of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)

    Khakbaz, Azimehsadat


    Teaching mathematics in university levels is one of the most important fields of research in the area of mathematics education. Nevertheless, there is little information about teaching knowledge of mathematics university teachers. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) provides a suitable framework to study knowledge of teachers. The purpose of this paper is to make explicit the perception of mathematics university teachers about PCK. For this purpose, a phenomenological study was done. Data resources included semi-structured interviews with 10 mathematics university teachers who were in different places of the mathematics university teaching experience spectrum. Data analysis indicated a model consisting of four cognitive themes which are mathematics syntactic knowledge, knowledge about mathematics curriculum planning, knowledge about students' mathematics learning and knowledge about creating an influential mathematics teaching-learning environment. Besides, it was found out that three contextual themes influenced on PCK for teaching mathematics in university levels which were the nature of mathematics subjects, university teachers' features and terms of learning environment.

  20. Variability of Practice and Contextual Interference in Motor Skill Learning.

    Hall, K. G.; Magill, R. A.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning benefits in multiple-task learning situations are a result of contextual interference or of schema enhancement related to the amount of variability in the practice session. Two experiments were designed that replicated and extended the experiment reported by Wulf and Schmidt (1988). In a 2 (same vs. different relative time) x 2 (blocked vs. random practice schedule) design, 48 right-handed subjects were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A tapping task was employed that required a right-handed tap of three small brass plates arranged in a diamond pattern. Each segment had a specific time requirement. Target times and response times were provided on a computer screen directly in front of the subject. Each subject participated in two acquisition sessions (i.e., 198 practice trials) and was tested for learning on several different retention and transfer tests. In Experiment 2, a control group was added that received no acquisition phase. Results of both experiments showed a typical contextual interference effect, with depressed scores by the random groups during acquisition but significantly better scores than the blocked groups on several retention and transfer tests. Certain characteristics of the tests were found to influence the demonstration of the practice schedule effects. These results were consistent with predictions from Magill and Hall (1990) that the learning benefits of contextual interference are more likely to occur when skill variations are from different classes of movement and that the amount of variability in practice is more influential when the to-be-learned tasks are parameter modifications of the same generalized motor program. PMID:12529226

  1. The Importance of Contextual Meaning in English Reading



    Context is the most important concept in pragmatic study,which has been the basis of proper understanding of language. Utterances and situation are bound up closely with each other and the context of situation is indispensable for the understanding of words. Context actually serves as the basis for the proper comprehension of language and is particularly of vital importance to clear understanding of internal meaning of language, since people always express their particular inner feelings by using utterances under different circumstances or certain cultural backgrounds. Therefore, it's very important to comprehend the contextual meaning of the key words.

  2. Preface to the Special Issue – Contextual effects in Psychology

    Ivanec, Dragutin


    What do contextual effects mean in psychology? Reber (1985) wrote: “A cover term for those behavioral effects that result from the particular context within which a stimulus is presented or a response is made. No behavior, no thoughts, no dreams – in short, nothing any organism can ever do – can take place in a physical or psychic vacuum. Context effects are necessarily ubiquitous. This is at once a most trivial and most profound statement; ignoring its obvious truth has led more than a few w...

  3. Experiment Investigating the Connection between Weak Values and Contextuality

    Piacentini, F.; Avella, A.; Levi, M. P.; Lussana, R.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.; Gramegna, M.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Genovese, M.


    Weak value measurements have recently given rise to a great amount of interest in both the possibility of measurement amplification and the chance for further quantum mechanics foundations investigation. In particular, a question emerged about weak values being proof of the incompatibility between quantum mechanics and noncontextual hidden variables theories (NCHVTs). A test to provide a conclusive answer to this question was given by Pusey [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 200401 (2014)], where a theorem was derived showing the NCHVT incompatibility with the observation of anomalous weak values under specific conditions. In this Letter we realize this proposal, clearly pointing out the connection between weak values and the contextual nature of quantum mechanics.

  4. Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022115


    We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting "hybrid" entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion, by employing a $q$-plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also non-local, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.


    Marian MANOLESCU


    Full Text Available Disputes about the opportunity to introduce competence-based education are increasingly present in terms of educational policies and strategies. Obviously, in the last decade and a half, several countries have introduced competence based education. Although specific knowledge acquisition should be an essential component of student learning, assessing such knowledge in adult life depends largely on the individual purchase of more general concepts and skills. The article discusses pragmatic knowledge and noble knowledge. This is a collective dilemma, to the extent that the education system lives in the tension between the two logics. The two positions or divergent attitudes can coexist as long ast hey do not become extremist. Educational dilemma is especially now a priority.

  6. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel;


    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  7. Examining middle school pre-service teachers' knowledge of fraction division interpretations

    Alenazi, Ali


    This study investigated 11 pre-service middle school teachers' solution strategies for exploring their knowledge of fraction division interpretations. Each participant solved six fraction division problems. The problems were organized into two sets: symbolic problems (involving numbers only) and contextual problems (involving measurement interpretation and the determination of unit rate interpretation). Results showed that most of the participants exhibited a great amount of procedural knowledge as they applied algorithms to obtain the correct answers to the symbolic problems. They also exhibited a great amount of conceptual understanding of how and why they obtained the correct answers to the contextual problems. However, the pre-service middle school teachers neither provided interpretations to the symbolic problems nor accepted that the contextual problems involved fraction division operation. The results suggest that the measurement and rate concepts were often unlinked to fraction division.

  8. Mining Contextual Information for Ephemeral Digital Video Preservation

    Chirag Shah


    Full Text Available Normal 0 For centuries the archival community has understood and practiced the art of adding contextual information while preserving an artifact. The question now is how these practices can be transferred to the digital domain. With the growing expansion of production and consumption of digital objects (documents, audio, video, etc. it has become essential to identify and study issues related to their representation. A cura­tor in the digital realm may be said to have the same responsibilities as one in a traditional archival domain. However, with the mass production and spread of digital objects, it may be difficult to do all the work manually. In the present article this problem is considered in the area of digital video preservation. We show how this problem can be formulated and propose a framework for capturing contextual infor­mation for ephemeral digital video preservation. This proposal is realized in a system called ContextMiner, which allows us to cater to a digital curator's needs with its four components: digital video curation, collection visualization, browsing interfaces, and video harvesting and monitoring. While the issues and systems described here are geared toward digital videos, they can easily be applied to other kinds of digital objects.

  9. The contribution of elaborative processing to the contextual interference effect.

    Wright, D L; Li, Y; Whitacre, C


    This study examined the influence of supplemental intertask and intratask processing on the retention of three motor sequences practiced in conditions of high and low contextual interference. Subjects practiced in either a blocked or random practice format and experienced additional intratask processing, intertask processing, or no additional processing. Each of three movement sequences were practiced for 18 trials. The subjects were required to perform the sequences as fast and as accurately as possible. Retention performance and recall of the movement sequences were assessed after a 21-day retention interval. The results replicated those of Wright (1991), indicating a benefit for individuals engaging intertask processing during a low contextual interference practice condition. Furthermore, supplementing random practice with additional intertask processing not only slowed the rate of task acquisition, but also resulted in retention performance that was significantly poorer than that exhibited by individuals exposed to random practice with no additional processing. This suggests there may be a limit to the extent of interference that can be established during practice that will lead to a facilitation in retention performance. PMID:1574659

  10. Sparse Contextual Activation for Efficient Visual Re-Ranking.

    Bai, Song; Bai, Xiang


    In this paper, we propose an extremely efficient algorithm for visual re-ranking. By considering the original pairwise distance in the contextual space, we develop a feature vector called sparse contextual activation (SCA) that encodes the local distribution of an image. Hence, re-ranking task can be simply accomplished by vector comparison under the generalized Jaccard metric, which has its theoretical meaning in the fuzzy set theory. In order to improve the time efficiency of re-ranking procedure, inverted index is successfully introduced to speed up the computation of generalized Jaccard metric. As a result, the average time cost of re-ranking for a certain query can be controlled within 1 ms. Furthermore, inspired by query expansion, we also develop an additional method called local consistency enhancement on the proposed SCA to improve the retrieval performance in an unsupervised manner. On the other hand, the retrieval performance using a single feature may not be satisfactory enough, which inspires us to fuse multiple complementary features for accurate retrieval. Based on SCA, a robust feature fusion algorithm is exploited that also preserves the characteristic of high time efficiency. We assess our proposed method in various visual re-ranking tasks. Experimental results on Princeton shape benchmark (3D object), WM-SRHEC07 (3D competition), YAEL data set B (face), MPEG-7 data set (shape), and Ukbench data set (image) manifest the effectiveness and efficiency of SCA. PMID:26742133

  11. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A


    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

  12. Social media: A contextual framework to guide research and practice.

    McFarland, Lynn A; Ployhart, Robert E


    Social media are a broad collection of digital platforms that have radically changed the way people interact and communicate. However, we argue that social media are not simply a technology but actually represent a context that differs in important ways from traditional (e.g., face-to-face) and other digital (e.g., email) ways of interacting and communicating. As a result, social media is a relatively unexamined type of context that may affect the cognition, affect, and behavior of individuals within organizations. We propose a contextual framework that identifies the discrete and ambient stimuli that distinguish social media contexts from digital communication media (e.g., email) and physical (e.g., face-to-face) contexts. We then use this contextual framework to demonstrate how it changes more person-centered theories of organizational behavior (e.g., social exchange, social contagion, and social network theories). These theoretical insights are also used to identify a number of practical implications for individuals and organizations. This study's major contribution is creating a theoretical understanding of social media features so that future research may proceed in a theory-based, rather than platform-based, manner. Overall, we intend for this article to stimulate and broadly shape the direction of research on this ubiquitous, but poorly understood, phenomenon. PMID:26052712

  13. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

    Naomi eNagaya


    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3α,5α-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  14. Knowledge of sexual abuse amongst female students in Malawi

    R. Dzimadzi; H Klopper


    Sexual abuse is an increasing problem in Malawi amongst female students, and is associated with physical and mental health problems. This study aimed to determine existing knowledge of sexual abuse amongst female students in tertiary education institutions in Malawi. A descriptive, comparative, quantitative and contextual research design was used. Participants (n=219) were selected through systematic random sampling from a population of female students aged 18 to 21, at fifteen (n= 15) tertia...

  15. Impaired Contextual Fear Extinction Learning is Associated with Aberrant Regulation of CHD-Type Chromatin Remodeling Factors.

    Wille, Alexandra; Maurer, Verena; Piatti, Paolo; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Singewald, Nicolas; Lusser, Alexandra


    Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders. To better understand the role of ChRFs in the brain, and since to date little is known about ChRF expression in the brain, we performed a comprehensive survey of expression levels of 24 ATP-dependent remodelers across different brain areas, and we identified several distinct high molecular weight complexes by chromatographic methods. We next aimed to gain novel insight into the potential regulation of ChRFs in different brain regions in association with normal and impaired fear extinction learning. To this end, we established the 129S1/SvImJ (S1) laboratory mouse strain as a model for compromised contextual fear extinction learning that can be rescued by dietary zinc restriction (ZnR). Using this model along with genetically related but fear extinction-competent 129S6/SvEv (S6) mice as controls, we found that impaired fear extinction in S1 was associated with enhanced ventral hippocampal expression of CHD1 and reduced expression of CHD5 that was normalized following successful rescue of impaired fear extinction. Moreover, a select reduction in CHD3 expression was observed in the ventral hippocampus (vHC) following successful rescue of fear extinction in S1 mice. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into the regulation of specific ChRFs following an impaired cognitive process and its rescue, and they suggest that

  16. Solid knowledge

    Brix, Anders


    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  17. Knowledge brokering:

    Bergenholtz, Carsten


    on such an opportunity, than a strong tie would be. Furthermore, a number of organizational enablers for this open inter-organizational search and knowledge brokering strategy are identified. The main arguments point to the role of a general technological competence and the R&D department being the...

  18. Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society

    Wang, Hong; Thorns, David


    Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

  19. Neuroleptic Drugs Revert the Contextual Fear Conditioning Deficit Presented by Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Potential Animal Model of Emotional Context Processing in Schizophrenia?

    Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Regina Helena; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek


    Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of the present study was to characterize the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Adult male normotensive Wistar rats and SHR were submitted to the CFC task. Sensitivity of the animals to the shock and the ...

  20. Different Training Procedures Recruit Either One or Two Critical Periods for Contextual Memory Consolidation, Each of Which Requires Protein Synthesis and PKA

    Bourtchouladze, Roussoudan; Abel, Ted; Berman, Nathaniel; Gordon, Rachael; Lapidus, Kyle; Kandel, Eric R.


    We have used a combined genetic and pharmacological approach to define the time course of the requirement for protein kinase A (PKA) and protein synthesis in long-term memory for contextual fear conditioning in mice. The time course of amnesia in transgenic mice that express R(AB) and have genetically reduced PKA activity in the hippocampus parallels that observed both in mice treated with inhibitors of PKA and mice treated with inhibitors of protein synthesis. This PKA- and protein synthesis...

  1. Testing conditions in shock-based contextual fear conditioning influence both the behavioral responses and the activation of circuits potentially involved in contextual avoidance.

    Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino


    Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. PMID:27544875

  2. Understanding the role of contextual cues in supporting the formation of medication-taking habits

    Katarzyna Stawarz


    healthy behaviour for 3 months and report via SMS the time they completed it. To ensure that the task was meaningful and participants were working towards a habit they would like to develop, before signing up they were given a choice between two simple tasks: a daily meditation habit (focusing on one’s breathing for a minute or drinking more water (one glass. These tasks were selected for these study because they are simple and do not require any specialised tools or resources, which reduces the effort required to complete them every day. 56% of participants selected meditation and 44% selected drinking water as their task. The study had 4 cue conditions informed by previous research: none, SMS reminder, trigger event, trigger event + location. Dependent variables were automaticity and adherence. Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index (SRBAI; Gardner et al., 2012 was used to assess automaticity levels at the end of the study. Three months later participants received a follow-up survey that investigated whether they continued with the task. Results: 115 participants completed the study. The results showed that while contextual cues were better at supporting habit formation than reminders, not all cues were equal. Trigger events or time of day had the most impact on supporting the new behaviour, as both helped participants repeat it even when their routine changed (e.g. during holidays. However, relying on location as a trigger was not effective as this cue was too vulnerable to routine changes. The follow-up survey also revealed that while many participants did not develop a daily habit, many developed a habit, e.g. they started carrying a water bottle, meditating during commute or doing breathing exercises when stressed. In addition, in line with previous research, the results showed that while participants who received reminders forgot less often, they reported low automaticity, which indicated that the habit did not develop. Conclusions: To effectively support

  3. Developmental Differences in the Impact of Contextual Factors on Susceptibility to Retroactive Interference

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli


    The influence of contextual similarity on children's recognition memory performance was examined using a retroactive interference paradigm. In the study, 9- and 12-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of two contextual conditions. In both conditions, target and interfering information were presented in distinctive contexts by using different…

  4. Contextual Learning Theory: Concrete Form and a Software Prototype to Improve Early Education

    Mooij, Ton


    In "contextual learning theory" three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and systemic aspects). The resulting structure consists…

  5. Intertrial Temporal Contextual Cuing: Association across Successive Visual Search Trials Guides Spatial Attention

    Ono, Fuminori; Jiang, Yuhong; Kawahara, Jun-ichiro


    Contextual cuing refers to the facilitation of performance in visual search due to the repetition of the same displays. Whereas previous studies have focused on contextual cuing within single-search trials, this study tested whether 1 trial facilitates visual search of the next trial. Participants searched for a T among Ls. In the training phase,…

  6. A Pilot Study of a Functional Contextual Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa

    Anderson, Drew A.; Simmons, Angela M.


    This paper describes the initial development of a treatment for bulimia nervosa using a functional contextual treatment approach. Seven women (6 with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and 1 with a diagnosis of eating disorder not otherwise specified) completed 12 sessions of functional contextual treatment. Participants were assessed with the Eating…

  7. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber


    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  8. Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat

    Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.


    Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

  9. Health, Quality of Life and Population Density: A Preliminary Study on "Contextualized" Quality of Life

    Fassio, Omar; Rollero, Chiara; De Piccoli, Norma


    Quality of life concerns individual (physical and psychological health), interpersonal (social relationships) and contextual (environment) aspects, which are both subjective and objective. In considering contextual characteristics, empirical findings have demonstrated that people's relation to their living environment is a key issue for their…

  10. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Mooij, Ton


    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  11. Contextual Supports and Barriers to Career Choice: A Social Cognitive Analysis.

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Hackett, Gail


    Considers several avenues for stimulating study of the contextual aspects of career behavior. Reviews literature covering career barriers, a conceptually relevant construct, from the perspective of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT); advocates for the study of contextual supports as well as barriers; and proposes additional context-focused…

  12. Contextual classification on a CDC Flexible Processor system. [for photomapped remote sensing data

    Smith, B. W.; Siegel, H. J.; Swain, P. H.


    A potential hardware organization for the Flexible Processor Array is presented. An algorithm that implements a contextual classifier for remote sensing data analysis is given, along with uniprocessor classification algorithms. The Flexible Processor algorithm is provided, as are simulated timings for contextual classifiers run on the Flexible Processor Array and another system. The timings are analyzed for context neighborhoods of sizes three and nine.

  13. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Brentjes, Sonja


    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  14. Unscrambling the Quantum Omelette of Epistemic and Ontic Contextuality: Classical Contexts and Quantum Reality

    de Ronde, Christian


    In this paper we attempt to analyze the physical and philosophical meaning of quantum contextuality. In the first part we will argue that a general confusion within the literature comes from the improper "scrambling" of two different meanings of quantum contextuality. The first one is related to an epistemic interpretation of contextuality, introduced by Bohr, which stresses the incompatibility (or complementarity) of quantum measurements. The second, is related to an ontic notion of contextuality, exposed through the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, which focuses on the constraints to discuss about actual (definite valued) properties within the orthodox formalism of QM. We will show how these two notions have been scrambled together creating an "omelette of contextuality" which has been fully widespread through a popularized "epistemic explanation" of the KS theorem according to which: The outcome of the observable A when measured together with B or together with C will necessarily differ in case [A,B] = [A,C] =...

  15. Context-specific attentional sampling: Intentional control as a pre-requisite for contextual control.

    Brosowsky, Nicholaus P; Crump, Matthew J C


    Recent work suggests that environmental cues associated with previous attentional control settings can rapidly and involuntarily adjust attentional priorities. The current study tests predictions from adaptive-learning and memory-based theories of contextual control about the role of intentions for setting attentional priorities. To extend the empirical boundaries of contextual control phenomena, and to determine whether theoretical principles of contextual control are generalizable we used a novel bi-dimensional stimulus sampling task. Subjects viewed briefly presented arrays of letters and colors presented above or below fixation, and identified specific stimuli according to a dimensional (letter or color) and positional cue. Location was predictive of the cued dimension, but not the position or identity. In contrast to previous findings, contextual control failed to develop through automatic, adaptive-learning processes. Instead, previous experience with intentionally changing attentional sampling priorities between different contexts was required for contextual control to develop. PMID:27500654

  16. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Adam C Frank


    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  17. Knowledge-based utility

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  18. The Effect of Contextual Interference on Acquisition and Learning Badminton Skills among Children aged from 10 to 12

    Kimiya Sadri; Hassan Mohommadzadeh; Mostafa Khani


    Age may limit the effect of contextual interference, but the accurate effect of age on contextual interference is not completely identified. Therefore, the purpose of the study was the effect of contextual interference practice orders on acquisition and learning of badminton skills of 45 female students aged from 10 to 12. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups of blocked, random, and systematically increasing contextual interference. They trained three skills of badmi...

  19. Traditional Arts Knowledge, Traditional Ecological Lore: The Intersection of Art Education and Environmental Education

    Bequette, James W.


    Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…

  20. On pigs and packers: Radically contextualizing a practice of science with Mexican immigrant students

    Richardson Bruna, Katherine; Vann, Roberta


    This paper reports on instructional practices observed in a high school English Learner (EL) Science course serving newcomer Mexican immigrant youth. The school is located in a rural Midwestern meatpacking community in which labor at the hog plant is economically- and racially-segmented; it is the town's Mexican residents, many of them undocumented, who comprise most of the unskilled labor force. The general purpose of the paper is to document how the economic and racial context of this community influences science instruction in the EL Science course and to describe how this presents particular challenges in achieving equitable science instruction for Mexican immigrant youth in these rural, globalizing places. Entering the data via critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995) and then utilizing Barton's (2003) "practice of science" perspective, with an eye toward achieving "radical contextuality" (Grossberg, 1997), we describe the science events, identities, and structures of the pig dissection lesson and detail how what these students could do with science, as rendered by that lesson, was limited by the roles the teacher attributed to the students, her inability to draw on their funds of knowledge as resources for learning, and the voice and position she allowed them to take up. The data reinforce conventional understandings of schools as sites of cultural reproduction (Bowels & Gintis, 1976), as well as of resistance (Giroux, 1983), but afford us a glimpse of the particularity of those mechanisms within the demographically-transitioning American Heartland, iconic of the era of global capitalism.

  1. The contextual interference effect for skill variations from the same and different generalized motor programs.

    Sekiya, H; Magill, R A; Sidaway, B; Anderson, D I


    Magill and Hall (1990) hypothesized that the contextual interference (CI) effect is found only when task variations to be learned are governed by different generalized motor programs (GMPs). The present experiments examined their hypothesis by requiring subjects to learn variations of a tapping task that had either different (Experiment 1) or the same (Experiment 2) relative timing structure. In each experiment, subjects (N = 36) performed 270 acquisition trials with knowledge of results (KR) in either a blocked or a serial order. One day later, subjects performed 30 retention trials without KR. In data analyses, errors due to parameter modifications were dissociated from errors due to GMP construction to examine which process was responsible for the CI effect. In both experiments, parameter learning created a CI effect while GMP learning failed to produce a CI effect. In the light of these findings, a modification is proposed to the Magill and Hall (1990) hypothesis that takes into account these distinct processes in motor learning. PMID:7886282


    Anoop Kumar Pandey


    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence techniques have been instrumental in helping users to handle the large amount of information on the Internet. The idea of recommendation systems, custom search engines, and intelligent software has been widely accepted among users who seek assistance in searching, sorting, classifying, filtering and sharing this vast quantity of information. In this paper, we present a contextual model of recommendation engine which keeping in mind the context and activities of a user, recommends resources in an academic networking portal. The proposed method uses the implicit method of feedback and the concepts relationship hierarchy to determine the similarity between a user and the resources in the portal. The proposed algorithm has been tested on an academic networking portal and the results are convincing.

  3. Moderating effects of personal and contextual factors in age discrimination.

    Perry, E L; Kulik, C T; Bourhis, A C


    The researchers explored personal and contextual factors that inhibit or facilitate the use of older worker stereotypes in a selection context. The authors suggest that older worker stereotypes are more likely to be used and influence applicant evaluations when raters are biased against older workers, when raters do not have the cognitive resources to inhibit the use of age-associated stereotypes, or when applicants apply for age-incongruent jobs. The researchers explored the extent to which raters differing in older worker bias make discriminatory decisions about young or old individuals applying for age-typed jobs under conditions of high- and low-cognitive demands. A laboratory study was conducted with 131 undergraduate students who evaluated applicants in a simulated employment context. Results indicated that older worker bias, cognitive busyness, and job age-type interact to affect the extent to which applicant age plays a role in selection decisions. PMID:9019121

  4. Compositional and contextual predictors for emotional problems among adolescents

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line;

    , a high proportion of students who reported a negative classroom climate was significantly associated with emotional problems (OR=1.43 (CI:1.07;1.92)). Further, bullying seems to reach beyond the individual. In classes with a high prevalence of bullying, students have significantly higher odds (OR=1......Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors...... and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15...

  5. Quantum view on contextual logic of composite intelligent devices

    Vol, E D


    Based on the ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) we propose the consistent approach to study probabilistic many-valued propositional logic of intelligent devices that are composed from separate but interconnected logical units. In this preliminary communication we consider only the simplest example of such systems, namely, four- valued probabilistic logical device composed of two logical subsystems. We demonstrate that similar devices can generate two classes of probabilistic propositions:1) decomposable propositions, which in fact are equivalent to certain ordered pair of propositions in device subsystems and 2) indecomposable propositions which are connected with inherent logical interaction between device units. The indecomposable propositions are undoubtedly of greatest interest since they, as shown in the paper, provide powerful additional logical resource compared to standard parallel processing in composite intelligent systems. The contextual logic of composite devices proposed in this paper...

  6. Repetition suppression and its contextual determinants in predictive coding.

    Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Friston, Karl


    This paper presents a review of theoretical and empirical work on repetition suppression in the context of predictive coding. Predictive coding is a neurobiologically plausible scheme explaining how biological systems might perform perceptual inference and learning. From this perspective, repetition suppression is a manifestation of minimising prediction error through adaptive changes in predictions about the content and precision of sensory inputs. Simulations of artificial neural hierarchies provide a principled way of understanding how repetition suppression - at different time scales - can be explained in terms of inference and learning implemented under predictive coding. This formulation of repetition suppression is supported by results of numerous empirical studies of repetition suppression and its contextual determinants. PMID:26861557

  7. Personalization and Contextualization of Learning Experiences based on Semantics

    Nicola Capuano


    Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.

  8. Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability Through Contextual Teaching And Learning Approach



    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS. This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one university in the city of Bogor. The results showed: (1 the increase of MCTA of student who receive CTL better than students who receive TTL; (2 There are differences in the increase MCTA between students in groups of high MPA, medium MPA, and low MPA, both the student who received the CTL and TTL; and (3 There is no interaction between learning factors (CTL and TTL with MPA (high, medium and low toward the enhance of MCTA.

  9. Contextual factors and challenges to e-health literacy

    Bolanle A. Olaniran


    Full Text Available We live in a digital world or digital era. Hence, People will argue that not only do information communication technologies (ICTs make e-health possible but rather that it is an innovation advance whose time has come. Notwithstanding, e-health while hoping to create well needed improvement in health care, it is rife with certain challenges which are not limited to e-health literacy. However, this paper looks specifically at e-health literacy. The paper, in particular overviews e-health while addressing the impacts of key contextual factors that impacts e-health and e-health literacy regarding the propensity to adopt and use e-health in LEDCs.

  10. Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information

    Erke Shang


    Full Text Available Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV system for road following. However, current vision‐based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour, variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured roads. Two traditional algorithms, support vector machine (SVM and k‐nearest neighbour (KNN, are carried out to verify the helpfulness of the proposed confidence map. Following this, a novel algorithm, which combines SVM, KNN and the confidence map under a Bayesian framework, is proposed to improve the overall performance of the unstructured road detections. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using different types of unstructured roads and the experimental results show its effectiveness.

  11. Automatic Contextual Text Correction Using The Linguistic Habits Graph Lhg

    Marcin Gadamer


    Full Text Available Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were compared with commercial programs which also enableto make text correction: Microsoft Word 2007, Open Office Writer 3.0 and search engineGoogle. The achieved results of text correction were much better than correction made bythese commercial tools.

  12. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA


    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  13. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua


    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. PMID:24374604

  14. Knowledge management - a programmatic view

    This presentation give a programmatic view of knowledge management in the nuclear industry. A knowledge management program must deal with forecasting needs, acquisition, retention, training and supporting elements of culture, process, codification error prevention, information management and networks to reduce exposure

  15. [Local knowledge and dilemmas related to validity and applicability of scientific knowledge in rural areas].

    Rozemberg, Brani


    Based on previous experience from two research projects on schistosomiasis in rural populations, this article focuses on the relations between scientific health knowledge and health-related common sense in farming communities. The article discusses factors that affect the meaning of participation by these communities in exogenous programs, as well as the dilemmas related to the appropriation, validity, and applicability of multiple and non- contextualized health information offered by such programs. The article discusses how the acritical aggregation of large amounts of information, a feature of globalization, deepens the feeling of uncertainty in rural communities and the trend to impute diseases to fatality. Meanwhile, the consumption of medical technologies is viewed as a symbol of progress and is highly valued by these groups. The discussion addresses the important role of health personnel in valuing local empirical knowledge, fostering the incorporation of useful technical knowledge without compromising the cultural heritage on which the identity and health of such groups are based. PMID:17308723

  16. Pedagogical content knowledge development in teaching science: A case study of an elementary school teacher in an urban classroom

    Suh, Yewon

    This study aims to explore an elementary school teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) development in teaching science to racial minorities and economically disadvantaged students in New York City. By taking into account the sociocultural issues of teaching science in urban areas, this study focuses on 'contextual knowledge' as a key component of PCK. In this study, PCK is conceptualized as transformed knowledge of subject matter, pedagogy, and context, which makes subject learning suitable for students in particular settings. In order to investigate the teacher's PCK development, this study first examines her existing knowledge base of PCK in terms of three knowledge domains, and then observes her PCK development through the relationship between contextual knowledge and other two knowledge domains during classroom practices. A case study method was used to obtain a holistic and in-depth understanding of the teacher's PCK development. Data were collected in the form of teacher interview, participant observation, documentation, and physical artifacts, to enrich the case, and was analyzed in an inductive process. Findings illustrate the ways that the three knowledge domains are related and developed as PCK through the whole teaching process. Specifically, the findings indicate that the teacher's contextual knowledge plays a critical role in shaping and developing PCK. The teacher's contextual knowledge about the administrative policies and school test system in the district facilitated her to make a decision and plan to teach science before the instruction. During the classroom teaching, her knowledge about students' sociocultural backgrounds and living conditions in an urban setting helped her to identify specific teaching strategies and resources suitable to students' needs and interests. These findings imply that science teaching can be meaningful in coping with the demands of diverse learning populations if teachers make an effort to become knowledgeable

  17. Dynamic Capitalization and Visualization Strategy in Collaborative Knowledge Management System for EI Process

    Oladejo, Bolanle; David, Amos


    Knowledge is attributed to human whose problem-solving behavior is subjective and complex. In today's knowledge economy, the need to manage knowledge produced by a community of actors cannot be overemphasized. This is due to the fact that actors possess some level of tacit knowledge which is generally difficult to articulate. Problem-solving requires searching and sharing of knowledge among a group of actors in a particular context. Knowledge expressed within the context of a problem resolution must be capitalized for future reuse. In this paper, an approach that permits dynamic capitalization of relevant and reliable actors' knowledge in solving decision problem following Economic Intelligence process is proposed. Knowledge annotation method and temporal attributes are used for handling the complexity in the communication among actors and in contextualizing expressed knowledge. A prototype is built to demonstrate the functionalities of a collaborative Knowledge Management system based on this approach. It is...

  18. Knowledge management across domains

    Gilfillan, Lynne G.; Haddock, Gail; Borek, Stan


    This paper presents a secure, Internet-enabled, third wave knowledge management system. TheResearchPlaceTM, that will facilitate a collaborative, strategic approach to analyzing public safety problems and developing interventions to reduce them. TheResearchPlace, currently being developed under Government and private funding for use by the National Cancer Institute, Federal agencies, and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, will augment Geographic Information Systems and analytical tool capabilities by providing a synergistic workspace where teams of multidisciplinary professions can manage portfolios of existing knowledge resources, locate and create new knowledge resources that are added to portfolios, and collaborate with colleagues to leverage evolving portfolios' capabilities on team missions. TheResearchPlace is currently in use by selected alpha users at selected federal sites, and by the faculty of Howard University.

  19. Contextual predictability enhances reading performance in patients with schizophrenia.

    Fernández, Gerardo; Guinjoan, Salvador; Sapognikoff, Marcelo; Orozco, David; Agamennoni, Osvaldo


    In the present work we analyzed fixation duration in 40 healthy individuals and 18 patients with chronic, stable SZ during reading of regular sentences and proverbs. While they read, their eye movements were recorded. We used lineal mixed models to analyze fixation durations. The predictability of words N-1, N, and N+1 exerted a strong influence on controls and SZ patients. The influence of the predictabilities of preceding, current, and upcoming words on SZ was clearly reduced for proverbs in comparison to regular sentences. Both controls and SZ readers were able to use highly predictable fixated words for an easier reading. Our results suggest that SZ readers might compensate attentional and working memory deficiencies by using stored information of familiar texts for enhancing their reading performance. The predictabilities of words in proverbs serve as task-appropriate cues that are used by SZ readers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using eyetracking for measuring how patients with SZ process well-defined words embedded in regular sentences and proverbs. Evaluation of the resulting changes in fixation durations might provide a useful tool for understanding how SZ patients could enhance their reading performance. PMID:27236087

  20. Practical knowledge

    Christensen, Jens


    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas...... his critical attitude has become superseded. A critical discussion on the heritage from Bacon leads to a focus on the concepts of truth, utility, and goodness. Unification of skills and Bildung, it is stated, should imply the ability to deal explicitly with these concepts and their interrelations...

  1. ICT Enabled Knowledge Sharing – Impact of ICT on Knowledge Sharing Barriers : The Case of Avanade

    Alamgir, Rana; Ahmed, Shahid


    Studies in recent years have revealed that use of ICT can significantly impact knowledge sharing in organizations by enhancing the knowledge sharing process, reducing knowledge sharing barriers, and introducing technology barriers. While this has been identified in many studies and a significant research has been carried out to identify knowledge sharing barriers, there exists a considerable dearth of research when the question of ‘which knowledge sharing barriers can ICT reduce and how?’ is ...

  2. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars


    demand-side and supply-side context than is the case for high-tech start-ups in general. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably academic institutions, such as universities that contribute to knowledge......This chapter investigates how regional start-up rates in the knowledge-intensive services and high-tech industries are influenced by knowledge spillovers from both universities and firm-based R&D activities. Integrating insights from economic geography and organizational ecology into the literature...... on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge-intensive industries. Using multilevel data of all knowledge-intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002 we demonstrate...

  3. The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character

    Kokom Komalasari


    Full Text Available Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3 the effect of the living values-based contextual learning model on students’ character improvement. Approach: This study used Research and Development design. The technique of data collection used observation, documentation, Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative data used data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion stages. Meanwhile, quantitative data analysis used correlation and regression analysis. The subjects of study were 98 students of Civic Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education of academic year 2011/2012. Results: The finding showed that: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing was the integration of living values into material, method, media, learning source and lecturing evaluation conceptually; (2 the living values-based contextual learning model was implemented through value learning variation in contextual learning (problem-based learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, service learning and work-based learning; (3 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model had an effect by 26% on the students’ character development Conclusion: The living values-based contextual learning is an alternative of character education integration model in university learning process. This model can be applied in lecturing to develop the students’ characters including religious, honest, tolerant, well-mannered, discipline, hard working

  4. The making of green knowledge

    Jamison, Andrew


    The paper discusses some of the contributions of environmental activism to the development of knowledge. The paper contrasts some of the main forms of knowledge-making that have emerged among activists and raises a number of questions both about the political and cognitive implications of such...... "green knowledge". The general argument is that, in the future, new types of interaction and new spaces for communication will need to be developed if green knowledge is not to be incorporated into the dominant culture or reduced to ineffective forms of protest....

  5. Collaborative repositories:An organisational and technological response to current challenges in specialised knowledge communication

    Pilegaard, Morten


    Textual and communicative competence lies at the heart of the skills of a professional linguistic mediator in general. Such skills are particularly important in specialized writing, which requires deep conceptual and contextual knowledge. One of the main objectives of the activities undertaken at the Knowledge Communication Lab is to provide linguistic mediators, be they translators and writers of professional texts or subject matter experts entrusted with tasks of intra- or interdisciplinary...

  6. Tacit knowledge elicitation and measurement in research organisations: A methodological approach

    Garcia-Perez, Alexeis; Mitra, Amit


    Contextual complexities as a result of the nature of knowledge based resources of organisations are increasingly the bases of competitive advantage. In the third generation of KM theories and techniques, intra-organisational flows of knowledge resources have become as important as the resources themselves. Management of such flows is an imperative rather than an alternative for most organisations. When attempting to implement effective KM strategies, most organisations assume c...

  7. Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”

    Rene Chalon


    Full Text Available In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker’s profile. We further discuss the proposed system structure, supportive process and context-driven engine. Finally, we describe a scenario using our contextual mobile learning system.

  8. Knowledge management as an element in realizing nuclear technology

    Full text: A company is not defined by its competences but it lives in realizing these competences in products. The technical knowledge within the field, i.e. here in nuclear technology, is taken as granted at a first glance. For analyzing the role of knowledge management (KM) in the application this knowledge for our products, one can follow two different dimensions, thereby elucidating the needs and development requirements for KM methods: When first considering the 'operational' dimension, one can start from the scope of the manufacturer's knowledge which covers the construction of plants, then accompanying its life cycle, and pursues the development of the technology for the future. A board spectrum of KM activities has been established yet for these different phases, comprising tools with close product orientation or KM elements applied in 'support processes'. In cases of close KM integration in the business process, diversity over the different sectors of the company has emerged: 'locally' optimized solutions are favoured due to specific requirements of the technical field, to continuity or to ease of daily application. On the other hand, 'global' KM tools are often preferred for integration in 'global' support processes (as human resource (HR) management). This can be illustrated by some examples deployed yet, and their benefit: 1. Feedback procedures for new plant projects: capturing the experience during construction (e.g. by standardised reports), thereby strengthening quality criteria for the project and integrating evaluation into the project management (PM) process of the current project; thus reducing erection time - and related capital cost - for future plants. 2. Follow up event information on nuclear plants globally: by collecting and assessing events systematically for proactive technical action and as input for quality management (QM); thus identifying market needs in advance also. 3. IT based KM tool used in nuclear maintenance service

  9. Individual and contextual covariates of burnout: a cross-sectional nationwide study of French teachers

    Nerrière Eléna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information on the covariates of burnout syndrome in French teachers is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of individual and contextual factors on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in 2005 among 20,099 education workers (in activity or retired selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. The response rate was 52.4%. Teachers in activity currently giving classes to students who participated in the survey (n = 3,940 were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 2,558 teachers provided complete data (64.9%. Variables associated with high emotional exhaustion (highest quartile of score, high depersonalization (highest quartile, and reduced personal accomplishment (lowest quartile were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, job dissatisfaction, experienced difficulties at work, and teaching motivations. Results Different variables were associated with each burnout dimension. Female teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment, whereas male teachers were more susceptible to high depersonalization. Elementary school teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion, but less susceptible to high depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment than their higher school level counterparts. Experienced difficulties with pupils were associated with all three dimensions. A socio-economically underprivileged school neighbourhood was also related to high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalization. Conclusion Programs to enhance teaching environment might

  10. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    Greve, Linda


    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different...... answers to what knowledge is. It could be outlined as a dichotomy between tacit and explicit knowledge, as a hierarchy from data over information to knowledge or as orders of reflection upon ones own knowledge in relation to the surrounding world. In this dissertation the focus is on knowledge...... as a metaphorical concept in groups of knowledge workers from creative start-ups. The research question of the dissertation is: How is knowledge conceptualized metaphorically in groups? This question is investigated from two methodological angles: through the analysis of metaphors in dynamic conversations...

  11. Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations

    To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goals of Digital Earth, GLOBE has the capability to assess the global relevance of local case-study findings within the context of over 50 global biophysical, land-use, climate, and socio-economic datasets. We demonstrate the implementation of one such assessment – a representativeness analysis – with a recently published meta-study of changes in swidden agriculture in tropical forests. The analysis provides a standardized indicator to judge the global representativeness of the trends reported in the meta-study, and a geovisualization is presented that highlights areas for which sampling efforts can be reduced and those in need of further study. GLOBE will enable researchers and institutions to rapidly share, compare, and synthesize local and regional studies within the global context, as well as contributing to the larger goal of creating a Digital Earth

  12. Connecting school and community with science learning: Real world problems and school-community partnerships as contextual scaffolds

    Bouillion, Lisa M.; Gomez, Louis M.


    A challenge facing many schools, especially those in urban settings that serve culturally and linguistically diverse populations, is a disconnection between schools and students' home communities, which can have both cognitive and affective implications for students. In this article we explore a form of connected science, in which real-world problems and school-community partnerships are used as contextual scaffolds for bridging students' community-based knowledge and school-based knowledge, as a way to provide all students opportunities for meaningful and intellectually challenging science learning. The potential of these scaffolds for connected science is examined through a case study in which a team of fifth-grade teachers used the student-identified problem of pollution along a nearby river as an interdisciplinary anchor for teaching science, math, language arts, and civics. Our analysis makes visible how diverse forms of knowledge were able to support project activities, examines the consequences for student learning, and identifies the features of real-world problems and school-community partnerships that created these bridging opportunities.

  13. A comparative study of contextual urban design approaches in the UK and DK

    Højriis, Jonas; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Bulkeley, Paul

    During the last century urban planning has changed dramatically due in part to vehicular development, a modernist design culture, rapid urbanisation and new computer technologies. This planning strategy has influenced that new-implemented areas looks incredible from a helicopter, but the human sc...... approached by cellular renewal turned out to be the most contextual urban design, where the focus on social- and physical contextualism was introduced early in the process. With that said comprehensive can still be considered and approached by contextualism....... introduced as different ways of accommodating, more contextual urban renewal. In this paper, four different case studies in two different cities, Winchester in UK and Copenhagen in DK, are examined in regards to their urban planning and their use of the two above-mentioned approaches. A number of different...

  14. Contextuality in Generalized Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type Systems

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N


    We present a formal theory of contextuality for a set of random variables grouped into different subsets (contexts) corresponding to different, mutually incompatible conditions. Within each context the random variables are jointly distributed, but across different contexts they are stochastically unrelated. The theory of contextuality is based on the analysis of the extent to which some of these random variables can be viewed as preserving their identity across different contexts when one considers all possible joint distributions imposed on the entire set of the random variables. We illustrate the theory on three systems of traditional interest in quantum physics (and also in non-physical, e.g., behavioral studies). These are systems of the Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type. Listed in this order, each of them is formally a special case of the previous one. For each of them we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for contextuality while allowing for experimental errors and contextual biase...

  15. On-line contextual influences during reading normal text: a multiple-regression analysis.

    Pynte, Joel; New, Boris; Kennedy, Alan


    On-line contextual influences during reading were examined in a series of multiple-regression analyses conducted on a large-scale corpus of eye-movement data, using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to assess the degree of contextual constraints exerted on a given target word by the immediately prior word and by the prior sentence fragment. A decrease in inspection time was observed as contextual constraints increased. Word-level constraints exerted their influence both forward (on both single-fixation and gaze durations) and backward (on gaze duration only). An independent sentence-level effect was only visible in the forward direction, and only for gaze duration. Gaze duration was also sensitive to the depth of embedding of the target word in the syntactic structure. We conclude that both low-level and high-level contextual constraints can translate in the eye-movement record. PMID:18701125

  16. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    R. Savolainen


    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  17. Providing Adapted Contextual Information in an Overlay Vehicular Network

    Andrés Muñoz


    Full Text Available Current vehicular networks are developed upon commercial solutions based on cellular networks (CNs or vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs, both present in numerous research proposals. Current approximations are not enough to cover the communication necessities of several applications at the same time, and they are not suitable for future vehicular pervasive services. The vehicular network presented in this paper fills the existent gap between solutions lacking in flexibility, mainly supported by an infrastructure deployment, and those highly local and distributed, such as sole-VANET approximations. In this manner, an overlay communication platform which can work over the CN basis has been designed and developed. This architecture is complemented by an additional support of an information system located at the infrastructure side. Moreover, since most of the information received from current notification services is not relevant for the driver, an additional subsystem has been devised to provide adapted information to users. This has been carried out by means of an ontology model which represents users' preferences and contextual information. Finally, using a whole prototype of the telematic platform, the performance of this interring process has been evaluated to point out its impact on the system operation.

  18. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation

    Christoffel H. Thesnaar


    Full Text Available In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

  19. Accuracy assessment of contextual classification results for vegetation mapping

    Thoonen, Guy; Hufkens, Koen; Borre, Jeroen Vanden; Spanhove, Toon; Scheunders, Paul


    A new procedure for quantitatively assessing the geometric accuracy of thematic maps, obtained from classifying hyperspectral remote sensing data, is presented. More specifically, the methodology is aimed at the comparison between results from any of the currently popular contextual classification strategies. The proposed procedure characterises the shapes of all objects in a classified image by defining an appropriate reference and a new quality measure. The results from the proposed procedure are represented in an intuitive way, by means of an error matrix, analogous to the confusion matrix used in traditional thematic accuracy representation. A suitable application for the methodology is vegetation mapping, where lots of closely related and spatially connected land cover types are to be distinguished. Consequently, the procedure is tested on a heathland vegetation mapping problem, related to Natura 2000 habitat monitoring. Object-based mapping and Markov Random Field classification results are compared, showing that the selected Markov Random Fields approach is more suitable for the fine-scale problem at hand, which is confirmed by the proposed procedure.

  20. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  1. Sleep Spindle Deficit in Schizophrenia: Contextualization of Recent Findings.

    Castelnovo, Anna; D'Agostino, Armando; Casetta, Cecilia; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio


    Sleep spindles are wax and waning brain oscillations at a frequency range of 11-16 Hz, lasting 0.5-2 s, that define non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 2. Over the past few years, several independent studies pointed to a decrease of sleep spindles in schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to contextualize these findings within the growing literature on these oscillations across other neuro-psychiatric disorders. Indeed, spindles reflect the coordinated activity of thalamocortical networks, and their abnormality can be observed in a variety of conditions that disrupt local or global thalamocortical connectivity. Although the broad methodological variability across studies limits the possibility of drawing firm conclusions, impaired spindling activity has been observed in several neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite such lack of specificity, schizophrenia remains the only condition with a typical late adolescence to young adulthood onset in which impaired spindling has been consistently reported. Further research is necessary to clearly define the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to this deficit and the validity of its widespread use as a clinical biomarker. PMID:27299655

  2. Risk perceptions and technological hazards: a contextual view

    Full text of publication follows: the study of public perceptions of risk has given rise to a number of different (and sometimes conflicting) perspectives. Although the differences between these approaches are not trivial, recent reviews have suggested that there may be some points of convergence. In particular, recent work within the different traditions has emphasised the importance of factors such as trust and power for understanding public perceptions of risk. These factors take us beyond the characteristics of the risks themselves, which were the focus of influential work in the psychometric tradition and into a consideration of the social and cultural context within which potentially hazardous technologies are encountered and evaluated. In this paper we examine the way in which the lay public understand and respond to a particular class of technological risks - those associated with site-based major accident hazards. On the basis of empirical research, we argue that an appreciation of the different contexts within which citizens encounter such risks is crucial to understanding the dynamics of public concerns. We illustrate our argument by examining the different ways in which contextual factors influence perceptions. The discussion draws upon a recently completed study of public perceptions of the risks at seven major hazard sites in the UK, which was funded the by UK Health and Safety Executive. (authors)

  3. Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark

    The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

  4. The influence of contextual diversity on word learning.

    Johns, Brendan T; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N


    In a series of analyses over mega datasets, Jones, Johns, and Recchia (Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(2), 115-124, 2012) and Johns et al. (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132:2, EL74-EL80, 2012) found that a measure of contextual diversity that takes into account the semantic variability of a word's contexts provided a better fit to both visual and spoken word recognition data than traditional measures, such as word frequency or raw context counts. This measure was empirically validated with an artificial language experiment (Jones et al.). The present study extends the empirical results with a unique natural language learning paradigm, which allows for an examination of the semantic representations that are acquired as semantic diversity is varied. Subjects were incidentally exposed to novel words as they rated short selections from articles, books, and newspapers. When novel words were encountered across distinct discourse contexts, subjects were both faster and more accurate at recognizing them than when they were seen in redundant contexts. However, learning across redundant contexts promoted the development of more stable semantic representations. These findings are predicted by a distributional learning model trained on the same materials as our subjects. PMID:26597891

  5. Cognitive and contextual variables in sexual partner and relationship perception.

    Alvarez, Maria-João; Garcia-Marques, Leonel


    This study examined the effects of contextual and cognitive variables for sexual protection on perceived social relationship factors. University students (108 women and 108 men) read script-based narratives on sexual encounters in which six variables were manipulated in two independent analyses. In the first analysis, four variables were evaluated: relational context (stable, casual), condom use (yes, no), script terminus (beginning, middle or end), and the rater's sex. The dependent variables were interpersonal perception of one of the characters of the narrative, and expectations regarding characteristics and future of the relationship. In the second analysis, two other factors were manipulated only in the "yes" condom conditions: communication strategy (verbal, non-verbal) and condom proponent gender. Our findings corroborated other studies where condom use was viewed as unromantic with less positive characteristics for relationships. Condom proponents, especially male, were perceived as less romantic, particularly when proposing a condom non-verbally at the beginning of the encounter. However, the controlled variables enabled us to propose ways of associating condom use with positive expectations towards the proponent and the relationship itself. Romanticism, expectation of sexual intercourse, emotional proximity, and expectations of condom use in encounters where a condom was proposed increased when suggested by a woman, postponed to the end of the encounter, and verbally mentioned. We encourage women to take the lead in suggesting condom use, thus empowering them since they do not have to wait for the male to make the first move. PMID:21350915

  6. Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Eriksson, I. [Maelardalen University (Sweden)


    The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

  7. Contextual behavioral science: Creating a science more adequate to the human condition

    Hayes, Steven C; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Wilson, Kelly G.


    The present article describes the nature, scope, and purpose of Contextual Behavioral Science (CBS). Emerging from behavioral psychology but expanding from those roots, CBS is based on contextual assumptions regarding the centrality of situated action, the nature of epistemology versus ontology, and a pragmatic truth criterion linked to the specific goal of predicting-and-influencing psychological events with precision, scope, and depth. These assumptions and goals explain the characteristic ...

  8. The Sheaf-Theoretic Structure Of Non-Locality and Contextuality

    Abramsky, Samson; Brandenburger, Adam


    We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting which generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions...

  9. Negative Social Contextual Stressors and Somatic Symptoms Among Young Black Males: An Exploratory Study

    Scott, Lionel D.; McCoy, Henrika


    This study examines whether negative social contextual stressors were associated with somatic symptoms among young Black males (N = 74) after accounting for background and psychological characteristics. Using Cunningham and Spencer’s Black Male Experiences Measure, negative social contextual stressors connoted those experiences connected to the personal attributes, devaluation, and negative imagery of young Black males, such as being followed when entering a store or police or security guards...

  10. Individual and Contextual Factors of Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth Perinatally Infected with HIV

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, José A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J.; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A.


    This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV−infected (PHIV+), HIV−affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV− caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects o...

  11. Correspondence analysis of textual data involving contextual information: CA-GALT on principal components

    Bécue Bertaut, Mónica María; Pages, Jerome


    Correspondence analysis on an aggregated lexical table is a typical practice in textual analysis in which a contextual categorical variable is used to aggregate documents, depending on the categories to which they belong. This work generalises this approach and considers several quantitative, categorical or mixed contextual variables. The result is a new method that we have called 'correspondence analysis on a generalised aggregated lexical table'. A favoured application derives from surveys ...

  12. Hippocampal Regulation of Contextual Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    Atkins, Alison L.; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Kantak, Kathleen M.


    Associations between cocaine and cues facilitate development and maintenance of addiction. We hypothesized that the ventral hippocampus is important for acquisition of these associations. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, with or without pre-exposure to distinct sets of cocaine- and saline-paired contextual cues. Next, rats were conditioned for 3 days with the distinct sets of contextual cues paired with cocaine and saline along with distinct discrete cues. Vehicle or lidocaine wa...


    Ivana Vrselja; Renata Glavak Tkalić


    This paper had two aims. The first aim was to examine whether there is a direct contribution of some family contextual factors (parents' education, perceived family financial situation, parental frequency of drinking, and family size) to the risky and delinquent child behavior. The second aim of the paper was to determine whether there is an indirect contribution of these family contextual factors through parental rearing practices (emotional warmth, rejection, overprotection). The study was ...

  14. Nicotinic Receptors in the Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus Differentially Modulate Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Kenney, Justin W.; Raybuck, Jonathan D.; Gould, Thomas J.


    Nicotine administration alters various forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Increasing work has found that the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially contribute to multiple behaviors. Thus, the present study examined whether the effects of nicotine in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus have distinct influences on contextual fear learning in male C57BL/6J mice. Direct infusion of nicotine into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in an enhancement of contextual fear learning, ...

  15. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents

    Azeredo, CM; Levy, RB; Araya, R.; Menezes, PR


    Background Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. Methods 59,348 students from 1,453 schools and 26 state capitals and the Federal District participated in the National Survey of School...

  16. Is the contextuality loophole fatal for the derivation of Bell Inequalities?

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.


    It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism, because absence of contextuality prevents the Bell inequalities to be derived from local realis...

  17. Educational level as a contextual and proximate determinant of all cause mortality in Danish adults

    Osler, M; Prescott, E


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the educational level in the area of living as a determinant of all cause mortality, controlling for individual and other correlated contextual factors. DESIGN: Pooled data from two population based cohort studies were linked to social registers to obtain selected soci...... other contextual risk factors. Neighbourhood education is one of different characteristics of adverse social conditions in an area increasing mortality....

  18. A key role for nectin-1 in the ventral hippocampus in contextual fear memory.

    Martina Fantin

    Full Text Available Nectins are cell adhesion molecules that are widely expressed in the brain. Nectin expression shows a dynamic spatiotemporal regulation, playing a role in neural migratory processes during development. Nectin-1 and nectin-3 and their heterophilic trans-interactions are important for the proper formation of synapses. In the hippocampus, nectin-1 and nectin-3 localize at puncta adherentia junctions and may play a role in synaptic plasticity, a mechanism essential for memory and learning. We evaluated the potential involvement of nectin-1 and nectin-3 in memory consolidation using an emotional learning paradigm. Rats trained for contextual fear conditioning showed transient nectin-1-but not nectin-3-protein upregulation in synapse-enriched hippocampal fractions at about 2 h posttraining. The upregulation of nectin-1 was found exclusively in the ventral hippocampus and was apparent in the synaptoneurosomal fraction. This upregulation was induced by contextual fear conditioning but not by exposure to context or shock alone. When an antibody against nectin-1, R165, was infused in the ventral-hippocampus immediately after training, contextual fear memory was impaired. However, treatment with the antibody in the dorsal hippocampus had no effect in contextual fear memory formation. Similarly, treatment with the antibody in the ventral hippocampus did not interfere with acoustic memory formation. Further control experiments indicated that the effects of ventral hippocampal infusion of the nectin-1 antibody in contextual fear memory cannot be ascribed to memory non-specific effects such as changes in anxiety-like behavior or locomotor behavior. Therefore, we conclude that nectin-1 recruitment to the perisynaptic environment in the ventral hippocampus plays an important role in the formation of contextual fear memories. Our results suggest that these mechanisms could be involved in the connection of emotional and contextual information processed in the

  19. Employees and the Innovative Idea Contribution Process: Clarifying Individual and Contextual Characteristics



    Understanding how contextual and individual characteristics affect employee willingness to propose innovative ideas to an organization is an important, if understudied aspect of the innovation process. Based on an interactional perspective, widely used in creativity and innovation studies, this paper examines the influence of both contextual and individual characteristics on employee willingness to contribute innovative ideas to other organizational actors. Using a quasi-experimental approach...

  20. Contextualized Network Analysis: Theory and Methods for Networks with Node Covariates

    Binkiewicz, Norbert M.

    Biological and social systems consist of myriad interacting units. The interactions can be intuitively represented in the form of a graph or network. Measurements of these graphs can reveal the underlying structure of these interactions, which provides insight into the systems that generated the graphs. Moreover, in applications such as neuroconnectomics, social networks, and genomics, graph data is accompanied by contextualizing measures on each node. We leverage these node covariates to help uncover latent communities, using a modification of spectral clustering. Statistical guarantees are provided under a joint mixture model called the node contextualized stochastic blockmodel, including a bound on the mis-clustering rate. For most simulated conditions, covariate assisted spectral clustering yields superior results relative to both regularized spectral clustering without node covariates and an adaptation of canonical correlation analysis. We apply covariate assisted spectral clustering to large brain graphs derived from diffusion MRI, using the node locations or neurological regions as covariates. In both cases, covariate assisted spectral clustering yields clusters that are easier to interpret neurologically. A low rank update algorithm is developed to reduce the computational cost of determining the tuning parameter for covariate assisted spectral clustering. As simulations demonstrate, the low rank update algorithm increases the speed of covariate assisted spectral clustering up to ten-fold, while practically matching the clustering performance of the standard algorithm. Graphs with node attributes are sometimes accompanied by ground truth labels that align closely with the latent communities in the graph. We consider the example of a mouse retina neuron network accompanied by the neuron spatial location and neuronal cell types. In this example, the neuronal cell type is considered a ground truth label. Current approaches for defining neuronal cell type vary

  1. Confronting and Reducing Sexism: A Call for Research on Intervention

    Becker, JC; Zawadzki, MJ; Shields, SA


    © 2014 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. This article presents the current state of research on confronting and reducing sexism. We first provide a systematic overview about prior work on confronting sexism. We identify gaps in the literature by outlining situational and contextual factors that are important in confronting sexism and introduce how these are addressed in the current volume. Second, we review prior work on reducing sexism. Compared to research on reducin...

  2. Contextual Information and Covariance Descriptors for People Surveillance: An Application for Safety of Construction Workers

    Prati Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract In computer science, contextual information can be used both to reduce computations and to increase accuracy. This paper discusses how it can be exploited for people surveillance in very cluttered environments in terms of perspective (i.e., weak scene calibration and appearance of the objects of interest (i.e., relevance feedback on the training of a classifier. These techniques are applied to a pedestrian detector that uses a LogitBoost classifier, appropriately modified to work with covariance descriptors which lie on Riemannian manifolds. On each detected pedestrian, a similar classifier is employed to obtain a precise localization of the head. Two novelties on the algorithms are proposed in this case: polar image transformations to better exploit the circular feature of the head appearance and multispectral image derivatives that catch not only luminance but also chrominance variations. The complete approach has been tested on the surveillance of a construction site to detect workers that do not wear the hard hat: in such scenarios, the complexity and dynamics are very high, making pedestrian detection a real challenge.

  3. Contextual modulation of pain in masochists: involvement of the parietal operculum and insula.

    Kamping, Sandra; Andoh, Jamila; Bomba, Isabelle C; Diers, Martin; Diesch, Eugen; Flor, Herta


    Pain can be modulated by contextual stimuli, such as emotions, social factors, or specific bodily perceptions. We presented painful laser stimuli together with body-related masochistic visual stimuli to persons with and without preferred masochistic sexual behavior and used neutral, positive, and negative pictures with and without painful stimuli as control. Masochists reported substantially reduced pain intensity and unpleasantness in the masochistic context compared with controls but had unaltered pain perception in the other conditions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that masochists activated brain areas involved in sensory-discriminative processing rather than affective pain processing when they received painful stimuli on a masochistic background. The masochists compared with the controls displayed attenuated functional connectivity of the parietal operculum with the left and right insulae, the central operculum, and the supramarginal gyrus. Masochists additionally showed negative correlations between the duration of interest in masochistic activities and activation of areas involved in motor activity and affective processing. We propose that the parietal operculum serves as an important relay station that attenuates the affective-motivational aspects of pain in masochists. This novel mechanism of pain modulation might be related to multisensory integration and has important implications for the assessment and treatment of pain. PMID:26808014

  4. Contextual effects and psychological features influencing decoy options: A review and research agenda

    David Gonzalez-Prieto


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop future research proposals aiming to contribute the extant theory which explains decoy effects.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, a review of the existing literature about decoy options and its interactions with contextual effects that could affect their performance is presented. Next, two research proposals are presented: the introduction of a double decoy choice set and the evaluation of decoy effect under different levels of cognitive effort in a purchasing process.Findings and Originality/value: For the research proposal concerning double decoy choice sets, different hypothesis are introduced based on the different theories aiming to explain the effect of simple decoy choice sets. This hypothesis predict different outcomes for the same experimental design, fact that could provide further support for at least one of the current explanations for decoy effects. Regarding the effect of decoy options under different levels of cognitive effort, implications for experimental design for sequential purchasing process are expected. Especially for those designed with complex options, with many steps or high number of options.Originality/value: Two new research proposal approaches are presented in order enhance the current theory. Moreover, both have managerial implications concerning the real usage of decoy options in reduced choice sets as well as in sequential purchasing processes.

  5. A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety

    Maria Eveline de Castro Pereira


    Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples ideia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro.Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

  6. Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive

    Soledad Escalante Beltrán


    discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça.This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

  7. A Discourse-Analysis Based Critical Approach to Contextual Interpretation of Heteroglossic Situation in the Novel

    Edirisingha Arachchige Gamini Fonseka


    Full Text Available According to the theory of dialogism propounded by Mikhail Bakhtin, all discourse in the novel is a product of a process of dialogic imagination. Yet heteroglossic situation in the novel differs from general narration, as it involves interaction among two or more characters speaking in their respective voices to represent different aspects of reality in a form of dramatisation. Authors depict certain situations in the reported speech as they can be portrayed in terms of straightforward accounts and certain situations in dialogue as they need dramatization in order to enable readers to realize the actual conflicts or interactions they wish to simulate. Dialogue engendered through the participation of two or several characters is considered heteroglossic situation because of the heterogeneity of the language shades and voices in which they express themselves. While reading a novel for both language development and literary perception, the heteroglossic situations sometimes create problems for the readers as they need more pragmatic knowledge to understand the actual conversations and the messages conveyed through them. There a discourse analysis-based critical approach becomes crucial as it is required to deal with the identities and asymmetrical power relations the characters maintain throughout their conversations, other than the speech acts they carry out, the social atmospheres they help to engender, the messages they help to communicate, and the concepts they help to foreground in relation to their contexts. In regard to this, this paper attempts to develop a discourse analysis-based critical approach to the contextual interpretation of heteroglossic situation in the novel. 

  8. Supporting and promoting personhood in long term care settings: contextual factors.

    Siegel, Elena O; Anderson, Ruth A; Calkin, Joy; Chu, Charlene H; Corazzini, Kirsten N; Dellefield, Mary E; Goodman, Claire


    The need for personhood-focused long-term care (LTC) is well-documented. A myriad of sociocultural, political, nursing/professional and organisational contexts facilitate or hinder registered nurses (RNs)' capacity to ensure personhood-focused LTC. Complexities derive from the countless interrelated aspects of these contexts, blurring clear distinctions of causality, responsibility and accountability. Context-related complexities were highlighted at a recent international conference attended by invited experts in LTC leadership from six countries (Canada, USA, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand and Sweden). The group was convened to explore the value and contributions of RNs in LTC (McGilton, , International Journal of Older People Nursing 7, 282). The purpose of this paper is to expand the discussion of personhood-focused care beyond RNs, to contexts that influence the RN's capacity to ensure personhood-focused practices are embedded in LTC settings. Consistent with key topics covered at the international conference, we selected four major contexts for discussion in this paper: (i) sociocultural, (ii) public policy/financing/regulation, (iii) nursing/professional and (iv) organisational. For each context, we provide a brief description, literature and examples from a few countries attending the conference, potential impact on personhood-focused practices and RN strategies to facilitate personhood-focused care. The knowledge gained from attending to the influence of contextual factors on the RN's role in facilitating personhood-focused practices provides critical insights and directions for interventions aimed to maximise RN role effectiveness in LTC. In practice, understanding linkages between the various contexts offers indispensable insight for LTC nurse leaders charged with managing day-to-day operations and leading quality improvement initiatives that promote personhood-focused practices. PMID:23164251

  9. Employing socially driven techniques for framing, contextualization, and collaboration in complex analytical threads

    Wollocko, Arthur; Danczyk, Jennifer; Farry, Michael; Jenkins, Michael; Voshell, Martin


    The proliferation of sensor technologies continues to impact Intelligence Analysis (IA) work domains. Historical procurement focus on sensor platform development and acquisition has resulted in increasingly advanced collection systems; however, such systems often demonstrate classic data overload conditions by placing increased burdens on already overtaxed human operators and analysts. Support technologies and improved interfaces have begun to emerge to ease that burden, but these often focus on single modalities or sensor platforms rather than underlying operator and analyst support needs, resulting in systems that do not adequately leverage their natural human attentional competencies, unique skills, and training. One particular reason why emerging support tools often fail is due to the gap between military applications and their functions, and the functions and capabilities afforded by cutting edge technology employed daily by modern knowledge workers who are increasingly "digitally native." With the entry of Generation Y into these workplaces, "net generation" analysts, who are familiar with socially driven platforms that excel at giving users insight into large data sets while keeping cognitive burdens at a minimum, are creating opportunities for enhanced workflows. By using these ubiquitous platforms, net generation analysts have trained skills in discovering new information socially, tracking trends among affinity groups, and disseminating information. However, these functions are currently under-supported by existing tools. In this paper, we describe how socially driven techniques can be contextualized to frame complex analytical threads throughout the IA process. This paper focuses specifically on collaborative support technology development efforts for a team of operators and analysts. Our work focuses on under-supported functions in current working environments, and identifies opportunities to improve a team's ability to discover new information and

  10. Making Knowledge Services Work in Higher Education

    Norris, Donald M.; Lefrere, Paul; Mason, Jon


    Over the past three years, knowledge-based practices in higher education have advanced, driving the development of low/no-cost, mass-market tools for knowledge sharing and reducing some barriers to change. New investors in higher education are developing strategies to exploit the knowledge-driven value propositions. Existing institutions, anxious…

  11. On Knowledge Workers in the Knowledge Society

    DU Yu-wei; WANG Shu-hong


    The paper makes a study on our present knowledge society and knowledge workers. After analyzing the reason that knowledge workers are the newly emerging dominant group in this knowledge society, it gets to the point that the real leadership in the age of knowledge are knowledge workers. Yet, they have to actively organize and learn together, otherwise, they would be same as the workers of industrial model. Only through organizational learning can knowledge workers turn into a very innovative learning organization dancing with the unexpected.


    Novikova, G.V.; Новикова, Г. В.


    This article analyzes the contents of psychological courses in teacher education and selected forms and methods for facilitating the formation of subjectivity future teachers. Justified the use of contextual learning methods in order to form the teacher s В статье проанализировано содержание психологических курсов в педагогическом образовании и отобраны формы и методы, способствующие формированию субъектности будущих педагогов. Обосновано использование методов контекстного обучения в целях...

  13. Contextual marketing--the real business of the Internet.

    Kenny, D; Marshall, J F


    The painful truth is that the Internet has been a letdown for most companies--largely because the dominant model for Internet commerce, the destination Web site, doesn't suit the needs of those companies or their customers. Most consumer product companies don't provide enough value or dynamic information to induce customers to make the repeat visits--and disclose the detailed information--that make such sites profitable. In this article, David Kenny and John F. Marshall suggest that companies discard the notion that a Web site equals an Internet strategy. Instead of trying to create destinations that people will come to, companies need to use the power and reach of the Internet to deliver tailored messages and information to customers. Companies have to become what the authors call "contextual marketers." Delivering the most relevant information possible to consumers in the most timely manner possible will become feasible, the authors say, as access moves beyond the PC to shopping malls, retail stores, airports, bus stations, and even cars. The authors describe how the ubiquitous Internet will hasten the demise of the destination Web site--and open up scads of opportunities to reach customers through marketing "mobilemediaries," such as smart cards, e-wallets, and bar code scanners. The companies that master the complexity of the ubiquitous Internet will gain significant advantages: they'll gain greater intimacy with customers and target market segments more efficiently. The ones that don't will be dismissed as nuisances, the authors conclude. They suggest ways to become welcome additions--not unwelcome intrusions--to customers' lives. PMID:11184966

  14. Learning Contextual Dependence With Convolutional Hierarchical Recurrent Neural Networks

    Zuo, Zhen; Shuai, Bing; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xingxing; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yushi


    Existing deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown their great success on image classification. CNNs mainly consist of convolutional and pooling layers, both of which are performed on local image areas without considering the dependencies among different image regions. However, such dependencies are very important for generating explicit image representation. In contrast, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are well known for their ability of encoding contextual information among sequential data, and they only require a limited number of network parameters. General RNNs can hardly be directly applied on non-sequential data. Thus, we proposed the hierarchical RNNs (HRNNs). In HRNNs, each RNN layer focuses on modeling spatial dependencies among image regions from the same scale but different locations. While the cross RNN scale connections target on modeling scale dependencies among regions from the same location but different scales. Specifically, we propose two recurrent neural network models: 1) hierarchical simple recurrent network (HSRN), which is fast and has low computational cost; and 2) hierarchical long-short term memory recurrent network (HLSTM), which performs better than HSRN with the price of more computational cost. In this manuscript, we integrate CNNs with HRNNs, and develop end-to-end convolutional hierarchical recurrent neural networks (C-HRNNs). C-HRNNs not only make use of the representation power of CNNs, but also efficiently encodes spatial and scale dependencies among different image regions. On four of the most challenging object/scene image classification benchmarks, our C-HRNNs achieve state-of-the-art results on Places 205, SUN 397, MIT indoor, and competitive results on ILSVRC 2012.

  15. Using Teachers' Prior Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs to Develop In-Service Teacher Education Courses for Inclusion

    Symeonidou, Simoni; Phtiaka, Helen


    This paper examines one important dimension of inclusive education: the development of in-service teacher education courses. Using an example from Cyprus, it discusses the issue of contextualizing teacher training courses to suit teachers' prior knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about inclusion. The paper considers some of the findings of a survey…

  16. Knowledge management, codification and tacit knowledge

    Kimble, Chris


    Introduction. This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method. The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who have studied the transformation of knowledge into information through the process of codification and the knowledge transaction topography they...

  17. CardioKnowledge: A Knowledge Management Environment

    Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, Álvaro; Rabelo, Lisia


    Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the comm...

  18. Maintaining knowledge of radioactive waste

    be ensuring future access to knowledge? Radioactive waste data, recorded in isolation, may have restricted value especially if its provenance is unknown, its significance is unclear, the originators cannot be consulted and its authenticity and trustworthiness are not verifiable. It is therefore necessary to combine this raw data with contextual information that will enable future generations to determine the significance of the record, distinguish it as valuable asset and create their own, contemporary knowledge base. Only when equipped with comprehensive, reliable and accurate knowledge will future generations have the confidence to make informed judgments about the impact of our waste on their society and environment. The mismanagement of our knowledge today could have significant repercussions in terms of cost, radiation dose and damage to the environment in the future. This presentation defines terms such as 'data', 'information', 'knowledge' and 'wisdom' and provides a simple model illustrating their relationship. This model is then used as the basis for an examination of the inputs and the ways in which they may be optimised. The nuclear industry, and even society, has developed an 'implicit' understanding of radioactive waste, at a variety of levels, and it may seem inconceivable that future societies would not retain this understanding in sufficient detail that it could adequately protect itself and the environment. History shows, however, that as societies evolve and other priorities emerge previously implicit knowledge can decline. This leads us towards identifying present 'implicit' radioactive waste knowledge and developing means for capturing it. The presentation will conclude with an argument for the development of strategies that encourage the sharing of trustworthy radioactive waste-related knowledge. These strategies, supported national governments, whilst being both practical and cost-effective to implement must be cognisant of the need for local

  19. Islamic Conceptualisation of Knowledge Management

    M. B.H. Yaakub


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is an attempt to address "The Fundamental Theory of Knowledge Management" from Islamic point of views, to draw the notion of “Islamic Worldview" of knowledge, especially in terms of understanding its nature in the reality of knowledge society as a step toward conceptualizing “Islamic Knowledge Management" (IKM as an answer to the uncertainty situation of contemporary knowledge development, management and utilization especially for Muslim user and application. To obtain this, they have to explore new techniques and processing tools that helps them harness knowledge in according to their conceptual believe system, especially in term of knowledge investigation and sharing in which help them to improve their vicegerent (VG status and humanistic relationship. Approach: Indeed, knowledge should be realised comprehensively. Thus, with the assumption that once knowledge is realized and managed, then it is possible to look at its behaviors, functions and process of development in the form of scientific realm. Hypothetically, if there were no single theory formulated to identify the nature of knowledge, then how it can be managed and achieved its goals. Results: In this regard, IKM as an Islamic system is intended for particular areas of application and objectives based on "knowledge intensive processing action" (KIPA, in which it is depending on some human expert intervention in order to establish a comprehensive and integrated organizational culture, commitments and management, or to better perform the process in producing a production, marketing campaigns, systems analysis and design and strategy in reducing operational cost and business risk, in improving decision making for strategic future development and identifying new technical approaches in problem solving, or even for the purpose to harmonize inter-cultural and personalities gaps within an organizational community. Conclusion: Obviously

  20. Using the DOE Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis

    Armstrong, H.M.; Harris, J.M.; Young, C.J.


    The DOE Knowledge Base is a library of detailed information whose purpose is to support the United States National Data Center (USNDC) in its mission to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). One of the important tasks which the USNDC must accomplish is to periodically perform detailed analysis of events of high interest, so-called "Special Events", to provide the national authority with information needed to make policy decisions. In this paper we investigate some possible uses of the Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis (SEA), and make recommendations for improving Knowledge Base support for SEA. To analyze an event in detail, there are two basic types of data which must be used sensor-derived data (wave- forms, arrivals, events, etc.) and regiohalized contextual data (known sources, geological characteristics, etc.). Cur- rently there is no single package which can provide full access to both types of data, so for our study we use a separate package for each MatSeis, the Sandia Labs-developed MATLAB-based seismic analysis package, for wave- form data analysis, and ArcView, an ESRI product, for contextual data analysis. Both packages are well-suited to pro- totyping because they provide a rich set of currently available functionality and yet are also flexible and easily extensible, . Using these tools and Phase I Knowledge Base data sets, we show how the Knowledge Base can improve both the speed and the quality of SEA. Empirically-derived interpolated correction information can be accessed to improve both location estimates and associated error estimates. This information can in turn be used to identi~ any known nearby sources (e.g. mines, volcanos), which may then trigger specialized processing of the sensor data. Based on the location estimate, preferred magnitude formulas and discriminants can be retrieved, and any known blockages can be identified to prevent miscalculations. Relevant historic events can be identilled either by