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1

Contextual Knowledge Reduces Demands on Working Memory during Reading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title which supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per propos...

Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Cohen, Jason A.; Wingfield, Arthur

2006-01-01

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Knowledge Propagation in Contextualized Knowledge Repositories: an Experimental Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the interest in the representation of context dependent knowledge in the Semantic Web has been recognized, a number of logic based solutions have been proposed in this regard. In our recent works, in response to this need, we presented the description logic-based Contextualized Knowledge Repository (CKR) framework. CKR is not only a theoretical framework, but it has been effectively implemented over state-of-the-art tools for the management of Semantic Web data: inference...

Bozzato, Loris; Serafini, Luciano

2014-01-01

3

A representation of contextual relationships knowledge in images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report is focused on the study of methods for image retrieval in collection of heterogeneous contents. The spatial relationships between entities in an image allow creating the global description of the image that we call the image context. Taking into account the contextual spatial relationships in the similarity search of images can allow improving the retrieval quality by limiting false alarms. We defined the context of image as the presence of entity categories and their spatial rela...

Hoang, Nguyen Vu; Gouet-brunet, Vale?rie; Rukoz, Marta

2012-01-01

4

Increase Motivation and Knowledge the Environment through Contextual Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory study is to determine the development of curriculum Environmental Sciences which applies scientific lecture materials that are integrated in the environment, application of environmental knowledge, and character development curriculum on motivation. This study involved 45 students who were selected randomly. Data from samples were obtained by using a questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the survey instrument was conducted by performing a pilot study involving 30 students. The findings of the pilot study as a whole shows that each aspect has high reliability with Cronbach alpha values between 0.77 to 0.823. The findings of the study were analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The analysis of the results showed that the development of curriculum Environmental Sciences which applies scientific lecture materials that are integrated in the environment is at a good level of motivation; the implementation of environmental knowledge is at the average or moderate level of motivation; and character development curriculum is at the high level of motivation. These findings provide information to various stakeholders to develop environment in order to engage students in a campaign or expansion activities in the environmental awareness among the public.

Yustina Yustina

2013-08-01

5

Knowledge Utilisation in Swedish Neonatal Nursing : Studies on Guideline Implementation, Change Processes and Contextual Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The overall aim of this thesis was to study the implementation of guidelines, change processes and contextual variables from the perspective of improvements and neonatal nursing care’s endeavours to be more evidenced-based. Because health care is exposed to extensive change pressure and because the impact of effectiveness research on clinical practice is limited, it becomes urgent to understand how knowledge utilisation initiatives can be facilitated. Three studies involved managers and nur...

Wallin, Lars

2003-01-01

6

Contextual Computing  

CERN Document Server

This book uses the latest in knowledge representation and human-computer interaction to address the problem of contextual computing in artificial intelligence. It uses high-level context to solve some challenging problems in natural language understanding.

Porzel, Robert

2011-01-01

7

Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science based reflections related to the use and uptake of technology in society often conflicts with engineering students’ self-understanding and identity. Another dilemma is related to the specificity and modeling reductionism in engineering science compared to the complexity of problems in engineering practice. Consequently courses added into engineering curricula emphasizing contextual issues stay in stark contrast to the dominant instrumental disciplines of mathematics and techno-science content of core engineering courses. Based on several years of teaching and experimenting with Theory of Science at the Technical University of Denmark, the paper argues that teaching contextual knowledge needs to overcome several barriersthat tend to be neglected in engineering educations.

JØrgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, SØsser

2011-01-01

8

Knowledge engineering for adverse drug event prevention: on the design and development of a uniform, contextualized and sustainable knowledge-based framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary aim of this work was the development of a uniform, contextualized and sustainable knowledge-based framework to support adverse drug event (ADE) prevention via Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs). In this regard, the employed methodology involved first the systematic analysis and formalization of the knowledge sources elaborated in the scope of this work, through which an application-specific knowledge model has been defined. The entire framework architecture has been then specified and implemented by adopting Computer Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) as the knowledge engineering formalism for its construction. The framework integrates diverse and dynamic knowledge sources in the form of rule-based ADE signals, all under a uniform Knowledge Base (KB) structure, according to the defined knowledge model. Equally important, it employs the means to contextualize the encapsulated knowledge, in order to provide appropriate support considering the specific local environment (hospital, medical department, language, etc.), as well as the mechanisms for knowledge querying, inference, sharing, and management. In this paper, we present thoroughly the establishment of the proposed knowledge framework by presenting the employed methodology and the results obtained as regards implementation, performance and validation aspects that highlight its applicability and virtue in medication safety. PMID:22326287

Koutkias, Vassilis; Kilintzis, Vassilis; Stalidis, George; Lazou, Katerina; Niès, Julie; Durand-Texte, Ludovic; McNair, Peter; Beuscart, Régis; Maglaveras, Nicos

2012-06-01

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Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science based reflections related to the use and uptake of technology in society often conflicts with engineering students’ self-understanding and identity. Another dilemma is related to the specificity and m...

Jørgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, Søsser

2011-01-01

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The Development of a Contextual Information Framework Model as a Potential IAEA Strategy to Maintain Radioactive Waste Knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A contextual framework comprises 'entities' that exhibit one or more definable relationships with a particular 'event'. People, organisations, concepts, ideas, places, natural phenomena, events themselves, cultural artefacts including records, books, works of art can all be conceptualised as entities. If these entities are registered in an information management system where the relationships between them can be defined and systematically managed then it is possible to create a contextual information framework that represents a particular view of what occurs in real life. The careful identifying and mapping of the relationships between these entities and the selected event can lead rapidly to the creation of an information network that closely reflects the human approach to knowledge acquisition and application. The 'event' referred to in this paper is the safe management of radioactive waste. It is widely accepted that society will expect that knowledge about the waste will be maintained for many decades, if not centuries. Delivering on this expectation will demand the application of management approaches that are both innovative and sustainable. Effective inter-generational transfer of information using many 'conventional' techniques will be highly dependent on societal stability - something that cannot be guaranteed over such long periods of time. Consequently, alternative approaches should be explored and, where appropriate, implemented to give reasonable assurance, implemented to give reasonable assurance that future generations of waste custodians will not be unduly burdened by the need to recreate information about the waste long after its disposal. In actual fact, the contextual information framework model is not 'new technology' but simply a means for rationalising and representing the way humans naturally tend to use information in the pursuit of knowledge enhancement. By making use of multiple information entities and their relationships, it is often possible to convert otherwise impossibly complex socio-technical environments into information architectures or networks with remarkable and useful properties. The International Atomic Energy Agency, in its ongoing work to encourage the application of systems to manage radioactive waste information over the long term, has embraced the contextual information framework as a potentially viable approach to this particular challenge. To this end, it invited Member States to contribute to the production of a Safety Report that used the contextual information framework model, building on the wealth of existing IAEA guidance. The report focuses, not on the important area of records management, but on the benefits that can arise from the development of an information management approach that increases the likelihood that future generations will recognise the significance and value of the information contained in these records. Our understanding of 'inter-generational transfer' should extend beyond the simple physical transfer of records into an archival repository towards the establishment of a working culture that places sufficient contemporary information into a form that ensures it remains accessible, and ultimately enhances, the knowledge of future generations. Making information accessible is therefore the key and whilst the use of stable records media, storage environments and quality assurance are important elements, they cannot be considered solutions in themselves. This paper articulates some of the lessons that have been learned about using the contextual information framework model when applied to the long term management of radioactive waste. The draft IAEA Safety Report entitled 'Preservation and Transfer to Future Generations of Information Important to the Safety of Waste Disposal Facilities', on which this paper is based, is expected to be published in 2007. (authors)

11

Putting it in Perspective : Designing a 3D Visualization to Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Namibia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a long-term research and co-design project we are creating a 3D visualization interface for an indigenous knowledge (IK) management system with rural dwellers of the Herero tribe in Namibia. Evaluations of earlier prototypes and theories on cultural differences in perception led us to further investigate the suitability of different perspectives of view for the given user group. Through a combination of drawing sessions, design discussions and a high-fidelity technology probe we explored the visual perceptions and preferences of community members; specifically focusing on representation and recognition of objects and places in their everyday environment. We report how the findings from the study have informed design decisions for our particular system while also suggesting that certain viewing angles for 3D visualizations could be more suitable for the Herero and similar rural cultures in general.

Jensen, Kasper LØvborg; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2012-01-01

12

Elimination of Kalrn expression in POMC cells reduces anxiety-like behavior and contextual fear learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kalirin, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1 and RhoG, is known to play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses and in the secretion of neuropeptides. Mice unable to express any of the isoforms of Kalrn in cells that produce POMC at any time during development (POMC cells) exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior and reduced acquisition of passive avoidance behavior, along with sex-specific alteration in the corticosterone response to restraint stress. Strikingly, lack of Kalrn expression in POMC cells closely mimicked the effects of global Kalrn knockout on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance conditioning without causing the other deficits noted in Kalrn knockout mice. Our data suggest that deficits in excitatory inputs onto POMC neurons are responsible for the behavioral phenotypes observed. PMID:25014196

Mandela, Prashant; Yan, Yan; LaRese, Taylor; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

2014-07-01

13

Evaluating human knowledge and the knowledge assessment method (KAM) - reducing risk arising from defective knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under normal circumstances, plant operator decisions are made in accordance with the operators understanding of written procedures and of the plant which they are controlling. To ensure plant safety, an operator must have sufficient knowledge to respond correctly when both routine and unusual events place demands on his knowledge and understanding of the plant and procedures. In order that plant operating procedures or the methods used in qualifying operators may be improved a quantitative measure of understanding is required. This paper proposes a methodology which could be developed to yield a quantitative assessment of an individual's understanding. An extension is outlined where the knowledge relevant at each stage of a progressing task is assessed. This is intended to allow the identification of those parts of a task which are only weakly supported by an operator's background knowledge and where for example additional training and/or improved documentation could be introduced to greatest effect. (author)

14

Quantifying Contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity.

Grudka, A.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Joshi, P.; K?obus, W.; Wójcik, A.

2014-03-01

15

Quantifying contextuality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity. PMID:24724629

Grudka, A; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Joshi, P; K?obus, W; Wójcik, A

2014-03-28

16

Reducing Language Knowledge Asymmetries in a Temporary Setting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ERASMUS program was introduced (under a different name) in 1987 with the aim, among others, of furthering multilingualism (Coleman 1998). Given that this phenomenon was expected to be realized at an individual level, the aim of the program was clearly not merely multilingualism but, in fact, plurilingualism (Spolsky 2004) and, by implication, a program intended to strengthen the building at an individual level of the specialized knowledge that the learning of any second or foreign language requires. Recent research has shown, however, that the motivation of students whose disciplinary fields are not language or philology and who go to Denmark or Sweden on exchange does not necessarily lie in an interest in learning the official language of the host country (Caudery et al., 2008). On the basis of semi-structured individual interviews, picture description and basic vocabulary tests, this paper reports on a longitudinal study of 240 incoming non-language exchange students in Scandinavia. It analyses a few exceptional cases of students whose level of performance in the Scandinavian language of their host country was higher than the average performance of the cohort. The paper investigates the characteristics of these cases and, drawing on Hornberger's continua of biliteracy model, it relates them to factors arguably influencing the relative achievement of the aim of plurilingualism. In so doing, it seeks to contribute to our understanding of individuals' motives for reducing language knowledge asymmetries.

Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim

17

On Contextuality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

18

Welfare and Child Support Program Knowledge Gaps Reduce Program Effectiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little research on knowledge of the policy rules that could affect individuals, either in general or in evaluations of new programs. The lack of research is surprising, given that knowledge gaps could limit the effectiveness of reforms or lead to incorrect inferences regarding the effects of a policy change. In this article, we use survey…

Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria; Nam, Kisun

2007-01-01

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The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.

Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

2005-08-01

20

Knowledge Leakages and Ways to Reduce Them in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we look into knowledge leakages and ways to address them. It is conducted from the point of view of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, as their specific attributes create unique challenges. Based on a discussion of the relevant fields, ways are presented in order to reduce the danger of knowledge leakages. In view of practitioners, the paper’s findings may enable an increased awareness towards the areas where existing knowledge is at the mercy of “leakage”. This can assist managers of SMEs to better cope with risks related to knowledge leakage and, therefore, better exploit the (limited knowledge base available.

Susanne Durst

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.

Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.

This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.

The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’, and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities.

Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged since it allows individuals to achieve personal goals and may lead to effective management of oneself, other people and tasks. In addition, students do not appear to recognise the role of mobile phones in enhancing knowledge transfer. More awareness of this role needs to be created in institutions of learning in order to improve group learning and student performance.

How to cite this article:
Kyobe, M.E. & Shongwe, M.M., 2011, ‘Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams’, SA Journal of Information Management 13(1, Art. # 424, 10 pages. doi:10.4102/sajim.v13i1.424

Michael E. Kyobe

2011-03-01

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Contextual Alignment of Cognitive and Neural Dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective real-world communication requires the alignment of multiple individuals to a common perspective or mental framework. To study how this alignment occurs at the level of the brain, we measured BOLD response during fMRI while participants (N = 24) listened to a series of vignettes either in the presence or absence of a valid contextual cue. The valid contextual cue was necessary to understand the information in each vignette. We then examined where and to what extent the shared valid context led to greater intersubject similarity of neural processing. Regions of the default mode network including posterior cingulate cortex and medial pFC became more aligned when participants shared a valid contextual framework, whereas other regions, including primary sensory cortices, responded to the stimuli reliably regardless of contextual factors. Taken in conjunction with previous research, the present results suggest that default mode regions help the brain to organize incoming verbal information in the context of previous knowledge. PMID:25244122

Ames, Daniel L; Honey, Christopher J; Chow, Michael; Todorov, Alexander; Hasson, Uri

2014-09-22

23

Competing definitions of contextual environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what constitutes the boundaries of the communities. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle was preferred because it focused attention on the most frequently used spaces and it controlled potential aggregation problems. There is a need to further examine the validity of different methods proposed here. Given that no method is likely to capture the full complexity of human-environment interactions, we would need baseline data describing people's daily activity patterns along with expert knowledge of the area to evaluate our neighborhood units.

Jerrett Michael

2006-12-01

24

Reducing a Knowledge-Base Search Space When Data Are Missing  

Science.gov (United States)

This software addresses the problem of how to efficiently execute a knowledge base in the presence of missing data. Computationally, this is an exponentially expensive operation that without heuristics generates a search space of 1 + 2n possible scenarios, where n is the number of rules in the knowledge base. Even for a knowledge base of the most modest size, say 16 rules, it would produce 65,537 possible scenarios. The purpose of this software is to reduce the complexity of this operation to a more manageable size. The problem that this system solves is to develop an automated approach that can reason in the presence of missing data. This is a meta-reasoning capability that repeatedly calls a diagnostic engine/model to provide prognoses and prognosis tracking. In the big picture, the scenario generator takes as its input the current state of a system, including probabilistic information from Data Forecasting. Using model-based reasoning techniques, it returns an ordered list of fault scenarios that could be generated from the current state, i.e., the plausible future failure modes of the system as it presently stands. The scenario generator models a Potential Fault Scenario (PFS) as a black box, the input of which is a set of states tagged with priorities and the output of which is one or more potential fault scenarios tagged by a confidence factor. The results from the system are used by a model-based diagnostician to predict the future health of the monitored system.

James, Mark

2007-01-01

25

Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

26

Reducing Disaster Vulnerability through Local Knowledge and Capacity. The Cace of Earthquake Prone Rural Communities in India and Nepal.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation investigates the past and present status of local knowledge, skills and capacity of rural communities in India and Nepal for reducing their vulnerability to earthquakes. Disaster vulnerability is investigated not only as pre disaster condition but also as a continuous process, which is influenced by underdevelopment, process and various response decisions in post disaster situation. To get an integrated and dynamic picture of how local knowledge and capacity and disaster vul...

Jigyasu, Rohit

2002-01-01

27

Knowledges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

Berling, Trine Villumsen

2012-01-01

28

A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues. This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition state context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization. To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees may benefit from such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

Eicke Godehardt

2009-08-01

29

Using contextual and lexical features to restructure and validate the classification of biomedical concepts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical ontologies are critical for integration of data from diverse sources and for use by knowledge-based biomedical applications, especially natural language processing as well as associated mining and reasoning systems. The effectiveness of these systems is heavily dependent on the quality of the ontological terms and their classifications. To assist in developing and maintaining the ontologies objectively, we propose automatic approaches to classify and/or validate their semantic categories. In previous work, we developed an approach using contextual syntactic features obtained from a large domain corpus to reclassify and validate concepts of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS, a comprehensive resource of biomedical terminology. In this paper, we introduce another classification approach based on words of the concept strings and compare it to the contextual syntactic approach. Results The string-based approach achieved an error rate of 0.143, with a mean reciprocal rank of 0.907. The context-based and string-based approaches were found to be complementary, and the error rate was reduced further by applying a linear combination of the two classifiers. The advantage of combining the two approaches was especially manifested on test data with sufficient contextual features, achieving the lowest error rate of 0.055 and a mean reciprocal rank of 0.969. Conclusion The lexical features provide another semantic dimension in addition to syntactic contextual features that support the classification of ontological concepts. The classification errors of each dimension can be further reduced through appropriate combination of the complementary classifiers.

Friedman Carol

2007-07-01

30

Contextual Coalitional Games  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of cooperation among agents is of central interest in multi-agent systems research. A popular way to model cooperation is through coalitional game theory. Much research in this area has had limited practical applicability as regards real-world multi-agent systems due to the fact that it assumes deterministic payoffs to coalitions and in addition does not apply to multi-agent environments that are stochastic in nature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to modeling such scenarios where coalitional games will be contextualized through the use of logical expressions representing environmental and other state, and probability distributions will be placed on the space of contexts in order to model the stochastic nature of the scenarios. More formally, we present a formal representation language for representing contextualized coalitional games embedded in stochastic environments and we define and show how to compute expected Shapley values in such games in a computationally efficient manner. We present the value of the approach through an example involving robotics assistance in emergencies.

Doherty, Patrick; Michalak, Tomasz; Sroka, Jacek; Sza?as, Andrzej

31

Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system-centered perspective. The main focus has been on developing content-based algorithms similar to document search. These algorithms identify matching experts primarily on the basis of the textual content of documents with which experts are associated. Other factors, such as the ones identified by expertise-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling the identified factors and integrate them with content- based retrieval models. Our experiments show that models combining content-based and contextual factors can significantly outperform existing content-based models.

Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian

2010-01-01

32

Psychological, Contextual, and Social Determinants of Safe Sex Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study that developed a model of sexual risk-taking behavior that included psychological measures, as well as social or demographic factors, and contextual variables. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge based used when designing health promotion or disease prevention programs that promote safer sexual practices…

Wilkinson, Anna V.; Iscoe, Ira; Holahan, Charles J.

33

Georgia Tech: Contextual Computing Group  

Science.gov (United States)

The Contextual Computing Group is a research organization at Georgia Tech College of Computing that focuses on the field of contextually-aware, wearable computing systems. The group is interested in "how the continued emergence of on-body computational resources will impact society." Topics addressed in its work include Wearable Computing, Augmented Reality, Lifelong Everyday Interfaces, Natural Gestural Interfaces, First-Person Perceptive Agents, Contextual Computing Devices, Human Computer Interaction, Computer Vision, Memory Prostheses, Embedded Computers, and Sensor Fusion. Projects related to Wearable Computing have yielded hardware products that are available to purchase. Resources that the group has found useful are available to download free of charge.

34

HOW CAN WE USE OUR KNOWLEDGE OF ALCOHOL-TOBACCO INTERACTIONS TO REDUCE ALCOHOL USE?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently, 8.5% of the US population meets criteria for alcohol use disorders, with a total cost to the US economy estimated at $234 billion per year. Alcohol and tobacco use share a high degree of co-morbidity and interact across many levels of analysis. This review begins by highlighting alcohol and tobacco co-morbidity and presenting evidence that tobacco increases the risk for alcohol misuse and likely has a causal role in this relationship. We then discuss how knowledge of alcohol and to...

Mckee, Sherry A.; Weinberger, Andrea H.

2012-01-01

35

The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

2009-05-01

36

Investigating Means to Reduce Cognitive Load from Animations: Applying Differentiated Measures of Knowledge Representation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper covers an experiment designed to investigate the relationship between the didactical setting and learning effects with animations. We investigated whether the cognitive load imposed by animations could be reduced when the students could control the flow of the animation. We did not find an effect due to the fact that the students did…

Schar, Sissel Guttormsen; Zimmermann, Philippe G.

2007-01-01

37

Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM, limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org, combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods: We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results: Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96% completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001; this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions: Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa.

Elise M van der Elst

2013-12-01

38

Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend tre parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

39

Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' Knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend tre parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

40

Empathy and contextual social cognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM. PMID:23955101

Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Intrinsic and contextual features in object recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The context in which an object is found can facilitate its recognition. Yet, it is not known how effective this contextual information is relative to the object's intrinsic visual features, such as color and shape. To address this, we performed four experiments using rendered scenes with novel objects. In each experiment, participants first performed a visual search task, searching for a uniquely shaped target object whose color and location within the scene was experimentally manipulated. We then tested participants' tendency to use their knowledge of the location and color information in an identification task when the objects' images were degraded due to blurring, thus eliminating the shape information. In Experiment 1, we found that, in the absence of any diagnostic intrinsic features, participants identified objects based purely on their locations within the scene. In Experiment 2, we found that participants combined an intrinsic feature, color, with contextual location in order to uniquely specify an object. In Experiment 3, we found that when an object's color and location information were in conflict, participants identified the object using both sources of information equally. Finally, in Experiment 4, we found that participants used whichever source of information-either color or location-was more statistically reliable in order to identify the target object. Overall, these experiments show that the context in which objects are found can play as important a role as intrinsic features in identifying the objects. PMID:25630379

Schlangen, Derrick; Barenholtz, Elan

2015-01-01

42

Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information  

CERN Document Server

In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

Slivkins, Aleksandrs

2009-01-01

43

Integrated contextual representation for objects' identities and their locations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual context plays a prominent role in everyday perception. Contextual information can facilitate recognition of objects within scenes by providing predictions about objects that are most likely to appear in a specific setting, along with the locations that are most likely to contain objects in the scene. Is such identity-related ("semantic") and location-related ("spatial") contextual knowledge represented separately or jointly as a bound representation? We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) priming experiment whereby semantic and spatial contextual relations between prime and target object pictures were independently manipulated. This method allowed us to determine whether the two contextual factors affect object recognition with or without interacting, supporting a unified versus independent representations, respectively. Results revealed a Semantic x Spatial interaction in reaction times for target object recognition. Namely, significant semantic priming was obtained when targets were positioned in expected (congruent), but not in unexpected (incongruent), locations. fMRI results showed corresponding interactive effects in brain regions associated with semantic processing (inferior prefrontal cortex), visual contextual processing (parahippocampal cortex), and object-related processing (lateral occipital complex). In addition, activation in fronto-parietal areas suggests that attention and memory-related processes might also contribute to the contextual effects observed. These findings indicate that object recognition benefits from associative representations that integrate information about objects' identities and their locations, and directly modulate activation in object-processing cortical regions. Such context frames are useful in maintaining a coherent and meaningful representation of the visual world, and in providing a platform from which predictions can be generated to facilitate perception and action. PMID:18004950

Gronau, Nurit; Neta, Maital; Bar, Moshe

2008-03-01

44

Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

45

A "Sleep 101" Program for College Students Improves Sleep Hygiene Knowledge and Reduces Maladaptive Beliefs about Sleep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Sensitizing late adolescents and young adults about sleep hygiene knowledge and helpful beliefs and attitudes about sleep may have the potential to instill long lasting healthy sleep practices. Towards these ends, an evaluation of a brief, psychoeducational program "Sleep 101" tailored to college students was conducted. Following two weeks of sleep log recordings, participants were randomly assigned to a Sleep 101 (experimental) condition or a sleep monitoring (control) condition. The Sleep 101 condition was comprised of two, 90 minute workshops aimed at both teaching cognitive strategies to dismiss sleep myths and correct distortions and educating students about healthy sleep practices and ways to improve sleep quality and quantity. The monitoring condition received a handout with good sleep hygiene practices and completed only sleep logs for the duration of the study. Participants in the Sleep 101 condition endorsed fewer maladaptive beliefs and attitudes about sleep, increased sleep hygiene knowledge, and reduced sleep onset latency compared to those in the monitoring group. Brief psychoeducational courses may be cost-effective and serve to alleviate current, and/or prevent future, sleep problems. PMID:25268924

Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Walsh, Colleen M; Culnan, Elizabeth; Horsey, Sarah; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

2014-09-30

46

Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.

Jiri Vala

2013-06-01

47

3D Bayesian contextual classifiers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.

Larsen, Rasmus

2000-01-01

48

Contextual Analysis: Invitation to Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper contains a report of a theoretical investigation of contextual analysis (CA) that ranked this reading strategy as the most complex of four kindred word recognition skills although many current reading programs advance its use in the beginning stages of formal reading instruction. Three propositions are offered: CA holds kinship with the…

Garzone, Lio

49

Contextual Constraints on Adolescents' Leisure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interlinks crucial cultural themes emerging from preceding chapters, highlighting the contextual constraints in adolescents' use of free time. Draws parallels across the nations discussed on issues related to how school molds leisure time, the balance of passive versus active leisure, timing of leisure pursuits, and the cumulative effect of…

Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2003-01-01

50

A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%

51

A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%.

Hamill, James J [Siemens Medical Solutions, Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN (United States); Brunken, Richard C [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Bybel, Bohdan [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFilippo, Frank P [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Faul, David D [Siemens Medical Solutions, Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN (United States)

2006-06-07

52

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Efficacy of a Knowledge-Contact Program to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma and Improve Mental Health Literacy in Adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this school-based cluster-randomized trial was to determine the initial acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of an existing community-based intervention, In Our Own Voice, in a sample of US adolescent girls aged 13–17 years (n=156). In Our Own Voice is a knowledge-contact intervention that provides knowledge about mental illness to improve mental health literacy and facilitates intergroup contact with persons with mental illness as a means to reduce mental illness stigma....

Pinto-foltz, Melissa D.; Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Myers, John A.

2011-01-01

53

A contextual framework for standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a layered approach to selection and use of open standards which is being developed to support development work within the UK higher and further educational communities. This approach reflects the diversity of the technical environment, the service provider's environment, user requirements and maturity of standards by separating contextual aspects; technical and non-technical policies; the selection of appropriate solutions and the compliance layer. To place the layered...

Kelly, B.; Dunning, A.; Hollins, P.; Phipps, L.; Rahtz, S.

2006-01-01

54

Contextual Aspects of Early Trilingualism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper reports on work in progress in the field of early trilingual language development. Specifically, it explores the question: What contextual (i.e. social and situational) factors help or hinder young children in acquiring three languages in infancy? For a number of years now, research in bilingualism has recognised the importance of context (societal, familial and conversational) in analysing language use in bilingual couples (Piller 2002) and families (Okita 20...

Chevalier, S.

2008-01-01

55

Contextual integration in waterfront development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between waterfronts and water in the establishment of many cities is undeniable. Issues as to why many waterfront developments do not respond to their water are often raised. This thesis examines the response of waterfront development towards its water (in particular the urban rivers). This is measured through the level of contextual integration in the city centre of Kuala Lumpur to identify the reason why this situation exists. The research employed the qualitative method u...

Abdul Latip, Nurul Syala

2011-01-01

56

Knowledge in Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to motivate and defend a version of epistemic contextualism; a version, that is, of what came to be called attributor or ascriber contextualism. I will begin by outlining, in the first part, what I take to be the basic idea of and motivation behind the version of epistemic contextualism that I favor. In the second part, a couple of examples will be presented in order to illustrate the contextualist point. Since epistemic (ascriber contextualists commonly claim that knowledge ascriptions are context-sensitive, the third part of the paper will be concerned with the phenomenon of context-sensitivity at a more general level. A more detailed inquiry into the context-sensitivity natural language expressions exhibit will prove helpful in order to counter the objection that postulating context-sensitivity in the case of knowledge ascriptions is an ad-hoc-maneuver. Given that epistemic contextualism is partly an epistemological thesis, party a linguistic thesis, the remainder of the paper will be devoted to the question of how to semantically model the kind of context-sensitivity exhibited by knowledge ascriptions. The upshot will be that there are two differ-ent ways of semantically accommodating the context-sensitivity at issue. Both call for a more or less drastic departure from epistemological and semantic orthodoxy.

Nikola Kompa

2014-04-01

57

Contextual Restriction in Business English Translation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper mainly studies the contextual restriction in business English translation from the perspectives of linguistic context, situational context and cultural context respectively. To avoid mistranslation resulting from translators' neglecting the contextual restriction, this paper also comes up with relevant suggestions for business English translation. The research aims at reminding translators of the contextual restriction in translating so as to produce correct, exact and proper trans...

Yuanyuan Gao

2011-01-01

58

Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.

59

Knowing what others know : Knowledge management within a knowledge-based organization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The capability to know what knowledge there is and where it resides within an organization is becoming increasingly important in the new knowledge-based economy. This paper takes on a practise-based view of knowledge in order to decide on a course of action for how to successfully implement knowledge management within a knowledge-based company. By considering all knowledge as more or less contextual and socially constructed, knowledge is divided into three dimensions depending on the degree t...

Carlson, Johanna

2012-01-01

60

Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

 
 
 
 
61

Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

Anna Voigt

2008-03-01

62

Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paisit Boonyakawee, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Robert S ChapmanCollege of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km) apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. T...

Boonyakawee P; Taneepanichskul S; Rs, Chapman

2013-01-01

63

A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

Arthur Stamps

2014-11-01

64

PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY AND CONTEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT CONSTANCIA PERCEPTUAL Y MEJORAMIENTO CONTEXTUAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communication. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y acumulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos lingüísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que procesos cognitivos de nivel alto pueden restringir los mecanismos auditivos básicos involucrados en la identificación del tono para garantizar una percepción constante. Los resultados que muestran una mejor identificación de tonos en contextos que son inversamente proporcionales a su frecuencia apoyan la hipótesis de que el procesamiento auditivo periférico mejora la identificación de los tonos a través de una función de contraste contextual.

HERIBERTO AVELINO

2010-01-01

65

PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY AND CONTEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT / CONSTANCIA PERCEPTUAL Y MEJORAMIENTO CONTEXTUAL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y ac [...] umulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos lingüísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que procesos cognitivos de nivel alto pueden restringir los mecanismos auditivos básicos involucrados en la identificación del tono para garantizar una percepción constante. Los resultados que muestran una mejor identificación de tonos en contextos que son inversamente proporcionales a su frecuencia apoyan la hipótesis de que el procesamiento auditivo periférico mejora la identificación de los tonos a través de una función de contraste contextual. Abstract in english The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded [...] in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communication. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.

HERIBERTO, AVELINO.

66

An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

Ian T. Durham

2014-09-01

67

Knowledge Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used onorale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations

68

Individual joblessness, contextual unemployment, and mortality risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979-1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals-the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

Tapia Granados, José A; House, James S; Ionides, Edward L; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S

2014-08-01

69

Contextual learning: a reflective learning intervention for nursing education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing educators need to continue to explore ways that new pedagogies such as narrative pedagogy and reflective practice inform and extend students' thinking in classroom and clinical situations. The goal of instruction becomes creating an opportunity for learning that integrates content knowledge with knowledge of the context. Educational methodologies that incorporate the use of context in a reflective, dialogical approach over time hold much promise in developing a dynamic process of thinking in practice. Contextual learning is a reflective learning intervention that offers new possibilities for nurse educators to prepare nurses to think critically in practice. In this expository paper the design and instructional methodology of contextual learning is discussed, beginning with a brief overview of the nature of critical thinking and the use of narrative as major underpinnings in the development of this intervention. Examples of how the intervention was implemented with novice nurses in practice is provided. Finally, reflections on how the intervention could be refined for nursing students is offered. PMID:16646944

Forneris, Susan G; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia J

2006-01-01

70

Contextual integration of visual objects necessitates attention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objects that form a contextually coherent percept are grasped more rapidly and efficiently than objects that are contextually inconsistent with each other. The extent to which such clustering processes depend on visual attention is largely unknown. The present research examined the necessity of attention for object-to-object contextual integration processes during a brief visual glimpse. Participants performed an object classification task on associated object pairs that were presented for a short duration (59 ms). Objects were positioned either in expected relative locations (e.g., a desk lamp on a desk) or in unexpected relative locations (e.g., a desk lamp under a desk). When both stimuli were relevant to task requirements, latencies to spatially consistent object pairs were significantly shorter than those to spatially inconsistent pairs (Experiment 1). These contextual effects disappeared, however, when spatial attention was drawn to one of the two object stimuli while its counterpart object appeared outside the main focus of attention, serving as a task-irrelevant distractor (Experiment 2). Attentional modulation of contextual integration processes was shown to be independent of distractor recognition per se (Experiment 3). Finally, the role of goal-directed (endogenous) and spatial (exogenous) attention factors in contextual integration was explored (Experiment 4). Taken together, our findings suggest that contextual associations play an important role in processing multiple-object visual displays. However, regardless of whether objects are associated by active or passive relations, the construction of a coherent contextual representation strongly relies on the availability of attentional capacity. Possible implications for theories of scene and object recognition are discussed. PMID:24448697

Gronau, Nurit; Shachar, Meytal

2014-04-01

71

Knowledge Integration in Virtual Teams: The Potential Role of KMS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses knowledge management and identifies four challenges to knowledge integration in virtual team environments: constraints in transactive memory, insufficient mutual understanding, failure in sharing and retaining contextual knowledge, and inflexibility of organizational ties. Proposes a knowledge management systems approach to meet these…

Alavi, Maryam; Tiwana, Amrit

2002-01-01

72

A word language model based contextual language processing on Chinese character recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

The language model design and implementation issue is researched in this paper. Different from previous research, we want to emphasize the importance of n-gram models based on words in the study of language model. We build up a word based language model using the toolkit of SRILM and implement it for contextual language processing on Chinese documents. A modified Absolute Discount smoothing algorithm is proposed to reduce the perplexity of the language model. The word based language model improves the performance of post-processing of online handwritten character recognition system compared with the character based language model, but it also increases computation and storage cost greatly. Besides quantizing the model data non-uniformly, we design a new tree storage structure to compress the model size, which leads to an increase in searching efficiency as well. We illustrate the set of approaches on a test corpus of recognition results of online handwritten Chinese characters, and propose a modified confidence measure for recognition candidate characters to get their accurate posterior probabilities while reducing the complexity. The weighted combination of linguistic knowledge and candidate confidence information proves successful in this paper and can be further developed to achieve improvements in recognition accuracy.

Huang, Chen; Ding, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yan

2010-01-01

73

Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research, a worldwide consensus about the content of NOS teaching is said to be reached. This consensus content is listed as a general statement of science, which students are supposed to understand during their education. Unfortunately, decades of research has demonstrated that teachers and students alike do not possess an appropriate understanding of NOS, at least as far as it is defined at the general level. One reason for such failure might be that formal statements about the NOS and scientific knowledge can really be understood after having been contextualized in the actual cases. Typically NOS is studied as contextualized in the reconstructed historical case stories. When the objective is to educate scientifically and technologically literate citizens, as well as scientists of the near future, studying NOS in the contexts of contemporary science is encouraged. Such contextualizations call for revision of the characterization of NOS and the goals of teaching about NOS. As a consequence, this article gives two examples for studying NOS in the contexts of scientific practices with practicing scientists: an interview study with nanomodellers considering NOS in the context of their actual practices and a course on nature of scientific modelling for science teachers employing the same interview method as a studying method. Such scrutinization opens rarely discussed areas and viewpoints to NOS as well as aspects that practising scientists consider as important.

Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

2015-01-01

74

Feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a knowledge-contact program to reduce mental illness stigma and improve mental health literacy in adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this school-based cluster-randomized trial was to determine the initial acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of an existing community-based intervention, In Our Own Voice, in a sample of US adolescent girls aged 13-17 years (n = 156). In Our Own Voice is a knowledge-contact intervention that provides knowledge about mental illness to improve mental health literacy and facilitates intergroup contact with persons with mental illness as a means to reduce mental illness stigma. This longitudinal study was set in two public high schools located in a southern urban community of the U.S. Outcomes included measures of mental illness stigma and mental health literacy. Findings support the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention for adolescents who enrolled in the study. Findings to support the efficacy of In Our Own Voice to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy are mixed. The intervention did not reduce mental illness stigma or improve mental health literacy at one week follow up. The intervention did not reduce mental illness stigma at 4 and 8 weeks follow up. The intervention did improve mental health literacy at 4 and 8 weeks follow up. Previous studies have assessed the preliminary efficacy In Our Own Voice among young adults; rarely has In Our Own Voice been investigated longitudinally and with adolescents in the United States. This study provides initial data on the effects of In Our Own Voice for this population and can be used to further adapt the intervention for adolescents. PMID:21624729

Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Myers, John A

2011-06-01

75

[Knowledge production: a dialogue among different knowledge].  

Science.gov (United States)

This text approaches the necessary dialogue among different knowledge and considers the advances within Nursing in the search for consistence and clarity within the Nursing discipline. Towards this end, the text is based upon transdisciplinarity, intersectorality, complexity, and the interaction of different pairs in health and other areas, as well as the sustainance of scientific and technological space within Nursing. It argues perspectives that open possibilities for scientific and technological knowledge construction within a more responsible and mutual social commitment. The purpose of the paperis to amplify the aptitude for contextualization and globalize different knowledge, as well as transcend differences and peculiarities within the perspective of more qualitative policies which may overcome disciplinary barriers. PMID:17340736

Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Schlindwein, Betina Hömer; de Sousa, Francisca Georgina Macedo

2006-01-01

76

Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia: A Participative Workshop to Reduce Volcanic Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Galeras has been in nearly constant activity during modern historic times (roughly the past 500 years). Approximately 10,000 people live within an area designated as the highest-hazard and nearly 400,000 people are within areas of potential harmful effects. A wide variety of stakeholders are affected by the hazards, including: farmers, indigenous villagers, and people in urban environments. Hazards assessment and volcano monitoring are the responsibility of the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS), whereas decisions regarding mitigation and response procedures are the responsibility of various governmental offices and the national emergency system (SNPAD). According to the current plan, when the risk level rises to a high level the people in the highest risk zone are required to evacuate. The volcano currently is in a very active, but fluctuating, condition and a future large eruption in a medium time frame (years to decades) is possible. There is a growing level of discomfort among many of the affected groups, including indigenous communities, farmers, and urban dwellers, related to the risk assessment. The general opinion prior to July 2009 was quite polarized as the decision makers saw the people of the region as poorly prepared to understand this hazard, whereas the population felt that their views were not being heard. The result was that the people in the hazardous areas decided not to evacuate, even during the current period of explosive activity. To resolve this situation the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop named "Knowledge, Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia" that was held in Pasto (Colombia), between 6 and 11 July, 2009. The general objective of this workshop was to analyze the existing hazard maps and safety plans for Galeras and form a bridge connecting scientists, decision makers, and other stake holders to promote a better understanding of the hazards presented by Galeras and the measures needed for mutual understanding and protection of people and property in the potentially threatened areas. Progress towards developing trust was achieved by requiring all the parties, including technicians, scientists, administrators and even farmers and indigenous people to listen to each others’ perceptions thought the entire week of the workshop. On the final day of the meeting a roundtable dialogue between the conflicting parts was moderated by social scientists. This intercourse identified, in a consensual manner, points of agreement to serve as starting positions for finding solutions to the areas of conflict. Irresolvable points were also identified during this roundtable discussion. The workshop showed that by sharing information within the framework of a full and frank communication, accepting (or at least listening to) each others’ arguments and trying to understand different points of view and served as a framework for an ongoing process of dialogue focused on resolving conflicts between the various stakeholder groups, even though they had previously reached the point of radicalized positions and statements.

Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.

2009-12-01

77

Context Awareness Framework Based on Contextual Graph  

CERN Document Server

Nowadays computing becomes increasingly mobile and pervasive. One of the important steps in pervasive computing is context-awareness. Context-aware pervasive systems rely on information about the context and user preferences to adapt their behavior. However, context-aware applications do not always behave as user's desire, and can cause users to feel dissatisfied with unexpected actions. To solve these problems, context-aware systems must provide mechanisms to adapt automatically when the context changes significantly. The interesting characteristic of context is its own behaviors which depend on various aspects of the surrounding contexts. This paper uses contextual graphs to solve the problem "the mutual relationships among the contexts". We describe the most relevant work in this area, as well as ongoing research on developing context-aware system for ubiquitous computing based on contextual graph. The usage of contextual graph in context-awareness is expected to make it effective for developers to develop...

Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai

2010-01-01

78

Random graphs: structural-contextual dichotomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A formal definition of random graphs is introduced which is applicable to graphical pattern recognition problems. The definition is used to formulate rigorously the structural-contextual dichotomy of random graphs. The probability of outcome graphs is expressed as the product of two terms, one due to the statistical variability of structure among the outcome graphs and the other due to their contextual variability. Expressions are obtained to estimate the various probability, typicality, and entropy measures. The members in an ensemble of signed digraphs are interpreted as outcome graphs of a random graph. The synthesized random graph is used to quantify the structural, contextual, and overall typicality of the outcome graphs with respect to the random graph. PMID:21868910

Wong, A K; Ghahraman, D E

1980-04-01

79

Bupropion Dose-Dependently Reverses Nicotine Withdrawal Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, facilitates smoking cessation and reduces some symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. However, the effects of bupropion on nicotine withdrawal-associated deficits in learning remain unclear. The present study investigated whether bupropion has effects on contextual and cued fear conditioning following withdrawal from chronic nicotine or when administered alone. Bupropion was administered alo...

Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

80

Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be usedto enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving contextual mathematics problem. The results showed that 75% students can not solve contextual mathematics problems precisely (unfinished). Students stop and f...

Moch. Lutfianto; Zulkardi; Yusuf Hartono

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Developing Student Understanding: Contextualizing Calculus Concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the practice of one high school teacher who provided students with concrete examples from their physics class to give them a contextually rich environment in which to explore the abstractions of calculus. Indicates that students discovered connections between the physics concepts of position, velocity, and acceleration and the calculus…

Schwalbach, Eileen M.; Dosemagen, Debra M.

2000-01-01

82

Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

2010-01-01

83

Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons  

Science.gov (United States)

Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

2014-01-01

84

Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

Partlow, Michelle C.

2007-01-01

85

Clarifying Functional Contextualism: A Reply to Commentaries  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author, who wrote "Constructing a Pragmatic Science of Learning and Instruction with Functional Contextualism," feels honored that his article received commentary from several distinguished scholars in the field of instructional design and technology (IDT). In response to their comments, the author briefly discusses some of…

Fox, Eric J.

2006-01-01

86

Contextual Affordances of Rural Appalachian Individuals  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocational psychology has recently begun examining the career development of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers may affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. Contextual

Bennett, Sara Lynne Rieder

2008-01-01

87

Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

Yang, Shih-Ying

2008-01-01

88

Contextual influences on the development of obesity in children: A case study of UK South Asian communities?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

? We examined contextual influences on childhood obesity in South Asian communities. ? We held focus groups with stakeholders from UK South Asian communities. ? Knowledge of context is critical for childhood obesity intervention development. ? Cultural influences on childhood obesity need to be understood in detail.

Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Adab, Peymane

2012-01-01

89

Socio-Cultural Knowledge in Conversational Inference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to words and grammar, socio-cultural knowledge is also of vital importance in the interpretation of conversations. Socio-cultural knowledge helps participants to get contextualization cues and together with other signaling channels, participants will be able to perceive the context-bound information and prepare their appropriate responses. Socio-cultural knowledge is indispensable in our modern society where people have widely varying communicative and cultural backgrounds, which needs to be further studied.

Xiaomei Yang

2009-07-01

90

Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. Previous efforts of social psychologists are thus expanded by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among political parties on us–them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical out-group members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce anti-foreigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship becomes more effective in reducing anti-foreigner sentiment when intergroup relations are politicized. These findings demonstrate the need for widening the scope of the intergroup contact theory in order to cover macro-political conditions.

SØnderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter FrØlund

2015-01-01

91

An Intelligent Spatial Proximity System Using Neurofuzzy Classifiers and Contextual Information  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a novel approach to reason with spatial proximity. The approach is based on contextual information and uses a neurofuzzy classifier to handle the uncertainty aspect of proximity. Neurofuzzy systems are a combination of neural networks and fuzzy systems and incorporate the advantages of both techniques. Although fuzzy systems are focused on knowledge representation, they do not allow the estimation of membership functions. Conversely, neuronal networks use powerful learning techniques but they are not able to explain how results are obtained. Neurofuzzy systems benefit from both techniques by using training data to generate membership functions and by using fuzzy rules to represent expert knowledge. Moreover, contextual information is collected from a knowledge base. The complete solution that we propose is integrated in a GIS, enhancing it with proximity reasoning. From an application perspective, the proposed approach was used in the telecommunication domain and particularly in fiber optic monitoring systems. In such systems, a user needs to qualify the distance between a fiber break and the surrounding objects of the environment to optimize the assignment of emergency crews. The neurofuzzy classifier has been used to compute the membership function parameters of the contextual information inputs using a training data set and fuzzy rules.

Barouni, F.; Moulin, B.

2014-11-01

92

Applying contextual interference to snowboarding skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation was designed to apply contextual interference to acquisition of snowboarding skills. 20 participants completed several acquisition stages lasting about 2 hours while either alternating the direction of the turn within each stage or completing the whole stage while attempting turns in one direction, then repeating the stage for the other direction of turn. Following acquisition, all participants returned 1 wk. later for a retention test. Alternating practice yielded better performance during acquisition and retention as measured by the arc and form attained within the turns. Because this differs from typical contextual interference effects, it is suggested that the relation between the skills may have affected the results. Negative transfer operating within blocked practice and increased between-task comparisons within alternating practice may be related to the similarity between the tasks. PMID:12509208

Smith, Peter J K

2002-12-01

93

Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images.

Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco

2009-01-01

94

Contextual Risk and Its Relevance in Economics  

CERN Document Server

Uncertainty in economics still poses some fundamental problems illustrated, e.g., by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. To overcome these difficulties, economists have introduced an interesting distinction between 'risk' and 'ambiguity' depending on the existence of a (classical Kolmogorovian) probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainty situations. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that 'context' plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian quantum-like framework. In this paper we introduce the notion of 'contextual risk' with the aim of modeling a substantial part of the situations in which usually only 'ambiguity' is present. More precisely, we firstly introduce the essentials of an operational formalism called 'the hidden measurement approach' in which probability is introduced as a consequence of fluct...

Aerts, Diederik

2011-01-01

95

Intelligent Contextual Algorithm For Harmonics Classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents methods for classification of harmonics present in the electrical signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Contextual Clustering (CC) and Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA). Power quality meter has been used to collect the electrical signal data from a 40W Fluorescent Lamp (FL). In the captured data, variouselectrical disturbances are introduced through Matlab code. FFT has been used for extraction of features from the acquired electrical signal. The FFT, CC, BPA and BPACC...

Elango, M. K.; Nirmal Kumar, Dr A.; Purushothaman, Dr S.

2010-01-01

96

Active Architecture for Pervasive Contextual Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pervasive services may be defined as services that are available "to any client (anytime, anywhere)". Here we focus on the software and network infrastructure required to support pervasive contextual services operating over a wide area. One of the key requirements is a matching service capable of as-similating and filtering information from various sources and determining matches relevant to those services. We consider some of the challenges in engineering a globally distrib...

Kirby, Graham; Dearle, Alan; Morrison, Ron; Dunlop, Mark; Connor, Richard; Nixon, Paddy

2010-01-01

97

Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further de...

Moed, Henk F.

2009-01-01

98

Art Workshop : contextual architecture in light  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Architecture today is misunderstood. This statement does not engage in the tectonic, programmatic, systemic or contextual aspects of the art, but involves the presence of architectural meaning and experience. Therefore this depravity does not apply to the general public alone, but also to us, the architects. If we don’t understand architecture, how could we begin to understand our relation to it? I believe that this is because much of today’s architecture doesn’t have the tools to revea...

Kotze, Willem Riaan

2008-01-01

99

Art Workshop : contextual architecture in light  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Architecture today is misunderstood. This statement does not engage in the tectonic, programmatic, systemic or contextual aspects of the art, but involves the presence of architectural meaning and experience. Therefore this depravity does not apply to the general public alone, but also to us, the architects. If we dont understand architecture, how could we begin to understand our relation to it? I believe that this is because much of todays architecture doesnt have the tools to reveal itself....

Kotze, Willem Riaan

2009-01-01

100

Contextual Service Loading by Dependency Graph Colouring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While installing applications on mobiles devices, we may face issues due to the limit of the device resources. In this paper, we propose AxSeL: A conteXtual Service Loader that considers services-oriented applications and loads them from a distant repository. Services dependencies are represented in a graph that is coloured considering the devices and ser- vices constraints. The graph colouring aims to take services loading decisions.

Ben Hamida, Amira; Le Moue?l, Fre?de?ric; Fre?not, Ste?phane; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enablethe conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on aliterature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used.Results: Nurse researchers (N = 100 from 22 countries were invited to participate. Theresponse rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97. The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100. The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22. This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research.Conclusion: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used tostrategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R. Uys

2013-01-01

102

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. OBJECTIVES: The current study [...] aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. METHOD: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. RESULTS: Nurse researchers (N = 100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. CONCLUSION: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R., Uys; Robin P., Newhouse; Arwa, Oweis; Xiaokun, Liang.

2013-01-01

103

Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-01

104

Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

SatoshiShioiri

2012-06-01

105

Knowledge about knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

106

The importance of contextualization. Anthropological reflections on descriptive analysis, its limitations and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper regards a concern for the quality of analyses made on the basis of qualitative interviews in some parts of qualitative health research. Starting with discussions departing in discussions on studies exploring 'patient delay' in healthcare seeking, it is argued that an implicit and simplified notion of causality impedes reflexivity on social context, on the nature of verbal statements and on the situatedness of the interview encounter. Further, the authors suggest that in order to improve the quality of descriptive analyses, it is pertinent to discuss the relationship between notions of causality and the need for contextualization in particular. This argument targets several disciplines taking a qualitative approach, including medical anthropology. In particular, researchers working in interdisciplinary fields face the demands of producing knowledge ready to implement, and such demands challenge basic notions of causality and explanatory power. In order to meet these, the authors suggest an analytic focus on process causality linked to contextualization. PMID:24484056

Andersen, Rikke Sand; Risør, Mette Bech

2014-12-01

107

Contextual modulation and stimulus selectivity in extrastriate cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual modulation is observed throughout the visual system, using techniques ranging from single-neuron recordings to behavioral experiments. Its role in generating feature selectivity within the retina and primary visual cortex has been extensively described in the literature. Here, we describe how similar computations can also elaborate feature selectivity in the extrastriate areas of both the dorsal and ventral streams of the primate visual system. We discuss recent work that makes use of normalization models to test specific roles for contextual modulation in visual cortex function. We suggest that contextual modulation renders neuronal populations more selective for naturalistic stimuli. Specifically, we discuss contextual modulation's role in processing optic flow in areas MT and MST and for representing naturally occurring curvature and contours in areas V4 and IT. We also describe how the circuitry that supports contextual modulation is robust to variations in overall input levels. Finally, we describe how this theory relates to other hypothesized roles for contextual modulation. PMID:25449337

Krause, Matthew R; Pack, Christopher C

2014-11-01

108

Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be usedto enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving contextual mathematics problem. The results showed that 75% students can not solve contextual mathematics problems precisely (unfinished. Students stop and feel that it was completed when they are able to solve problems mathematically, but mathematical solution has not answered the requested context.

Moch. Lutfianto

2013-07-01

109

Multiculturalism and contextualism: How is context relevant for political theory?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as ‘‘contextualist.’’ But it is unclear what ‘‘contextualism’’ means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about ‘‘moderate secularism,’’ as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual in each sense is novel and interesting, and whether contextualism is a distinct feature of political theory of multiculturalism. I argue that the forms of contextualism which concern the scope and methodology of political theory are sensible, but not novel or distinctive of multiculturalism. I then discuss the more controversial forms of contextualism, which I call political and theoretical contextualism. Finally, I apply the distinctions to Modood’s argument. I argue that it is not a form of theoretical contextualism and that theoretical contextualism would in fact undermine arguments for multiculturalist policies of accommodation.

Lægaard, Sune

2014-01-01

110

Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

Papaioannou Alexandra

2005-07-01

111

Architecture Knowledge Management: Challenges, Approaches, and Tools  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capturing the technical knowledge, contextual information, and rationale surrounding the design decisions underpinning system architectures can greatly improve the software development process. If not managed, this critical knowledge is implicitly embedded in the architecture, becoming tacit knowledge which erodes as personnel on the project change. Moreover, the unavailability of architecture knowledge precludes organizations from growing their architectural capabilities. In this tutorial, we highlight the benefits and challenges in managing software architecture knowledge. We discuss various approaches to characterize architecture knowledge based on the requirements of a particular domain. We describe various concepts and approaches to manage the architecture knowledge from both management and technical perspectives. We also demonstrate the utility of captured knowledge to support software architecture activities with a case study covering the use of architecture knowledge management techniques and tools in an industrial project.

Babar, Muhammad A.; Gorton, Ian

2007-08-01

112

Examining contextual control in roulette gambling.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the influence of derived rules on roulette betting. Twelve college students selected between red and black bets on a roulette wheel in a pretest, then participated in a relational training procedure that established functions of more than for the color bet least often and less than for the color bet more frequently. When playing roulette again, 11 of the 12 participants increased betting on the color with the same formal properties of the contextual cue for more than in relational training. PMID:25477290

Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

2014-12-01

113

Intelligent Contextual Algorithm For Harmonics Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents methods for classification of harmonics present in the electrical signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Contextual Clustering (CC and Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA. Power quality meter has been used to collect the electrical signal data from a 40W Fluorescent Lamp (FL. In the captured data, variouselectrical disturbances are introduced through Matlab code. FFT has been used for extraction of features from the acquired electrical signal. The FFT, CC, BPA and BPACC algorithms have been implemented by Matlab. Comparison of performance classification of harmonics by CC, BPA and BPACC are presented.

M.K. ELANGO

2010-06-01

114

Intraperitoneal sertraline and fluvoxamine increase contextual fear conditioning but are without effect on overshadowing between cues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can reduce contextual conditioning. Since contexts comprise a variety of potentially competing cues, impaired overshadowing may provide an account of such effects. The present study therefore compared the effects of two SSRIs on overshadowing and contextual conditioning, testing suppression of an ongoing behavioral response (licking) by cues previously paired with foot shock. Conditioning to a 5s light stimulus was reduced when it was presented in compound with a 5s noise, thus overshadowing was demonstrated. In two experiments, this overshadowing was unaffected by treatment with either sertraline or fluvoxamine. However, unconditioned suppression to the noise (tested in a control group previously conditioned to the light alone) was reduced after sertraline (10mg/kg, i.p.). The successful demonstration of overshadowing required the use of a second conditioning session or an additional conditioning trial within the same conditioning session. Neither weak nor strong overshadowing (of the light by the tone) was affected by any drug treatment. Moreover, counter to prediction, conditioning to contextual cues was increased rather than impaired by treatment with sertraline (10mg/kg, i.p.) and fluvoxamine (30mg/kg, i.p.). PMID:25532461

Cassaday, H J; Thur, K E

2015-02-01

115

Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

Peck, Rick

2009-01-01

116

Experimental Observation of Hardy-Like Quantum Contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextuality is a fundamental property of quantum theory and a critical resource for quantum computation. Here, we experimentally observe the arguably cleanest form of contextuality in quantum theory [A. Cabello et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180404 (2013)] by implementing a novel method for performing two sequential measurements on heralded photons. This method opens the door to a variety of fundamental experiments and applications.

Marques, Breno; Ahrens, Johan; Nawareg, Mohamed; Cabello, Adán; Bourennane, Mohamed

2014-12-01

117

Classroom Verbal Behavior: Contextual Purpose and Situational Factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the nature and stability of verbal behaviors for different contextual purposes in classrooms with varying structures, from traditional to open, utilizing the RCS interaction analysis system modified to code for contextual purpose (cognitive, procedural, social, affective, and behavioral). Eighteen observations were made in…

Marshall, Hermine H.; Green, Judith L.

118

Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

Edwards Nancy

2011-08-01

119

Translating Contextualized Arabic Euphemisms into English: Socio-Cultural Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the role context plays in determining the translation strategies pursued by translators of Arabic euphemisms into English. Due to different cultural backgrounds, adherence to the employment of euphemism in a social context may differ in both Arabic and English. While some situations call for the use of euphemism in one culture, the other culture finds no point in using such euphemisms for such situations; preserving the original Arabic euphemisms when rendered into English in this case could lead to misunderstanding and may deprive the Source Language (SL from a cultural trait. The study derives evidence from 11 Arabic euphemistic expressions taken from five literary masterpieces written by the Egyptian novelist and Noble Prize winner Najib Mahfouz, and it looks into the English translation of these euphemisms. The present study attempts to advance the proposition that Arabic euphemisms in their context  exhibit fluctuating, unstable meaning, which emanates from various contextual factors such as speakers, addressees, shared knowledge and background information, and hence these factors combined dictate on translators the chosen translation strategy.  

Ekrema Shehab

2014-08-01

120

Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors. PMID:24805920

Hopkins, Debbie

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. PMID:22899567

Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

2013-01-01

122

Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization  

CERN Document Server

Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...

Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew

2012-01-01

123

Contextual Bandit Learning with Predictable Rewards  

CERN Document Server

Contextual bandit learning is a reinforcement learning problem where the learner repeatedly receives a set of features (context), takes an action and receives a reward based on the action and context. We consider this problem under a realizability assumption: there exists a function in a (known) function class, always capable of predicting the expected reward, given the action and context. Under this assumption, we show three things. We present a new algorithm---Regressor Elimination--- with a regret similar to the agnostic setting (i.e. in the absence of realizability assumption). We prove a new lower bound showing no algorithm can achieve superior performance in the worst case even with the realizability assumption. However, we do show that for any set of policies (mapping contexts to actions), there is a distribution over rewards (given context) such that our new algorithm has constant regret unlike the previous approaches.

Agarwal, Alekh; Kale, Satyen; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

2012-01-01

124

Accident prevention in a contextual approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law or as a focus on developing the insurance system to establish (economic) motivation. This paper suggests a more elaborated theoretical approach emphasising a differentiated understanding of the external and internal actors and how these relations form the actions of the actors. The theoretical components of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions and programs on accident prevention.

Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

2003-01-01

125

Active Architecture for Pervasive Contextual Services  

CERN Document Server

Pervasive services may be defined as services that are available "to any client (anytime, anywhere)". Here we focus on the software and network infrastructure required to support pervasive contextual services operating over a wide area. One of the key requirements is a matching service capable of as-similating and filtering information from various sources and determining matches relevant to those services. We consider some of the challenges in engineering a globally distributed matching service that is scalable, manageable, and able to evolve incrementally as usage patterns, data formats, services, network topologies and deployment technologies change. We outline an approach based on the use of a peer-to-peer architecture to distribute user events and data, and to support the deployment and evolution of the infrastructure itself.

Kirby, Graham; Morrison, Ron; Dunlop, Mark; Connor, Richard; Nixon, Paddy

2010-01-01

126

Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals  

CERN Document Server

This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further develops Eugene Garfield's notions of a field's 'citation potential' defined as the average length of references lists in a field and determining the probability of being cited, and the need in fair performance assessments to correct for differences between subject fields. A journal's subject field is defined as the set of papers citing that journal. SNIP is defined as the ratio of the journal's citation count per paper and the citation potential in its subject field. It aims to allow direct comparison of sources in different subject fields....

Moed, Henk F

2009-01-01

127

Interactive Visual Contextualization of Space Weather Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Linköping University, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating on a new open source visualization software for astrovisualization. The CCMC is providing real-time and historical space weather data from the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), including timely modeled coronal mass ejection events simulated by the Space Weather Research Center at NASA GSFC. Linköping University is developing a new modular visualization tool with multi-channel capabilities to support planetarium exhibits, displaying the real-time space weather data contextualized using fieldlines, volumetric visualization techniques, and planetary information. This collaboration aims to engage the public about space weather and real-time events at the AMNH. We present an overview of this collaboration and demo some of the capabilities.

Törnros, M.; Ynnerman, A.; Emmart, C.; Berrios, D.; Harberts, R.

2012-12-01

128

Contextuality offers device-independent security  

CERN Document Server

The discovery of quantum key distribution by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) bases on the fundamental quantum feature: incompatibility of measurements of quantum non-commuting observables. In 1991 Ekert showed that cryptographic key can be generated at a distance with help of entangled (correlated) quantum particles. Recently Barrett, Hardy and Kent showed that the non-locality used by Ekert is itself a good resource of cryptographic key even beyond quantum mechanics. Their result paved the way to new generation of quantum cryptographic protocols - secure even if the devices are built by the very eavesdropper. However, there is a question, which is fundamental from both practical and philosophical point of view: does Nature offer security on operational level based on the original concept behind quantum cryptography - that information gain about one observable must cause disturbance to another, incompatible one? Here we resolve this problem by using another striking feature of quantum world - contextuality. It is...

Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard; Pawlowski, Marcin; Bourennane, Mohamed

2010-01-01

129

The Effectiveness Of High Levels Of Knowledge Regarding Hiv/Aids In Reducing Discriminatory Attitudes And Behaviour Towards Hiv-Infected People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between increasing levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and perceptions of discriminatory attitudes and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS. Employees (3662 from a large accounting firm were exposed to a survey and a response rate of 41% or 1532 was received. The secondary objective of the study was to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in the mean difference of knowledge scores of groups created in terms of the different biographical variables. ANOVA’S (to determine the significance of differences between the means, t-tests (two groups only and F-statistics were used for the analysis. Given the large sample size an F-test is not conclusive and the effect of the difference in sample size needs to be taken into account. For this reason it was also necessary to look at the Partial Eta Squared. Results indicate that respondents are generally knowledgeable about the prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS and that respondents’ level of knowledge correlates negatively with discriminatory practices.

W. J. Coetsee

2006-11-01

130

Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

Marincola Francesco M

2011-05-01

131

Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker’s profile. We further discuss the proposed system structure, supportive process and context-driven engine. Finally, we describe a scenario using our contextual mobile learning system.

Rene Chalon

2013-08-01

132

Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. We present our approach in this paper and highlight a number of future extensions with additional contextual information.

Bogers, Toine

133

Continuing Education Reform in Hong Kong: Issues of Contextualization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied how reforms in four particular areas (professional development of principals, higher education, English language standards, and inclusion of students with learning disabilities) have been conceived, contextualized, and managed in Hong Kong since the early 1990s. (SLD)

Dowson, Chris; Bodycott, Peter; Walker, Allan; Coniam, David

2003-01-01

134

Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

StefanPollmann

2009-10-01

135

Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing co...

Christ, O.; Schmid, K.; Lolliot, S.; Swart, H.; Stolle, D.; Tausch, N.; Al Ramiah, A.; Wagner, U.; Vertovec, S.; Hewstone, M.

2014-01-01

136

Contextual-value approach to the generalized measurement of observables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a detailed motivation for and definition of the contextual values of an observable, which were introduced by Dressel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 240401 (2010)]. The theory of contextual values extends the well-established theory of generalized state measurements by bridging the gap between partial state collapse and the observables that represent physically relevant information about the system. To emphasize the general utility of the concept, we first construct ...

Dressel, J.; Jordan, A. N.

2011-01-01

137

Employment-related stress and preterm delivery: a contextual examination.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies of employment-related stress as a risk factor for preterm delivery suggest that contextual factors unrelated to occupation, as well as work-related characteristics, must be examined in assessing this relationship. In this study, the relationship of work and contextual characteristics--assessed at midpregnancy and including scores on an occupational fatigue index--to preterm delivery was examined among 943 black and 425 white low-income multiparous women who were at risk for a poor pre...

Hickey, C. A.; Cliver, S. P.; Mulvihill, F. X.; Mcneal, S. F.; Hoffman, H. J.; Goldenberg, R. L.

1995-01-01

138

Existential contextuality and the models of Meyer, Kent, and Clifton  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that the models recently proposed by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton (MKC) exhibit a novel kind of contextuality, which we term existential contextuality. In this phenomenon it is not simply the pre-existing value but the actual existence of an observable which is context dependent. This result confirms the point made elsewhere, that the MKC models do not, as the authors claim, ``nullify'' the Kochen-Specker theorem. It may also be of some independent interest.

Appleby, D. M.

2002-02-01

139

NMDA Mediated Contextual Conditioning Changes miRNA Expression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We measured the expression of 187 miRNAs using quantitative real time PCR in the hippocampal CA1 region of contextually conditioned mice and cultured embryonic rat hippocampal neurons after neuronal stimulation with either NMDA or bicuculline. Many of the changes in miRNA expression after these three types of stimulation were similar. Surprisingly, the expression level of half of the 187 measured miRNAs was changed in response to contextual conditioning in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner. G...

Kye, Min Jeong; Neveu, Pierre; Lee, Yong-seok; Zhou, Miou; Steen, Judith A.; Sahin, Mustafa; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Silva, Alcino J.

2011-01-01

140

Existential contextuality and the models of Meyer, Kent, and Clifton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the models recently proposed by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton (MKC) exhibit a novel kind of contextuality, which we term existential contextuality. In this phenomenon it is not simply the pre-existing value but the actual existence of an observable which is context dependent. This result confirms the point made elsewhere, that the MKC models do not, as the authors claim, 'nullify' the Kochen-Specker theorem. It may also be of some independent interest

 
 
 
 
141

Mechanisms of the contextual interference effect in individuals poststroke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although intermixing different motor learning tasks via random schedules enhances long-term retention compared with “blocked” schedules, the mechanism underlying this contextual interference effect has been unclear. Furthermore, previous studies have reported inconclusive results in individuals poststroke. We instructed participants to learn to produce three grip force patterns in either random or blocked schedules and measured the contextual interference effect by long-term forgetting: t...

Schweighofer, Nicolas; Lee, Jeong-yoon; Goh, Hui-ting; Choi, Youggeun; Kim, Sung Shin; Stewart, Jill Campbell; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Winstein, Carolee J.

2011-01-01

142

A Contextual Behavioral Approach for Obesity Surgery Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates a contextual behavioral approach for obesity surgery patients. In a contextual approach a behavior is interpreted as inseparable from its current and historical context. Candidates for bariatric surgery often have a history of self-stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating for emotional relief. Despite losing a large amount of weight post surgery, psychological problems may still be present for some patients. One possible common underlying process observed in body conce...

Weineland, Sandra

2012-01-01

143

Contextual Control of Slot-Machine Gambling: Replication and Extension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participants were trained and tested to select stimuli of differing physical quantities in the presence of 2 color contextual cues for more than and less than. Following more than and less than relational training, participants allocated the majority of their responses to the slot machine that shared formal properties of color with the contextual cue for more than, despite the identical payout probabilities of the slot machines.

Hoon, Alice; Dymond, Simon; Jackson, James W.; Dixon, Mark R.

2008-01-01

144

Knowledge crash and knowledge management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

Ermine, Jean-louis

2010-01-01

145

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples ideia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro.Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Maria Eveline de Castro Pereira

2012-06-01

146

Asian Library Partnerships: Applying the Knowledge Model for Library Networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The standard approach adopted in library networking or partnership models is neither developmental nor evolutionary, yet development and evolution are keys to robust, contextually responsive partnerships. Using a set of knowledge models first proposed by Owen and Wiercx, this paper argues for a new approach to the modeling of networks in which…

Gorman, G. E.; Cullen, Rowena

147

Reduced context effects on retrieval in first-episode schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: A recent modeling study by the authors predicted that contextual information is poorly integrated into episodic representations in schizophrenia, and that this is a main cause of the retrieval deficits seen in schizophrenia. Methodology/Principal Findings: We have tested this prediction in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched controls. The benefit from contextual cues in retrieval was strongly reduced in patients. On the other hand, retrieval based on item cues...

Talamini, L. M.; Haan, L.; Nieman, D. H.; Linszen, D. H.; Meeter, M.

2010-01-01

148

The Cohomology of Non-Locality and Contextuality  

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Full Text Available In a previous paper with Adam Brandenburger, we used sheaf theory to analyze the structure of non-locality and contextuality. Moreover, on the basis of this formulation, we showed that the phenomena of non-locality and contextuality can be characterized precisely in terms of obstructions to the existence of global sections. Our aim in the present work is to build on these results, and to use the powerful tools of sheaf cohomology to study the structure of non-locality and contextuality. We use the Cech cohomology on an abelian presheaf derived from the support of a probabilistic model, viewed as a compatible family of distributions, in order to define a cohomological obstruction for the family as a certain cohomology class. This class vanishes if the family has a global section. Thus the non-vanishing of the obstruction provides a sufficient (but not necessary condition for the model to be contextual. We show that for a number of salient examples, including PR boxes, GHZ states, the Peres-Mermin magic square, and the 18-vector configuration due to Cabello et al. giving a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem in four dimensions, the obstruction does not vanish, thus yielding cohomological witnesses for contextuality.

Samson Abramsky

2012-10-01

149

Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

Joseph Pamela

2012-11-01

150

Knowledge Management  

CERN Document Server

This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

Gerami, Mohsen

2010-01-01

151

Fallible Knowledge  

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Full Text Available The paper discusses the nature and role of knowledge in a socio-economic life marked by genuine uncertainty. The starting point is to regard that uncertain environments render knowledge fallible and contingent. Knowledge is fallible for reasons associated both with interactions in space taking place at the same time (complexity, and with the passage of time. The paper stresses two types of knowledge, namely, "knowledge how" and "knowledge that". The former is the knowledge of the way we perform something and the latter is the knowledge of why it is that we perform something. One way that agents find to cope with the condition of fallible knowledge is to resort to conventions (Keynes and rules (Hayek. Conventions and rules are the repository of a social, intersubjective form of knowledge, which agents may acquire, store and communicate with each other. They partly provide the necessary information for the undertaking of their daily activities.

Rogério P. de Andrade

2004-04-01

152

Contextualismo, fiabilismo y el problema pirrónico / Contextualism, Reliabilism and the Pyrrhonian Problematic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se explora una conexión entre el contextualismo y el fiabilismo. El propósito es desarrollar las líneas centrales de un acercamiento contextualista para resolver la crítica internista de que las nociones fiabilistas de justificación y de conocimiento no son adecuadas porque no recoge [...] n las intuiciones correspondientes a que un sujeto que está justificado o que sabe es racional y epistemológicamente responsable. Se argumenta que esta crítica y el escepticismo pirrónico comparten un presupuesto común, a saber, la cláusula internista, por lo que, si es posible limitar el alcance de esta cláusula a través del contextualismo distinguiendo dos contextos diferentes, entonces también es posible hacer uso de esta distinción para dar respuesta a la crítica internista al fiabilismo. Abstract in english In this paper, we explore a connection between reliabilism and contextualism. our purpose is to draw up a contextualist approach to solve the critique that the reliabilist notions of justification and knowledge are not satisfactory because there is no room for the intuitions that a subject who is ju [...] stified or knows is rational and epistemologically responsible. We will argue that this critique and the Pyrrohnian skepticism share the same assumption, viz., the internalist clause. Thus, if it is possible to limit the scope of this clause using contextualism, making a distinction between two different contexts, then it is also possible to use this distinction to offer an answer to the internalist critique to reliabilism.

Jonatan, García Campos; Ricardo, Vázquez Gutiérrez.

2012-05-01

153

Combining ethnography and object-orientation for mobile interaction design : contextual richness and abstract models  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There has been a lot of interest in ethnography within human–computer interaction over the last two decades, and its relevance within systems development is today beyond question. However, one of the challenges reported is that ethnography generates findings and knowledge with such contextual richness that it can be hard to transfer into system design. In the light of recent years' push for the use of ethnography within the area of mobile human–computer interaction, this challenge has resurfaced and is of renewed importance to the research field. In this article we describe an interdisciplinary combination of ethnography with a structured software engineering method supporting the transition from collected data to design and implementation. We explore this combination through two case studies of mobile system development for supporting distributed work activities within industrial process control. We show that when developing mobile systems ethnographic data is a highly valuable source of input for developingobject-oriented models by providing contextual richness, and that in turn, objected-oriented analysis is a highly valuable method for working with ethnographic field data in systems development by supporting the creation of abstract models. Combining the two, we have a method where ethnographic field studies inform core system design.

Kjeldskov, Jesper; Stage, Jan

2012-01-01

154

Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

155

Contextual Information and Specific Language Models for Spoken Language Understanding  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we explain how contextual expectations are generated and used in the task-oriented spoken language understanding system Dialogos. The hard task of recognizing spontaneous speech on the telephone may greatly benefit from the use of specific language models during the recognition of callers' utterances. By 'specific language models' we mean a set of language models that are trained on contextually appropriated data, and that are used during different states of the dialogue on the basis of the information sent to the acoustic level by the dialogue management module. In this paper we describe how the specific language models are obtained on the basis of contextual information. The experimental result we report show that recognition and understanding performance are improved thanks to the use of specific language models.

Baggia, P; Gerbino, E; Moisa, L M; Popovici, C; Baggia, Paolo; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta; Moisa, Loreta M.; Popovici, Cosmin

1999-01-01

156

State-independent quantum contextuality with single photons  

CERN Document Server

Bell's theorem states that quantum predictions cannot be reproduced with hidden variable theories satisfying locality. The Kochen-Specker theorem states that quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced with non-contextual hidden variables. The result of a measurement is non-contextual when it is not affected by other compatible measurements being carried out on the same individual system. While Bell's theorem applies only to entangled states of composite systems, a distinguishing feature of the Kochen-Specker theorem is that it is valid for any quantum state, entangled or not, of any system, even for single systems. We present the first experimental state-independent violation of an inequality for non-contextual theories on single particles in the spirit of the original Kochen-Specker theorem. The tested inequality involves correlations between results of sequential compatible measurements on single photons. We show that 20 different single-photon states, ranging from states with maximal internal entanglement to m...

Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

2009-01-01

157

Contextual repetition facilitates word learning via fast mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study explores whether contextual repetition during fast mapping facilitates word learning. Three-year-old children completed fast mapping and test trials using a touchscreen computer. For half of the children, the non-targets (competitors) repeated across learning trials and for other children there was no repetition. All children received the same test trials. Children who experienced contextual repetition, that is, children for whom the competitors repeated during the initial fast mapping task, demonstrated word learning. These data demonstrate that children's word learning is facilitated by the presence of extraneous yet predictable information in the initial fast mapping task. PMID:25195163

Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

2014-10-01

158

Knowledge Technologies  

CERN Document Server

Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

Milton, Nick

2008-01-01

159

Knowledge Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, SCK-CEN decided to adopt and implement a practical knowledge management approach. Knowledge management activities were identified within the organisation and a co-ordinated approach to knowledge management was applied. Such an approach requires an efficient reuse of recorded knowledge and an effective transfer of the available knowledge. This approach ensures an added value to our research work and guarantees the long-term preservation of the institutional memory. Principle results and future developments regarding knowledge management at SCK-CEN are summarised

160

The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Nonrigid registration of ultrasound and MRI using contextual conditioned mutual information.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutual information (MI) quantifies the information that is shared between two random variables and has been widely used as a similarity metric for multi-modal and uni-modal image registration. A drawback of MI is that it only takes into account the intensity values of corresponding pixels and not of neighborhoods. Therefore, it treats images as "bag of words" and the contextual information is lost. In this work, we present Contextual Conditioned Mutual Information (CoCoMI), which conditions MI estimation on similar structures. Our rationale is that it is more likely for similar structures to undergo similar intensity transformations. The contextual analysis is performed on one of the images offline. Therefore, CoCoMI does not significantly change the registration time. We use CoCoMI as the similarity measure in a regularized cost function with a B-spline deformation field and efficiently optimize the cost function using a stochastic gradient descent method. We show that compared to the state of the art local MI based similarity metrics, CoCoMI does not distort images to enforce erroneous identical intensity transformations for different image structures. We further present the results on nonrigid registration of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) patient data from image-guided neurosurgery trials performed in our institute and publicly available in the BITE dataset. We show that CoCoMI performs significantly better than the state of the art similarity metrics in US to MR registration. It reduces the average mTRE over 13 patients from 4.12 mm to 2.35 mm, and the maximum mTRE from 9.38 mm to 3.22 mm. PMID:24595344

Rivaz, Hassan; Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis

2014-03-01

162

Haloperidol can increase responding to both discrete and contextual cues in trace conditioned rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haloperidol has been shown to enhance attentional selectivity in conditioning procedures. For example, in latent inhibition (LI) it improves animals' ability to treat as irrelevant, stimuli that have previously been presented without consequence. The present study tested whether this finding would generalize to other procedures that present animals with weak predictors. We therefore used a trace conditioning procedure to present rats with a conditioned stimulus (CS) weakened through temporal discontiguity (rather than preexposure in LI) and a flashing light background provided an alternative experimental stimulus. In Experiment 1, a noise CS was paired contiguously (at '0 s') with food or at a 10 s trace interval. In Experiment 2, the trace interval was lengthened to 20 s. In both experiments, haloperidol treatment generally reduced responding in 0 s contiguous groups. By contrast, 0.03 mg/kg haloperidol enhanced conditioning, selectively, to the weakly predictive trace CS, though it was without effect on responding within the trace interval. In addition, again at 0.03 mg/kg, haloperidol significantly increased excitatory conditioning to contextual stimuli in trace groups relative to contiguous groups. At the shorter (10 s) Experiment 1 trace, this result was shown in the extinction test of conditioning to the background stimulus. At the longer (20 s) Experiment 2 trace, this result was shown in the acquisition of responding to the box context in the inter-trial-interval. The demonstration that low dose haloperidol can increase conditioning is novel. This increase was seen selectively with stimuli (both trace-conditioned and contextual) that should have been treated as weak predictors so these results are contrary to what was expected on the basis of haloperidol effects on stimuli weakened through pre-exposure. The possibility that increased contextual conditioning could be relevant to the interpretation of haloperidol-induced enhancement of LI is discounted. However, it is suggested that this result could nonetheless reflect cognitive enhancement. PMID:15680192

Cassaday, Helen J; Nelson, Andrew J D; Norman, Christine

2005-03-01

163

The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across countries may be large. PMID:22078106

Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

2011-12-01

164

A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vinculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas.This article deals with the historiographic and archeological contextualization of the Mayan civilization. Its purpose is to trace the profile of the first explorations into archeological sites, the construction of the knowledge created around the first information obtained by Archeology, as well as the diverse research links undertaken in relation to the historical contexts of its time, and the theories used at present by the Mayanists.

Alexandre Guida Navarro

2008-01-01

165

The Effect of Verbal Contextual Information in Processing Visual Art.  

Science.gov (United States)

Verbal contextual information affected photography and nonphotography students' performance on semantic retention tests. For example, correct titles aided the formation and retention of accurate memories, while erroneous titles misled students into remembering meanings that had relatively little to do with what was actually pictured in the…

Koroscik, Judith S.; And Others

1985-01-01

166

Contextual Information Effects on the Categorization of Differences among Photographs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of verbal contextual information on junior high school students' categorization of differences among photographic art was examined. Photographs of varying levels of abstraction were presented to the viewers both with and without correct and erroneous titles that referred to descriptive or interpretive information. Twelve students…

Desmond, Kathleen Kadon; Koroscik, Judith Smith

167

Listening Comprehension: Textual, Contextual, Cognitive, and Affective Considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the following areas: (1) the possible effects of a written textual advance organizer or contextual visual aid on foreign language (Spanish) listening comprehension; (2) variations or interactions by learning modality preference of the learner; and (3) effects attributable to either learner learning modality or foreign…

Dixon, Richard

168

Comparative Effectiveness of Contextual and Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out effectiveness of contextual an, structural method of teaching vocabulary in English at secondary level. It was an experimental study in which the pretest posttest design was used. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Government secondary schools of Rawalpindi District. Purposive and random sampling was applied to select the school and subjects. The significance of difference between the scores of groups at 0.05 level was tested applying t test. The study revealed that the contextual method is more useful for high achievers (HA whereas structural method is more useful for average and low achievers. The HA performed better with the contextual method due to study of words in different contexts and taking help from contextual clues that has prompted spoken and written fluency. Better performance of the average and low achievers with the structural method was due to the morphological analyses of a word, role of the students as the partner in the learning process, generation and active processing of vocabulary, provision of multiple exposure of different intensity for practice and personalization of word learning. 

Malik Behlol

2011-02-01

169

Towards Computational Fronesis: Verifying Contextual Appropriateness of Emotions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…

Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio

2013-01-01

170

Formas de construtivismo: mudança conceitual e construtivismo contextual  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Geelan¿s (1997) two-dimensional model of forms of constructivism, William Cobern¿s contextual constructivism is opposed to conceptual change pedagogy, which Geelan associates with personal constructivism. In this paper, we discuss the relationships between these two forms of constructivism, highlighting some consequences to science teaching.

El-hani, Charbel Ni U. F. O.; Nelio Marco Vincenzo Bizzo

2002-01-01

171

Hierarchical segmentation of malignant gliomas via integrated contextual filter response  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel methodology for the automated segmentation of Glioblastoma Multiforme tumors given only a high-resolution T1 post-contrast enhanced channel, which is routinely done in clinical MR acquisitions. The main contribution of the paper is the integration of contextual filter responses, to obtain a better class separation of abnormal and normal brain tissues, into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation (SWA) algorithm. The SWA algorithm uses neighboring voxel intensities to form an affinity between the respective voxels. The affinities are then recursively computed for all the voxel pairs in the given image and a series of cuts are made to produce segments that contain voxels with similar intensity properties. SWA provides a fast method of partitioning the image, but does not produce segments with meaning. Thus, a contextual filter response component was integrated to label the aggregates as tumor or non-tumor. The contextual filter responses were computed via texture filter responses based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method. The GLCM results in texture features that are used to quantify the visual appearance of the tumor versus normal tissue. Our results indicate the benefit of incorporating contextual features and applying non-linear classification methods to segment and classify the complex case of grade 4 tumors.

Dube, Shishir; Corso, Jason J.; Yuille, Alan; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; El-Saden, Suzie; Sinha, Usha

2008-03-01

172

Hearing Tamar's voice: Contextual readings of 2 Samuel 13:1-22  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The story of Tamar in 2 Sam 13:1-22 formed the basis of a qualitative research inquiry that investigated the intricate functioning of the intercultural Bible reading process. It is a process theoretically based on the combined hermeneutical frameworks of Feminism and African hermeneutics. Although t [...] he research showed that the inter-cultural Bible reading process cannot avoid the complexities of an inherent power dynamic, it proved to be a space that promotes human dignity and has the inherent capacity to facilitate social transformation. The intercultural Bible reading space can thus be described as a dynamic meeting place: a space that facilitates the meeting of individuals from various cultural backgrounds and reading positions, but also the meeting between modern readers and the culturally removed biblical text. In this paper I will look at the reception history of 2 Sam 13:1-22, describing the rape of Tamar in traditional scholarship as well as feminist and African scholarship. Special attention will be given to the feminist scholar, Denise Ackermann's interpretation of hope. I will then discuss the interpretations that were given by the intercultural Bible reading groups that were constructed for the qualitative research inquiry. In doing so, I will show that the intercultural Bible reading space is a dynamic creative space that allows individual readers to draw on a wealth of personal contextual knowledge as a key to interpret the Bible text. In the intercultural Bible reading process, a diversity of readers are thus brought together that find creative new ways to journey through old biblical landscapes by drawing on contextual knowledge and sharing interpretative gifts.

Charlene, van der Walt.

173

Using cluster analysis to identify patterns in students' responses to contextually different conceptual problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the evolution of student responses to seven contextually different versions of two Force Concept Inventory questions in an introductory physics course at the University of Arkansas. The consistency in answering the closely related questions evolved little over the seven-question exam. A model for the state of student knowledge involving the probability of selecting one of the multiple-choice answers was developed. Criteria for using clustering algorithms to extract model parameters were explored and it was found that the overlap between the probability distributions of the model vectors was an important parameter in characterizing the cluster models. The course data were then clustered and the extracted model showed that students largely fit into two groups both pre- and postinstruction: one that answered all questions correctly with high probability and one that selected the distracter representing the same misconception with high probability. For the course studied, 14% of the students were left with persistent misconceptions post instruction on a static force problem and 30% on a dynamic Newton’s third law problem. These students selected the answer representing the predominant misconception slightly more consistently postinstruction, indicating that the course studied had been ineffective at moving this subgroup of students nearer a Newtonian force concept and had instead moved them slightly farther away from a correct conceptual understanding of these two problems. The consistency in answering pairs of problems with varied physical contexts is shown to be an important supplementary statistic to the score on the problems and suggests that the inclusion of such problem pairs in future conceptual inventories would be efficacious. Multiple, contextually varied questions further probe the structure of students’ knowledge. To allow working instructors to make use of the additional insight gained from cluster analysis, it is our hope that the physics education research community will make these methods available though their Web sites.

Stewart, John; Miller, Mayo; Audo, Christine; Stewart, Gay

2012-12-01

174

Critical knowledge map as a decision tool for knowledge transfer actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge transfer is no longer reducible to classical solutions such as face-to-face training, technical education or tutoring. Knowledge to be transferred is professional knowledge (Business Knowledge). It involves the whole Knowledge Capital within an organization. Identifying the knowledge components that are worthwhile transferring is not an easy task. This is the problem addressed in this paper.

Ermine, Jean-louis; Boughzala, Imed; Tounkara, Thierno

2006-01-01

175

The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption and intensity, over and above the variation associated with the contextual factors. This study also had implications in program implementation theory, and revealed that resource availability, stringency and adherence had significant impacts on program outcomes. Using seven classification tables, this study categorized and matched the predictors of electricity consumption and intensity with the specific energy sectors in which they demonstrated significance. Project developers, energy advocates, policy makers, program administrators, building occupants and other stakeholders could use study findings in conjunction with other empirical findings, to make informed decisions regarding the adoption, continuation or discontinuation of energy programs, while taking contextual factors into consideration. The adoption and efficient implementation of the most significant programs could reduce U.S. electricity consumption, and in the long term, probably reduce U.S. energy waste, environmental degradation, energy imports, energy prices, and demands for expanding energy generation and distribution infrastructure.

Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

176

Classical systems can be contextual too: Analogue of the Mermin-Peres square  

CERN Document Server

Contextuality lays at the heart of quantum mechanics. In the prevailing opinion it is considered as a signature of "quantumness" that classical theories lack. However, this assertion is hardly justified. Although contextuality is certainly true of quantum mechanics, it can not be taken by itself as discriminating against classical theories. Here we consider a representative example of contextual behavior, the so-called Mermin-Peres square, and present a simple discrete model which faithfully reproduces quantum predictions that lead to contradiction with the assumption of non-contextuality. This shows that quantum-like contextual effects have their analogues in the classical realm too.

Blasiak, Pawel

2013-01-01

177

Knowledge Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

178

KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

Ovidiu NICOLESCU

2007-01-01

179

Learning from the World? : Horizontal Knowledge Flows and Geopolitics in International Consulting Firms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines the nature of the contemporary multinational corporation (MNC) through a study of the use of knowledge management systems (KMS) in four major international consulting firms. In particular, we explore whether and how such systems facilitate horizontal (inter-subsidiary) flows of knowledge, as described in the network view of the MNC. Our analysis reveals the presence of horizontal flows within the four firms, but flows that are contextually constrained and partly shaped by geopolitical power relations. Thus, our study gives some support to the image of the MNC as a network whilst highlighting the contextual limits of horizontal knowledge transfer and, importantly, the geopolitical conditions under which such knowledge transfer takes place. At the same time, it challenges the claim that consulting firms are model organizations in the area of knowledge management as well as the more negative view that questions the ability of KMS to facilitate knowledge transfer.

Boussebaa, Mehdi; Sturdy, Andrew

2014-01-01

180

Pay knowledge as a motivator of performance - Case: Neste Oil Corporation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding how much and what employees know about pay determination and pay-related processes can help organizations to improve pay satisfaction and its effectiveness as a motivator. Elevated pay knowledge has been found more effective than pay raises in motivating performance and promoting organizational commitment. Unlike previous survey-based pay knowledge studies covering multiple organizations with low contextualization, this single case study researches pay knowledge in the organizat...

Mikkonen, Juho

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

Meliha Handzic

2001-11-01

182

A study on factors influencing implementation of knowledge management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Replacement in organization’s employees can results in knowledge loss and turnover faces a serious problem in knowledge based organizations such as knowledge based sectors of governmental organizations. The increases in sizes of some governmental organizations in recent years have increased their structural and contextual dimensions. One of the biggest problems in governmental organizations is employee turnover, which could result to knowledge loss. By using knowledge management it is possible to decrease this phenomenon. This survey identifies the effective factors in implementation of knowledge management system as a solution for preventing knowledge loss. By far this study is the first of its kind in the context of information technology sectors of governmental organizations of ARAK Province of Iran.

Behdad Gitinejad

2013-09-01

183

Dinámica contextual de la educción de requisitos software / Contextual dynamic of the software requirements elicitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La educción de requisitos software desde los stakeholders ha sido declarada como una actividad clave que influye poderosamente sobre la calidad de los requisitos especificados y, por lo tanto, del producto final del desarrollo. Por esta razón, es incuestionable la necesidad de contar con guías clara [...] s para conducir la interacción con los propietarios de la información del dominio y de las necesidades a las que se pretende dar solución. Este trabajo se centra en la modelación de la educción considerando la influencia de los agentes contextuales del proceso tales como: eductor, quien conduce la actividad; informante, quien posee la información relevante; dominio del problema, características de la problemática a atacar; y proceso, características y restricciones de la actividad misma. El artículo analiza la dinámica que relaciona y condiciona estos factores para seleccionar la técnica a aplicar en cada sesión de educción. Finalmente, el trabajo contribuye con un modelo temporal del proceso y con la representación de la casuística principal del proceso de educción. Abstract in english The software requirements elicitation from stakeholders has been stated as a key activity influencing strongly on quality of specified requirements and, therefore, of the final development product. For this raison, is undoubtly the necessity to dispose clear guidelines to drive the interrelationship [...] with the owners of the domain information and the needs that require solutions.This work focuses on the model of the elicitation considering the influence of the contextual agents of the process, such as: elicitor, who drive the activity; informant, who possess the relevant information; problem domain, characteristics of the problematic to tackle; and process, characteristics and restrictions of the activity itself. The article analyses the dynamic that relates these factors to select the technique to use in each elicitation session. Finally, the work contributes with a time model of the process and with the representation of the main casuistic of elicitation process.

Dante, Carrizo.

2013-12-01

184

Entrepreneurship Education at University Level : Contextual Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Entrepreneurship has been declared the most significant driver in the future development of societal welfare. Business, organisations and the individual person should be motivated for - and develop competence in - perceiving new opportunities through reflective action and hence participate in the creation of change and growth in society. This capacity and inclination for change and innovation is thus conceived as an important human trait, which has come to be known as "enterprising behaviour" in international research. In which ways do these demands challenge the universities and its role in regional and societal context? Interaction between universities, business sector and political system through the so-called "triple-helix-model" is said to be the basis for growth and innovation. Does it mean that knowledge creation and exchange should be based on the concept of entrepreneurial university? Related to that, what are then the internal challenges for the entire education culture and for the role of the teacher / researcher? It is some of the questions the paper tries to answer or at least give some deeper insight to.

Blenker, Per; Dreisler, Poul

2006-01-01

185

Specificity and variability of practice, and contextual interference in acquisition and transfer of an underhand volleyball serve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the effects of practice composition on acquisition and transfer of the underhand volleyball serve in a standard high school physical education setting. 72 middle-school students (M age = 14.1 yr., SD = 0.7) were selected and assigned to six groups: five experimental (Random, Serial, Blocked, Constant, Specific), and one Control group all pretested. The five experimental groups received 45 acquisition trials over three class periods. Directional quantitative knowledge of results was provided to the students after each trial. After a 72-hr. retention interval, all groups performed 15 underhand volleyball serves without knowledge of results. Analyses indicated (a) better acquisition in the Specific and Constant groups relative to the Serial, Random, and Blocked groups, and (b) significantly superior transfer performance in the Specific and Random groups relative to the Serial, Blocked, Constant, and Control groups. This provides partial support for specificity of learning and contextual interference hypotheses. Practice in accord with the contextual interference hypothesis permits differentiations among varied practice schedules only during transfer. PMID:20391893

Travlos, Antonios K

2010-02-01

186

The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has become identical as “Bengal Style” among the other styles practiced in Indian sub-continent and outside of India in other Muslim countriesduring 12th-15th century. This paper is an outcome of the search on contextual issues of Bengal mosques practiced from 12th -15th century and put light on the existing practice of mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

Saiful Hasan Tariq

2013-06-01

187

Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

René Chalon

2007-10-01

188

“Inter-Communicating”: Phenomenological Perspectives on Embodied Communication and Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on phenomenological perspectives on embodied communication and con-textuality, this paper contributes to a more integral understanding of the constitutive role of communicating in organising and organisations. Relating to the recent turn towards interpreting emergent communication as constitutive for organisation, the paper shows the supplementing role of advanced phenomenology of the body, embodiment and inter-corporeity as well as creative expression for transcending the materialist-idealist dualism and interpreting relational communication. After presenting a phenomenological understanding of embodied communication the status of language as a living process is discussed. Then communication is interpreted as embodied, intentional and responsive practice and as such being part of a specific contextuality in organizations. Finally the process of “inter-communicating” and further implications will be discussed.

Wendelin M. Küpers

2012-11-01

189

Influence of affective meaning on memory for contextual information.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 4 experiments, the authors investigated the influence of the affective meaning of words on memory for 2 kinds of contextual features that differ in the amount of effortful processes they require to be encoded in memory (i.e., color and spatial location). The main results showed that memory for color, in which words were typed, was better for emotional than for neutral words, but only when color information was learned incidentally. In contrast, spatial location of the words was better remembered for emotional than for neutral words whatever the encoding conditions (intentional vs. incidental). It is suggested that the influence of affective meaning on context memory may involve an automatic attraction of attention to contextual features associated with emotional words. PMID:15222854

D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

2004-06-01

190

Recognition of Arabic handwritten words using contextual character models  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a system for the off-line recognition of cursive Arabic handwritten words. This system in an enhanced version of our reference system presented in [El-Hajj et al., 05] which is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and uses a sliding window approach. The enhanced version proposed here uses contextual character models. This approach is motivated by the fact that the set of Arabic characters includes a lot of ascending and descending strokes which overlap with one or two neighboring characters. Additional character models are constructed according to characters in their left or right neighborhood. Our experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database of handwritten villages/towns names show that using contextual character models improves recognition. For a lexicon of 306 name classes, accuracy is increased by 0.6% in absolute value which corresponds to a 7.8% reduction in error rate.

El-Hajj, Ramy; Mokbel, Chafic; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

2008-01-01

191

Knowledge Alive  

Science.gov (United States)

The strategies that expose learners to the large volume of knowledge, enables them for creative thinking, self-management and deep reading. The different ways of creating knowledge with the help of creativity, communication, organization, problem solving and decision-making are discussed.

Perkins, David

2004-01-01

192

Emergence of non-contextuality in macroscopic systems  

CERN Document Server

Quantum theory is no doubt the most successful invention of humanity on par with Cuban cigars and single malt whiskey. Nevertheless it has been plagued by numerous interpretational and conceptual problems since its birth. One such problem is the emergence of the classicality of the macroscopic world from its underlying quantum structure. In particular, the macroscopic world doesn't appear to be contextual, even though the fabric of reality is; we propose an explanation for this.

Kurzynski, Pawel; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2011-01-01

193

TECHNOLOGICAL INTEGRATION FOR INCREASING THE CONTEXTUAL LEVEL OF INFORMATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile devices and applications are becoming increasingly present in everyday life and they represent an important success factor in business. Through this work we aim to provide end users a significant increase in the level of contextual information using the Android platform for mobile application development. The idea of the "Where?" application is based on a collaborative architecture involving actors from the business (pharmacies, banks, restaurants, hospitals, e...

Dospinescu, Octavian; Perca, Marian

2011-01-01

194

Contextual and time dependent pain in fibromyalgia: An explorative study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Little is known about contextual effects on chronic pain, and how vulnerability factors influence pain in different contexts. We wanted to examine if fibromyalgia (FM) pain varied between two social contexts, i.e. at home versus in a doctor office, when it was measured the same day, and if pain was stable for 14 years when measured in similar contexts (doctor office). Our secondary aim was to explore if pain vulnerability factors varied in the two differen...

Fors Egil A; Landmark Tormod; Bakke Øyvind

2012-01-01

195

Trends of e-Government research : contextualization and research opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-Government is a broad research field in which researchers are currently involved in a range of different research projects. Our purpose in this paper is to assist researchers in the development and direction of future analyses, identifying trends in terms of research and the methodology used. Universities and departments that make the main scientific contributions are identified, in order to locate and contextualize the research carried out into e-Government and to enhance intercommunicatio...

Rodri?guez Boli?var, Manuel Pedro; Alcaide Mun?oz, Laura; Lo?pez Herna?ndez, Antonio M.

2010-01-01

196

Trends of e-government research: contextualization and research opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-Government is a broad research field in which researchers are currently involved in a range of different research projects. Our purpose in this paper is to assist researchers in the development and direction of future analyses, identifying trends in terms of research and the methodology used. Universities and departments that make the main scientific contributions are identified, in order to locate and contextualize the research carried out into e-Government and to enhance intercommunicatio...

Rodri?guez Boli?var, Manuel Pedro; Alcaide Mun?oz, Laura; Lo?pez Herna?ndez, Antonio M.

2010-01-01

197

Bringing Interactive Contextual Maps to Users for Information Retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth of available online collections of documents comes with a growth in users' expectations for retrieval services. Contextual representations and interaction processes are becoming a real challenge to accurately navigate among large amounts of data. This paper presents an intuitive framework for the creation of multilevel interactive maps of multimedia content. Our framework allows the user to build interactive 2D representations of multimedia documents. The visualization is based on ...

Viaud, Marie-luce; Renoust, Benjamin; Saulnier, Agne?s; Thievre, Je?ro?me

2010-01-01

198

Teaching Physics for Agronomy Students: Contextualizing Laboratory Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we discuss a method of teaching physics to agronomy majors. We use laboratory classes to apply basic physics concepts to common situations in agronomy. As an example, we report a project developed by the students involving the construction of a device, frequently used on farms, to transport water without burning fuel or using electricity. We believe that contextualizing helps to improve physics classes and increase students' motivation.

Lúcia Nogueira, Ana; Dickman, Adriana

2008-03-01

199

MANIPULATING SLOT MACHINE PREFERENCE IN PROBLEM GAMBLERS THROUGH CONTEXTUAL CONTROL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling group, but not the problem gambling group, increased their responding toward the slot initially trained as greater than following the initial training ...

Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

2010-01-01

200

08251 Abstracts Collection -- Contextual and Social Media Understanding and Usage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 15.06. to 20.06.2008, the Dagstuhl Seminar 08251 ``Contextual and Social Media Understanding and Usage '' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar top...

Boll, Susanne; Kankanhalli, Mohan S.; Pingali, Gopal; Venkatesh, Svetha

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Kalimucho: Contextual Deployment for QoS Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing use of mobile technologies last years leads to face to new challenges in order to satisfy people using mobile devices. As they use their favorite applications on their personal computer at home, people wants to use it on their PDA or mobile phone and wants applications can be improve according to location, weather or any contextual information. However, addressing such context-aware systems deals with three main characteristics: context changes, mobility and limited resources o...

Louberry, Christine; Roose, Philippe; Dalmau, Marc

2011-01-01

202

Mathematical knowledge  

CERN Document Server

What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. - ;What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. Written by some of the world''s leading philosophers of mathematics, psychologists, and mathematicians, Mathematical Knowledge gives a lively sense of the. current state of debate in this fascinating field. -

Leng, Mary; Potter, Michael

2007-01-01

203

Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

204

Taking in account of contextual parameters in post accidental radioecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences on agricultural or breeding products of a radioactive accidental release are strongly linked to the context in which radioactive deposits occur: for example conditions of deposition in relation with agricultural and feeding schedules. These contextual parameters lead to a variation of results given by models greater than transfer factors uncertainties. For example, cow milk contamination stretches on several decades during the months following deposit as a function of feeding practices. In the same way, if a wheat plant receives the deposit during grain development, harvested grains will have a contamination level 103 to 104 times higher that if deposition occurs before the growing stage. To create a decision support system like the ASTRAL software, the need to realize a modelling of these contextual parameters has been encountered. Moreover, to help experts for evaluations, default informations relative to agricultural and breeding practices for France are given through databases. However, in case of a real accident, it would be important to re-initialize these contextual parameters which change from year to year, in order to obtain more precise assessments. (authors)

205

Social and contextual etiology of coronary heart disease in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the social and contextual etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention and management in women. Social and contextual influences on CHD risk include such factors as socioeconomic status, access to healthcare, cultural mores, working conditions including work overload, multiple role responsibilities, and social isolation. Women, particularly economically disadvantaged women, occupy lower levels on the social status hierarchy and, therefore, experience more stressful life experiences, less favorable living conditions, and less opportunity to affect positive health behavior and outcomes. Women are often discriminated against economically, politically, and socially, and this discrimination may adversely affect their efforts at CHD health promotion and treatment. Multiple role responsibilities within the family and psychosocial factors, including chronic life stress, are critical to an understanding of the health status of women, particularly poor and minority women. Although community-based interventions appear to be ideal for addressing the contextual risks related to CHD in women, a number of issues need to be considered, for example, the limited acknowledgment of secular trends in economic development that influence lifestyle decisions and health promotion efforts. Directions for research and interventions include recognition of the full spectrum of CHD risk in women, recognition of culturally competent interventions, and recognition of the need for empowerment of women. PMID:11103096

Fleury, J; Keller, C; Murdaugh, C

2000-11-01

206

Medical ultrasound image compression using contextual vector quantization.  

Science.gov (United States)

With ever increasing use of medical ultrasound (US) images, a challenge exists to deal with storage and transmission of these images while still maintaining high diagnostic quality. In this article, a state-of-the-art context based method is proposed to overcome this challenge called contextual vector quantization (CVQ). In this method, a contextual region is defined as a region containing the most important information and must be encoded without considerable quality loss. Attempts are made to encode this region with high priority and high resolution (low compression ratio and high bit rate) CVQ algorithm; and the background, which has a lower priority, is separately encoded with a low resolution (high compression ratio and low bit rate) version of the CVQ algorithm. Finally both of the encoded contextual region and the encoded background region is merged together to reconstruct the output image. As a result, very good diagnostic image quality with lower image size and enhanced performance parameters including mean square error (MSE), pick signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and coefficient of correlation (CoC) are gained. The experimental results show that the proposed CVQ methodology is superior as compared to other existing methods (general methods such as JPEG and JPEG2K, and ROI based methods such as EBCOT and CSPIHT) in terms of measured performance parameters. This makes CVQ compression method a feasible technique to overcome storage and transmission limitations. PMID:22608347

Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad-Reza

2012-07-01

207

Lack of contextual-word predictability during reading in patients with mild Alzheimer disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work we analyzed the effect of contextual word predictability on the eye movement behavior of patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to age-matched controls, by using the eyetracking technique and lineal mixed models. Twenty AD patients and 40 age-matched controls participated in the study. We first evaluated gaze duration during reading low and highly predictable sentences. AD patients showed an increase in gaze duration, compared to controls, both in sentences of low or high predictability. In controls, highly predictable sentences led to shorter gaze durations; by contrary, AD patients showed similar gaze durations in both types of sentences. Similarly, gaze duration in controls was affected by the cloze predictability of word N and N+1, whereas it was the same in AD patients. In contrast, the effects of word frequency and word length were similar in controls and AD patients. Our results imply that contextual-word predictability, whose processing is proposed to require memory retrieval, facilitated reading behavior in healthy subjects, but this facilitation was lost in early AD patients. This loss might reveal impairments in brain areas such as those corresponding to working memory, memory retrieval, and semantic memory functions that are already present at early stages of AD. In contrast, word frequency and length processing might require less complex mechanisms, which were still retained by AD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study measuring how patients with early AD process well-defined words embedded in sentences of high and low predictability. Evaluation of the resulting changes in eye movement behavior might provide a useful tool for a more precise early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25080188

Fernández, Gerardo; Manes, Facundo; Rotstein, Nora P; Colombo, Oscar; Mandolesi, Pablo; Politi, Luis E; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

2014-09-01

208

Intelligent management in the knowledge economy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The knowledge economy is a notion that has been used, since the 1990s, to describe a new economic order perceived by scholars and practitioners. The authors argue that this order, triggered by new information and communication technologies, has resulted in a different set of challenges for effective management of the contemporary firm. Knowledge will play an important role in managing these challenges, with the onus being on new hardware and software as much as how businesses can be organized with regard to relationships with customers and suppliers. This volume shows how "intelligent management will be the key to how internal operations can be organized, in order to take advantage of opportunities brought about by new technologies. This change in management is discussed throughout the book from a wide array of perspectives ranging from contextual and philosophical aspects, through tools and methods to case studies concerning the organization of business, its management and application in the knowledge economy.

Junghagen, Sven; Linderoth, Henrik

2003-01-01

209

Assessment, Knowledge, and Customer Service: Contextualizing Faculty Work at For-Profit Colleges and Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

As the labor market continues to demand more workers with postsecondary credentials, for-profit colleges and universities offer the training, degrees, and credentials that students seek to remain viable in an increasingly competitive job market. This study seeks to provide a new perspective on for-profit institutions by focusing on the roles and…

Lechuga, Vicente M.

2008-01-01

210

En los ojos de Guliver: información contextual y sentido de orientación / In Gulliver's eyes: contextual information and sense of orientation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este manuscrito estudia el sentido de orientación de las personas en situaciones en que existe información de tipo contextual, que permite a las personas a ver locaciones muy distantes. Para ello se preguntó a 133 individuos indicar la ubicación de cinco hitos próximos y lejanos de la ciudad de Valp [...] araíso, en 2 situaciones distintas: miradores urbanos y lugares en el medio de la trama urbana en el que la visión de información contextual no es posible. Los resultados mostraron que no existía una asociación entre la Precisión Promedio por Persona y el sexo, edad, o el grado familiaridad, pero que sí con el lugar donde se habían hecho estas estimaciones. Abstract in english This manuscript examines how people gain a sense of orientation in scenarios where large-scale, contextual information is available. Two locations of the city of Valparaiso where one can see the entire city from the heights were selected for an experiment, as well as two areas in the middle of the u [...] rban grid where no large-scale information was available. A total of 133 people were asked to point to five non-visible landmarks in these scenarios and their estimations were compared with the real position of each target. Results showed no association between this value and people's gender, age or familiarity with the neighborhood. However, a positive relationship was found between this value and the places in which estimates were made.

Rodrigo I., Mora.

2013-12-01

211

The teaching profession and primary school teachers: knowledge and practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the point of view of teacher training and teacher trainers, better knowledge of teaching profession is a key issue at a time when contextual changes exert great pressure on the teaching profession. In the context of polyvalence this research aims at defining and understanding the profession. It focuses on the study of teaching practices of ordinary teachers when they teach geography. More specifically the focus is on the teacher's didactic activities with an aim to identify the occasions...

Philippot, Thierry

2008-01-01

212

Measuring organizational readiness for knowledge translation in chronic care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT) is an imperative in order to implement research-based and contextualized practices that can answer the numerous challenges of complex health problems. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) provides a conceptual framework to guide the implementation process in chronic care. Yet, organizations aiming to improve chronic care require an adequate level of organizational readiness (OR) for KT. Available instruments on organizational readiness f...

Ouimet Mathieu; Légaré France; Labarthe Jenni; Gagnon Marie-Pierre; Estabrooks Carole A; Roch Geneviève; Ghandour El Kebir; Grimshaw Jeremy

2011-01-01

213

Knowledge Innovative Organization: The Effect of Constant Organization Renewal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term ‘knowledge’ is getting increased importance as the economy is becoming progressively knowledge intensive. Contemporary view of innovation management is acknowledging knowledge as the most effective source of innovation. Success of the business depends on how successfully knowledge is used for innovation. As a result, organizations are increasingly embracing knowledge strategy for their innovation scheme. Incorporating knowledge in the innovation process; building innovative capabilities and identifying essential features of a knowledge innovative organization are the key concerns of this study. Knowledge is a context specific notion. In this case study, the use of knowledge for innovation has been analyzed from an individual organization point of view so that contextual elements of a knowledge in-novative organization can be identified more precisely along with the institutional implications. Thus, this article would be able to provide a good number of meaningful indications in using knowledge for innovation; it would also shed light on constant capability building for innovation; nurturing of creativity and developing of knowledge infrastructure of a knowledge innovative organization. In addition, this study will be revealing the true nature of knowledge strategy and its application in the context of a developing country.

Umana Anjalin

2009-12-01

214

Knowledge Fascism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight

Hendricks, Vincent Fella

215

Contextual classification on PASM. [multimicroprocessor system for image processing and pattern recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of N microprocessors in the SIMD mode of parallel processing to do classifications almost N times faster than a single microprocessor is discussed. Examples of contextual classifiers are given, uniprocessor algorithms for performing contextual classifications are presented, and their computational complexity is analyzed. The SIMD mode of parallel processing is defined and PASM is overviewed. The presented uniprocessor algorithms are used as a basis for developing parallel algorithms for performing computationally intensive contextual classifications.

Siegel, H. J.; Swain, P. H.

1981-01-01

216

Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase is Essential for Maintenance of Remote Contextual Fear Memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although molecular mechanisms for hippocampus-dependent memory have been extensively studied, much less is known about signaling events important for remote memory. Here we report that mice lacking type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) are able to establish and retrieve remote contextual memory but unable to sustain it as long as wild type mice. Interestingly, mice over-expressing AC1 show superior remote contextual memory even though they exhibit normal hippocampus-dependent contextual memory. These...

Shan, Qiang; Chan, Guy C. -k; Storm, Daniel R.

2008-01-01

217

The Preventive Health Education and Medical Home Project: a predictive and contextual model for low-income families.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Preventive Health Education and Medical Home Project (PHEMHP) is a predictive and contextual model intended to reduce low levels of health services utilization and improve preventive health techniques and disease self-management for low-income families in South Central Los Angeles, with the ultimate goal of attaching each child to a medical home. The model is designed to be implemented through educational and case management strategies. This paper presents the conceptual framework, critical intervention activities, and the different implementation variations the PHEMHP has already assumed. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:19821189

Tataw, David B; James, Frederick; Bazargan, Shahrzad

2009-01-01

218

How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changing urban development in more sustainable directions poses numerous challenges for planning practitioners. Expert knowledge could be helpful for planners aiming at facing up to these challenges by developing innovative ways of meeting seemingly contradictive objectives and solving planning problems. This paper examines how planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge affect the content and goal achievement of plans, and discusses how changes in planning practice and research practice can contribute to improve goal achievement potentials. Goal achievement potential refers to whether the plans (if implemented) contribute to achieve defined objectives, which in this paper concern transition toward more sustainable mobility patterns and reduction of traffic volumes. The expert knowledge in question concerns how land use and transport systems developments influence traffic volumes in urban regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning this issue have emerged, but few empirical studies have been presented. The research in this paper involves case studies of strategic plan-making processes in three Scandinavian cities. A main finding is that whether the expert knowledge in question is used or not, and how it is used, indeed affect the goal achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call fortraffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge in question for explaining that these measures reduce the goal achievement potential of plans, for several reasons. It may seem as if the knowledge sometimes is ousted when it challenges the contextual agenda. Further, planners do not turn to written or research- based sources of knowledge for help in solving their planning problems. Instead, they rely on their embedded professional knowledge, which is sometimes outdated or misleading. It is found that changing towards land use and transport systems developments contributing to more sustainable mobility patterns requires considerable efforts from planning practitioners, as well as from planning researchers.

TennØy, Aud; Lissandrello, Enza

2014-01-01

219

Dynamic Capitalization and Visualization Strategy in Collaborative Knowledge Management System for EI Process  

CERN Document Server

Knowledge is attributed to human whose problem-solving behavior is subjective and complex. In today's knowledge economy, the need to manage knowledge produced by a community of actors cannot be overemphasized. This is due to the fact that actors possess some level of tacit knowledge which is generally difficult to articulate. Problem-solving requires searching and sharing of knowledge among a group of actors in a particular context. Knowledge expressed within the context of a problem resolution must be capitalized for future reuse. In this paper, an approach that permits dynamic capitalization of relevant and reliable actors' knowledge in solving decision problem following Economic Intelligence process is proposed. Knowledge annotation method and temporal attributes are used for handling the complexity in the communication among actors and in contextualizing expressed knowledge. A prototype is built to demonstrate the functionalities of a collaborative Knowledge Management system based on this approach. It is...

Oladejo, Bolanle; David, Amos

2010-01-01

220

Remote temporal camouflage: contextual flicker disrupts perceived visual temporal order.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correctly perceiving the temporal order of events is essential to many tasks. Despite this, the factors constraining our ability to make timing judgments remain largely unspecified. Here we present a new phenomenon demonstrating that perceived timing of visual events may be profoundly impaired by the mere presence of irrelevant events elsewhere in the visual field. Human observers saw two abrupt luminance events presented across a range of onset asynchronies. Temporal order judgment (TOJ) just noticeable differences (JNDs) provided a behavioural index of temporal precision. When target events were presented in isolation or in static distractor environments temporal resolution was very precise (JNDs ?20ms). However, when surrounded by dynamic distractor events, performance deteriorated more than a factor of four. This contextual effect we refer to as Remote Temporal Camouflage (RTC) operates across large spatial and temporal distances and possesses a unique spatial distribution conforming to neither the predictions of attentional capture by transient events, nor by stimulus dependencies associated with other contextual phenomena such as surround suppression, crowding, object-substitution masking or motion-induced blindness. We propose that RTC is a consequence of motion-related masking whereby irrelevant motion signals evoked by dynamic distractors interfere with TOJ-relevant target-related apparent motion. Consistent with this we also show that dynamic visual distractors do not interfere with audio-visual TOJs. Not only is RTC the most spatially extensive contextual effect ever reported, it offers vision science a new technique with which to investigate temporal order performance, free of motion-related sensory contributions. PMID:25175116

Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Contextual models and the non-Newtonian paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological systems exhibit a wide range of contextual effects, and this often makes it difficult to construct valid mathematical models of their behaviour. In particular, mathematical paradigms built upon the successes of Newtonian physics make assumptions about the nature of biological systems that are unlikely to hold true. After discussing two of the key assumptions underlying the Newtonian paradigm, we discuss two key aspects of the formalism that extended it, Quantum Theory (QT). We draw attention to the similarities between biological and quantum systems, motivating the development of a similar formalism that can be applied to the modelling of biological processes. PMID:23567155

Kitto, Kirsty; Kortschak, R Daniel

2013-09-01

222

Contextuality within quantum mechanics manifested in subensemble mean values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For spin-1/2 particles, using a suitable Mach-Zehnder-type setup with a spin-flipper, we argue that it is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical treatment that an experimentally verifiable subensemble mean of the measured values of an arbitrarily chosen spin variable exhibits dependence on the choice of a comeasurable 'path' observable. This, in turn, enables inferring path-spin contextuality at the level of individual measured values of spin that are predetermined using a relevant hidden-variable model applied to our setup.

223

Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting ''hybrid'' entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion by employing a q plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also nonlocal, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

224

Proof in Context — Web Editing with Rich, Modeless Contextual Feedback  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Agora system is a prototypical Wiki for formal mathematics: a web-based system for collaborating on formal mathematics, intended to support informal documentation of formal developments. This system requires a reusable proof editor component, both for collaborative editing of documents, and for embedding in the resulting documents. This paper describes the design of Agora's asynchronous editor, that is generic enough to support different tools working on editor content and providing contextual information, with interactive theorem proverss being a special, but important, case described in detail for the Coq theorem prover.

Carst Tankink

2013-07-01

225

Knowledge-based utility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

226

Knowledge management - a programmatic view  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation give a programmatic view of knowledge management in the nuclear industry. A knowledge management program must deal with forecasting needs, acquisition, retention, training and supporting elements of culture, process, codification error prevention, information management and networks to reduce exposure.

Froats, J.P.S. [CANDU Owners Group (COG), Ontario (Canada)

2007-07-01

227

Aprendizagem motora e síndrome de Down: efeitos da frequência relativa reduzida de conhecimento de resultados / Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos de duas frequências (100 e 33%) de conhecimento de resultados (CR) na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora em indivíduos com síndrome de Down (SD). Vinte participantes com SD foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em dois grupos. O grupo 100% recebeu [...] CR após cada tentativa, enquanto o grupo 33% recebeu CR em um terço das tentativas, ou seja, uma tentativa com CR em cada bloco de três tentativas. A tarefa consistiu em arremessar um implemento em um alvo, com a mão dominante, sem visualizar o alvo. A fase de aquisição constou de 60 tentativas de prática, enquanto a fase de retenção, realizada 48 horas após, de 10 tentativas, sem CR. Os resultados indicaram a inexistência de diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclui-se que frequências relativas reduzidas de CR podem ser tão efetivas quanto altas frequências para a aprendizagem de habilidades motoras em adultos com SD. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33%) of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups.While the 100% group received KR aft [...] er each trial, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acquisition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

Suzete, Chiviacowsky; Camila, Machado; Alexandre Carriconde, Marques; José Francisco Gomes, Schild; Ricardo, Drews.

2013-04-01

228

Controle de injúrias sob a ótica da pediatria contextual Injury control from the perspective of contextual pediatrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever relações entre controle de injúrias e pediatria contextual. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão quase-sistemática dos bancos MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, usando combinações das seguintes palavras: contextual, comunidade, injúria, acidente e violência; revisão não-sistemática de capítulos de livros e artigos clássicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A segurança depende de uma interação entre hábitos familiares, normas culturais e entorno. A pediatria contextual vê a criança, a família e a comunidade como um conjunto contínuo. Um de seus pontos-chave é o diagnóstico de saúde (observação seqüencial dos problemas e trunfos. Alterar fatores intrapessoais de injúrias requer a aplicação de estratégias passivas e ativas. Fatores familiares e culturais de risco de injúria: superpopulação do domicílio, mudanças de endereço, pobreza, pais jovens, analfabetos e desempregados. Principais fatores da vizinhança: privação material e trânsito. Fatores culturais: analfabetismo, produtos inseguros, transporte de massa insuficiente, armas de mão, ambientes de trabalho sem normas de segurança, organização comunitária precária, falta de comunicação entre setores sociais, legislação inadequada, baixa prioridade da segurança entre as ações do governo, escassez de recursos econômicos e baixo comprometimento acadêmico com o campo da segurança. CONCLUSÕES: Os papéis do pediatra são reforçar o relacionamento longitudinal com as famílias, trabalho interdisciplinar integrado, intervenção construtiva, parceria com a comunidade, orientação sobre os riscos de injúria inerentes a cada etapa do desenvolvimento, por meio de listas com processo e conteúdo explícitos e entrega de material escrito. Advogar ativamente pela promoção da segurança, em instâncias variadas, além do âmbito clínico.OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between injury control and contextual pediatrics. SOURCES OF DATA: Quasi-systematic review of MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, using combinations of the words contextual, community, injury, accident and violence; and non-systematic review of book chapters and classic articles. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Safety depends on the interaction of family habits, cultural patterns and surroundings. Contextual pediatrics sees the child, the family, and the community as a continuum; health diagnosis (sequential observation of problems and assets is one of its cornerstones. Changing intrapersonal factors for injuries requires the use of both passive and active strategies. Family and cultural risk factors for injury: home overcrowding, moving, poverty, and young, illiterate and unemployed parents. The main neighborhood factors: material deprivation and traffic. Cultural factors: illiteracy, unsafe products, lack of mass transportation, handguns, workplaces without safety rules, faulty community organization, lack of communication between social sectors, inadequate legislation, low priority for safety among government actions, lack of economic resources, and low academic commitment with the field of safety. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatrician's roles include strengthening of the longitudinal relationship with families, integrated interdisciplinary work, constructive intervention, partnership with community, counseling on injury risks pertaining to each developmental stage, by using lists with explicit processes and contents, and by handing out written materials. Active advocacy for safety promotion in different environments, besides the clinical setting.

Danilo Blank

2005-11-01

229

Controle de injúrias sob a ótica da pediatria contextual / Injury control from the perspective of contextual pediatrics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever relações entre controle de injúrias e pediatria contextual. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão quase-sistemática dos bancos MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, usando combinações das seguintes palavras: contextual, comunidade, injúria, acidente e violência; revisão não-sistemática de capítulos de l [...] ivros e artigos clássicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A segurança depende de uma interação entre hábitos familiares, normas culturais e entorno. A pediatria contextual vê a criança, a família e a comunidade como um conjunto contínuo. Um de seus pontos-chave é o diagnóstico de saúde (observação seqüencial dos problemas e trunfos). Alterar fatores intrapessoais de injúrias requer a aplicação de estratégias passivas e ativas. Fatores familiares e culturais de risco de injúria: superpopulação do domicílio, mudanças de endereço, pobreza, pais jovens, analfabetos e desempregados. Principais fatores da vizinhança: privação material e trânsito. Fatores culturais: analfabetismo, produtos inseguros, transporte de massa insuficiente, armas de mão, ambientes de trabalho sem normas de segurança, organização comunitária precária, falta de comunicação entre setores sociais, legislação inadequada, baixa prioridade da segurança entre as ações do governo, escassez de recursos econômicos e baixo comprometimento acadêmico com o campo da segurança. CONCLUSÕES: Os papéis do pediatra são reforçar o relacionamento longitudinal com as famílias, trabalho interdisciplinar integrado, intervenção construtiva, parceria com a comunidade, orientação sobre os riscos de injúria inerentes a cada etapa do desenvolvimento, por meio de listas com processo e conteúdo explícitos e entrega de material escrito. Advogar ativamente pela promoção da segurança, em instâncias variadas, além do âmbito clínico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between injury control and contextual pediatrics. SOURCES OF DATA: Quasi-systematic review of MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, using combinations of the words contextual, community, injury, accident and violence; and non-systematic review of book chapters [...] and classic articles. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Safety depends on the interaction of family habits, cultural patterns and surroundings. Contextual pediatrics sees the child, the family, and the community as a continuum; health diagnosis (sequential observation of problems and assets) is one of its cornerstones. Changing intrapersonal factors for injuries requires the use of both passive and active strategies. Family and cultural risk factors for injury: home overcrowding, moving, poverty, and young, illiterate and unemployed parents. The main neighborhood factors: material deprivation and traffic. Cultural factors: illiteracy, unsafe products, lack of mass transportation, handguns, workplaces without safety rules, faulty community organization, lack of communication between social sectors, inadequate legislation, low priority for safety among government actions, lack of economic resources, and low academic commitment with the field of safety. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatrician's roles include strengthening of the longitudinal relationship with families, integrated interdisciplinary work, constructive intervention, partnership with community, counseling on injury risks pertaining to each developmental stage, by using lists with explicit processes and contents, and by handing out written materials. Active advocacy for safety promotion in different environments, besides the clinical setting.

Danilo, Blank.

2005-11-01

230

Solving a Contextual Problem with the Spreadsheet as an Environment for Algebraic Thinking Development  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we report and discuss a contextual problem solving task that was proposed to a class of 8th grade (13-14-year-old) students. These students had been developing a reasonable experience in the use of the spreadsheet to model relations within contextual problems and chose to use this tool to solve the mentioned problem, engaging in…

Nobre, Sandra; Amado, Nelia; Carreira, Susana

2012-01-01

231

Health, Quality of Life and Population Density: A Preliminary Study on "Contextualized" Quality of Life  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of life concerns individual (physical and psychological health), interpersonal (social relationships) and contextual (environment) aspects, which are both subjective and objective. In considering contextual characteristics, empirical findings have demonstrated that people's relation to their living environment is a key issue for their…

Fassio, Omar; Rollero, Chiara; De Piccoli, Norma

2013-01-01

232

Functional Contextualism: An Ideal Framework for Theory in Instructional Design and Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors comment on Eric Fox's description of functional contextualism which makes several contributions to instructional design and technology (IDT). They agree that functional contextualism does indeed provide some "theoretical clarity and philosophical cohesion," not just for constructivism, but also for understanding…

Reigeluth, Charles M.; An, Yun-Jo

2006-01-01

233

The Use of Contextual Learning to Teach Biochemistry to Dietetic Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the use of contextualized and "blended" learning to teach biochemistry to dietetic students during the second year of their professional training in a 4-year undergraduate degree (Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics). Contextualized content was used to engage students and motivate them to learn biochemistry, which many…

Macaulay, J. O.; Van Damme, M. -P.; Walker, K. Z.

2009-01-01

234

Secondary Students' Stable and Unstable Optics Conceptions Using Contextualized Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on elucidating and explaining reasons for the stability of and interrelationships between students' conceptions about Light Propagation and Visibility of Objects using contextualized questions across 3 years of secondary schooling from Years 7 to 9. In a large-scale quantitative study involving 1,233 Korean students and 1,149 Singaporean students, data were analyzed from responses to the Light Propagation Diagnostic Instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different problem situations. Findings show that only about 10-45 % of students could apply their conceptions of basic optics in contextualized problem situations giving rise to both stable and unstable alternative conceptions. Students' understanding of Light Propagation concepts compared with Visibility of Objects concepts was more stable in different problem situations. The concepts of Light Propagation and Visibility of Objects were only moderately correlated. School grade was not a strong predictive variable, but students' school achievement correlated strongly with their conceptual understanding in optics. The teaching and learning approach and education systems in the two countries may have had some influence on students' conceptual understanding.

Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.

2014-04-01

235

Land Cover Classification of Satellite Images Using Contextual Information  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a method for the classification of satellite images into multiple predefined land cover classes. The proposed approach results in a fully automatic segmentation and classification of each pixel, using a small amount of training data. Therefore, semantic segmentation techniques are used, which are already successful applied to other computer vision tasks like facade recognition. We explain some simple modifications made to the method for the adaption of remote sensing data. Besides local features, the proposed method also includes contextual properties of multiple classes. Our method is flexible and can be extended for any amount of channels and combinations of those. Furthermore, it is possible to adapt the approach to several scenarios, different image scales, or other earth observation applications, using spatially resolved data. However, the focus of the current work is on high resolution satellite images of urban areas. Experiments on a QuickBird-image and LiDAR data of the city of Rostock show the flexibility of the method. A significant better accuracy can be achieved using contextual features.

Fröhlich, B.; Bach, E.; Walde, I.; Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.; Denzler, J.

2013-05-01

236

Leveraging Wikipedia concept and category information to enhance contextual advertising  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As a prevalent type of Web advertising, contextual advertising refers to the placement of the most relevant ads into a Web page, so as to increase the number of ad-clicks. However, some problems of homonymy and polysemy, low intersection of keywords etc., can lead to the selection of irrelevant ads for a page. In this paper, we present a new contextual advertising approach to overcome the problems, which uses Wikipedia concept and category information to enrich the content representation of an ad (or a page). First, we map each ad and page into a keyword vector, a concept vector and a category vector. Next, we select the relevant ads for a given page based on a similarity metric that combines the above three feature vectors together. Last, we evaluate our approach by using real ads, pages, as well as a great number of concepts and categories of Wikipedia. Experimental results show that our approach can improve the precision of ads-selection effectively.

Wu, Zongda; Xu, Guandong

2011-01-01

237

Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience. PMID:24830835

Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

2014-09-01

238

Efeitos do contínuo de níveis de interferência contextual na aprendizagem do "putt" do golfe Effects of a contextual interference continuum on golf putting task  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A estruturação da prática motora é uma variável de aprendizagem muito estudada na área de Controle Motor e Aprendizagem, sendo, neste âmbito, o efeito de Interferência Contextual um dos pressupostos teóricos mais investigados (TANI, 2005). Tendo como suporte a hipótese de PORTER e MAGILL (2004, 2005), o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o grupo com prática num contínuo de níveis Interferência Contextual alcançava melhores resultados na aprendizagem do "putt", do golfe, com...

Gonçalo Dias; Rui Mendes

2010-01-01

239

Pushing Personhood into Place : Situating Media in the Transfer of Rural Knowledge in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...

Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias

2011-01-01

240

Subchronic lithium treatment increases the anxiolytic-like effect of mirtazapine on the expression of contextual conditioned fear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lithium not only has a mood-stabilizing effect but also the augmentation effect of an antidepressant, the mechanism of which remains unclear. Although lithium may augment the effect of mirtazapine, this augmentation has not been confirmed. Using a contextual fear conditioning test in rats, an animal model of anxiety or fear, we examined the effect of subchronic lithium carbonate (in diet) in combination with systemic mirtazapine on the expression of contextual conditioned fear. Mirtazapine (10mg/kg) reduced freezing one day after fear conditioning dose-dependently, whereas the anxiolytic-like effect of mirtazapine (10mg/kg) diminished seven days after fear conditioning. When the interval between fear conditioning and testing was seven days, only the combination of subchronic 0.2% Li2CO3 but not 0.05% Li2CO3 with acute mirtazapine (10mg/kg) reduced freezing significantly. These results indicate that subchronic 0.2% Li2CO3 treatment enhanced the anxiolytic-like effect of systemic mirtazapine. This augmentation therapy might be useful for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25438255

An, Yan; Inoue, Takeshi; Kitaichi, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shin; Wang, Ce; Chen, Chong; Song, Ning; Kusumi, Ichiro

2015-01-15

 
 
 
 
241

The Effect of Contextual Interference on Acquisition and Learning Badminton Skills among Children aged from 10 to 12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Age may limit the effect of contextual interference, but the accurate effect of age on contextual interference is not completely identified. Therefore, the purpose of the study was the effect of contextual interference practice orders on acquisition and learning of badminton skills of 45 female students aged from 10 to 12. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups of blocked, random, and systematically increasing contextual interference. They trained three skills of badmi...

Kimiya Sadri; Hassan Mohommadzadeh; Mostafa Khani

2013-01-01

242

On pigs and packers: Radically contextualizing a practice of science with Mexican immigrant students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on instructional practices observed in a high school English Learner (EL) Science course serving newcomer Mexican immigrant youth. The school is located in a rural Midwestern meatpacking community in which labor at the hog plant is economically- and racially-segmented; it is the town's Mexican residents, many of them undocumented, who comprise most of the unskilled labor force. The general purpose of the paper is to document how the economic and racial context of this community influences science instruction in the EL Science course and to describe how this presents particular challenges in achieving equitable science instruction for Mexican immigrant youth in these rural, globalizing places. Entering the data via critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995) and then utilizing Barton's (2003) "practice of science" perspective, with an eye toward achieving "radical contextuality" (Grossberg, 1997), we describe the science events, identities, and structures of the pig dissection lesson and detail how what these students could do with science, as rendered by that lesson, was limited by the roles the teacher attributed to the students, her inability to draw on their funds of knowledge as resources for learning, and the voice and position she allowed them to take up. The data reinforce conventional understandings of schools as sites of cultural reproduction (Bowels & Gintis, 1976), as well as of resistance (Giroux, 1983), but afford us a glimpse of the particularity of those mechanisms within the demographically-transitioning American Heartland, iconic of the era of global capitalism.

Richardson Bruna, Katherine; Vann, Roberta

2007-01-01

243

Supervised Classification of Polarimetric SAR Imagery Using Temporal and Contextual Information  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the context as a source of ancillary information in classification process provides a powerful tool to obtain better class discrimination. Modelling context using Markov Random Fields (MRFs) and combining with Bayesian approach, a context-based supervised classification method is proposed. In this framework, to have a full use of the statistical a priori knowledge of the data, the spatial relation of the neighbouring pixels was used. The proposed context-based algorithm combines a Gaussian-based wishart distribution of PolSAR images with temporal and contextual information. This combination was done through the Bayes decision theory: the class-conditional probability density function and the prior probability are modelled by the wishart distribution and the MRF model. Given the complexity and similarity of classes, in order to enhance the class separation, simultaneously two PolSAR images from two different seasons (leaf-on and leaf-off) were used. According to the achieved results, the maximum improvement in the overall accuracy of classification using WMRF (Combining Wishart and MRF) compared to the wishart classifier when the leaf-on image was used. The highest accuracy obtained was when using the combined datasets. In this case, the overall accuracy of the wishart and WMRF methods were 72.66% and 78.95% respectively.

Dargahi, A.; Maghsoudi, Y.; Abkar, A. A.

2013-09-01

244

Atender o cuidar. Un problema contextual por discernir en la práctica profesional de enfermería / To assist or to care. A contextual problem to discern in the nursing professional practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objeto de una ciencia comprende fenómenos tanto de la naturaleza como de la vida social; incluye las propiedades de la actividad mental de los hombres como resultado de la imaginación, y entraña operaciones del pensamiento abstracto, tales como: concepto, juicio y razonamiento. No constituye una [...] certidumbre dada para siempre, es transformable; preserva cierto grado de estabilidad y designa la esencia de la actuación científica direccional del actor cultural, pero si en la ciencia existe bilateralidad terminológica, entonces habrá disgregación de la esencia de su surgimiento y desarrollo. El modo lógico básico de formación del conocimiento será difuso, y distinguir la singularidad del saber al cual se apega creará dispersión del pensamiento. Por tales razones se realizó este trabajo para desentrañar el problema contextual existente entre los conceptos cuidar/atender que rectoran la práctica profesional de enfermería en Cuba. Abstract in english The object of a science comprises phenomena either from nature as from social life; it includes properties from mental activity of men as a result of the imagination, and it involves functions of the abstract thought, such as: concept, judgment and reasoning. It doesn't constitute a certainty given [...] forever, it is transformable; it preserves certain degree of stability and it designs the essence of the cultural actor's directional scientific performance, but if in science terminological bilaterality exists, then there will be disintegration of the essence of its emergence and development. The basic logical way of emergence of knowledge will be diffuse, and to distinguish the singularity of the knowledge to which it joints will create dispersion in thinking. For such reasons this work was carried out to decipher the existent contextual problem between the concepts to care/to assist which guide the nursing professional practice in Cuba.

Félix, Kindelán Delís.

2013-06-01

245

Reasoning about quantum knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We construct a formal framework for investigating epistemic and temporal notions in the context of distributed quantum computation. While we rely on structures developed earlier, we stress that our notion of quantum knowledge makes sense more generally in any agent-based model for distributed quantum systems. Several arguments are given to support our view that an agent's possibility relation should not be based on the reduced density matrix, but rather on local classical st...

D Hondt, Ellie; Panangaden, Prakash

2005-01-01

246

Exploring knowledge exchange at the research-policy-practice interface in children's behavioral health services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study explored core components of knowledge exchange among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners within the context of the Rosie D. versus Romney class action lawsuit in Massachusetts and the development and implementation of its remedial plan. We identified three distinct, sequential knowledge exchange episodes with different purposes, stakeholders, and knowledge exchanged, as decision-making moved from Federal Medicaid policy to state Medicaid program standards and to community-level practice. The knowledge exchanged included research regarding Wraparound, a key component of the remedial plan, as well as contextual information critical for implementation (e.g., Federal Medicaid policy, managed care requirements, community organizations' characteristics). PMID:24464480

Leslie, Laurel K; Maciolek, Susan; Biebel, Kathleen; Debordes-Jackson, Gifty; Nicholson, Joanne

2014-11-01

247

Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries : The Tension between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed.

Andersson, Ulf

2012-01-01

248

Short-term inhibition of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11?-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11?-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. PMID:25497454

Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R; Holmes, Megan C; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

2015-04-01

249

Knowledge Technology Applications for Knowledge Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate how the knowledge in knowledge technology applications for knowledge management can be represented to let the user directly manage the knowledge content of the applications. In paper I we design a representation of diagnosis knowledge that allows the user to add new components and inspect the function of the device. The representation allows an integration of model based knowledge with compiled and heuristic knowledge so that the device and its function can be represented a sui...

Andersson, Kent

2000-01-01

250

Simple unified proof of state-independent contextuality  

CERN Document Server

For years, the statement that quantum mechanics exhibits state-independent contextuality (SIC) has been based on a mathematical result pointed out by Kochen and Specker (KS) and Bell: the existence of the so-called KS sets. Recently, Yu and Oh have observed that KS sets are not necessary to prove SIC. Here we show that a set of observables in dimension d represented by rank-1 projectors reveals SIC if and only if the graph in which vertices represent vectors and edges link orthogonal ones has chromatic number larger than d. This provides a simple unified characterization of all SIC proofs, including KS, Peres-Mermin, Yu-Oh, and others' proofs. We apply this result to prove Yu and Oh's conjecture about the simplest SIC proof and to prove that any SIC set assisted with maximum entanglement generates nonlocality which cannot be improved by nonsignaling resources.

Cabello, Adan

2011-01-01

251

The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra

252

Redesign of A Seismic Monitor Using Contextual Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses a user-centered approach to requirements gathering and design and its application toan agile software development project. The approach used in this paper is based on Contextual Design(CD, a user-centered design technique, developed by Beyer and Holtzblatt. The benefits of using CD torequirements gathering and usability are explained using a case study, a Web-based seismic monitor,which allows a user to monitor earthquakes all around the world in real time. This case study demonstratesthe benefits of CD by the improved design and usability of the application. CD shares some of thefundamental principles of agile software development processes, such as continuous user feedback andrapid prototyping. This makes CD a natural candidate to be used in agile software development.

Ozgur Aktunc

2012-12-01

253

Justice in context: assessing contextualism as an approach to justice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moral and political philosophers are increasingly using empirical data to inform their normative theories. This has sparked renewed interest into questions concerning the relationship between facts and principles. A recent attempt to frame these questions within a broader approach to normative theory comes from David Miller, who has on several occasions defended ‘contextualism’ as the best approach to justice. Miller argues that the context of distribution itself brings one or another political principle into play. This paper examines this claim. It considers several plausible strategies for carrying out Miller's general project and argues that each strategy fails. Nevertheless, the author maintains that an investigation into why they fail paves the way for a philosophically plausible account of the relationship between facts and principles.

Michael Buckley

2012-05-01

254

Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

Hans Martens

2012-12-01

255

Cognitive underpinnings of contextual interference during motor learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reported study examined the cognitive processes underlying contextual interference (CI) in motor learning. This experiment was designed to assess the combined influence of practice schedule (blocked or random) and task similarity (similar or dissimilar) on acquisition and retention performance. Participants (N=60) learned a set of three variations of a timing task according to a similar (900, 1000 and 1100ms) or dissimilar parameter condition (700, 1000 and 1300ms) with either a blocked or random practice order: this resulted in 4 experimental groups. Performance in delayed retention demonstrated a typical CI effect due to the schedule of practice for the dissimilar parameter condition with the random practice group outperforming the blocked practice group. Conversely, no blocked-random difference was found for the similar parameter condition. These findings lend support for the reconstruction hypothesis by showing that supplementing random practice with additional intertask elaboration (i.e., similar parameter condition) did not facilitate subsequent retention performance. PMID:20684941

Boutin, Arnaud; Blandin, Yannick

2010-10-01

256

Contextualizing Concepts using a Mathematical Generalization of the Quantum Formalism  

CERN Document Server

We outline the rationale and preliminary results of using the State Context Property (SCOP) formalism, originally developed as a generalization of quantum mechanics, to describe the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning. The quantum formalism was developed to cope with problems arising in the description of (1) the measurement process, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when particles become entangled. Similar problems arising with concepts motivated the formal treatment introduced here. Concepts are viewed not as fixed representations, but entities existing in states of potentiality that require interaction with a context--a stimulus or another concept--to 'collapse' to an instantiated form (e.g. exemplar, prototype, or other possibly imaginary instance). The stimulus situation plays the role of the measurement in physics, acting as context that induces a change of the cognitive state from superposition state to collapsed state. The colla...

Gabora, L; Gabora, Liane; Aerts, Diederik

2002-01-01

257

AUTOMATIC CONTEXTUAL TEXT CORRECTION USING THE LINGUISTIC HABITS GRAPH LHG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were compared with commercial programs which also enableto make text correction: Microsoft Word 2007, Open Office Writer 3.0 and search engineGoogle. The achieved results of text correction were much better than correction made bythese commercial tools.

Marcin Gadamer

2009-01-01

258

Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV system for road following. However, current vision?based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour, variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured roads. Two traditional algorithms, support vector machine (SVM and k?nearest neighbour (KNN, are carried out to verify the helpfulness of the proposed confidence map. Following this, a novel algorithm, which combines SVM, KNN and the confidence map under a Bayesian framework, is proposed to improve the overall performance of the unstructured road detections. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using different types of unstructured roads and the experimental results show its effectiveness.

Erke Shang

2013-03-01

259

Multi Agent Knowledge Management Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, knowledge in Public Sector environment becomes very vast and increasing day by day at speedy pace. So, to handle and manage the knowledge becomes a tedious job, resulting into degrading the overall affectivity and productivity of the system. Hence, the need of effective architecture arises, which can increase the performance of disseminating knowledge in public sector. This results the implementation of knowledge management (KM using Multi Agents (MA. Using Multi Agents reduces the time overhead for serving relevant knowledge to end users. The objective of this paper is to propose KM architecture using MA which will be helpful and effective in circulating knowledge to public sectors in a much better and easier manner, due to which it enhances the productivity and performance. The paper firstly, gives the understanding of literature on various knowledge management frameworks and tools for implementing Multi Agents. Then it proposes a MA enterprise knowledge management architecture (MAEKM, stating that how knowledge circulation will be done. At the end, using JADE framework, paper implements MAEKM architecture for public sector. The paper describes the necessity of implementing this architecture and its usefulness in disseminating knowledge in public sectors.

Prerna Agarwal

2012-01-01

260

The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3 the effect of the living values-based contextual learning model on students? character improvement. Approach: This study used Research and Development design. The technique of data collection used observation, documentation, Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative data used data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion stages. Meanwhile, quantitative data analysis used correlation and regression analysis. The subjects of study were 98 students of Civic Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education of academic year 2011/2012. Results: The finding showed that: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing was the integration of living values into material, method, media, learning source and lecturing evaluation conceptually; (2 the living values-based contextual learning model was implemented through value learning variation in contextual learning (problem-based learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, service learning and work-based learning; (3 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model had an effect by 26% on the students? character development Conclusion: The living values-based contextual learning is an alternative of character education integration model in university learning process. This model can be applied in lecturing to develop the students? characters including religious, honest, tolerant, well-mannered, discipline, hard working, creative, independent, democratic, homeland love, respecting achievement, collaborating and responsible.

Kokom Komalasari

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Learning to Critique and Adapt Science Curriculum Materials: Examining the Development of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers often engage in curricular planning by critiquing and adapting existing curriculum materials to contextualize lessons and compensate for their deficiencies. Designing instruction for students is shaped by teachers' ability to apply a variety of personal resources, including their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study…

Beyer, Carrie J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

262

Contextuality in Generalized Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type Systems  

CERN Document Server

We present a formal theory of contextuality for a set of random variables grouped into different subsets (contexts) corresponding to different, mutually incompatible conditions. Within each context the random variables are jointly distributed, but across different contexts they are stochastically unrelated. The theory of contextuality is based on the analysis of the extent to which some of these random variables can be viewed as preserving their identity across different contexts when one considers all possible joint distributions imposed on the entire set of the random variables. We illustrate the theory on three systems of traditional interest in quantum physics (and also in non-physical, e.g., behavioral studies). These are systems of the Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type. Listed in this order, each of them is formally a special case of the previous one. For each of them we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for contextuality while allowing for experimental errors and contextual biase...

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N

2014-01-01

263

Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)

Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

2011-01-01

264

What does an experimental test of quantum contextuality prove or disprove?  

CERN Document Server

The possibility to test experimentally the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem is investigated critically, following the demonstrations by Meyer, Kent and Clifton-Kent that the predictions of quantum mechanics are indistinguishable (up to arbitrary precision) from those of a non-contextual model, and the subsequent debate to which extent these models are actually classical or non-contextual. The present analysis starts from a careful consideration these "finite-precision" approximations. A stronger condition for non-contextual models, dubbed , is exhibited. It is shown that it allows to formulate approximately the constraints in Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems such as to render the usual proofs robust. As a consequence, one can experimentally test to finite precision ontologically faithful non-contextuality, and thus experimentally refute explanations from this smaller class. We include a discussion of the relation of ontological faithfulness to other proposals to overcome the finite precision objection.

Winter, Andreas

2014-01-01

265

The Glocalization of Responsible Investment : Contextualization Work in France and Québec  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actor–network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work that sustains RI glocalization. Empirical data from two case studies highlight how entrepreneurial actors imported the notion of RI from the US to France and Québec. Our findings uncover three types of contextualization work—filtering, repurposing, and coupling—that sustain RI glocalization, and show how actors employed them in both settings to overcome the lack of technical, cultural, or political fit between the imported practice and their local context. Our results explain how divergent glocalized versions of RI are developed and adapted through contextualization work. Last, we discuss how our repertoire of contextualization work can account for local forms of a global concept and the uneven pattern of its diffusion.

Boxenbaum, Eva

2013-01-01

266

Contextual Influences on Financial Behavior: A Proposed Model for Adult Financial Literacy Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter presents an ecological model that highlights the importance of considering multiple contextual influences on behavior as well as other factors that may impact learning when designing research and practice aimed at enhancing financial capability.

Way, Wendy L.

2014-01-01

267

Contextual effects in interval-duration judgements in vision, audition and touch.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effect of temporal context on discrimination of intervals marked by auditory, visual and tactile stimuli. Subjects were asked to compare the duration of the interval immediately preceded by an irrelevant "distractor" stimulus with an interval with no distractor. For short interval durations, the presence of the distractor affected greatly the apparent duration of the test stimulus: short distractors caused the test interval to appear shorter and vice versa. For very short reference durations (? 100 ms), the contextual effects were large, changing perceived duration by up to a factor of two. The effect of distractors reduced steadily for longer reference durations, to zero effect for durations greater than 500 ms. We found similar results for intervals defined by visual flashes, auditory tones and brief finger vibrations, all falling to zero effect at 500 ms. Under appropriate conditions, there were strong cross-modal interactions, particularly from audition to vision. We also measured the Weber fractions for duration discrimination and showed that under the conditions of this experiment, Weber fractions decreased steadily with duration, following a square-root law, similarly for all three modalities. The magnitude of the effect of the distractors on apparent duration correlated well with Weber fraction, showing that when duration discrimination was relatively more precise, the context dependency was less. The results were well fit by a simple Bayesian model combining noisy estimates of duration with the action of a resonance-like mechanism that tended to regularize the sound sequence intervals. PMID:23864044

Burr, David; Della Rocca, Eleonora; Rocca, Eleonora Della; Morrone, M Concetta

2013-09-01

268

Children's responses to social atypicality among group members - advantages of a contextualized social developmental account.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abrams, Rutland, Palmer, Ferrell, and Pelletier (2014) showed that better second-order mental state understanding facilitates 6-7-year-olds' ability to link a partially disloyal child's atypicality to inclusive or exclusive reactions by in-group or outgroup members. This finding is interpreted in terms of predictions from the developmental subjective group dynamics model. We respond to thoughtful commentaries by Rhodes and Chalik, Patterson, and Rakoczy. Children face a significant developmental challenge in becoming able to recognize and interpret social atypicality in intergroup contexts. Researching that ability to contextualize judgements raises new questions about the nature of peer inclusion and exclusion, about children's social cognition, and about the way that social cognitive development and social experience combine. Rather than individual-focused cognition taking priority over category-based cognition, we argue the two become more systematically integrated during development. We note that loyalty is but one example of typicality, and we also consider the role of more advanced perspective taking among older children, and the role of multiple classification skill among younger children, as well as potential implications for intervention to reduce peer victimization and prejudice. PMID:24954093

Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B; Purewal, Kiran

2014-09-01

269

A key role for nectin-1 in the ventral hippocampus in contextual fear memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nectins are cell adhesion molecules that are widely expressed in the brain. Nectin expression shows a dynamic spatiotemporal regulation, playing a role in neural migratory processes during development. Nectin-1 and nectin-3 and their heterophilic trans-interactions are important for the proper formation of synapses. In the hippocampus, nectin-1 and nectin-3 localize at puncta adherentia junctions and may play a role in synaptic plasticity, a mechanism essential for memory and learning. We evaluated the potential involvement of nectin-1 and nectin-3 in memory consolidation using an emotional learning paradigm. Rats trained for contextual fear conditioning showed transient nectin-1-but not nectin-3-protein upregulation in synapse-enriched hippocampal fractions at about 2 h posttraining. The upregulation of nectin-1 was found exclusively in the ventral hippocampus and was apparent in the synaptoneurosomal fraction. This upregulation was induced by contextual fear conditioning but not by exposure to context or shock alone. When an antibody against nectin-1, R165, was infused in the ventral-hippocampus immediately after training, contextual fear memory was impaired. However, treatment with the antibody in the dorsal hippocampus had no effect in contextual fear memory formation. Similarly, treatment with the antibody in the ventral hippocampus did not interfere with acoustic memory formation. Further control experiments indicated that the effects of ventral hippocampal infusion of the nectin-1 antibody in contextual fear memory cannot be ascribed to memory non-specific effects such as changes in anxiety-like behavior or locomotor behavior. Therefore, we conclude that nectin-1 recruitment to the perisynaptic environment in the ventral hippocampus plays an important role in the formation of contextual fear memories. Our results suggest that these mechanisms could be involved in the connection of emotional and contextual information processed in the amygdala and dorsal hippocampus, respectively, thus opening new venues for the development of treatments to psychopathological alterations linked to impaired contextualization of emotions. PMID:23418609

Fantin, Martina; van der Kooij, Michael A; Grosse, Jocelyn; Krummenacher, Claude; Sandi, Carmen

2013-01-01

270

Contextualizing context for synthetic biology – identifying causes of failure of synthetic biological systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the efforts that bioengineers have exerted in designing and constructing biological processes that function according to a predetermined set of rules, their operation remains fundamentally circumstantial. The contextual situation in which molecules and single-celled or multi-cellular organisms find themselves shapes the way they interact, respond to the environment and process external information. Since the birth of the field, synthetic biologists have had to grapple with contextual ...

Cardinale, Stefano; Arkin, Adam Paul

2012-01-01

271

Hippocampal Regulation of Contextual Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Associations between cocaine and cues facilitate development and maintenance of addiction. We hypothesized that the ventral hippocampus is important for acquisition of these associations. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, with or without pre-exposure to distinct sets of cocaine- and saline-paired contextual cues. Next, rats were conditioned for 3 days with the distinct sets of contextual cues paired with cocaine and saline along with distinct discrete cues. Vehicle or lidocaine wa...

Atkins, Alison L.; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Kantak, Kathleen M.

2008-01-01

272

Islamic Conceptualisation of Knowledge Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is an attempt to address "The Fundamental Theory of Knowledge Management" from Islamic point of views, to draw the notion of ?Islamic Worldview" of knowledge, especially in terms of understanding its nature in the reality of knowledge society as a step toward conceptualizing ?Islamic Knowledge Management" (IKM as an answer to the uncertainty situation of contemporary knowledge development, management and utilization especially for Muslim user and application. To obtain this, they have to explore new techniques and processing tools that helps them harness knowledge in according to their conceptual believe system, especially in term of knowledge investigation and sharing in which help them to improve their vicegerent (VG status and humanistic relationship. Approach: Indeed, knowledge should be realised comprehensively. Thus, with the assumption that once knowledge is realized and managed, then it is possible to look at its behaviors, functions and process of development in the form of scientific realm. Hypothetically, if there were no single theory formulated to identify the nature of knowledge, then how it can be managed and achieved its goals. Results: In this regard, IKM as an Islamic system is intended for particular areas of application and objectives based on "knowledge intensive processing action" (KIPA, in which it is depending on some human expert intervention in order to establish a comprehensive and integrated organizational culture, commitments and management, or to better perform the process in producing a production, marketing campaigns, systems analysis and design and strategy in reducing operational cost and business risk, in improving decision making for strategic future development and identifying new technical approaches in problem solving, or even for the purpose to harmonize inter-cultural and personalities gaps within an organizational community. Conclusion: Obviously, knowledge classification is very much influenced by the way a society conceptualizes and realizes knowledge. Any classification will lead to a way of utilization. Therefore, any success achieved by a person was absolutely an output of his knowledge understanding and knowledge growth within himself. In this status, as a human, he might be influenced by a certain situation, limitation and constrain internally or externally that lead him to persuade either body knowledge or the functional usage of knowledge in making his own individual success i.e. user-centric based values.

M. B.H. Yaakub

2011-01-01

273

Developmental trajectory of contextual learning and 24-h acetylcholine release in the hippocampus  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the developmental trajectory of hippocampal function in rats, we examined 24-h changes in extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels and contextual learning performance. Extracellular ACh significantly correlated with spontaneous behavior, exhibiting a 24-h rhythm in juvenile (4-week-old), pubertal (6-week-old), and adult (9- to 12-week-old) rats. Although juveniles of both sexes exhibited low ACh levels, adult males had higher ACh levels than adult females. Moreover, juveniles exhibited much more spontaneous activity than adults when they showed equivalent ACh levels. Similarly, juveniles of both sexes exhibited relatively low contextual learning performance. Because contextual learning performance was significantly increased only in males, adult males exhibited better performance than adult females. We also observed a developmental relationship between contextual learning and ACh levels. Scopolamine pretreatment blocked contextual learning and interrupted the correlation. Since long-term scopolamine treatment after weaning impaired contextual learning in juveniles, the cholinergic input may participate in the development of hippocampus. PMID:24435246

Takase, Kenkichi; Sakimoto, Yuya; Kimura, Fukuko; Mitsushima, Dai

2014-01-01

274

An Object-Level High-Order Contextual Descriptor Based on Semantic, Spatial, and Scale Cues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context has been playing an increasingly important role in areas such as object detection, scene understanding, and image segmentation. Although many different types of contextual cues have been successfully explored, most of them only consider the pair-wise relationship between objects or parts. Several models utilize the high-order relationship for encoding contextual information. However, they mainly use a single contextual cue. In this paper, we present a novel high-order contextual descriptor (HOOD) to measure the strength of interactions among objects within an image. Heterogeneous contextual cues like semantic, spatial, and scale contexts are jointly integrated into HOOD to define the high-order interactions. The strength of these interactions are inferred by applying Bayes' rule on the pure dependence of the involved objects. As a result, an object-level graph is constructed to represent the contextually consistent interactions. Moreover, we propose a HOOD based object localization framework to verify the effectiveness of HOOD. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets including SUN09 and PASCAL2007 show that our framework outperforms the state-of-the-art context based object localization methods. Finally, we apply HOOD on two multimedia applications: structured image retrieval and out-of-context object detection, which demonstrates the potential usages of HOOD. PMID:25204006

Cao, Xiaochun; Wei, Xingxing; Han, Yahong; Chen, Xiaowu

2014-09-01

275

Contextualizing Smoking Behaviour over Time: A Smoking Journey from Pleasuring to Suffering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports a qualitative study describing the basic psychosocial process of contextualizing smoking behaviour in the life fabric of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. A classical grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze the data derived from a theoretical (purposeful sample of eight Jordanian psychiatric nurses in 2009-2010. The constant comparative method of data analysis was used; thus, data collection, coding and analysis occurred simultaneously. Strategies were used throughout the study to ensure trustworthiness; that is, fulfill the requirements for credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. “Contextualizing smoking behaviour over time” was the core concept that explained how JPNs integrate smoking behaviour into their life fabric. For these nurses, smoking is contextualized in four phases: becoming a novice smoker, becoming a formal smoker as a nursing student, becoming a heavy smoking psychiatric nurse, and becoming an exhausted smoker. Contextualizing smoking among JPNs demonstrates that those nurses frequently normalize smoking as part of the fabric of everyday life. Participants described their smoking as a journey in a manner that reflected how it started with pleasuring and ended with suffering. Although this study presents a deep understanding of smoking behaviour, further studies are required to develop the theory of contextualized smoking. A developed contextualized theory of smoking is required to guide culturally sensitive smoking cessation and prevention programmes capable of influencing smoking behaviours.

Khaldoun Aldiabat

2012-01-01

276

Neural Correlates of Inhibition and Contextual Cue Processing Related to Treatment Response in PTSD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty to fifty percent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients do not respond to treatment. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying treatment response could contribute to improve response rates. PTSD is often associated with decreased inhibition of fear responses in a safe environment. Importantly, the mechanism of effective treatment (psychotherapy) relies on inhibition and so-called contextual cue processing. Therefore, we investigate inhibition and contextual cue processing in the context of treatment. Forty-one male war veterans with PTSD and 22 healthy male war veterans (combat controls) were scanned twice with a 6- to 8-month interval, in which PTSD patients received treatment (psychotherapy). We distinguished treatment responders from nonresponders on the base of percentage symptom decrease. Inhibition and contextual cue processing were assessed with the stop-signal anticipation task. Behavioral and functional MRI measures were compared between PTSD patients and combat controls, and between responders and nonresponders using repeated measures analyses. PTSD patients showed behavioral and neural deficits in inhibition and contextual cue processing at both time points compared with combat controls. These deficits were unaffected by treatment; therefore, they likely represent vulnerability factors or scar aspects of PTSD. Second, responders showed increased pretreatment activation of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) during contextual cue processing compared with nonresponders. Moreover, left IPL activation predicted percentage symptom improvement. The IPL has an important role in contextual cue processing, and may therefore facilitate the effect of psychotherapy. Hence, increased left IPL activation may represent a potential predictive biomarker for PTSD treatment response. PMID:25154707

van Rooij, Sanne Jh; Geuze, Elbert; Kennis, Mitzy; Rademaker, Arthur R; Vink, Matthijs

2015-02-01

277

Maintaining knowledge of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: [Knowledge - 'awareness or familiarity gained by experience (of a person, fact or thing)... a person's range of information ... the sum of what is known ... true, justified belief; certain understanding, as opposed to opinion.' The Oxford Concise English Dictionary.] Organisations responsible for the safe and effective management of radioactive waste will be aware of the value of information characterising the waste and the need for its preservation. In the United Kingdom the principal legal instrument controlling nuclear site activities is the Nuclear Installations Act (1990), which requires certain licence conditions to be fulfilled. One of the 35 conditions of the nuclear site licence demands that operators ensure that adequate records are kept relating to, inter alia, 'the location of all radioactive material, including nuclear fuel and radioactive waste'. Through the application of this licence condition, the relevant nuclear regulator, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), requires licensees to make arrangements for recording and preserving all the information that may be required in the future to ensure the safe management of radioactive material and radioactive waste. The majority of operators responsible for the long-term management of radioactive waste will establish systems for preserving information. In order for the system to deliver real benefits, there must be absolute clarity concerning what information is to be preserved, the reasons whrmation is to be preserved, the reasons why it must be preserved, how it is to be managed over the long-term and who is responsible for its management. However, the decisive characteristic of this information management system that could make the difference between preserved liability and valued asset is the ability to access and interpret the information now and in the future. On first inspection, this characteristic appears obvious but how often are these systems established with the primary objective of preserving information when it should be ensuring future access to knowledge? Radioactive waste data, recorded in isolation, may have restricted value especially if its provenance is unknown, its significance is unclear, the originators cannot be consulted and its authenticity and trustworthiness are not verifiable. It is therefore necessary to combine this raw data with contextual information that will enable future generations to determine the significance of the record, distinguish it as valuable asset and create their own, contemporary knowledge base. Only when equipped with comprehensive, reliable and accurate knowledge will future generations have the confidence to make informed judgments about the impact of our waste on their society and environment. The mismanagement of our knowledge today could have significant repercussions in terms of cost, radiation dose and damage to the environment in the future. This presentation defines terms such as 'data', 'information', 'knowledge' and 'wisdom' and provides a simple model illustrating their relationship. This model is then used as the basis for an examination of the inputs and the ways in which they may be optimised. The nuclear industry, and even society, has developed an 'implicit' understanding of radioactive waste, at a variety of levels, and it may seem inconceivable that future societies would not retain this understanding in sufficient detail that it could adequately protect itself and the environment. History shows, however, that as societies evolve and other priorities emerge previously implicit knowledge can decline. This leads us towards identifying present 'implicit' radioactive waste knowledge and developing means for capturing it. The presentation will conclude with an argument for the development of strategies that encourage the sharing of trustworthy radioactive waste-related knowledge. These strategies, supported national governments, whilst being both practical and cost-effective to implement must be cognisant of the need for local and regional security. (author)

278

Gathering Knowledge for Your Knowledge Management System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses knowledge management that seeks to minimize information overload in order to enhance performance. Highlights include the differences between data, information, and knowledge; the relationship between learning, knowledge, and performance; the use of focus groups; documenting results; and knowledge classification. (LRW)

Cowley-Durst, Barbara

1999-01-01

279

Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

280

A support method for the contextual interpretation of biomechanical data.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the clinical field, biomechanical data provided by advanced technical devices are still underexploited. Data analysis usually consists of extracting attributes or computing synthetic values from temporal data and exploiting them by means of a monovariable statistical method. This article proposes a method to support clinicians, especially those in orthopedics, in the contextual interpretation of biomechanical data. We propose to characterize temporal biomechanical data by means of fuzzy space-time windows and to induce fuzzy decision trees to map the biomechanical and clinical data related to patients. Then, we present a method for objectively explaining a given clinical characteristic of a particular patient; this method is derived using the fuzzy rule base generated from the trees and a satisfiability measure. We have applied our method to real data in order to provide an objective explanation of the subjective self-evaluation of the functional status of patients with a shoulder prosthesis, and evaluate it by means of the stratified tenfold cross validation method. The mean explanation rate--which corresponds to the mean proportion of the patients belonging to test sets whose functional state is explained by the proposed method--exceeds 80% for more than half of the decision trees, and exceeds 70% for 94% of the trees. By supporting clinicians during the biomechanical data interpretation process, our method helps them take the objective biomechanical measurements in the medical practice into account, particularly in orthopedics. It can also make subjective evaluations more objective by mapping subjective and objective data. PMID:16445256

Roux, Emmanuel; Godillon-Maquinghen, Anne-Pascale; Caulier, Patrice; Bouilland, Stéphane; Bouttens, Denis

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Thermokinetic model of borosilicate glass dissolution: contextual affinity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short and long-term geochemical interactions of R7T7 nuclear glass with water at 1000C were simulated with the DISSOL thermokinetic computer code. Both the dissolved glass quantity and the resulting water composition, saturation states and mineral quantities produced were calculated as a function of time. The rate equation used in the simulation was first proposed by Aagaard and Helgeson. It simulates a gradually diminishing dissolution rate as the reaction affinity diminishes. The best agreement with 1-year experimental data was obtained with a reaction affinity calculated from silica activity (Grambow's hypothesis) rather than taking into account the activity of all the glass components as proposed by Jantzen and Plodinec. The concept of residual affinity was introduced by Grambow to express the fact that the glass dissolution rate does not cease. We prefer to replace the term residual affinity by contextual affinity, which expresses the influence on the dissolution rate of three factors: the solution chemistry, the metastability of SiO2(m), and the possible precipitation of certain aluminosilicates such as zeolites. 19 refs

282

Risk perceptions and technological hazards: a contextual view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: the study of public perceptions of risk has given rise to a number of different (and sometimes conflicting) perspectives. Although the differences between these approaches are not trivial, recent reviews have suggested that there may be some points of convergence. In particular, recent work within the different traditions has emphasised the importance of factors such as trust and power for understanding public perceptions of risk. These factors take us beyond the characteristics of the risks themselves, which were the focus of influential work in the psychometric tradition and into a consideration of the social and cultural context within which potentially hazardous technologies are encountered and evaluated. In this paper we examine the way in which the lay public understand and respond to a particular class of technological risks - those associated with site-based major accident hazards. On the basis of empirical research, we argue that an appreciation of the different contexts within which citizens encounter such risks is crucial to understanding the dynamics of public concerns. We illustrate our argument by examining the different ways in which contextual factors influence perceptions. The discussion draws upon a recently completed study of public perceptions of the risks at seven major hazard sites in the UK, which was funded the by UK Health and Safety Executive. (authors)

283

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand th [...] e pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv) teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Seugnet, Blignaut; Christo, Els; Sarah, Howie.

284

The clinical investigator-subject relationship: a contextual approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol. Results and conclusion In this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty to provide the patient/subject with clinical care can vary from one situation to the next, as a function of several factors, including: the research design, benefits and risks of the research; the subject's reasonable expectations, motivations, and vulnerabilities; the investigator's ability to benefit the subject; and the investigator's prior relationship with the subject. These and other factors need to be considered when determining the clinical investigator's obligations to provide clinical care to human research subjects. In some research contexts, the investigator has extensive clinical obligations to the patient/subject; in others, the investigator has minimal ones.

Resnik David B

2009-12-01

285

Redesigning of Contextual Items of Iranian State Portals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web sites represent the most important springboard for development of E-government, as/ bacause they serve as a link between the government and the citizens. These websites serve different functions during the various stages of E-government development. Primary function is to offer government information and to secure communication between the government and its audience. If developed independently without any coordination, setting up websites for government agencies would present the risk of facing an asymmetrical and unbalanced collection of such sites over the course of time that not only prove of limited functionality but would not have the performance commensurate with the investment. In a type of websites, known as State or Provincial Portals, such coordination was promulgated through issuance of the directive “Subject Headings for State Information Portals and Minimum Software Requirements and Qualifications”. The directive was issued in 2004 by the now defunct Management and Planning Organization. The present paper reports the research outcome of a project that compared the status of existing state portals with the subject headings indicated in the above directives. Following a detailed study, it provides pointers regarding the revision of contextual and information items in the said portal through literature survey and comparative study of similar E-government portals in three developed using as well as the Delphi method.

Sirous Alidousti

2010-09-01

286

Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( [...] TRC) South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a postapartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

Christoffel H., Thesnaar.

2014-02-01

287

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Seugnet Blignaut

2010-01-01

288

Processing temporary syntactic ambiguity: The effect of contextual bias  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports two experiments using sentences with a temporary ambiguity between a direct object and a sentence complement analysis that is resolved toward the normally-preferred direct object analysis. Post-verbal noun phrases in these sentences could be ambiguously attached as either a direct object or the subject of a sentence complement whereas in unambiguous versions of the sentences the subcategorization of the verb forced the direct object interpretation. Participants read these sentences in relatively long paragraph contexts, where the context supported the direct object analysis (“preferred”), supported the sentence complement analysis (“unpreferred”), or provided conflicting evidence about both analyses (“conflicting”). Self-paced reading times for ambiguous post-verbal noun phrases were almost equivalent to the reading times of their unambiguous counterparts, even in unpreferred and conflicted context conditions. However, time to read a following region, which forced the direct object interpretation, was affected by the interaction of verb subcategorization ambiguity and contextual support. The full pattern of results do not fit well with either an unelaborated single-analysis (“garden path”) model or a competitive constraint-satisfaction model, but are consistent with a race model in which multiple factors affect the speed of constructing a single initial analysis. PMID:21722057

Mohamed, Mohamed Taha; Clifton, Charles

2012-01-01

289

Contextual constraint and N?+?2 preview effects in reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracting linguistic information from locations beyond the currently fixated word is a core component of skilled reading. Recent debate on this topic is focused on the question of whether useful linguistic information can be extracted from more than one (parafoveally visible) word to the right of a fixated word (N). The current study examined this issue through the use parafoveal previews with a short and high-frequency next (N?+?1) word, as this should increase the opportunity for the extraction of useful information from the subsequent (N?+?2) word. Pairs of N?+?2 words were selected so that contextual constraint was either high or low. Using saccade contingent display manipulations, preview of a N?+?2 target word during word N viewing consisted of either a visually dissimilar nonword or a word. The results revealed a substantial drop in fixation probability for word N?+?1 when the N?+?2 preview was masked with a nonword. Furthermore, the masking of word N?+?2 influenced its viewing duration even when word N?+?1 was fixated prior to word N?+?2 viewing. These results provide compelling evidence for the view that the linguistic processing can encompass more than one word at a time. PMID:23394582

Radach, Ralph; Inhoff, Albrecht W; Glover, Lisa; Vorstius, Christian

2013-01-01

290

Providing Adapted Contextual Information in an Overlay Vehicular Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current vehicular networks are developed upon commercial solutions based on cellular networks (CNs or vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs, both present in numerous research proposals. Current approximations are not enough to cover the communication necessities of several applications at the same time, and they are not suitable for future vehicular pervasive services. The vehicular network presented in this paper fills the existent gap between solutions lacking in flexibility, mainly supported by an infrastructure deployment, and those highly local and distributed, such as sole-VANET approximations. In this manner, an overlay communication platform which can work over the CN basis has been designed and developed. This architecture is complemented by an additional support of an information system located at the infrastructure side. Moreover, since most of the information received from current notification services is not relevant for the driver, an additional subsystem has been devised to provide adapted information to users. This has been carried out by means of an ontology model which represents users' preferences and contextual information. Finally, using a whole prototype of the telematic platform, the performance of this interring process has been evaluated to point out its impact on the system operation.

Andrés Muñoz

2010-01-01

291

Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified [...] knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.

Solange Laurentino dos, Santos; Gabriel, Parra-Henao; Mírcia Betânia Costa e, Silva; Lia Giraldo da Silva, Augusto.

2014-12-01

292

Knowledge Management and Knowledge-based Marketing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two separate qualitative research studies are designed to gain an insight into the practice of knowledge management and marketing in the engineering and biotechnology industries. The findings show that the engineering industry is practicing knowledge management to varying degrees. The biotechnology industry clearly differentiates between data, information and knowledge. With the new knowledge gained, the biotechnology industry (a rapidly growing knowledge-intensive industry, according to Donn...

Cader, J.

2007-01-01

293

Knowledge management, codification and tacit knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method. The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who have studied the transformation of knowledge into information through the process of codification and the knowledge transaction topography they...

Kimble, Chris

2013-01-01

294

Improving awareness in message exchanging platform - a knowledge driven approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the key functionalities in the Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) engines is a dashboard to provide awareness on the message traffic, performance and throughput. Current dashboards present a rich data set but often lacks context to interpret these data. This poster presents a knowledge driven approach in improving the dashboard by presenting contextualized information. The new dashboard will be evaluated by measuring user awareness, as measured by applying a quantitative analysis technique called SAGAT (Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique) and the results will be presented. PMID:18694219

Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Abellera, John P; Danos, Scott; McNabb, Scott

2007-01-01

295

The transfer of contextual control over equivalence classes through equivalence classes: a possible model of social stereotyping.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Experiment 1, subjects acquired conditional equivalence classes controlled by three male and three female names as contextual stimuli. When equivalence relations were tested using new names not used in training (three male and three female), contextual control remained intact. Thus, generalized control of the composition of conditional equivalence classes by characteristically gender-identified names was shown. A basic analysis of this finding was tested in Experiment 2. Contextual equival...

Kohlenberg, B. S.; Hayes, S. C.; Hayes, L. J.

1991-01-01

296

Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

2014-10-01

297

Deconstructing Interaction Dynamics in Knowledge Sharing Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Online knowledge sharing sites have recently exploded in popularity, and have began to play an important role in online information seeking. Unfortunately, many factors that influence the effectiveness of the information exchange in these communities are not well understood. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap by exploring the dynamics of information sharing in such sites - that is, identifying the factors that can explain how people respond to information requests. As a case study, we use Yahoo! Answers, one of the leading knowledge sharing portals on the web with millions of active participants. We follow the progress of thousands of questions, from posting until resolution. We examine contextual factors such as the topical area of the questions, as well as intrinsic factors of question wording, subjectivity, sentiment, and other characteristics that could influence how a community responds to an information request. Our findings could be useful for improving existing collaborative question answering systems, and for designing the next generation of knowledge sharing communities.

Aji, Ablimit; Agichtein, Eugene

298

Medial prefrontal cortex serotonergic and GABAergic mechanisms modulate the expression of contextual fear: Intratelencephalic pathways and differential involvement of cortical subregions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several lines of evidence indicate that the dorsal hippocampus (dH) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulate contextual fear conditioning. The prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) subregions of the mPFC likely play distinct roles in the expression of fear. Moreover, studies have highlighted the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)- and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated mechanisms in the modulation of innate fear in the mPFC. The present study characterized dH-mPFC pathways and investigated the role of serotonergic and GABAergic mechanisms of the PrL, IL and ACC-area 1 (Cg1) in the elaboration of contextual fear conditioning using fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and freezing behavior in Rattus norvegicus. The results of neurotracing with microinjections of biotinylated dextran amine into the dH revealed a neural link of the dH with the PrL and ACC. Intra-PrL injections of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and the GABAA receptor-selective agonist muscimol reduced contextual FPS and freezing responses. Intra-Cg1 injections of muscimol but not 8-OH-DPAT decreased FPS and freezing responses. However, neither intra-IL injections of a 5-HT1A agonist nor of a GABAA agonist affected these defensive responses. Labeled neuronal fibers from the dH reached the superficial layers of the PrL cortex and spread to the inner layers of PrL and Cg1 cortices, supporting the pharmacological findings. The present results confirmed the involvement of PrL and Cg1 in the expression of FPS and freezing responses to aversive conditions. In addition, PrL serotoninergic mechanisms play a key role in contextual fear conditioning. This study suggests that PrL, IL and Cg1 distinctively contribute to the modulation of contextual fear conditioning. PMID:25451298

Almada, R C; Coimbra, N C; Brandão, M L

2015-01-22

299

Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a doma...

Weichselbraun, A.; Gindl, S.; Scharl, A.

2014-01-01

300

Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type...

Madalina Cristina Tocan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Auto-caotización en la sociedad mundial: Lineamientos para una teoría de la diferenciación contextual / Self-chaotization in World Society: An Outline for a Theory of Contextual Differentiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sociedad mundial moderna se caracteriza por su alta complejidad, es decir, por la continuamente cambiante interrelación de sus elementos. El resultado de ello es una constante diferenciación y especialización de espacios sociales orientada a manejar la incertidumbre que esa complejidad genera. Pa [...] radójicamente, la diferenciación y especialización es nuevamente una fuente de complejidad. Para enfrentar esta ambigüedad auto-producida, determinadas operaciones sociales se distinguen por generar interdependencias estructurales que logran una estabilidad operacional suficiente para distinguirlas de su entorno. A ello se le denomina en este artículo diferenciación contextual, esto es, la emergencia de contextos diferenciados de interacción, decisión y simbolización que posibilitan una concretización múltiple de funciones sociales en espacios supranacionales. Esto se observa especialmente a propósito de la diferenciación del derecho, la economía y el deporte, y se ilustra con cuatro estudios de caso: la Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, el Bank for International Settlements, la FIFA, el juego y sus públicos, y el arbitraje comercial internacional. Abstract in english A high level of complexity and a continuous and always changing relationship among its elements characterizes modern world society. As a result, a constant differentiation and specialization of diverging social fields aiming to reduce the uncertainty emerging from that complexity takes place. Parado [...] xically, as differentiation and specialization increase, they become a new source of uncertainty. In order to confront this self-producing ambiguity, some social operations develop structural interdependencies with a sufficient level of operational stability that distinguish them from their environment. In this paper this is called contextual differentiation, i.e. the emergence of differentiated contexts of interaction, decision and symbolization that make possible a mutilayered concretization of social functions in supranational contexts. With regard to the differentiation of law, economy and sports this process is analyzed and illustrated in four case studies: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Bank for International Settlements, FIFA, the game and its publics, and the international commercial arbitration.

Aldo, Mascareño.

2012-09-01

302

The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011

Martin, Andrew J

2014-12-01

303

Multi-class multi-scale series contextual model for image segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual information has been widely used as a rich source of information to segment multiple objects in an image. A contextual model uses the relationships between the objects in a scene to facilitate object detection and segmentation. Using contextual information from different objects in an effective way for object segmentation, however, remains a difficult problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework, called multiclass multiscale (MCMS) series contextual model, which uses contextual information from multiple objects and at different scales for learning discriminative models in a supervised setting. The MCMS model incorporates cross-object and inter-object information into one probabilistic framework and thus is able to capture geometrical relationships and dependencies among multiple objects in addition to local information from each single object present in an image. We demonstrate that our MCMS model improves object segmentation performance in electron microscopy images and provides a coherent segmentation of multiple objects. Through speeding up the segmentation process, the proposed method will allow neurobiologists to move beyond individual specimens and analyze populations paving the way for understanding neurodegenerative diseases at the microscopic level. PMID:23893724

Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga

2013-11-01

304

Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ? 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

Geater Alan

2007-05-01

305

Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

Kimble, Chris

2013-01-01

306

?-Amyloid pathology alters neural network activation during retrieval of contextual fear memories in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although episodic memory deficits are the most conspicuous cognitive change in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients also display alterations in emotional expression, including anxiety and impaired conditioned fear behaviours. The neural circuitry underlying emotional learning is known to involve the amygdala and hippocampus, although the precise impact of amyloid pathology on the interaction between these brain regions remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that Tg2576 mice, which express a human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation associated with early-onset AD, demonstrate normal acquisition of conditioned freezing to auditory and contextual stimuli paired with footshock. However, examination of the expression of c-Fos revealed altered neural network activity in transgenic mice. In the present study we examined the effects of the APP mutation on the expression of c-Fos following the retrieval of emotional memories. To this end, stimulus-induced cellular activity was measured by analysing expression of the immediate-early gene c-Fos after the retrieval of auditory or contextual fear memories. To characterize regional interdependencies of c-Fos expression, structural equation modelling was used to compare patterns of neural network activity. Consistent with previous findings, Tg2576 mice displayed reduced freezing elicited by the auditory stimulus but not by the conditioning context. Interestingly, the analysis of c-Fos expression revealed that the APPswe mutation disrupted dentate gyrus and amygdala function, as well as altering the influence of these regions on the neural network dynamics activated during context memory retrieval. These results provide novel insight into the influence of excess amyloid production on neural network activity during memory retrieval. PMID:24628842

Lelos, Mariah J; Good, Mark A

2014-05-01

307

"Yo Soy Indígena": Identifying and Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to Make the Teaching of Science Culturally Responsive for Maya Girls  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge--TEK--can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes

Hamlin, Maria L.

2013-01-01

308

Adjective Semantics, World Knowledge and Visual Context: Comprehension of Size Terms by 2- to 7-Year-Old Dutch-Speaking Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The interpretation of size terms involves constructing contextually-relevant reference points by combining visual cues with knowledge of typical object sizes. This study aims to establish at what age children learn to integrate these two sources of information in the interpretation process and tests comprehension of the Dutch adjectives "groot"…

Tribushinina, Elena

2013-01-01

309

Knowledge Management and Employees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge management requires analysis of what is necessary knowledge, who possesses it, who profits from it, and what is the role of mistakes. Successful knowledge management must acknowledge that people are the most important factor. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

Van Buskirk, Mary Ellen; Lee, Doris

2001-01-01

310

Effect of the coadministration of citalopram with mirtazapine or atipamezole on rat contextual conditioned fear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Takahiro Masuda,1,2 Takeshi Inoue,1 Yan An,1 Naoki Takamura,1,3 Shin Nakagawa,1 Yuji Kitaichi,1 Tsukasa Koyama,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Japan; 2Medical Affairs, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Regenerative and Cellular Medicine Office, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan Background: Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, which blocks the ?2-adrenergic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, has shown anxiolytic properties in clinical trials and preclinical animal experiments. The addition of mirtazapine to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is clinically suggested to be more effective for anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the combined effects of mirtazapine and citalopram, an SSRI, on the freezing behavior of rats, which was induced by contextual conditioned fear as an index of anxiety or fear. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats individually received footshocks in a shock chamber, and 24 hours later, they were given citalopram and/or mirtazapine injections. One hour after citalopram and 30 minutes after mirtazapine administration, freezing behavior was analyzed in the same shock chamber without shocks. Results: Mirtazapine decreased freezing in a dose-dependent manner, which is consistent with a previous report; it also enhanced an anxiolytic-like effect at a high dose (30 mg/kg of citalopram. Because mirtazapine blocks ?2-adrenoreceptors, the combined effect of atipamezole, a selective ?2 receptor antagonist, with citalopram was also examined. Similar to mirtazapine, atipamezole reduced freezing dose-dependently, but the enhancement of citalopram's effects by atipamezole was not clear when compared with mirtazapine. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that mirtazapine has an anxiolytic-like effect and may enhance the anxiolytic-like effect of SSRIs, but this enhancement may not be explained by its anti-?2 property alone. Keywords: anxiety, conditioned fear, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, mirtazapine, ?2-adrenoreceptor

Masuda T

2014-02-01

311

A Pilot Whole-School Intervention to Improve School Ethos and Reduce Substance Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Evidence from the USA/Australia suggests whole-school interventions designed to increase social inclusion/engagement can reduce substance use. Completeness of implementation varies but contextual determinants have not been fully explored. Informed by previous interventions, the paper aims to examine these topics in an English pilot of the…

Bonell, Chris; Sorhaindo, Annik; Strange, Vicki; Wiggins, Meg; Allen, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Adam; Oakley, Ann; Bond, Lyndal; Flay, Brian; Patton, George; Rhodes, Tim

2010-01-01

312

Evolution of the Theory of the Earth: A Contextualized Approach for Teaching the History of the Theory of Plate Tectonics to Ninth Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Current high school Earth Science curricula and textbooks organize scientific content into isolated “units” of knowledge. Within this structure, content is taught, but in the absence of the context of fundamental understandings or the process of how the science was actually done to reach the conclusions. These are two key facets of scientific literacy. I have developed curriculum from a historical perspective that addresses two particular units of study in Earth Science (“geologic time” and “plate tectonics”). The curriculum traces the evolution of the theory of plate tectonics. It includes contextualized experiences for students such as telling stories, utilizing original historical texts, narratives, and essential questions, to name a few. All of the strategies are utilized with the goal of building understanding around a small set of common themes. Exploring the historical models in this way allows students to analyze the models, while looking for limitations and misconceptions. This methodology is used to encourage students to develop more scientifically accurate understandings about the way in which the world and the process of scientific discovery work. Observations of high student engagement during the utilization of this contextualized approach has demonstrated that a positive effect on student understanding is promising.

Dolphin, Glenn

2009-04-01

313

The contextual influence of coal abandoned mine lands in communities and type 2 diabetes in Pennsylvania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal abandoned mine lands (AMLs), persistent and prevalent across Pennsylvania, offer an instructive evaluation of potential contextual influences of chronic environmental contamination (CEC) on individual health. We evaluated associations between the burden of AMLs, represented by 10 contextual metrics at the community level, and individual-level type 2 diabetes using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a biomarker. Cross-sectional and longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted with over 28,000 diabetic primary care patients of the Geisinger Clinic. Adjusted models revealed five AML burden measures were associated (p<0.05), and three additional were borderline associated (0.05?p?0.10), with higher and/or change in HbA1c levels. This study provides key empirical evidence of adverse impacts of CEC in communities on an important chronic disease, illustrating the contextual effects of living in long-term degraded landscapes and communities. PMID:23689181

Liu, Ann Y; Curriero, Frank C; Glass, Thomas A; Stewart, Walter F; Schwartz, Brian S

2013-07-01

314

Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study  

CERN Document Server

M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment). We are studying various mobile learning contexts related to professional activities, in order to master appliances (Installation, Use, Breakdown diagnostic and Repairing). Contextualization, traceability and checking of execution of prescribed operations are based mainly on the use of RFID labels. Investigation of the appropriate training methods for this kind of learning situation, applying mainly a constructivist approach known as "Just-in-time learning", "learning by doing", "learning and doing", constitutes an important topic of this project. From an organizational point of view we are in perfect...

David, Bertrand; Chalon, René

2010-01-01

315

Contextual Multi-armed Bandits for the Prevention of Spam in VoIP Networks  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we argue that contextual multi-armed bandit algorithms could open avenues for designing self-learning security modules for computer networks and related tasks. The paper has two contributions: a conceptual and an algorithmical one. The conceptual contribution is to formulate the real-world problem of preventing SPIT (Spam in VoIP networks), which is currently not satisfyingly addressed by standard techniques, as a sequential learning problem, namely as a contextual multi-armed bandit. Our second contribution is to present CMABFAS, a new algorithm for general contextual multi-armed bandit learning that specifically targets domains with finite actions. We illustrate how CMABFAS could be used to design a fully self-learning SPIT filter that does not rely on feedback from the end-user (i.e., does not require labeled data) and report convincing simulation results.

Jung, Tobias; Ernst, Damien; Leduc, Guy

2012-01-01

316

TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory formation requires de novo protein synthesis, and memory disorders may result from misregulated synthesis of critical proteins that remain largely unidentified. Plasma membrane ion channels and receptors are likely candidates given their role in regulating neuron excitability, a candidate memory mechanism. Here we conduct targeted molecular monitoring and quantitation of hippocampal plasma membrane proteins from mice with intact or impaired contextual fear memory to identify putative candidates. Here we report contextual fear memory deficits correspond to increased Trpc3 gene and protein expression, and demonstrate TRPC3 regulates hippocampal neuron excitability associated with memory function. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for enhanced contextual fear memory reported herein following knockdown of TRPC3 in hippocampus. Collectively, TRPC3 modulates memory and may be a feasible target to enhance memory and treat memory disorders. PMID:25513972

Neuner, Sarah M; Wilmott, Lynda A; Hope, Kevin A; Hoffmann, Brian; Chong, Jayhong A; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; O'Connell, Kristen M; Tryba, Andrew K; Greene, Andrew S; Savio Chan, C; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

2015-03-15

317

Paradigm shifts: from pre-web information systems to recent web-based contextual information retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the types of user accessible data and information escalates, so does the variety of Information Retrieval (IR practices which can match to achieve the challenges instigated. By expanding its applicability which can broaden the use, integrating technologies and methods and as long as the quest for the perfectly accurate system continues to exist it is quite possible and likely that Information Retrieval can become one of the key technology areas for current and future research and practice. This paper expounds the recent research advances in the area of Contextual Information Retrieval. It tracks and investigates the evolution of retrieval models from the pre-web (traditional Information Retrieval paradigm and Web information retrieval to the most prominent interactive Web information retrieval field of contextual information retrieval focusing on developing models and strategies of contextual IR.

MPS Bhatia

2010-06-01

318

Implicit Motives, Explicit Traits, and Task and Contextual Performance at Work  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Lang, J.W.B.; Zettler, Ingo

2012-01-01

319

Using Puppet to contextualize computing resources for ATLAS analysis on Google Compute Engine  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of commercial as well as institutional and national clouds, new opportunities for on-demand computing resources for the HEP community become available. The new cloud technologies also come with new challenges, and one such is the contextualization of computing resources with regard to requirements of the user and his experiment. In particular on Google's new cloud platform Google Compute Engine (GCE) upload of user's virtual machine images is not possible. This precludes application of ready to use technologies like CernVM and forces users to build and contextualize their own VM images from scratch. We investigate the use of Puppet to facilitate contextualization of cloud resources on GCE, with particular regard to ease of configuration and dynamic resource scaling.

Öhman, Henrik; Panitkin, Sergey; Hendrix, Valerie; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

320

Overview of Knowledge Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defines knowledge management, its components, processes, and outcomes. Addresses the importance of knowledge management for higher education in general and for institutional research in particular. (EV)

Serban, Andreea M.; Luan, Jing

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Contextual Guidance of Eye Movements and Attention in Real-World Scenes: The Role of Global Features in Object Search  

Science.gov (United States)

Many experiments have shown that the human visual system makes extensive use of contextual information for facilitating object search in natural scenes. However, the question of how to formally model contextual influences is still open. On the basis of a Bayesian framework, the authors present an original approach of attentional guidance by global…

Torralba, Antonio; Oliva, Aude; Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.

2006-01-01

322

Using Activity Theory as Analytical Framework for Evaluating Contextual Online Collaborative Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, Activity Theory is used as analytical framework for developing and evaluating the model of contextual online collaborative learning. Activity Theory is useful particularly because it provided the researcher with tool to structure human activities in relation to computer within a context. As in the context of this study, Activity Theory proved to be useful for developing and evaluating the incorporation of online collaborative learning within a particular chosen context, i.e. conventional tertiary classroom. Discussions on findings based on the analysis of contextual online collaborative learning are also provided.

Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohamad Said

2014-09-01

323

Effects of age on contextually mediated associations in paired associate learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Older and younger participants learned single-function lists of paired associates with no contextual overlap (e.g., J-K, L-M) and double-function lists of paired associates consisting of chains of pairs (e.g., A-B, B-C). Although younger adults out-performed older adults on both pair types, there was a robust pair-type by age interaction. Evidence from intrusion analyses argues that older adults performed better than would be expected on the contextually overlapping double-function pairs beca...

Provyn, Jennifer P.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Howard, Marc W.

2007-01-01

324

A Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for Simulated HJ-1B Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HJ-1B satellite, which was launched on September 6, 2008, is one of the small ones placed in the constellation for disaster prediction and monitoring. HJ-1B imagery was simulated in this paper, which contains fires of various sizes and temperatures in a wide range of terrestrial biomes and climates, including RED, NIR, MIR and TIR channels. Based on the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm and the characteristics of HJ-1B sensor, a contextual fire detection algorithm was proposed and test...

Xiangsheng Kong; Sibo Duan; Guangjian Yan; Yonggang Qian

2009-01-01

325

Knowledge Management Basics for Emerging Economies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this fast moving world of Globalisation, the World economy is getting much more service driven and knowledge oriented one. Compared to the previous era of imperialistic and localised economic growth orientation, the current trend in Global economic growth is a Trans - national one. The national barriers are reduced, supported by liberal economic policies of developing nations in South America, Asia – Pacific and the like. Especially in an IT driven economic development, Knowledge management is the need of the hour to safeguard the organisations to give themselves the Competitive edge. The paper discusses on the fundamentals of Knowledge management (KM, KM models, KM strategies, the Knowledge management life cycle, Knowledge capture techniques, Knowledge transfer, Motivation and Knowledge sharing and KM ethical issues.

Kalpana

2008-12-01

326

The NEA knowledge management project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Over the last 50 years significant knowledge has been accumulated in nuclear technology. This knowledge can be categorized as explicit and tacit. Explicit knowledge includes documented information while tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge acquired by experts over a long time and is more difficult to capture. The goals of knowledge management program are to retain explicit and tacit knowledge, encourage sharing of this knowledge, create and facilitate communities of practice and insure that knowledge is easy to find and readily accessible. The NEA committees have had extensive involvement in the accumulation of technical information in the scientific research, engineering studies, state of the art reports and many other endeavours that contribute to the technical basis for many safety and technology decisions. Many of the NEA reports (SOARs, Survey reports on safety topics, etc.) are in fact examples of knowledge management activities. The NEA committees' working groups are an excellent example of communities of practice. Over the past decade or more there has been an erosion of scientific resources due to reductions in budgets, aging and retirement of many outstanding scientists, engineers and managers, loss of experimental facilities and reductions in educational programs in nuclear engineering. The NEA has fully recognized this concern and has published many reports on this topic (e.g. Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, Future Nuclearaining: Cause for Concern?, Future Nuclear Regulatory Challenges). With the industry push to reduce conservatisms in decisions and increased interest in building new nuclear power plants it becomes imperative that additional mechanisms be developed to make available both the tacit and the explicit knowledge to the new generation of engineers and scientists for safety and technology decisions. The NEA strategic plan (also the individual committees' strategic plans) recognizes the importance of this issue and recommends: - Promote the transfer and management of knowledge; - Promote the collection and safeguarding of important and well documented results from experimental studies. A small magnitude of effort pilot project, focused on documented (codifiable and explicit) activities of three committees, was undertaken. Boron Dilution was selected as the pilot topic based on previously agreed to prioritization criteria by the three committees. This presentation provides the lessons learned regarding the ease or the difficulty of accessibility of the documented information on the pilot topic as well as the clarity of purpose and the relevance of the results as documented. This project also examined the degree of integration and linking of the documented activities of the three committees on boron dilution. These lessons will be considered by the NEA to determine what NEA processes could be improved to ease access and transfer of relevant NEA generated scientific information. (author)

327

Study of career development in children from a developmental-contextual perspective Estudio del desarrollo de la orientación vocacional en la infancia desde la perspectiva evolutivo-contextual  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Career development is a longitudinal process, from childhood to adulthood, which is influenced by personal and contextual factors. Vocational literature has described childhood as a formative period for career development, as the bases of career exploration and vocational interests, values, attitudes and skills are established in the first years of life. This study starts with an overview of the major theoretical approaches and research trends in the study of children’s career development. ...

Arau?jo, Alexandra M.; Maria do Céu Taveira

2009-01-01

328

Naturaleza, cultura y desarrollo. Agenda del trabajo social global contextual, TSGc. Nature, Culture, And Development. Agenda of the Contextual Global Social Work, CGSW.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este artículo se organiza en tres temas centrales: el TSGc, la práctica del TSGc, y la agenda. La agenda deriva de una matriz que relaciona naturaleza, cultura y desarrollo, con tres instrumentos de derechos humanos: la Declaración Bioética, la Convención de la Diversidad Cultural, y el Convenio de la Biodiversidad. Plantea, argumenta y estructura la incorporación de la bioética, la diversidad cultural y el desarrollo humano en la agenda del Trabajo Social Global Contextual (TSGc). Sos...

Carlos-Vladimir Zambrano

2010-01-01

329

Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

The attention paid to the burgeoning "knowledge economy" continues to grow, particularly within the halls of higher education, the federal government, and in the private sector. This past January, the National Science Foundation (in collaboration with other institutions) convened a conference designed "to broaden and deepen common understanding of how difficult-to-measure knowledge resources drive an increasing virtualized economy and to assess prospects for advancing and regenerating knowledge infrastructure, institutions, and policies." While the conference itself is finished, users interested in these themes will appreciate this site, which offers some material about these various issues, along with material on the program itself and the work presented there. After examining these background materials, visitors will want to peruse the draft papers presented at the conference, which deal with networks of knowledge, measuring knowledge, and knowledge clusters.

330

Relação entre consciência morfológica e leitura contextual medida pelo teste de Cloze The relationship between morphological awareness and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta habilidade está associada à leitura e escrita e parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre a consciência morfológica e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda parte, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação. Os resultados mostram que a consciência morfológica está associada à leitura contextual no português e que, até certo ponto, essa contribuição é independente do processamento fonológico.Morphological awareness is the awareness of the morphemes of the words. This ability is related to spelling, reading and it seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading. In this kind of reading besides phonological information, syntactic-semantic information is required as well. This study intends to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension measured by the Cloze Test. In the first part of the study the relationship between the Cloze test scores and morphological awareness are explored by simple correlations. In the second part, the specificity of this relationship is further explored. The results showed that to some extent this relationship is independent of phonological awareness.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

2009-01-01

331

Relação entre consciência morfológica e leitura contextual medida pelo teste de Cloze / The relationship between morphological awareness and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta habilidade está associada à leitura e escrita e parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-s [...] emânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre a consciência morfológica e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda parte, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação. Os resultados mostram que a consciência morfológica está associada à leitura contextual no português e que, até certo ponto, essa contribuição é independente do processamento fonológico. Abstract in english Morphological awareness is the awareness of the morphemes of the words. This ability is related to spelling, reading and it seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading. In this kind of reading besides phonological information, syntactic-semantic information is [...] required as well. This study intends to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension measured by the Cloze Test. In the first part of the study the relationship between the Cloze test scores and morphological awareness are explored by simple correlations. In the second part, the specificity of this relationship is further explored. The results showed that to some extent this relationship is independent of phonological awareness.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da, Mota; Rafaela, Lisboa; Jaqueline, Dias; Rhaisa, Gontijo; Nádia, Paiva; Stella, Mansur-Lisboa; Danielle Andrade, Silva; Acácia Aparecida Angeli dos, Santos.

332

Knowledge sharing in a multicultural environment: challenges and opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article underscores the process of knowledge sharing in a multicultural organisational environment. Generally,multiculturalism emanates from being influenced by different contexts that provide the potential for human diversity. Itresults in disparate behavioural patterns and bodies of knowledge which lead to variance in terms of racial, sexual, ageand cultural orientations. The process of sharing knowledge is complex and is susceptible to multicultural variances.Considering that knowledge sharing processes and probable multicultural influences are contextual, the purpose of thearticle is to establish the extent of knowledge flows in the Department of Information Science at the University of SouthAfrica. In particular the article seeks to give an overall view on how knowledge is shared across intergenerational, culturaland interracial lines in the Department. The qualitative approach was considered appropriate for this study because itfocuses on observing events from the perspectives of those who are involved and is aimed at understanding the attitude,behaviour and opinions of those individuals (Powell & Connaway 2004. A basic interpretive qualitative research designwas used for this study. Data was collected through interviews and document analysis. The data were inductively analysedand the findings are presented and discussed using references to the literature that informed the study.

Luyanda Dube

2012-12-01

333

MANAGEMENT. THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issues surrounding the management of tacit knowledge are entirely different and the creation of value from such knowledge may require fundamentally new approaches to organizational structures and management systems. Knowledge also differs according to its importance. Despite the widespread interest in organizational capabilities and competency modeling, most firms have a poor understanding of which types of knowledge are critical to their future success.What are the purposes and characteristics of the knowledge management processes? There has been a profusion of glib talk about the need to learn, to transfer knowledge, to absorb knowledge from competitors and partners, and the like. The danger is that we use knowledge management processes that are not suited to the task at hand. Consider the example of managing relationships with strategic alliance partners. The type of knowledge management that is appropriate depends on the knowledge goals of the alliance.

Leonard Sergiu B?lan

2013-05-01

334

Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication : Drawing on semiotics for making knowledge about virtual teams and collaboration visible  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective. To look at how knowledge about virtual work is established in a multinational context, we interviewed members of a team that connects Finland and India. Results reveal five objects shared between the team members with varying knowledge about them. By making these differences in knowledge visible through semiotics we are calling for a more nuanced understanding of cross-cultural collaboration that draws on and extendsthe existing body of knowledge on virtual teams and collaboration.

Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

2014-01-01

335

Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries and the Tension Between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection : Evidence from the Semiconductor Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries' trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we build a conceptual framework suggesting that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries' willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary's knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed

Perri, A.; Andersson, Ulf

2014-01-01

336

What influences Knowledge Sharing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the competitive environment, organizational knowledge became one of the most valuable strategic resources for a company. Indeed, it is said to be the only resource that cannot be imitated, and thus, that provides a reliable competitive advantage. Hence, knowledge management has become a highly investigated field of study. In fact, knowledge sharing, one of the facets of knowledge management is considered as a helpful leverage within a company’s strategy. Knowledge sharing has been studie...

Gru?nfelder, Manon; Hartner, Angelika

2013-01-01

337

Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook  

CERN Document Server

Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

Kantola, Jussi

2012-01-01

338

Leitura contextual e processamento metalingüístico no português do Brasil: um estudo longitudinal / Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing in Brazilian portuguese: a longitudinal study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Habilidade metalingüística é a habilidade de refletir sobre a linguagem como objeto do pensamento. Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas duas parecem estar associadas à leitura e a escrita: a consciência morfológica e consciência fonológica. Consciência fonológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre o [...] s fonemas que compõem a fala e a consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta última parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre essas habilidades e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze em um estudo longitudinal. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação utilizando-se regressões múltiplas. Os resultados dão certo apoio à hipótese de que a consciência morfológica contribui independentemente da fonológica para leitura contextual no português. Abstract in english Metalinguistic skill is the ability to reflect upon language as an object of thought. Amongst metalinguistic skills, two seem to be associated with reading and spelling: morphological awareness and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the phonemes that com [...] pose words, and morphological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the morphemes that compose the words. The latter seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading, as beyond phonological information, syntactic and semantic information are required. This study is set to investigate - with a longitudinal design - the relation between those abilities and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test. The first part of the study explores the relationship between morphological awareness tasks and Cloze scores through simple correlations and, in the second part, the specificity of such relationship was inquired using multiple regressions. The results give some support to the hypothesis that morphological awareness offers an independent contribution regarding phonological awareness to contextual reading in Brazilian Portuguese.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da, Mota; Marcel de Toledo, Vieira; Ronaldo Rocha, Bastos; Jaqueline, Dias; Nádia, Paiva; Stella, Mansur-Lisboa; Danielle, Andrade-Silva.

339

Leitura contextual e processamento metalingüístico no português do Brasil: um estudo longitudinal Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing in Brazilian portuguese: a longitudinal study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Habilidade metalingüística é a habilidade de refletir sobre a linguagem como objeto do pensamento. Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas duas parecem estar associadas à leitura e a escrita: a consciência morfológica e consciência fonológica. Consciência fonológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os fonemas que compõem a fala e a consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta última parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre essas habilidades e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze em um estudo longitudinal. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação utilizando-se regressões múltiplas. Os resultados dão certo apoio à hipótese de que a consciência morfológica contribui independentemente da fonológica para leitura contextual no português.Metalinguistic skill is the ability to reflect upon language as an object of thought. Amongst metalinguistic skills, two seem to be associated with reading and spelling: morphological awareness and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the phonemes that compose words, and morphological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the morphemes that compose the words. The latter seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading, as beyond phonological information, syntactic and semantic information are required. This study is set to investigate - with a longitudinal design - the relation between those abilities and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test. The first part of the study explores the relationship between morphological awareness tasks and Cloze scores through simple correlations and, in the second part, the specificity of such relationship was inquired using multiple regressions. The results give some support to the hypothesis that morphological awareness offers an independent contribution regarding phonological awareness to contextual reading in Brazilian Portuguese.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

2012-01-01

340

Contextual and Auditory Fear Conditioning Continue to Emerge during the Periweaning Period in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Anxiety disorders often emerge during childhood. Rodent models using classical fear conditioning have shown that different types of fear depend upon different neural structures and may emerge at different stages of development. For example, some work has suggested that contextual fear conditioning generally emerges later in development (postnatal day 23–24) than explicitly cued fear conditioning (postnatal day 15–17) in rats. This has been attributed to an inability of younger subjects to form a representation of the context due to an immature hippocampus. However, evidence that contextual fear can be observed in postnatal day 17 subjects and that cued fear conditioning continues to emerge past this age raises questions about the nature of this deficit. The current studies examine this question using both the context pre-exposure facilitation effect for immediate single-shock contextual fear conditioning and traditional cued fear conditioning using Sprague-Dawley rats. The data suggest that both cued and contextual fear conditioning are continuing to develop between PD 17 and 24, consistent with development occurring the in essential fear conditioning circuit. PMID:24977415

Burman, Michael A.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Deal, Alex L.; Jacobson, Rose E.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Adolescent Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Self-Processes and Contextual Cues  

Science.gov (United States)

Peer- and teacher-reported prosocial behavior of 339 6th-grade (11-12 years) and 8th-grade (13-14 years) students was examined in relation to prosocial goals, self-processes (reasons for behavior, empathy, perspective taking, depressive affect, perceived competence), and contextual cues (expectations of peers and teachers). Goal pursuit…

Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Filisetti, Laurence; Looney, Lisa

2007-01-01

342

Affective and contextual values modulate spatial frequency use in object recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual object recognition is of fundamental importance in our everyday interaction with the environment. Recent models of visual perception emphasize the role of top-down predictions facilitating object recognition via initial guesses that limit the number of object representations that need to be considered. Several results suggest that this rapid and efficient object processing relies on the early extraction and processing of low spatial frequencies (SF. The present study aimed to investigate the SF content of visual object representations and its modulation by contextual and affective values of the perceived object during a picture-name verification task. Stimuli consisted of pictures of objects equalized in SF content and categorised as having low or high affective and contextual values. To access the SF content of stored visual representations of objects, SFs of each image were then randomly sampled on a trial-by-trial basis. Results reveal that intermediate SFs between 14 and 24 cycles per object (2.3 to 4 cycles per degree are correlated with fast and accurate identification for all categories of objects. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between affective and contextual values over the SFs correlating with fast recognition. These results suggest that affective and contextual values of a visual object modulate the SF content of its internal representation, thus highlighting the flexibility of the visual recognition system.

BrunoWicker

2014-05-01

343

Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

Daha, Maryam

2011-01-01

344

What does an experimental test of quantum contextuality prove or disprove?  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility of experimentally testing the Bell–Kochen–Specker theorem is investigated critically, following the demonstrations by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton–Kent that the predictions of quantum mechanics are indistinguishable (up to arbitrary precision) from those of a non-contextual model, and the subsequent debate about the extent to which these models are actually classical or non-contextual. The present analysis starts from a careful consideration of these ‘finite-precision’ approximations. A stronger condition for non-contextual models, dubbed ontological faithfulness, is exhibited. It is shown that this allows us to approximately formulate the constraints in Bell–Kochen–Specker theorems, such as to render the usual proofs robust. Consequently, one can experimentally test to finite precision ontologically faithful non-contextuality, and thus experimentally refute explanations from this smaller class. We include a discussion of the relation of ontological faithfulness to other proposals to overcome the finite precision objection. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

Winter, Andreas

2014-10-01

345

Developmental and Contextual Correlates of Elders' Anticipated End-of-Life Treatment Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to gain insight into developmental and contextual correlates of the aggressiveness in treatment that community-based elders anticipate they will desire at the end of life. Elders completed questionnaires to measure 4 developmental factors (integrated moral reasoning, self-transcendence, past experience with…

Decker, Ilene M.; Reed, Pamela G.

2005-01-01

346

Hippocampal Structural Plasticity Accompanies the Resulting Contextual Fear Memory Following Stress and Fear Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…

Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.

2013-01-01

347

Quantum violation of entropic non-contextual inequality in four-dimension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using joint Shannon entropy, we propose an inequality for a four-level system, which is satisfied in any non-contextual realist hidden variable model. We show that this entropic inequality is violated by quantum mechanics for a range of entangled, as well as product states. Our inequality can be experimentally tested using the existing technology.

Pan, A. K.; Sumanth, M.; Panigrahi, P. K.

2012-01-01

348

Contextual Factors in the Activation of First Hypotheses: Expert-Novice Differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of contextual information in the generation of early hypotheses during the clinical interview was studied with expert and novice medical diagnosticians: 18 experienced family physicians versus 5 new physicians and 12 final-year medical students. The 18 experts and 17 novices were presented with 32 short case histories each presented on…

Hobus, Pie P. M.; And Others

349

The Cross-Contextual Transfer of Problem Solving Strategies from Logo to Non-Computer Domains.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report investigated the relationship between learning to program LOGO and the development of problem solving skills. Subjects were 133 students in grades 4-8 who had at least 30 hours of experience with both graphics and lists programming in Logo. Students were randomly assigned to one of three contextual groupings, which received graphics,…

Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

350

Toward a Developmental/Contextual Model of the Effects of Parental Spanking on Children's Aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers who employ contextual models of parenting contend that it is not spanking per se, but rather the context in which spanking occurs and the meanings children ascribe to spanking, that predict child outcomes. This study proposed two plausible meanings that children may ascribe to spanking--a legitimate expression of parental authority or…

Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Mariner, Carrie Lea

351

Semantic distillation: a method for clustering objects by their contextual specificity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Techniques for data-mining, latent semantic analysis, contextual search of databases, etc. have long ago been developed by computer scientists working on information retrieval (IR). Experimental scientists, from all disciplines, having to analyse large collections of raw experimental data (astronomical, physical, biological, etc.) have developed powerful methods for their statistical analysis and for clustering, categorising, and classifying objects. Finally, physicists have...

Sierocinski, Thomas; Be?chec, Anthony Le; The?ret, Nathalie; Petritis, Dimitri

2007-01-01

352

Contextualized Emotional Images in Children's Dreams: Psychological Adjustment in Conditions of Military Trauma  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the impact of military trauma on contextualized emotional images in children's dreams, and the function of the intensity and valence of the emotional images in protecting mental health from negative trauma impact. Participants were 345 Palestinian children and adolescents (aged 5-16 years) belonging to high trauma (Gaza) and…

Helminen, Elisa; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

2008-01-01

353

Developmental Differences in the Naming of Contextually Non-Categorical Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the naming process of contextually non-categorical objects in children from 3 to 9 plus 13-year-olds. 112 children participated in the study. Children were asked to narrate a story individually while looking at Mercer Mayer's textless, picture book "Frog, where are you?" The narratives were audio recorded and transcribed.…

Ozcan, Mehmet

2012-01-01

354

Differential Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist on Social Discrimination and Contextual Fear in Amygdala and Hippocampus  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 5 [mu]g/side) microinjected into the hippocampus or the amygdala would differentially affect memory processes in a neutral vs. an aversive task. In the aversive contextual fear task, WIN into the basolateral amygdala impaired fear acquisition/consolidation, but not retrieval.…

Segev, Amir; Akirav, Irit

2011-01-01

355

Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents: Direct and Indirect Effects of Demographic, Individual, and Contextual Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

A path model examining the direct and indirect effects of demographic, individual, and contextual variables on the academic achievement of 174 African American adolescents was assessed. Results indicated that participant sex indirectly impacted participants' sense of self-worth through their perceptions of themselves as possessing leadership or…

Zand, Debra H; Thomson, Nicole Renick

2005-01-01

356

Factors Affecting Relationships between the Contextual Variables and the Information Characteristics of Accounting Information Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on a study of accounting information systems that explored the interactions among influence factors (e.g., user participation in the development process, top management support, capability of information systems personnel, and existence of steering committees), contextual variables (e.g., organizational structure and task characteristics),…

Choe, Jong-Min; Lee, Jinjoo

1993-01-01

357

Constructing a Pragmatic Science of Learning and Instruction with Functional Contextualism  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivism has been embraced by many in the field of instructional design and technology (IDT), but its advocates have struggled to move beyond theory to practice or to empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach. As an alternative to constructivism, a new perspective emerging in psychology, known as functional contextualism,…

Fox, Eric J.

2006-01-01

358

Functional Contextualism in Learning and Instruction: Pragmatic Science or Objectivism Revisited?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes how Eric Fox presents an interesting case for applying functional contextualism (FC) constructs and principles to learning and instruction. He draws several well-debated issues related to the instructional design and technology (IDT) field's shifting philosophical-epistemological roots and pedagogical…

Hannafin, Michael J.

2006-01-01

359

Polarimetric Contextual Classification of PolSAR Images Using Sparse Representation and Superpixels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, sparse representation-based techniques have shown great potential for pattern recognition problems. In this paper, the problem of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR image classification is investigated using sparse representation-based classifiers (SRCs. We propose to take advantage of both polarimetric information and contextual information by combining sparsity-based classification methods with the concept of superpixels. Based on polarimetric feature vectors constructed by stacking a variety of polarimetric signatures and a superpixel map, two strategies are considered to perform polarimetric-contextual classification of PolSAR images. The first strategy starts by classifying the PolSAR image with pixel-wise SRC. Then, spatial regularization is imposed on the pixel-wise classification map by using majority voting within superpixels. In the second strategy, the PolSAR image is classified by taking superpixels as processing elements. The joint sparse representation-based classifier (JSRC is employed to combine the polarimetric information contained in feature vectors and the contextual information provided by superpixels. Experimental results on real PolSAR datasets demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approaches. It is proven that the classification performance is improved by using contextual information. A comparison with several other approaches also verifies the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Jilan Feng

2014-07-01

360

Modelo contextual de competencias para la formación del docente-tutor en línea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En el presente artículo se abarca el tema de las competencias del docente-tutor en línea a partir de la determinación de un modelo contextual de competencias y el establecimiento de cuarenta y un (41) competencias específicas para el ser y quehacer del docente-tutor en línea.

Evia Ricalde, Ena; Pech Campos, Silvia J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A Discrete Population of Neurons in the Lateral Amygdala Is Specifically Activated by Contextual Fear Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no clear identification of the neurons involved in fear conditioning in the amygdala. To search for these neurons, we have used a genetic approach, the "fos-tau-lacZ" (FTL) mouse, to map functionally activated expression in neurons following contextual fear conditioning. We have identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral…

Wilson, Yvette M.; Murphy, Mark

2009-01-01

362

Contextualized Assessment with Battered Women: Strategic Safety Planning to Cope with Multiple Harms  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the prevalence of domestic violence and the likelihood that many victims will not receive services from specialized domestic violence providers, this article provides a framework for contextualized assessment that can be used by generalist practitioners. Drawing from stress and coping theory, the authors discuss the relevance of assessing…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Nurius, Paula; Macy, Rebecca J.

2005-01-01

363

Thermodynamics in Context: A Case Study of Contextualized Teaching for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical thermodynamics that is often considered abstract and demanding could be made more accessible by taking a contextualized approach. The trial of a course designed for chemistry majors dealing with gas laws and the first law of thermodynamics in the existing course are illustrated.

Holman, John; Pilling, Gwen

2004-01-01

364

Contextual kernel and spectral methods for learning the semantics of images.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents contextual kernel and spectral methods for learning the semantics of images that allow us to automatically annotate an image with keywords. First, to exploit the context of visual words within images for automatic image annotation, we define a novel spatial string kernel to quantify the similarity between images. Specifically, we represent each image as a 2-D sequence of visual words and measure the similarity between two 2-D sequences using the shared occurrences of s -length 1-D subsequences by decomposing each 2-D sequence into two orthogonal 1-D sequences. Based on our proposed spatial string kernel, we further formulate automatic image annotation as a contextual keyword propagation problem, which can be solved very efficiently by linear programming. Unlike the traditional relevance models that treat each keyword independently, the proposed contextual kernel method for keyword propagation takes into account the semantic context of annotation keywords and propagates multiple keywords simultaneously. Significantly, this type of semantic context can also be incorporated into spectral embedding for refining the annotations of images predicted by keyword propagation. Experiments on three standard image datasets demonstrate that our contextual kernel and spectral methods can achieve significantly better results than the state of the art. PMID:21193376

Lu, Zhiwu; Ip, Horace H S; Peng, Yuxin

2011-06-01

365

Temporal and region-specific requirements of ?CaMKII in spatial and contextual learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ? isoform of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (?CaMKII) has been implicated extensively in molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying spatial and contextual learning in a wide variety of species. Germline deletion of Camk2a leads to severe deficits in spatial and contextual learning in mice. However, the temporal and region-specific requirements for ?CaMKII have remained largely unexplored. Here, we generated conditional Camk2a mutants to examine the influence of spatially restricted and temporally controlled expression of ?CaMKII. Forebrain-specific deletion of the Camk2a gene resulted in severe deficits in water maze and contextual fear learning, whereas mice with deletion restricted to the cerebellum learned normally. Furthermore, we found that temporally controlled deletion of the Camk2a gene in adult mice is as detrimental as germline deletion for learning and synaptic plasticity. Together, we confirm the requirement for ?CaMKII in the forebrain, but not the cerebellum, in spatial and contextual learning. Moreover, we highlight the absolute requirement for intact ?CaMKII expression at the time of learning. PMID:25143599

Achterberg, Katharina G; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Kool, Martijn J; Goorden, Susanna M I; Post, Laura; Slump, Denise E; Silva, Alcino J; van Woerden, Geeske M; Kushner, Steven A; Elgersma, Ype

2014-08-20

366

The Impact of Contextual Factors on the Use of Students' Conceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the impacts of contextual factors on the use of students' conceptions. A total of 106 students received a questionnaire involving open-ended questions on acid-base and equilibrium concepts. Of these students, 16 students who provided complete and accurate responses to the questions participated in an interview. In…

Saglam, Yilmaz; Karaaslan, Emre Harun; Ayas, Alipasa

2011-01-01

367

Iran’s Approach to Knowledge Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nKnowledge translation was created in response to the knowledge-do gap. With the growing number of research projects, utilization of research knowledge roused interest. One of its defects, which are seen more in developing countries, is the scarcity of recognized practical knowledge translation applications. The actions taken to strengthen knowledge translation can be classified into three categories of ‘push, pull and exchange'. In Iran, some of the interventions effective in knowl­edge translation, may not have primarily taken place with this aim, but can however be effective in it. Some of the meas­ures taken specifically in Iran's research system are: capacity building of human resources for knowledge translation, better utilization of research by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, creating necessary incentives among medical uni­versities, identification of barriers and proposing interventions. Pilots of knowledge translation interventions are concerned with ‘push' activities whose main focus is to support knowledge translation activities and promote active strategies (or in­crease interaction between researchers and decision makers during research and utilization of results. Long-plan programs such as ‘Iran's Health Innovation and Science Development plan have also been designed for the future. These include formation of centers for reducing the knowledge-do gap in the form of knowledge and health technology translation centers.

R Majdzadeh

2009-03-01

368

Nuclear knowledge management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

369

Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors. Most research focus on individual level factors and little research concern contextual level factors. The objective of this presentation is to identify individual level and school level factors associated with mental distress. Methods We used the Danish HBSC study 2010 including 11, 13 and 15 year old students in a random sample of schools, n=4922. Students answered the standardized HBSC questionnaire including several items about their mental health and the psychosocial school environment. Further, school-leaders answered a questionnaire on school environment. We applied multilevel analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at three levels, individuals nested in classes nested in schools. Results Large variations in psychological complaints from one school to another were found. One example is that the proportion of students with at daily experience of emotional complaints varied between 7% and 32% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together, there was a high prevalence of psychological complaints (P=0.0076). This finding suggests contextual effects on psychological complaints. Conclusion and implications for research Although we expected individual level factors to explain much of the variation in psychological complaints between schools (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.

Meilstrup, Charlotte; ErsbØll, Annette Kjær

370

Reliable knowledge discovery  

CERN Document Server

Reliable Knowledge Discovery focuses on theory, methods, and techniques for RKDD, a new sub-field of KDD. It studies the theory and methods to assure the reliability and trustworthiness of discovered knowledge and to maintain the stability and consistency of knowledge discovery processes. RKDD has a broad spectrum of applications, especially in critical domains like medicine, finance, and military. Reliable Knowledge Discovery also presents methods and techniques for designing robust knowledge-discovery processes. Approaches to assessing the reliability of the discovered knowledge are introduc

Dai, Honghua; Smirnov, Evgueni

2012-01-01

371

Speech recognition: Acoustic-phonetic knowledge acquisition and representation  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term research goal is to develop and implement speaker-independent continuous speech recognition systems. It is believed that the proper utilization of speech-specific knowledge is essential for such advanced systems. This research is thus directed toward the acquisition, quantification, and representation, of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge, and the application of this knowledge to speech recognition algorithms. In addition, we are exploring new speech recognition alternatives based on artificial intelligence and connectionist techniques. We developed a statistical model for predicting the acoustic realization of stop consonants in various positions in the syllable template. A unification-based grammatical formalism was developed for incorporating this model into the lexical access algorithm. We provided an information-theoretic justification for the hierarchical structure of the syllable template. We analyzed segmented duration for vowels and fricatives in continuous speech. Based on contextual information, we developed durational models for vowels and fricatives that account for over 70 percent of the variance, using data from multiple, unknown speakers. We rigorously evaluated the ability of human spectrogram readers to identify stop consonants spoken by many talkers and in a variety of phonetic contexts. Incorporating the declarative knowledge used by the readers, we developed a knowledge-based system for stop identification. We achieved comparable system performance to that to the readers.

Zue, Victor W.

1988-09-01

372

Basic Elements of Knowledge Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom), knowledge sources (internal, external), and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social). Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization). At the end of the article there is mentioned the know...

Staniewski, Marcin W.

2007-01-01

373

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tacit knowledge, regarding its essence, is a kind of “understanding”, comprehension, and the process of grasping and re-organizing experiences. Moreover, such ability can be controlled at will. However, spiritual understanding enables people to display the function of dominance and determination of knowledge. Therefore, this study first proposed the tacit knowledge transfer mode; there are two major strategies for the Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM: depict the essence instead of the appearance and understand spiritually. In other words, it allows learners to represent the knowledge learned and transfer it into body memory in order to apply it to similar situations through deduction and inference. This study aims to integrate Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM into sketch instruction. The first phase was “knowledge accumulation”: we used “Mu” way to accumulate drawing knowledge. The phase two was “knowledge transfer”: we used “Lin” way to transfer drawing knowledge. In the process, the students in Department of Design are divided into the experimental group and the controlled group for comparisons. Seven design experts evaluate the teaching effectiveness on the two groups (Mixed and anonymous, aiming at students’ learning achievement. The experiment concludes two main results: firstly, based on the expert evaluation scores, Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM proves the significant effect of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM on Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity of freehand sketch; secondly, from the experiment process and survey results, it was evident that Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM has direct correlation with participants’ assertiveness. If there is a conflict between norm knowledge the effectiveness of transfer will be reduced significantly.

Jia-Cheng Chang

2014-11-01

374

Knowledge worker motivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demand for knowledge workers has increased relative to the available supply. A further cause for concern is that the requirements for managing knowledge workers differ from those for managing lower qualified employees. Due to scarcity and different management requirements, attracting and retaining the best available knowledge workers poses a serious challenge.The purpose of this study was to to identify and understand the impact of some of the key factors that motivate knowledge worker...

Denson, Fabian Chad

2013-01-01

375

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Business drivers such as digitisation, globalisation, customer intimacy and the emergence of the Information Age initiate the need to manage the organisation's knowledge asset. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this explicit and tacit knowledge asset to the collective benefit of the organisation by developing an infrastructure to facilitate the knowledge process and by making information readily available. The implementation of such an initiative requires inte...

Marlize Breedt; Antonie Van Rensburg

2012-01-01

376

MANAGEMENT. THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issues surrounding the management of tacit knowledge are entirely different and the creation of value from such knowledge may require fundamentally new approaches to organizational structures and management systems. Knowledge also differs according to its importance. Despite the widespread interest in organizational capabilities and competency modeling, most firms have a poor understanding of which types of knowledge are critical to their future success.What are the purposes and ...

Leonard Sergiu B?lan

2013-01-01

377

Towards knowledge networking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article we describe an integrated view on knowledge management and networking being a very powerful combination for the future of knowledge management. We start by giving an overview of the increasing importance of networks in the modern economy. Subsequently, we conceptualize a network perspective on knowledge management. Therefore we first give a theoretical foundation on networks, and secondly explain the interdependences between networks and knowledge management. These reflections...

Andreas Seufert; Von Krogh, G.; Andrea Back

1999-01-01

378

Interferência contextual e nível de habilidade na aprendizagem do serviço do voleibol / Contextual interference and level of skill in the learning of volleyball serve / Interferencia contextual y nivel de habilidad en el aprendizaje del servicio de voleibol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investigou o efeito da interferência contextual (IC) na aquisição do serviço do voleibol em adolescentes com diferentes níveis de habilidade, considerando os testes de transferência imediato e retardado. A amostra foi composta por 56 meninas com idade entre 14 e 16 anos, distribuídas em [...] quatro grupos de prática: aleatório com nível superior de habilidade (GAS), blocos com nível superior de habilidade (GBS), aleatório com nível inferior de habilidade (GAI) e blocos com nível inferior de habilidade (GBI). A tarefa motora consistiu dos serviços por baixo e por cima direcionados a alvos na quadra. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito da IC não foi observado nos grupos GAI e GBI, por outro lado, os grupos GAS e GBS apresentaram melhor desempenho no teste de transferência imediato. A ausência de diferenças significativas no teste de transferência retardado sugere que o efeito da IC pode ser temporário. Abstract in spanish Este estudio investigó el efecto de la interferencia contextual (IC) en la adquisición del servicio de voleibol en adolescentes con diferentes niveles de habilidad, teniendo en cuenta las pruebas de transferencia inmediata y retardada. La muestra estuvo conformada por 56 niñas de edades comprendidas [...] entre 14 y 16 años, divididas en cuatro grupos de práctica: al azar con mayor nivel de habilidad (GAS), por bloques con mayor nivel de habilidad (GBS), al azar con menor nivel de habilidad (GAI ) y por bloques con menor nivel de habilidad (GBI). La tarea motora consistió de servicios por abajo y por encima dirigidos a objetivos en la cancha. Los resultados mostraron que no se observó el efecto de la IC en los grupos GAI y GBI, por otra parte, los grupos GAS y GBS presentaron mejor rendimiento en la prueba de transferencia inmediata. La ausencia de diferencias significativas en la prueba de transferencia de retraso sugiere que el efecto de la IC puede ser temporario. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of contextual interference on acquiring the volleyball serve in adolescents with different skill levels, considering then immediate and delayed transfer tests. Participants were 56 schoolgirls separated in four practice groups: random practice [...] with higher level skill subjects (GAS), blocked practice with higher level skill subjects (GBS), random practice with lower level skill subjects (GAI) and blocked practice with lower level skill subjects (GBI). The acquisition task consisted in performing underhand and overhead services directed at two targets affixed to the ground. The results showed no effect of contextual interference on the lower level skill subjects. However when comparing the types of practice between the higher level skill subjects, the effect was observed in the immediate transfer test. The absence of significant differences between groups in the delayed transfer test suggest that the contextual interference effect may be temporary.

Domingos Manuel, Nhamussua; António, Prista; Luciano, Basso; Go, Tani.

2012-12-01

379

Interferência contextual e nível de habilidade na aprendizagem do serviço do voleibol Interferencia contextual y nivel de habilidad en el aprendizaje del servicio de voleibol Contextual interference and level of skill in the learning of volleyball serve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da interferência contextual (IC na aquisição do serviço do voleibol em adolescentes com diferentes níveis de habilidade, considerando os testes de transferência imediato e retardado. A amostra foi composta por 56 meninas com idade entre 14 e 16 anos, distribuídas em quatro grupos de prática: aleatório com nível superior de habilidade (GAS, blocos com nível superior de habilidade (GBS, aleatório com nível inferior de habilidade (GAI e blocos com nível inferior de habilidade (GBI. A tarefa motora consistiu dos serviços por baixo e por cima direcionados a alvos na quadra. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito da IC não foi observado nos grupos GAI e GBI, por outro lado, os grupos GAS e GBS apresentaram melhor desempenho no teste de transferência imediato. A ausência de diferenças significativas no teste de transferência retardado sugere que o efeito da IC pode ser temporário.Este estudio investigó el efecto de la interferencia contextual (IC en la adquisición del servicio de voleibol en adolescentes con diferentes niveles de habilidad, teniendo en cuenta las pruebas de transferencia inmediata y retardada. La muestra estuvo conformada por 56 niñas de edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, divididas en cuatro grupos de práctica: al azar con mayor nivel de habilidad (GAS, por bloques con mayor nivel de habilidad (GBS, al azar con menor nivel de habilidad (GAI y por bloques con menor nivel de habilidad (GBI. La tarea motora consistió de servicios por abajo y por encima dirigidos a objetivos en la cancha. Los resultados mostraron que no se observó el efecto de la IC en los grupos GAI y GBI, por otra parte, los grupos GAS y GBS presentaron mejor rendimiento en la prueba de transferencia inmediata. La ausencia de diferencias significativas en la prueba de transferencia de retraso sugiere que el efecto de la IC puede ser temporario.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of contextual interference on acquiring the volleyball serve in adolescents with different skill levels, considering then immediate and delayed transfer tests. Participants were 56 schoolgirls separated in four practice groups: random practice with higher level skill subjects (GAS, blocked practice with higher level skill subjects (GBS, random practice with lower level skill subjects (GAI and blocked practice with lower level skill subjects (GBI. The acquisition task consisted in performing underhand and overhead services directed at two targets affixed to the ground. The results showed no effect of contextual interference on the lower level skill subjects. However when comparing the types of practice between the higher level skill subjects, the effect was observed in the immediate transfer test. The absence of significant differences between groups in the delayed transfer test suggest that the contextual interference effect may be temporary.

Domingos Manuel Nhamussua

2012-12-01

380

Influencia del sexo en la interferencia y renovación contextual del aprendizaje espacial en humanos / Influence of sex on interference and contextual renewal of human spatial learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó si la ejecución en un segundo aprendizaje espacial (i.e. interferencia) y la renovación contextual de uno previo presentaban diferencias entre sexos. Dos grupos de hombres y dos de mujeres debieron localizar un llavero oculto en un anaquel virtual. El entrenamiento comprendió dos fases [...] y el contexto presente en la segunda fase podía ser igual o diferente al de la primera; adicionalmente, en cada fase la meta se ubicó en un sitio diferente. Posteriormente se realizó una prueba en la que se omitió la meta y que fue conducida en el mismo contexto de la primera fase del entrenamiento. Los resultados mostraron una menor latencia para encontrar la meta durante la primera fase del entrenamiento y el ensayo inicial de la segunda en hombres, el cual presentó también una diferencia entre sexos en la distribución de respuestas de búsqueda. La prueba mostró un efecto de interferencia o de renovación contextual del aprendizaje espacial dependiendo de si el contexto fue siempre el mismo o cambió a lo largo del entrenamiento, sin diferencias entre sexos. Estos resultados demuestran diferencias entre sexos en un segundo aprendizaje espacial y en sus estrategias de búsqueda, pero no en la renovación contextual de uno previo. Abstract in english Sex differences in the performance of a second spatial learning (i.e. interference) and in the context renewal of a previous one was researched. Two groups of men and women had to find a hidden key ring in a virtual shelf. Training included two phases, in the second phase the context could be the sa [...] me or different from the first phase and in each one of them the goal location was different. Testing was conducted in the same context of the first phase of training with the difference that goal was omitted. Results showed that men had lower latencies to find the goal during the first phase and during the initial trial of the second phase; which also showed sex differences in the distribution of search responses. In the testing phase an interference effect or context renewal of spatial learning was observed respectively if the context was always the same or if it changes through training, without sex differences. These results demonstrate the presence of sex differences in a second spatial learning and in their search strategies, but not in the contextual renewal of a previous one.

David, Luna; Angélica, Alvarado; Javier, Vila.

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Contextual and individual influences on diabetes and heart disease in Havana primary care catchment areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: A population health profile is a cumulative product of socioenvironmental and political factors that create the contexts in which health problems arise, as well as opportunities and barriers to addressing them. Research on context has focused on demonstrating its effects, direct or ind [...] irect, on health indicators, but has made few incursions into assessing its role as a mediator of other factors. While individual risk factors for chronic diseases are well known, the same cannot be said for the complex of contextual factors operating at various levels and over the lifespan. OBJECTIVE: stimate relative influences by contextual versus individual factors as determinants of diabetes type 2 and heart disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in populations served by 12 family doctor-and-nurse practices in Havana, in 840 families selected by simple random sampling, 70 per practice. Principal components analysis was used, as well as contextual logistic regression models with a nested model strategy, whose fit was meant to estimate the relative contributions of contextual compared to individual risk factors for diabetes and heart disease. Context was described and analyzed at two levels: that of the family or household and that of the catchment area served by a family doctor-and-nurse practice (geographically defined as a neighborhood). RESULTS: For diabetes, the contextual effect of neighborhood was modified when household effect was removed; that is, the effect of neighborhood was indirect and mediated by household. Individual coefficients were practically invariant; the principal effect of household changed noticeably on removal of individual effects, while age maintained its effect without variation. For heart disease, the effect of neighborhood was slightly modified when household effect was controlled for. Individual coefficients showed little change. There was an important direct effect of household on risk of heart disease. Age and high blood pressure coefficients hardly varied. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed interactions between individual and contextual (neighborhood and household) factors, whose effects on individual health are not entirely mediated by individual factors. Research needs to pay more attention to context beyond its direct effect on individual risk factors.

Georgia, Díaz-Perera; Jorge, Bacallao; Eduardo, Alemañy.

2013-04-01

382

Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educa...

Shannon Stokes, C.; Eloundou-enyegue, Parfait M.

2004-01-01

383

Augmentation of Explicit Spatial Configurations by Knowledge-Based Inference on Geometric Fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A spatial configuration of a rudimentary, static, realworld scene with known objects (animals and properties (positions and orientations contains a wealth of syntactic and semantic spatial information that can contribute to a computational understanding far beyond what its quantitative details alone convey. This work presents an approach that (1 quantitatively represents what a configuration explicitly states, (2 integrates this information with implicit, commonsense background knowledge of its objects and properties, (3 infers additional, contextually appropriate, commonsense spatial information from and about their interrelationships, and (4 augments the original representation with this combined information. A semantic network represents explicit, quantitative information in a configuration. An inheritance-based knowledge base of relevant concepts supplies implicit, qualitative background knowledge to support semantic interpretation. Together, these structures provide a simple, nondeductive, constraint-based, geometric logical formalism to infer substantial implicit knowledge for intrinsic and deictic frames of spatial reference.

Dan Tappan

2009-04-01

384

Appendix XX: Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal is to offer professionals in the nuclear field a direct and efficient access path to scientific and technical expert knowledge. Knowledge ultimately resides with people, it comprises the information and skills that a knowledgeable person commands. In complex systems, knowledge may also exist in a distributed form: A group may be able to succeed in tasks, which exceed the knowledge of every one individual member of the group. In the latter case, there must be at least one person who has the additional organizational knowledge of where key subject knowledge resides within the group. Individual experts may gain knowledge in three ways: - by studying (reading and understanding documented information); - by example and explanation from an expert (on-the-job training, tutoring); - by research (observation, discovery, reasoning). Research is the only way of creating original knowledge which is either truly novel or has existed before, but was lost without sufficient record. It is also the slowest, most expensive and in some cases (failed experiments) the most dangerous way. However, given time and resources, research work will always enable mankind to regain lost knowledge, how ever expensive that may be. While the IAEA has been actively coordinating and fostering nuclear research and development for many years, there are other aspects of nuclear knowledge management, which are now gaining in importance, too. In particular taining in importance, too. In particular the stimulation of interest in the nuclear field in the younger generation and activities associated with succession planning are increasingly recognized as important aspects of knowledge management. Experts who are presently leaving the nuclear field due to retirement or because of professional re-orientation have in many cases gained their knowledge by direct research (scientists) or have been instructed by the original researchers (engineers). Ideally, they should now pass their knowledge on to the next generation of nuclear workers. However, because of the generally reduced interest in the nuclear field, the nuclear workforce is shrinking in a number of countries and it becomes therefore more and more difficult to extend or even to maintain humankind's present knowledge in the nuclear field. The main function of the proposed nuclear knowledge portal is therefore to support and enhance the existing infrastructure for knowledge transmission. The portal will facilitate access to archived materials (on-line and off-line) and foster professional contacts in academic and industrial contexts by identifying centers of excellence (universities, institutes, industries) where nuclear knowledge presently resides

385

KNOWLEDGE WORKERS’ MANAGEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The empirical research of this paper deals with knowledge workers in Romanian organizations from different fields of activity, with the purpose of distinguishing them from other types of employees and clarifying their profile and individual characteristics. Also, the paper presents the most important challenges concerning the knowledge workers’ management: identifying, developing and evaluating knowledge workers, motivating and rewarding them, as well as describing specific structure of the organizations that rely mostly on knowledgeable workforce. The findings of the research represent an important factor in developing future efficient human resources strategies and practices regarding workers that fuel the knowledge economy.

Ramona TODERICIU

2014-06-01

386

Transfer of high domain knowledge to a similar domain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have widely examined domain knowledge yet rarely investigate the transfer of knowledge from one domain to another. This study sought to fill in the literature gap concerning the impact of domain knowledge on memory in a similar situation. Specifically, this study examined whether high knowledge of baseball could enhance memory for the similar yet unknown domain of cricket, using a 2 (knowledge) x 2 (prime) design. An interaction occurred, indicating that when primed, baseball knowledge improves memory for cricket events in participants with high baseball knowledge but reduces memory in their low-knowledge counterparts. These results suggest that extensive knowledge in one domain allows it to serve as an organizational framework for incoming information in a similar domain; conversely, priming poorly understood domain knowledge results in negative transfer. PMID:19353932

Jessup, Ryan K

2009-01-01

387

Ontology-based knowledge management in service-oriented systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative framework for knowledge management in service-oriented systems. An important novelty of our framework is that it allows for automatic instance level evolution of the knowledge base and that it integrates conceptual level knowledge base evolution with the overall service-oriented system framework. In the paper, we identify several opportunities that have arisen in the field of knowledge management with the wider acceptance of SOA and its technology stack, and we present a framework that addresses these opportunities. We focus on ontology-based knowledge management systems, which have become one of the most important technologies for implementation of knowledge management systems. The framework reduces the required input for knowledge management by knowledge engineers, increases information completeness in the knowledge base and provides a simple way for storing more up-to-date information in the knowledge base.

Ana Sasa

2011-06-01

388

Practicing Knowledge Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The knowledge-based theory of the firm suggests that knowledge is the organizational asset that enables sustainable competitive advantage in hypercompetitive environments. The emphasis on knowledge intoday's organizations is based on the assumption that barriers to the transfer and replication of knowledge endow it with strategic importance. Many organizations are developing information systems designed specifically to facilitate the sharing and integration of knowledge. Such systems are referred to as Knowledge Management System (KMS. The current study provides an analysis of current practices and outcomes of KMS and the nature of KMS as they are evolving in organizations. The findings suggest that interest in KMS across a variety of industries is very high, the technological foundations are varied, and the major concerns revolve around achieving the correct amount and type of accurate knowledge andgarnering support for contributing to the KMS. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are drawn from the study findings.

Jaspal Singh

2013-11-01

389

Digging for knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

The "smile of a mother" is always recognized, whenever and wherever. But why is my PC always dumb and unable to recognize me or my needs, whoever or whatever? This paper postulates that such a 6 W's query and search system needs matching storage. Such a lament will soon be mended with a smarter PC, or a smarter Google engine, a network computer, working in the field of data retrieval, feature extraction, reduction, and knowledge precipitation. Specifically, the strategy of modern information storage and retrieval shall work like our brains, which are constantly overwhelmed by 5 pairs of identical tapes taken by eyes, ears, etc. 5 high fidelity sensors generate 5 pairs of high definition tapes which produce the seeing and hearing etc. in our perception. This amounts to 10 tapes recorded in a non-abridged fashion. How can we store and retrieve them when we need to? We must reduce the redundancy, enhancing the signal noise ratio, and fusing invariant features using a simple set of mathematical operations to write according to the union and read by the intersection in the higher dimensional vector space. For example, (see paper for equation) where the query must be phrased in terms of the union of imprecise or partial set of 6w's denoted by the union of lower case w's. The upper case W's are the archival storage of a primer tree. A simplified humanistic representation may be called the 6W space (who, what, where, when, why, how), also referred to as the Newspaper geometry. It seems like mapping the 6W to the 3W (World Wide Web) is becoming relatively easier. It may thus become efficient and robust by rapidly digging for knowledge through the set operations of union, writing, and intersection, reading, upon the design of 6 W query searching engine matched efficiently by the 6W vector index databases. In fact, Newspaper 6D geometry may be reduced furthermore by PCA (Principal Component Analysis) eigenvector mathematics and mapped into the 2D causality space comprised of the causes (What, How, Why) and the effects (Where, When and Who). If this hypothesis of brain strategy were true, one must then develop a 6W query language to support a 6Wordered set storage of linkage pointers in high D space. In other words, one can easily map the basic 1st Gen. Google Web, 1-D statistical PageRanking databases, to a nested 6W tree where each branch of sub-6-W is stemming from the prime 6 W tree, using a system of automated text mining assisted by syntactic semantics to discern the properties of the 6W for that query. Goehl et al. has demonstrated previously that such is doable, but one may need more tools to support the knowledge extraction and automated feature reduction. In this paper, we have set out to demonstrate lossless down sampling using the 2nd Gen wavelet transform, the so-called "1-D Cartesian lifting processing of Swelden" adopted by JPEG 2000. "The loss of statistics, if any (including PageRanking and 1-D lifting), is the loss of geometry insights," such as 2-D vector time series, video, whose 1-D lifting Cartesian product will loss the diagonal changes insights.

Szu, Harold; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Hsu, Charles; Goehl, Steve; Miao, Liden; Cader, Masud; Benachenhou, Dalila

2009-04-01

390

D-Cycloserine Does Not Facilitate Fear Extinction by Reducing Conditioned Stimulus Processing or Promoting Conditioned Inhibition to Contextual Cues  

Science.gov (United States)

The NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) enhances the extinction of learned fear in rats and exposure therapy in humans with anxiety disorders. Despite these benefits, little is known about the mechanisms by which DCS promotes the loss of fear. The present study examined whether DCS augments extinction retention (1) through reductions…

Baker, Kathryn D.; McNally, Gavan P.; Richardson, Rick

2012-01-01

391

Teenage pregnancy contextualized: understanding reproductive intentions in a Brazilian shantytown.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a socio-anthropological study with women from a low-income community in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Through the use of qualitative methods it looks at teenage pregnancy from the young mothers' perspective and the contribution of their socioeconomic environment. It shows the importance of different actors in their fertility decision and identifies contradictory cultural norms that recriminate teenage sexual activity while seeing motherhood as a ritual of passage to adulthood. Following criticisms of insufficient family planning programs and negative health and economic outcomes for the lives of youngsters, the paper argues that motherhood stands as a successful activity through which they fulfill the collectively recognized ideal of womanhood, also carrying a sense of achievement in an environment where lack of opportunities prevail long before pregnancy occurs. Improving formal knowledge and economic well-being are possible solutions to provide these girls with goals that go beyond parenthood while within reach of their economic reality. PMID:22488311

Santos, Karine Alves

2012-04-01

392

Contextuality and the transmission of trauma: Nightfather by Carl Friedman  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english "Context" plays an important role in any discourse about trauma. Not only does it serve as a precondition for the manifestation of trauma in the first place, but also determines the way in which trauma is received, interpreted and represented. The sensitivity of the reception context towards the rep [...] resented traumatic events also determines whether only knowledge about the events are mediated or whether the uncanny nature of trauma is transmitted. If the latter occurs, a secondary trauma manifests itself as result. In the Dutch novel Tralievader (translated as Nightfather) by Carl Friedman the transmission of the Holocaust trauma within a particular family is represented. This transmission can be seen as the result of the impact of one context on another-that of the parent on that of the child. With the complex issue of the transmission of trauma kept in mind, specific dangers in the interpretation and transmission of trauma in a collective sense are identified. Suggestions are also made on how to deal with trauma in a productive way.

J. P. C., van den Berg; H. P., van Coller.

393

Using cartography to sustain inter-generation knowledge transfer : the M3C methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge transfer problem between two generations of professionals (usually from the old one to the new one) to a new dimension. Knowledge transfer is no longer reducible to classical solutions as face to face training, technical education, tutoring. Knowledge to transfer is professional knowledge (Business Knowledge). It involves the whole Knowledge Capital within an organization. Identify the knowledge components that are worthwhile to transfer is not an easy task. This is the problem addr...

Ermine, Jean-louis; Boughzala, Imed; Tounkara, Thierno

2005-01-01

394

Nuclear knowledge management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear knowledge is characterized by high-complexity and variety of the component topics and long duration required by the build-up of individual competence. At organizational level, these characteristics made the power of an organization or institution to be determined by the capital accumulated of existing knowledge. Furthermore, the capacity of an organization to re-generate and raise the knowledge capital according to the specific processes it is running according to the existing demand decides its position/ranking in the economy of nuclear field. Knowledge management emphasizes re-utilization of existing practice and experience, upgrade, enrich and re-value of accumulated knowledge. The present paper identifies and classifies the nuclear knowledge steps, namely: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge, preserving, transfer, knowledge capture etc. On this basis there are identified the existing problems of nuclear knowledge management in Romania such as: difficulties to keep within the country the existing expertise, lack of interest in nuclear education, low level of organization of existing knowledge due to a small number of data bases, an insufficient integration of existing knowledge in IT systems, lack of ontology and taxonomy or an average structuralism. Nuclear knowledge in Romania is facing a major challenge which is generated by the future development of nuclear facilities. It is related to the rising demand of expertise and experts. This challenge is bettertise and experts. This challenge is better solved by partnership between end users and institutions of Research and Development and university organization as well which could ensure the generation, transfer and preservation of nuclear knowledge. (authors)

395

Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this hypothesis. The location of the recently explored documentary sources evidence that there was no notarial activity in this particular area at that time. The importance of the economic and political dominance of Bordeaux during the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries has to be taken into account in order to apprehend the way the earthquake was reported by the population at the regional scale. Elements related to chimneys forms or construction techniques could in turn help in identifying regional peculiarities allowing better quantifying the vulnerability aspects of the region.

Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

2014-05-01

396

MEDICAL IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE USING LISTLESS SET PARTITIONING IN HIERARCHICAL TREES AND CONTEXTUAL VECTOR QUANTIZATION FOR BRAIN IMAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A hybrid image compression techniques has been developed to compress medical images. Due to the extensive use of medical images like CT and MR scan, these medical imagery are stored for a longer period for the continuous monitoring of the patients and the amount of data associated with images is large and it occupies enormous storage capacity. So, the medical images need to be compressed to reduce the storage cost and for transmission without any loss. In this study, a hybrid method which combines the Listless Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (LSPIHT and the Contextual Vector Quantization (CVQ method for the compression of brain images. Here, the region containing the most important information for diagnosis is called Region of Interest (ROI and this is to be compressed with out any loss in the quality. In this method, the ROI is encoded separately using LSPIHT and the Back Ground region (BG is encoded using CVQ. Finally, the two regions are merged together to get the reconstructed image. Our results show that the proposed method gives very good image quality for diagnosis without any degradable loss. The performance of the compression technique is evaluated using the parameters (CR, MSE, PSNR and achieved better result compared to other existing methods. As a result, we strongly believe that using our method, we can overcome the limitations in storage and transmission of medical images that are produced day by day.

S. Sridevi

2013-01-01

397

The Use of Dictionary and Contextual Guessing Strategies for Vocabulary Learning by Advanced English-Language Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study provides insight into the use of dictionaries and contextual guessing by advanced English-language learners. This report identifies dictionary use and contextual guessing strategies used by these learners most often and least often. Participants were 100 international graduate students at a large southwestern U.S. university who completed a vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire. The results indicated that these learners consulted a dictionary most often to find out t...

Shufen Huang; Zohreh Eslami

2013-01-01

398

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term “contextual behavioral science.” We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more a...

Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.; Plumb-vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L.; Pistorello, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

399

CONTEXTUAL FACTORS AND MORAL EMOTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSMENT IN THE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was aimed at testing a proposal relating contextual and emotional factors to prosocial and problematicbehaviors in adolescence. This proposal is based on ecological contextual models dealing with the influence ofmultiple factors on the explanation of psychological phenomena. The study was done on a sample of 239 nuclearfamilies with at least one son aged between 12 and 18 years old. The results showed that the main predictor ofprosocial behavior is the emotional factor, whereas for the psychological disadjustment behavior it is a proximal factor.It was also found that sympathy mediates both the relation between inductive discipline and the prosocial behavior,and the relation between acceptance and this adjustment behavior in adolescence.

IVÓN PAOLA GUEVARA MARÍN

2007-08-01

400

Latent Demand and Time Contextual Constraints to Outdoor Recreation in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes the latent demand to outdoor recreation participation and identifies what factors are constraining people from realizing this demand. In Sweden, recreation in the outdoors is seen as a public right as articulated in public policy and much of the outdoor recreation centre around forested landscapes—over 60 percent of the land area is classified as forest. Using data from a nationwide survey of 43 recreation activities, the study takes a time-contextual approach to reveal variations in recreation constraints across weekdays, weekends and holidays. Results show that almost half the population has a latent demand to increase their participation in outdoor recreation. Three categories of time contextual constraints are identified and several of the constraints studied show variations across outdoor activities and socio-economic factors. Practical implications for the promotion of outdoor recreation participation by public agencies, recreation managers and tourism businesses are discussed based on the study findings.

Daniel Wolf-Watz

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

Contextual factors of the mathematics learning environment of grade 6 learners in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide insight into the personal characteristics and family backgrounds that South African grade 6 learners bring to the learning process as well as how they interact with the resources and practices that characterise the schools they attend. The research method is historiographic, offering insights into current conditions. An analysis of content is done through examining evidence gathered from an international project. Gender, socio-economic groupings and other major aspects associated with differences in mathematics achievement among learners and schools are addressed. An overall picture of contextual factors that may impact on mathematics achievement is presented. Although the essential conclusions of the investigation are largely straightforward, valuable contextual information emerged that may have implications for mathematics education within the context of South Africa as a developing country.

G. S. Kotze

2011-10-01

402

Violation of a Bell-like Inequality in Neutron Optical Experiments: Quantum contextuality  

CERN Document Server

We report a single-neutron optical experiment to demonstrate the violation of a Bell-like inequality. Entanglement is achieved not between particles, but between the degrees of freedom, in this case, for a single-particle. The spin-{\\small 1/2} property of neutrons are utilized. The total wave function of the neutron is described in a tensor product Hilbert space. A Bell-like inequality is derived not by a non-locality but by a contextuality. Joint measurements of the spinor and the path properties lead to the violation of a Bell-like inequality. Manipulation of the wavefunction in one Hilbert space influences the result of the measurement in the other Hilbert space. A discussion is given on the quantum contextuality and an entanglement-induced correlation in our experiment.

Hasegawa, Y; Badurek, G; Baron, M; Rauch, H; Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Badurek, Gerald; Baron, Matthias; Rauch, Helmut

2003-01-01

403

Developing a geoscience knowledge framework for a national geological survey organisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological survey organisations (GSOs) are established by most nations to provide a geoscience knowledge base for effective decision-making on mitigating the impacts of natural hazards and global change, and on sustainable management of natural resources. The value of the knowledge base as a national asset is continually enhanced by the exchange of knowledge between GSOs as data and information providers and the stakeholder community as knowledge 'users and exploiters'. Geological maps and associated narrative texts typically form the core of national geoscience knowledge bases, but have some inherent limitations as methods of capturing and articulating knowledge. Much knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D) spatial interpretation and its derivation and uncertainty, and the wider contextual value of the knowledge, remains intangible in the minds of the mapping geologist in implicit and tacit form. To realise the value of these knowledge assets, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has established a workflow-based cyber-infrastructure to enhance its knowledge management and exchange capability. Future geoscience surveys in the BGS will contribute to a national, 3D digital knowledge base on UK geology, with the associated implicit and tacit information captured as metadata, qualitative assessments of uncertainty, and documented workflows and best practice. Knowledge-based decision-making at all levels of society requires both the accessibility and reliability of knowledge to be enhanced in the grid-based world. Establishment of collaborative cyber-infrastructures and ontologies for geoscience knowledge management and exchange will ensure that GSOs, as knowledge-based organisations, can make their contribution to this wider goal.

Howard, Andrew S.; Hatton, Bill; Reitsma, Femke; Lawrie, Ken I. G.

2009-04-01

404

SEXUAL SIN IN NEW TESTAMENT TIMES BIBLICAL AND CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVES IN NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Christian ethical standards are breaking down in our nation. Many believe now that individuals have rights, including the right to make their own sexual decisions and that sexual behaviour is an individual's private matter. How then can Christianity or the Church relate to the sexual and marriage problems today? If the bible really has a standard that can safe-guide sexual behaviours, why is sexual sin common even within the Church? Historical-contextual and sociological methods were employed...

Akintunde Dorcas Olubanke; Dairo Afolorunso Olalekan

2011-01-01

405

The influence of contextual information on lay judgments of childhood mental health concerns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decisions about whether a person is in need of mental health care are often made by laypeople with no training in the identification of mental health concerns. For example, the parent of a child displaying problematic behavior has to decide whether this behavior is likely related to mental health concerns and necessitates professional care. The process of identifying mental health concerns is made more complicated by the rich background of real-world environmental factors or contexts in which concerns can present-contexts that might or might not relate to the presence of mental health concerns. We investigated whether laypeople use contextual information to make judgments regarding childhood mental health disorder symptoms. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that laypeople's judgments of the likelihood of a mental disorder are influenced by non-diagnostic contextual information that surrounds symptoms of the disorder. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that providing a causal origin for such disorder symptoms accentuates the use of context, regardless of the nature of the causal process (i.e., environmental vs. biological). These findings indicate that contextual influences on judgments about mental health concerns may reflect a more general set of mental reasoning processes than indicated by previous work focused on clinicians' judgments. Consequently, these findings have important implications for how we think about the influence of contextual information on decision making more generally as well as for improving our ability to both reliably identify children in need of mental health care and increase children's access to such care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24932649

Marsh, Jessecae K; De Los Reyes, Andres; Wallerstein, Alexa

2014-12-01

406

A contextual study of the information literacy of aspirant barristers in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study upon which the article is based investigated the information literacy of aspirant barristers in Nigeria andexamined the efforts undertaken to restructure the legal education system in Nigeria. It explored the connectionbetween contextual influences and professional development, particularly with respect to the concept of legalinformation literacy and the value of acquired educational skills in the context of legal practice in Nigeria. Datawere obtained using quantitative and qualita...

Vicki Lawal; Christine Stilwell; Rose Kuhn; Underwood, Peter G.

2013-01-01

407

Characterizing cognitive aging of spatial and contextual memory in animal models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Episodic memory, especially memory for contextual or spatial information, is particularly vulnerable to age-related decline in humans and animal models of aging. The continuing improvement of virtual environment technology for testing humans signifies that widely used procedures employed in the animal literature for examining spatial memory could be developed for examining age-related cognitive decline in humans. The current review examines cross species considerations for implementing these ...

ThomasC.Foster; Anthonydefazio, R.

2012-01-01

408

The Contextualized Study on Metaphor: a Research on Metaphor in Chinese Classic Poems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on metaphor of decontextualized words or sentences bring some problems. By studying the metaphor of Chinese classic poems, this paper tries to study metaphor in the context of discourse. It argues that besides source discourse and target discourse, other aspects of context also play an important role in the metaphoric working process. Studying metaphor in contextualized discourse will extend the range of research on metaphor.
Key words: metaphor, discourse, context, Chines...

Guan, Jing-yuan

2007-01-01

409

The contextual name generator : a good tool for the study of sociability and socialization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss here some specificities and advantages of a new kind of integrated name generator, the “contextual” name generator, which was developed in a longitudinal qualitative panel study that started in France in 1995 and was also conducted in 2005 in three different projects in Quebec. This name generator gives access to a great diversity of information that allows to combine sociability and socialization questions.

Bidart, Claire; Charbonneau, Johanne

2007-01-01

410

Initial and sustained brain responses to contextual conditioned anxiety in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual fear conditioning takes place if the occurrence of threat cannot be predicted by specific cues. As a consequence the context becomes the best predictor of the threat and later induces anxiety (sustained fear response). Previous studies suggest that both the amygdala and the hippocampus are crucial for contextual fear conditioning. First, we wanted to further elucidate the neuronal correlates of long-lasting contextual threat within a highly ecologically setting created in virtual reality (VR). Second, we wanted to distinguish between initial and sustained components of the anxiety response to a threatening situation. Twenty-four participants were guided through two virtual offices for 30s each. They received unpredictable electric stimuli (unconditioned stimulus, US) in one office (anxiety context, CXT+), but never in the second office (safety context, CXT-). Successful contextual fear conditioning was indexed by higher anxiety and enhanced US-expectancy ratings for CXT+ versus CXT-. Initial neural activity was assessed by modeling the onsets of both contexts, and sustained neural activity by considering the entire context duration (contrasts: CXT+ > CXT-). Amygdala and hippocampus revealed sustained activity. Initial and sustained activities were found in the middle temporal gyrus, and primary motor cortex (M1). Additional initial activity was obvious in orbitofrontal (OFC), dorsomedial (dmPFC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). These results suggest that entering a threatening context initially induces conditioned fear reactions (M1), recall of contingency awareness (dlPFC), and explicit threat appraisal (dmPFC, OFC). While remaining in the threatening context might involve anxiety-like conditioned responses (amygdala, M1) and the generation of a spatial map to predict where and when a threatening event may occur (hippocampus). We conclude that in humans initial versus sustained anxiety responses triggered by a threat associated context are associated with distinguishable brain activation patterns involving a fear network and a "contingency-cognitive" network, respectively. PMID:25460498

Andreatta, Marta; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Mühlberger, Andreas; Schulz, Stefan M; Wiemer, Julian; Pauli, Paul

2015-02-01

411

Semantic distillation: a method for clustering objects by their contextual specificity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Techniques for data-mining, latent semantic analysis, contextual search of databases, etc.\\ have long ago been developed by computer scientists working on information retrieval (IR). Experimental scientists, from all disciplines, having to analyse large collections of raw experimental data (astronomical, physical, biological, etc.) have developed powerful methods for their statistical analysis and for clustering, categorising, and classifying objects. Finally, physicists have developed a theo...

Sierocinski, Thomas; Le Be?chec, Antony; The?ret, Nathalie; Petritis, Dimitri

2008-01-01

412

A Rule-based Contextual Reasoning Platform for Ambient Intelligence environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The special characteristics and requirements of intelligent environments impose several challenges to the reasoning processes of Ambient Intelligence systems. Such systems must enable heterogeneous entities operating in open and dynamic environments to collectively rea- son with imperfect context information. Previously we introduced Con- textual Defeasible Logic (CDL) as a contextual reasoning model that addresses most of these challenges using the concepts of context, map- pings and context...

Moawad, Assaad; Bikakis, Antonis; Caire, Patrice; Nain, Gre?gory; Le Traon, Yves

2013-01-01

413

Contextual Multi-armed Bandits for the Prevention of Spam in VoIP Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we argue that contextual multi-armed bandit algorithms could open avenues for designing self-learning security modules for computer networks and related tasks. The paper has two contributions: a conceptual one and an algorithmical one. The conceptual contribution is to formulate -- as an example -- the real-world problem of preventing SPIT (Spam in VoIP networks), which is currently not satisfyingly addressed by standard techniques, as a sequential learning pro...

Jung, Tobias; Martin, Sylvain; Ernst, Damien; Leduc, Guy

2012-01-01

414

Violation of contextual generalization of the Leggett–Garg inequality for recognition of ambiguous figures  

Science.gov (United States)

We interpret the Leggett–Garg (LG) inequality as a kind of contextual probabilistic inequality in which one combines data collected in experiments performed for three different contexts. In the original version of the inequality, these contexts have a temporal nature and they are represented by three pairs of instances of time, ({{t}1},{{t}2}),({{t}2},{{t}3}),({{t}3},{{t}4}), where {{t}1}\\lt {{t}2}\\lt {{t}3}. We generalize LG conditions of macroscopic realism and noninvasive measurability in a general contextual framework. Our formulation is performed in purely probabilistic terms: the existence of the context-independent joint probability distribution P and the possibility of reconstructing the experimentally found marginal (two-dimensional) probability distributions from P. We derive an analog of the LG inequality, ‘contextual LG inequality’, and use it as a test of ‘quantum-likeness’ of statistical data collected in a series of experiments on the recognition of ambiguous figures. In our experimental study, the figure under recognition is the Schröder stair, which is shown with rotations for different angles. Contexts are encoded by dynamics of rotations: clockwise, anticlockwise and random. Our data demonstrated violation of the contextual LG inequality for some combinations of the aforementioned contexts. Since in quantum theory and experiments with quantum physical systems, this inequality is violated, e.g. in the form of the original LG-inequality, our result can be interpreted as a sign that the quantum-like models can provide a more adequate description of the data generated in the process of recognition of ambiguous figures.

Asano, Masanari; Hashimoto, Takahisa; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu

2014-12-01

415

A comparative study of contextual urban design approaches in the UK and DK  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last century urban planning has changed dramatically due in part to vehicular development, a modernist design culture, rapid urbanisation and new computer technologies. This planning strategy has influenced that new-implemented areas looks incredible from a helicopter, but the human scale has, as a consequence, been completely shattered. The context of buildings has predominantly not been preserved, or adequately considered; the shape of buildings has been the most significant focus in the planning process. Two approaches, comprehensive development and cellular renewal, will be introduced as different ways of accommodating, more contextual urban renewal. In this paper, four different case studies in two different cities, Winchester in UK and Copenhagen in DK, are examined in regards to their urban planning and their use of the two above-mentioned approaches. A number of different key performance indicators have been selected, analysed and evaluated in a spiderweb, to clarify where in the process the planning could have been better or improved with regard to future similar planning processes. The two cities, Winchester and Copenhagen, and the four case studies, selected in the beginning of this paper, turned out to be more dissimilar than anticipated. This was due to cultural traditions and different construction methods in the two countries. In spite of this, clear pros and cons, of using comprehensive development and cellular renewal have been identified. Both case studies approached by cellular renewal turned out to be the most contextual urban design, where the focus on social- and physical contextualism was introduced early in the process. With that said comprehensive can still be considered and approached by contextualism.

HØjriis, Jonas; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

2014-01-01

416

A discrete contextual stochastic model for the off-line recognition of handwritten Chinese characters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study a discrete contextual stochastic (CS) model for complex and variant patterns like handwritten Chinese characters. Three fundamental problems of using CS models for character recognition are discussed, and several practical techniques for solving these problems are investigated. A formulation for discriminative training of CS model parameters is also introduced and its practical usage investigated. To illustrate the characteristics of the various algorithms, comparative experiments ar...

Xiong, Y.; Huo, Q.; Chan, C.

2001-01-01

417

The effects of IL2R? knockout on depression and contextual memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interleukin (IL)-2R? shows robust upregulation in neuroinflammatory states associated with clinical depression. We tested the hypothesis that mice lacking IL2R? would have decreased depressive-like behavior. Contrary to this expectation, these knockout mice showed increased immobility in both the Porsolt forced swimming and Nomura water wheel tests. By comparison, the auditory fear conditioning test showed increased retention of contextual freezing. Thus, intact IL2R? combats depressive-li...

Wu, Xiaojun; Kastin, Abba J.; Hsuchou, Hung; Pan, Weihong

2010-01-01

418

Acupuncture Adverse Events in China:A Glimpse of Historical and Contextual Aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article by He and colleagues, ‘‘Adverse Events Following Acupuncture: A Systematic Review of the Chinese Literature for the Years 1956–2010’’ is an important and timely contribution. In this commentary, the article is reviewed and issues are highlighted about how to interpret and contextualize the results of their study. While their review has been well performed, certain areas have been identified where the results may be inaccurate due to problems in the reporting of original ...

Birch, Stephen; Alræk, Terje; Norheim, Arne Johan

2013-01-01

419

CONTEXTUALIZED ASSESSMENT WITH BATTERED WOMEN: STRATEGIC SAFETY PLANNING TO COPE WITH MULTIPLE HARMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the prevalence of domestic violence and the likelihood that many victims will not receive services from specialized domestic violence providers, this article provides a framework for contextualized assessment that can be used by generalist practitioners. Drawing from stress and coping theory, the authors discuss the relevance of assessing appraisals and emotional responses within the context of environmental and individual risk and protective factors. Through an illustrative case assess...

Lindhorst, Taryn; Nurius, Paula; Macy, Rebecca J.

2005-01-01

420

Nature, culture, and development : agenda of the contextual global social work, CGSW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este artículo se organiza en tres temas centrales: el TS Gc, la práctica del TS Gc, y la agenda. La agenda deriva de una matriz que relaciona naturaleza, cultura y desarrollo, con tres instrumentos de derechos humanos: la Declaración Bioética, la Convención de la Diversidad Cultural, y el Convenio de la Biodiversidad. Plantea, argumenta y estructura la incorporación de la bioética, la diversidad cultural y el desarrollo humano en la agenda del Trabajo Social Global Contextual (TS Gc). ...

Zambrano, Carlos Vladimir

2010-01-01