WorldWideScience
1

Contextual Knowledge Reduces Demands on Working Memory during Reading  

OpenAIRE

An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title which supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per propos...

Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Cohen, Jason A.; Wingfield, Arthur

2006-01-01

2

Knowledge Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Kréta : WSEAS Press, 2007, s. 326-330. ISBN 978-960-8457-90-4. [CSCC 2007. Agios Nikolaos (GR), 23.07.2007-28.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * uncertainty * knowledge management * contextual modelling * temporal modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

3

Textual, Contextual, and Extra-Contextual Knowledge in ESL Composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Victor Raskin's taxonomy of knowledge, based on semantics theory, is adapted and applied to composition in English as a Second Language (ESL). Raskin's classification of knowledge as linguistic and encyclopedic is converted to a continuum from textual to extra-contextual, with contextual knowledge situated between the two. Textual knowledge is…

Zhao, Heping

4

Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer : A multiple case study on disparate contexts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries. A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts promote different learning preferences and possibly complementarities may exist between these. Furthermore, double loop learning is not required for beneficial reverse knowledge transfer.

SØberg, Peder Veng

2010-01-01

5

Increase Motivation and Knowledge the Environment through Contextual Model  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this exploratory study is to determine the development of curriculum Environmental Sciences which applies scientific lecture materials that are integrated in the environment, application of environmental knowledge, and character development curriculum on motivation. This study involved 45 students who were selected randomly. Data from samples were obtained by using a questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the survey instrument was conducted by performing a pilot study invol...

Yustina Yustina; Elya Febrita

2013-01-01

6

Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science based reflections related to the use and uptake of technology in society often conflicts with engineering students’ self-understanding and identity. Another dilemma is related to the specificity and modeling reductionism in engineering science compared to the complexity of problems in engineering practice. Consequently courses added into engineering curricula emphasizing contextual issues stay in stark contrast to the dominant instrumental disciplines of mathematics and techno-science content of core engineering courses. Based on several years of teaching and experimenting with Theory of Science at the Technical University of Denmark, the paper argues that teaching contextual knowledge needs to overcome several barriersthat tend to be neglected in engineering educations.

JØrgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, SØsser

2011-01-01

7

Using Wikipedia as an External Knowledge Source for Supporting Contextual Disambiguation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every term has a meaning but there are terms which have multiple meanings. Identifying the correct meaning of a term in a specific context is the goal of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD applications. Identifying the correct sense of a term given a limited context is even harder. This research aims at solving the problem of identifying the correct sense of a term given only one term as its context. The main focus of this research is on using Wikipedia as the external knowledge source to decipher the true meaning of each term using a single term as the context. We experimented with the semantically rich Wikipedia senses and hyperlinks for context disambiguation. We also analyzed the effect of sense filtering on context extraction and found it quite effective for contextual disambiguation. Results have shown that disambiguation with filtering works quite well on manually disambiguated dataset with the performance accuracy of 86%.

2013-01-01

8

Contextual issues in the diffusion of innovation : The interaction of social networks and organizational knowledge  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the linkages between Social Network Theory (Granovetter 1973) and Organizational Knowledge Theory (Polanyi 1966, Nonaka 1994; Nonaka, Toyama and Byosiere 2001) as it relates to diffusion of organizational innovation within large organizations. The focus is on examining these theoretical interrelationships in three case studies delving into major change projects in three large telecommunications firms. Findings indicate that weak ties are vital when the focus is on explici...

Byosie?re, Philippe; Luethge, Denise J.; Vas, Alain; Mari Paz, Salmador Sanchez

2006-01-01

9

Putting it in Perspective : Designing a 3D Visualization to Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Namibia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a long-term research and co-design project we are creating a 3D visualization interface for an indigenous knowledge (IK) management system with rural dwellers of the Herero tribe in Namibia. Evaluations of earlier prototypes and theories on cultural differences in perception led us to further investigate the suitability of different perspectives of view for the given user group. Through a combination of drawing sessions, design discussions and a high-fidelity technology probe we explored the visual perceptions and preferences of community members; specifically focusing on representation and recognition of objects and places in their everyday environment. We report how the findings from the study have informed design decisions for our particular system while also suggesting that certain viewing angles for 3D visualizations could be more suitable for the Herero and similar rural cultures in general.

Jensen, Kasper LØvborg; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2012-01-01

10

Context aware decision system in a smart home : knowledge representation and decision making using uncertain contextual information  

OpenAIRE

This research addresses the issue of building home automation systems reactive to voice for improved comfort and autonomy at home. The paper presents a complete framework that acquires data from sensors and interprets them, by means of IA techniques, to provide contextual information for decision making. The system uses a two-level ontology to represent the different concepts handled during the processing which also contains SWRL instances to automatise some of the reasoning. The focus of thi...

Chahuara, Pedro; Portet, Franc?ois; Vacher, Michel

2012-01-01

11

Quantifying Contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity.

Grudka, A.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Joshi, P.; K?obus, W.; Wójcik, A.

2014-03-01

12

Contextual Text Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

13

Reducing Language Knowledge Asymmetries in a Temporary Setting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ERASMUS program was introduced (under a different name) in 1987 with the aim, among others, of furthering multilingualism (Coleman 1998). Given that this phenomenon was expected to be realized at an individual level, the aim of the program was clearly not merely multilingualism but, in fact, plurilingualism (Spolsky 2004) and, by implication, a program intended to strengthen the building at an individual level of the specialized knowledge that the learning of any second or foreign language requires. Recent research has shown, however, that the motivation of students whose disciplinary fields are not language or philology and who go to Denmark or Sweden on exchange does not necessarily lie in an interest in learning the official language of the host country (Caudery et al., 2008). On the basis of semi-structured individual interviews, picture description and basic vocabulary tests, this paper reports on a longitudinal study of 240 incoming non-language exchange students in Scandinavia. It analyses a few exceptional cases of students whose level of performance in the Scandinavian language of their host country was higher than the average performance of the cohort. The paper investigates the characteristics of these cases and, drawing on Hornberger's continua of biliteracy model, it relates them to factors arguably influencing the relative achievement of the aim of plurilingualism. In so doing, it seeks to contribute to our understanding of individuals' motives for reducing language knowledge asymmetries.

Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim

14

Study on Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 1, ?. 1 (2007), s. 12-15. ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * contextual modelling * temporal modelling * uncertainty * knowledge management Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

2007-01-01

15

Measuring knowledge: investigative research into the quantification of performance within a contextual multi-source PED fusion process  

Science.gov (United States)

Most intelligence analysts currently use Information Products (IP) from multiple sources with very different characteristics to perform a variety of intelligence tasks. In order to maximize the analysts' efficacy (and ultimately provide intelligent automation), it is important to understand how and what each IP within the set of IPs contributes to the accuracy and validity of the analytic result. This paper describes initial research toward the development of a scale, analogous to the National Imagery Interpretability Scale (NIIRS), which will measure the knowledge contribution of each of the multi-source IPs, as well as measuring the extent to which the IP set as a whole meets the enduser's intelligence need - which is actionable knowledge. This scale, the Knowledge-NIIRS (KnIIRS), when completed, will support the measurement of the quality and quantity of information gained through multi-source IP fusion and enables the development of smart (automated) tools for analysts using the next generation of PED workstations. The results of this initial study indicate that analysts are capable of making judgments that reflect the "value" of fused information, and that the judgments they make vary along at least two dimensions. Furthermore, there are substantial and significant differences among analysts in how they make these judgments that must be considered for further scale development. We suggest that the KnIIRS objectives and its derived understandings offer important and critical insights to enable automation that will achieve the goal to deliver actionable knowledge.

Scarff, Larry A.; Burke, Dustin; Jones, Eric; Gilfillan, Lynne; Pratt, Stephanie; Jackson, Cullen; Weil, Shawn; Fiore, Stephen

2013-05-01

16

On Contextuality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

17

Perceived knowledge, skills, attitude and contextual factors affecting evidence-based practice among nurse educators, clinical coaches and nurse specialists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence-based practice (EBP) in the clinical setting is recognized as an approach that leads to improved patient outcomes. Nurse educators (NEs), clinical coaches (CCs) and nurse specialists are in key positions to promote and facilitate EBP within clinical settings and have opportunities to advance practice. Therefore, it is important to understand their perceptions of factors promoting EBP and perceived barriers in facilitating EBP in clinical settings, before developing educational programmes. This paper reports findings from a study that aimed to explore NEs' , CCs' and nurse specialists' knowledge, skills and attitudes associated with EBP. This study used a questionnaire containing quantitative and a small number of qualitative questions to capture data collected from NEs, CCs and nurse specialists working at a tertiary health-care facility in Victoria, Australia. The questionnaire was distributed to a total of 435 people, of whom 135 responded (31%). Findings revealed that the three senior nurse groups relied heavily on personal experience, organizational policies and protocols as formal sources of knowledge. Furthermore, they had positive attitudes towards EBP. However, participants demonstrated lack of knowledge and skills in appraising and utilizing evidence into practice. They indicated a desire to seek educational opportunities to upskill themselves in the process of EBP. PMID:25355492

Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Plummer, Virginia

2014-10-30

18

Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

2011-09-01

19

The Program Assessment Guide: an approach for structuring contextual knowledge and experience to improve the design, delivery, and effectiveness of nutrition interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

As evidence from small-scale trials has accumulated concerning the efficacy of low-cost interventions to address undernutrition, the design, implementation, and strengthening of large-scale programs to deliver these interventions has become a high priority. This scaling up process involves a large number of technical, logistical, administrative, political, and social considerations and little research exists on how to address these in a systematic way. This paper introduces the Program Assessment Guide (PAG), a set of analysis and decision tools that seeks to fill this gap, and reports on its application in Kyrgyzstan and Bolivia. The PAG places a special focus on eliciting and systematizing contextual knowledge and experience through a structured, participatory workshop and is grounded in theory, principles, and experience from program planning, management, change management, and intervention planning. When applied in Kyrgyzstan and Bolivia, the PAG was successful in helping workshop participants identify key implementation bottlenecks, questionable assumptions in the program theory, and feasible ways to address some of the shortcomings. These experiences also identified the need for a number of modifications to the PAG related to the workshop design itself, the preparations prior to the workshop, and follow-up after the workshop. The PAG represents one approach for strengthening decisions related to the design and large-scale implementation of interventions. The development and full-scale testing of alternative methods such as these for strengthening program analysis and decision making is an important and intellectually challenging subject for further research. PMID:21956957

Pelletier, David; Corsi, Allison; Hoey, Lesli; Faillace, Silvana; Houston, Robin

2011-11-01

20

Epistemic contextualism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the main topic of this issue of Theoria. First, the author presents the key thesis of epistemic contextualism, outlines its development in contemporary epistemology and briefly characterizes its two versions, namely conversational and inferential contextualism. Second, the author focuses on some contextualist solutions to three major epistemological problems: the problem of scepticism, lottery, and Gettier's problem. The author agrees with Stewart Cohen that Gettier’s problem does not belong to this group and explains why both its formulation and a solution require a traditional, invariantist approach. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinami?ki sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

Lazovi? Živan

2014-01-01

21

Introduction to Contextual Processing Theory and Applications  

CERN Document Server

Develops a comprehensive, global model for contextually based processing systems. This title presents a new perspective on global information systems operation. Helping to advance a valuable paradigm shift in the next generation and processing of knowledge, "Introduction to Contextual Processing: Theory and Applications" provides a comprehensive model for constructing a contextually based processing system. It explores the components of this system, the interactions of the components, key mathematical foundations behind the model, and new concepts necessary for operating the system.

Vert, Gregory

2010-01-01

22

Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’, and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities.Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged since it allows individuals to achieve personal goals and may lead to effective management of oneself, other people and tasks. In addition, students do not appear to recognise the role of mobile phones in enhancing knowledge transfer. More awareness of this role needs to be created in institutions of learning in order to improve group learning and student performance.

Michael E. Kyobe

2011-03-01

23

Contextual alignment of cognitive and neural dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective real-world communication requires the alignment of multiple individuals to a common perspective or mental framework. To study how this alignment occurs at the level of the brain, we measured BOLD response during fMRI while participants (n = 24) listened to a series of vignettes either in the presence or absence of a valid contextual cue. The valid contextual cue was necessary to understand the information in each vignette. We then examined where and to what extent the shared valid context led to greater intersubject similarity of neural processing. Regions of the default mode network including posterior cingulate cortex and medial pFC became more aligned when participants shared a valid contextual framework, whereas other regions, including primary sensory cortices, responded to the stimuli reliably regardless of contextual factors. Taken in conjunction with previous research, the present results suggest that default mode regions help the brain to organize incoming verbal information in the context of previous knowledge. PMID:25244122

Ames, Daniel L; Honey, Christopher J; Chow, Michael A; Todorov, Alexander; Hasson, Uri

2015-04-01

24

Competing definitions of contextual environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what constitutes the boundaries of the communities. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle was preferred because it focused attention on the most frequently used spaces and it controlled potential aggregation problems. There is a need to further examine the validity of different methods proposed here. Given that no method is likely to capture the full complexity of human-environment interactions, we would need baseline data describing people's daily activity patterns along with expert knowledge of the area to evaluate our neighborhood units.

Jerrett Michael

2006-12-01

25

Reducing a Knowledge-Base Search Space When Data Are Missing  

Science.gov (United States)

This software addresses the problem of how to efficiently execute a knowledge base in the presence of missing data. Computationally, this is an exponentially expensive operation that without heuristics generates a search space of 1 + 2n possible scenarios, where n is the number of rules in the knowledge base. Even for a knowledge base of the most modest size, say 16 rules, it would produce 65,537 possible scenarios. The purpose of this software is to reduce the complexity of this operation to a more manageable size. The problem that this system solves is to develop an automated approach that can reason in the presence of missing data. This is a meta-reasoning capability that repeatedly calls a diagnostic engine/model to provide prognoses and prognosis tracking. In the big picture, the scenario generator takes as its input the current state of a system, including probabilistic information from Data Forecasting. Using model-based reasoning techniques, it returns an ordered list of fault scenarios that could be generated from the current state, i.e., the plausible future failure modes of the system as it presently stands. The scenario generator models a Potential Fault Scenario (PFS) as a black box, the input of which is a set of states tagged with priorities and the output of which is one or more potential fault scenarios tagged by a confidence factor. The results from the system are used by a model-based diagnostician to predict the future health of the monitored system.

James, Mark

2007-01-01

26

Quantum contextuality in classical information retrieval  

CERN Document Server

Document ranking based on probabilistic evaluations of relevance is known to exhibit non-classical correlations, which may be explained by admitting a complex structure of the event space, namely, by assuming the events to emerge from multiple sample spaces. The structure of event space formed by overlapping sample spaces is known in quantum mechanics, they may exhibit some counter-intuitive features, called quantum contextuality. In this Note I observe that from the structural point of view quantum contextuality looks similar to personalization of information retrieval scenarios. Along these lines, Knowledge Revision is treated as operationalistic measurement and a way to quantify the rate of personalization of Information Retrieval scenarios is suggested.

Zapatrin, Roman

2012-01-01

27

HIV/AIDS Education and Behaviour Change:Contextual factors that affect translation of knowledge into action among in-school adolescents in rural Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The main goal of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect translation of HIV/AIDS knowledge into action. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data was obtained from students, teachers, parents, school administrators and the HIV/AIDS coordination department from the Ministry of Education and Sports. The Health Belief Model and Social Learning Theory that formed the basis of this study were used through discussion and analysis of research findings. The ...

Komunda, Rodney Noel

2008-01-01

28

Contextual Multiple Sequence Alignment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a recently proposed contextual alignment model, efficient algorithms exist for global and local pairwise alignment of protein sequences. Preliminary results obtained for biological data are very promising. Our main motivation was to adopt the idea of context dependency to the multiple-alignment setting. To this aim the relaxation of the model was developed (we call this new model averaged contextual alignment and a new family of amino acids substitution matrices are constructed. In this paper we present a contextual multiple-alignment algorithm and report the outcomes of experiments performed for the BAliBASE test set. The contextual approach turned out to give much better results for the set of sequences containing orphan genes.

Gambin Anna

2005-01-01

29

Contextual Multiple Sequence Alignment  

OpenAIRE

In a recently proposed contextual alignment model, efficient algorithms exist for global and local pairwise alignment of protein sequences. Preliminary results obtained for biological data are very promising. Our main motivation was to adopt the idea of context dependency to the multiple-alignment setting. To this aim the relaxation of the model was developed (we call this new model averaged contextual alignment ) and a new family of amino acids substitution matrices are constructed. In this ...

Gambin Anna; Otto Rafa?

2005-01-01

30

Truancy as a Contextual and School-Related Problem: A Comparative Multilevel Analysis of Country and School Characteristics on Civic Knowledge among 14 Year Olds  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, various governments and education agencies have developed stricter policies to reduce truancy levels, mainly based on the argument that truancy is associated with risk behaviour, crime and substance abuse. In this article, we use a large, 28-nation comparative survey among 14 year olds to detect general patterns in consequences…

Claes, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Reeskens, Tim

2009-01-01

31

Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

32

Contextual behavior and neural circuits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item-response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item-response selection takes place whereby the animal either choose an item or inhibit such a response depending on item-context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for contextual behavior.

InahLee

2013-05-01

33

Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams  

OpenAIRE

Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.

Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technolog...

Kyobe, Michael E.; Shongwe, Mzwandile M.

2011-01-01

34

Knowledges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

Berling, Trine Villumsen

2012-01-01

35

Knowledge Uncertainty and Composed Classifier.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 1, ?. 2 (2007), s. 101-105. ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Boosting architecture * contextual modelling * composed classifier * knowledge management , * knowledge * uncertainty Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

2007-01-01

36

A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues. This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition state context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization. To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees may benefit from such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

Eicke Godehardt

2009-08-01

37

Contextualizing facial activity  

OpenAIRE

Drawing on research reviewed in this special section, the present article discusses how various contextual factors impact on production and decoding of emotion-related facial activity. Although emotion-related variables often contribute to activation of prototypical "emotion expressions" and perceivers can often infer emotional meanings from these facial configurations, neither process is invariant or direct. Many facial movements are directed towards or away from events in the shared environ...

Parkinson, B.

2013-01-01

38

Contextual emergence of intentionality  

OpenAIRE

By means of an intriguing physical example, magnetic surface swimmers, that can be described in terms of Dennett's intentional stance, I reconstruct a hierarchy of necessary and sufficient conditions for the applicability of the intentional strategy. It turns out that the different levels of the intentional hierarchy are contextually emergent from their respective subjacent levels by imposing stability constraints upon them. At the lowest level of the hierarchy, phenomenal p...

Graben, Peter Beim

2014-01-01

39

Using contextual and lexical features to restructure and validate the classification of biomedical concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical ontologies are critical for integration of data from diverse sources and for use by knowledge-based biomedical applications, especially natural language processing as well as associated mining and reasoning systems. The effectiveness of these systems is heavily dependent on the quality of the ontological terms and their classifications. To assist in developing and maintaining the ontologies objectively, we propose automatic approaches to classify and/or validate their semantic categories. In previous work, we developed an approach using contextual syntactic features obtained from a large domain corpus to reclassify and validate concepts of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS, a comprehensive resource of biomedical terminology. In this paper, we introduce another classification approach based on words of the concept strings and compare it to the contextual syntactic approach. Results The string-based approach achieved an error rate of 0.143, with a mean reciprocal rank of 0.907. The context-based and string-based approaches were found to be complementary, and the error rate was reduced further by applying a linear combination of the two classifiers. The advantage of combining the two approaches was especially manifested on test data with sufficient contextual features, achieving the lowest error rate of 0.055 and a mean reciprocal rank of 0.969. Conclusion The lexical features provide another semantic dimension in addition to syntactic contextual features that support the classification of ontological concepts. The classification errors of each dimension can be further reduced through appropriate combination of the complementary classifiers.

Friedman Carol

2007-07-01

40

Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

2009-01-01

41

Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses.

Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus

2006-01-01

42

A survey on the effects of husbands’ education of pregnant women on knowledge, attitude, and reducing elective cesarean section  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Nowadays, cesarean section rate is increasing in Iran and throughout the world. Cesarean section is one of the major surgical procedures, which carry serious and rarely fetal risk for mother and child. This study was conducted to determine the effects of health education on husbands of pregnant women in reducing elective cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This study was a trial study, in which 88 pregnant women between 28-32 weeks of pregnancy, who referred to the private clinics in Isfahan, were randomly assigned into case and control groups. The husbands of the women within case group were educated about cesarean and vaginal delivery. At the beginning of study and 4 weeks after an educational intervention, the knowledge and attitude of 3 groups (cases, controls, and husbands of case group) were determined. The type of delivery was determined by phone call. Findings: Educational intervention on husbands caused a significant increase in the knowledge and a positive attitude in mothers within case group towards vaginal delivery. Elective cesarean section in case group was significantly lower than that of the control group (29.5% vs. 50%, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that husbands’ education can effectively increase the knowledge and improve the attitude of their wives, and reduce the rate of elective cesarean section. PMID:24251286

Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Soltani, Raheleh; Javaheri, Somayeh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

2013-01-01

43

Georgia Tech: Contextual Computing Group  

Science.gov (United States)

The Contextual Computing Group is a research organization at Georgia Tech College of Computing that focuses on the field of contextually-aware, wearable computing systems. The group is interested in "how the continued emergence of on-body computational resources will impact society." Topics addressed in its work include Wearable Computing, Augmented Reality, Lifelong Everyday Interfaces, Natural Gestural Interfaces, First-Person Perceptive Agents, Contextual Computing Devices, Human Computer Interaction, Computer Vision, Memory Prostheses, Embedded Computers, and Sensor Fusion. Projects related to Wearable Computing have yielded hardware products that are available to purchase. Resources that the group has found useful are available to download free of charge.

44

Fear conditioning following a unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy: reduced autonomic responding and stimulus contingency knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal research demonstrated that during fear conditioning the amygdala plays a central role in forming an association between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). Lesion studies conducted in patients who underwent a unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection, however; yielded contradictory findings. To date, it remains unclear whether amygdala damage only affects fear-conditioned startle responding or impairs both the latter and fear-conditioned skin conductance responding (SCR). Moreover inconsistency exists regarding the preservation of contingency knowledge in amygdala-damaged patients. In the current study, a differential fear conditioning task was presented to a unilaterally amygdala-damaged patient group and a healthy control group, recording fear-potentiated startle responses along with SCRs. Retrospectively, the valence of the CSs and contingency awareness was assessed. Unlike the control group, unilaterally amygdala-damaged patients showed neither in their SCRs nor in their valence ratings an effect of fear conditioning. The startle data, however, yielded in none of the two test groups fear-conditioned responding. Finally, considerably fewer patients (37.5%) than controls (95%) acquired correct memory of the presented contingency. Based on these findings we concluded that the fear conditioning impairment in amygdala-damaged patients was not restricted to SCRs, but also affected valence ratings and memory of the presented contingency. A broader theory of the amygdala as relevance detector is proposed in order to account for the diverse neurological findings obtained so far. PMID:20514925

Coppens, Evelien; van Paesschen, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vansteenwegen, Debora

2010-03-01

45

Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' Knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend tre parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

46

Overview of contextual tracking approaches in information fusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Many information fusion solutions work well in the intended scenarios; but the applications, supporting data, and capabilities change over varying contexts. One example is weather data for electro-optical target trackers of which standards have evolved over decades. The operating conditions of: technology changes, sensor/target variations, and the contextual environment can inhibit performance if not included in the initial systems design. In this paper, we seek to define and categorize different types of contextual information. We describe five contextual information categories that support target tracking: (1) domain knowledge from a user to aid the information fusion process through selection, cueing, and analysis, (2) environment-to-hardware processing for sensor management, (3) known distribution of entities for situation/threat assessment, (4) historical traffic behavior for situation awareness patterns of life (POL), and (5) road information for target tracking and identification. Appropriate characterization and representation of contextual information is needed for future high-level information fusion systems design to take advantage of the large data content available for a priori knowledge target tracking algorithm construction, implementation, and application.

Blasch, Erik; Garcia Herrero, Jesus; Snidaro, Lauro; Llinas, James; Seetharaman, Guna; Palaniappan, Kannappan

2013-05-01

47

Quantifying and transferring contextual information in object detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context is critical for reducing the uncertainty in object detection. However, context modeling is challenging because there are often many different types of contextual information coexisting with different degrees of relevance to the detection of target object(s) in different images. It is therefore crucial to devise a context model to automatically quantify and select the most effective contextual information for assisting in detecting the target object. Nevertheless, the diversity of contextual information means that learning a robust context model requires a larger training set than learning the target object appearance model, which may not be available in practice. In this work, a novel context modeling framework is proposed without the need for any prior scene segmentation or context annotation. We formulate a polar geometric context descriptor for representing multiple types of contextual information. In order to quantify context, we propose a new maximum margin context (MMC) model to evaluate and measure the usefulness of contextual information directly and explicitly through a discriminant context inference method. Furthermore, to address the problem of context learning with limited data, we exploit the idea of transfer learning based on the observation that although two categories of objects can have very different visual appearance, there can be similarity in their context and/or the way contextual information helps to distinguish target objects from nontarget objects. To that end, two novel context transfer learning models are proposed which utilize training samples from source object classes to improve the learning of the context model for a target object class based on a joint maximum margin learning framework. Experiments are carried out on PASCAL VOC2005 and VOC2007 data sets, a luggage detection data set extracted from the i-LIDS data set, and a vehicle detection data set extracted from outdoor surveillance footage. Our results validate the effectiveness of the proposed models for quantifying and transferring contextual information, and demonstrate that they outperform related alternative context models. PMID:21844619

Zheng, Wei-Shi; Gong, Shaogang; Xiang, Tao

2012-04-01

48

Empathy and contextual social cognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM. PMID:23955101

Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

2014-03-01

49

Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well.

Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; JØrgensen, Klaus Frovin

2013-01-01

50

Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information  

CERN Document Server

In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

Slivkins, Aleksandrs

2009-01-01

51

Contextual Observables and Quantum Information  

CERN Document Server

In this short paper we present the main features of a new quantum programming language proposed recently by Peter Selinger which gives a good idea about the difficulties of constructing a scalable quantum computer. We show how some of these difficulties are related to the contextuality of quantum observables and to the abstract and statistical character of quantun theory (QT). We discuss also, in some detail, the statistical interpretation (SI) of QT and the contextuality of observables indicating the importance of these concepts for the whole domain of quantum information.

Kupczynski, M

2004-01-01

52

Linear contextual modal type theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation.

Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

2011-01-01

53

Contextual Region of Interest Based Medical Image Compression using Contextual Listless SPIHT Algorithm for Brain Images  

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Full Text Available Medical Imaging plays a major role in medical diagnosis. Storing these medical images and transmitting them is quite challenging. Due to the extensive use of medical images like CT and MR scan, the application of digital imaging technology in the medical domain has grown rapidly. These medical imagery are stored for a longer period for the continuous monitoring of the patients. So, the medical images need to be compressed to reduce the storage cost and for transmission without any loss. In this paper, a context based method called Contextual Listless Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (CLSPIHT algorithm for brain images is proposed to overcome this challenge. Here, the region containing the most inportant information for diagnosis purpose is referred as contextual region of interest. In this method, the Contextual Region of Interest(CROI is encoded separately with a low compression rate ie, with high bpp and the Back Ground region(BG is encoded with low bpp. Finally, the two regions are merged together to construct the output image. Our experimental results show that the proposed Contextual Listless SPIHT (CLSPIHT yields very good image quality without any diagnostic loss. Compression performance parameters (Mean Square Error, Peak Signal to Noice Ratio, and Coefficient of Correlation are improved by our method and it is compared with the other existing methods of JPEG2000,and the ROI based methods such as CSPIHT and CVQ on magnetic resonance images. As a result, it is found that our proposed algorithm gives better results and using this method, we can overcome the limitations in storage and transmission of medical images.

Mrs. S.Sridevi

2013-10-01

54

3D Bayesian contextual classifiers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.

Larsen, Rasmus

2000-01-01

55

Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.

Jiri Vala

2013-06-01

56

A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%

57

Knowledge translation of research findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

Grimshaw Jeremy M

2012-05-01

58

Mobile and contextual learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

2009-12-01

59

Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that context...

Ron Wilburn

2006-01-01

60

"I still haven't found what I'm looking for": parental privacy invasion predicts reduced parental knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

This 3-year, multi-informant study examined whether youths' perceptions of parental privacy invasion predicted lower parental knowledge over time, as a function of increased adolescent secrecy. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (Time 1 M = 13 years, SD = 0.5; 57% boys) and both parents. Higher youth-reported invasion predicted lower father- and mother-reported knowledge 1 year later. A link between privacy invasion and youths' increased secrecy mediated the association between privacy invasion and mothers' lower knowledge. Further, mothers' perceptions of adolescent secrecy mediated the association between adolescent-reported secrecy and mothers' knowledge. No mediation existed for father-report models. The results suggest that privacy invasion is counterproductive to parents' efforts to remain knowledgeable about youths, due to increased adolescent secrecy. We discuss the implications for family communication processes and successful privacy negotiations during adolescence. PMID:22889388

Hawk, Skyler T; Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

2013-07-01

61

Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality  

CERN Document Server

The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.

Kupczynski, Marian

2014-01-01

62

Knowledge in Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to motivate and defend a version of epistemic contextualism; a version, that is, of what came to be called attributor or ascriber contextualism. I will begin by outlining, in the first part, what I take to be the basic idea of and motivation behind the version of epistemic contextualism that I favor. In the second part, a couple of examples will be presented in order to illustrate the contextualist point. Since epistemic (ascriber contextualists commonly claim that knowledge ascriptions are context-sensitive, the third part of the paper will be concerned with the phenomenon of context-sensitivity at a more general level. A more detailed inquiry into the context-sensitivity natural language expressions exhibit will prove helpful in order to counter the objection that postulating context-sensitivity in the case of knowledge ascriptions is an ad-hoc-maneuver. Given that epistemic contextualism is partly an epistemological thesis, party a linguistic thesis, the remainder of the paper will be devoted to the question of how to semantically model the kind of context-sensitivity exhibited by knowledge ascriptions. The upshot will be that there are two differ-ent ways of semantically accommodating the context-sensitivity at issue. Both call for a more or less drastic departure from epistemological and semantic orthodoxy.

Nikola Kompa

2014-04-01

63

Prefrontal neuronal circuits of contextual fear conditioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past years, numerous studies have provided a clear understanding of the neuronal circuits and mechanisms involved in the formation, expression and extinction phases of conditioned cued fear memories. Yet, despite a strong clinical interest, a detailed understanding of these memory phases for contextual fear memories is still missing. Besides the well-known role of the hippocampus in encoding contextual fear behavior, growing evidence indicates that specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex differentially regulate contextual fear acquisition and storage in both animals and humans that ultimately leads to expression of contextual fear memories. In this review, we provide a detailed description of the recent literature on the role of distinct prefrontal subregions in contextual fear behavior and provide a working model of the neuronal circuits involved in the acquisition, expression and generalization of contextual fear memories. PMID:25287656

Rozeske, R R; Valerio, S; Chaudun, F; Herry, C

2015-01-01

64

Contextual Restriction in Business English Translation  

OpenAIRE

This paper mainly studies the contextual restriction in business English translation from the perspectives of linguistic context, situational context and cultural context respectively. To avoid mistranslation resulting from translators' neglecting the contextual restriction, this paper also comes up with relevant suggestions for business English translation. The research aims at reminding translators of the contextual restriction in translating so as to produce correct, exact and proper trans...

Yuanyuan Gao

2011-01-01

65

Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paisit Boonyakawee, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Robert S ChapmanCollege of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. The study included 42 and 50 farmers at the intervention and control farms, respectively. The intervention included several components, including didactic instruction, practical demonstrations, use of a fluorescent tracer, and continuing guidance on insecticide use via a small, specially trained group within the overall intervention group. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first such intervention in Thailand. Knowledge and attitude were measured at baseline (pre-intervention, and at 2 and 5 months after the intervention (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, respectively. Intervention effects were assessed with linear mixed models, specified to enable testing of effects at each follow-up time. The intervention was associated with substantial and statistically significant improvements in both knowledge score and attitude score (P < 0.001 for each score at each follow-up time. Intervention-related improvements in knowledge score and attitude score were equivalent to about 27% and 14% of baseline mean knowledge and attitude scores, respectively. Intervention-related benefits were similar at both follow-up times. Findings were similar before and after adjustment for covariates. These findings increase confidence that well-designed interventions can reduce farmers' insecticide exposure in Thailand and elsewhere. In future research, it would be desirable to address long-term intervention effects on farmers' health and quality of life.Keywords: insecticides, pesticides, intervention, farmers, knowledge, attitude

Boonyakawee P

2013-09-01

66

A Combinatorial Approach to Nonlocality and Contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

So far, most of the literature on (quantum) contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem seems either to concern particular examples of contextuality, or be considered as quantum logic. Here, we develop a general formalism for contextuality scenarios based on the combinatorics of hypergraphs, which significantly refines a similar recent approach by Cabello, Severini and Winter (CSW). In contrast to CSW, we explicitly include the normalization of probabilities, which gives us a much finer control over the various sets of probabilistic models like classical, quantum and generalized probabilistic. In particular, our framework specializes to (quantum) nonlocality in the case of Bell scenarios, which arise very naturally from a certain product of contextuality scenarios due to Foulis and Randall. In the spirit of CSW, we find close relationships to several graph invariants. The recently proposed Local Orthogonality principle turns out to be a special case of a general principle for contextuality scenarios related to the Shannon capacity of graphs. Our results imply that it is strictly dominated by a low level of the Navascués-Pironio-Acín hierarchy of semidefinite programs, which we also apply to contextuality scenarios. We derive a wealth of results in our framework, many of these relating to quantum and supraquantum contextuality and nonlocality, and state numerous open problems. For example, we show that the set of quantum models on a contextuality scenario can in general not be characterized in terms of a graph invariant. In terms of graph theory, our main result is this: there exist two graphs and with the properties

Acín, Antonio; Fritz, Tobias; Leverrier, Anthony; Sainz, Ana Belén

2015-03-01

67

Contextual integration of causal coherence in people with Williams syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated causal coherence in people with Williams syndrome (WS). To advance our understanding of this clinical group, we examined their ability to make causal inferences, using their understanding of homonyms (words with the same spelling but distinct meanings) embedded in contexts. A minor goal was to use verbal stimuli to clarify Santos and Deruelle's (2009) findings on the knowledge of causality among people with WS. Participants were presented with two types of scenarios requiring different inference directions: backward inferences (from consequence to cause) and forward inferences (from cause to consequence). Following each scenario, they were asked a comprehension question and given three possible answers that corresponded to a figurative, literal, and unrelated meaning of the homonym embedded in the scenario. The correct answer required the participants to make a successful causal inference. People with WS aged from 13 to 29 (n=17, mental age=6-14) were able to make backward and forward inferences by selecting the context-appropriate meanings of homonyms, thus demonstrating the existence of contextual integration ability in the causal coherence of people with WS. However, as their accuracy in the figurative meaning responses was lower than that of healthy age-matched controls, suggesting the participants with WS, were delayed in the contextual integration of causal coherence. The participants with WS chose a significantly higher percentage of answers with unrelated meanings than the two control groups, indicating a certain degree of weakness in the contextual integration of homonyms in context. PMID:23911543

Hsu, Ching-Fen

2013-10-01

68

Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

Anna Voigt

2008-03-01

69

Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Paisit Boonyakawee, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Robert S ChapmanCollege of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km) apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. T...

Boonyakawee P; Taneepanichskul S; Rs, Chapman

2013-01-01

70

Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s) and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the ...

Papaioannou Alexandra; Sawka Anna M; Adachi Jonathan D; Gafni Amiram; Hanley David A; Thabane Lehana

2005-01-01

71

Contextual Modelling of Collaboration System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faced with new environmental constraints, firms decide to collaborate in collective entities and adopt new patterns of behavior. So, this firms’ collaboration becomes an unavoidable approach. Indeed, our aim interest in our study is to propose a collaborative information system for supply chain. Our proposed platform ensures cooperation and information sharing between partners in real time. In fact, several questions have to be asked: What is the information nature may be shared between partners? What processes are implemented between actors? What functional services are supported by the platform? In order to answer these questions, we present, in this article, our methodological approach of modelling, called CMCS (Contextual Modelling of Collaborative System

Wafaa DACHRY

2012-03-01

72

Ontological Models, Preparation Contextuality and Nonlocality  

Science.gov (United States)

The ontological model framework for an operational theory has generated much interest in recent years. The debate concerning reality of quantum states has been made more precise in this framework. With the introduction of generalized notion of contextuality in this framework, it has been shown that completely mixed state of a qubit is \\emph{preparation contextual}. Interestingly, this new idea of preparation contextuality has been used to demonstrate nonlocality of some $\\psi$-epistemic models without any use of Bell's inequality. In particular, nonlocality of a non maximally $\\psi$-epistemic model has been demonstrated from preparation contextuality of a maximally mixed qubit and Schr\\"{o}dinger's steerability of the maximally entangled state of two qubits [Phys. Rev. Lett {\\bf 110}, 120401 (2013)]. In this paper, we, show that any mixed state is preparation contextual. We, then, show that nonlocality of any bipartite pure entangled state, with Schmidt rank two, follows from preparation contextuality and steerability provided we impose certain condition on the epistemicity of the underlying ontological model. More interestingly, if the pure entangled state is of Schmidt rank greater than two, its nonlocality follows without any further condition on the epistemicity. Thus our result establishes a stronger connection between nonlocality and preparation contextuality by revealing nonlocality of any bipartite pure entangled states without any use of Bell-type inequality.

Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

2014-10-01

73

A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

Arthur Stamps

2014-11-01

74

PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY AND CONTEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT / CONSTANCIA PERCEPTUAL Y MEJORAMIENTO CONTEXTUAL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y ac [...] umulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos lingüísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que procesos cognitivos de nivel alto pueden restringir los mecanismos auditivos básicos involucrados en la identificación del tono para garantizar una percepción constante. Los resultados que muestran una mejor identificación de tonos en contextos que son inversamente proporcionales a su frecuencia apoyan la hipótesis de que el procesamiento auditivo periférico mejora la identificación de los tonos a través de una función de contraste contextual. Abstract in english The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded [...] in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communication. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.

HERIBERTO, AVELINO.

75

Individual joblessness, contextual unemployment, and mortality risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979-1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals-the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

Tapia Granados, José A; House, James S; Ionides, Edward L; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S

2014-08-01

76

Contextual Dependencies in Information Systems Security  

OpenAIRE

This paper addresses the contextual dependencies related to the use of information systems security and criticizes the predominance of technical and formalized paradigm in the development and implementation of IS security policies and procedures. The underlying epistemology of our research lies in the interpretative paradigm. It explores the patterns of how the contextual use of information systems security is involved according to a business/organizational practice perspective. It elicits th...

Bednar, Peter; Sadok, Moufida; Katos, Vasilis

2013-01-01

77

Individual and Contextual Determinants of Electoral Participation  

OpenAIRE

Individual-level explanations of electoral participation typically argue that non-voting is determined by a combination of facilitative and motivational factors. We advance the argument that, beyond individual characteristics, there are pivotal contextual features which enable or impede individual action through specific incentive structures. Thus, contextual factors influence the individual propensity to vote or to abstain. For the first time the data of Selects 2003 allows for the testing o...

Bu?hlmann, M.; Freitag, M.

2006-01-01

78

Implicit Spatial Contextual Learning in Healthy Aging  

OpenAIRE

Three experiments investigated the aging of implicit spatial and spatiotemporal context learning in 2 tasks. In contextual cuing, people learn to use repeated spatial configurations to facilitate search for a target, whereas in higher order serial learning, they learn to use subtle sequence regularities to respond more quickly and accurately to a series of events. Results reveal a dissociation; overall contextual cuing is spared in healthy aging, whereas higher order sequence learning is impa...

Howard, James H.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Howard, Darlene V.; Yankovich, Helen; Vaidya, Chandan J.

2004-01-01

79

Using expert knowledge to increase realism in environmental system models can dramatically reduce the need for calibration  

Science.gov (United States)

Conceptual environmental system models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of models for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity, typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, approaches for better parameter estimation have been developed, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding of how a catchment works into the process of parameter estimation has not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effects of imposing semi-quantitative, relational inequality constraints, based on expert-knowledge, for model development and parameter specification, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e., wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simple to complex, three model setups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC were developed based on these functional units, where FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, and the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC progressively introduce more complexity. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters, as well as states and fluxes, of their different functional units to each other, allowing the formulation of constraints that limit the feasible parameter space. We show that by allowing for more landscape-related process heterogeneity in a model, e.g., FLEXC, the performance increases even without traditional calibration. The additional introduction of relational constraints further improved the performance of these models.

Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2014-12-01

80

3-D contextual Bayesian classifiers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we will consider extensions of a series of Bayesian 2-D contextual classification pocedures proposed by Owen (1984) Hjort & Mohn (1984) and Welch & Salter (1971) and Haslett (1985) to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further information can be obtained by taking into account the spatial structure of image data. The 2-D algorithms mentioned above consist of basing the classification of a pixel on the simultaneous distribution of the values of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is made of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend these algorithms to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distributions within the 3-D cross given in 2-D algorithms. The new 3-D algorithms are tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset.

Larsen, Rasmus

1997-01-01

81

A 3-D Contextual Classifier  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we will consider an extension of the Bayesian 2-D contextual class ification routine developed by Owen, Hjort \\$\\backslash\\$& Mohn to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further information can be obtained by tak ing into account the spatial structure of image data, i.e.\\$\\backslash\\$ neighbouring pixels tend to be of the same class. The algorithm developed by Owen, Hjort \\$\\backslash\\$& Mohn consists of basing the classifi cation of a pixel on the simultaneous distribution of the values of a pixel and its four nearest n eighbours. This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset.

Larsen, Rasmus

1997-01-01

82

Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research, a worldwide consensus about the content of NOS teaching is said to be reached. This consensus content is listed as a general statement of science, which students are supposed to understand during their education. Unfortunately, decades of research has demonstrated that teachers and students alike do not possess an appropriate understanding of NOS, at least as far as it is defined at the general level. One reason for such failure might be that formal statements about the NOS and scientific knowledge can really be understood after having been contextualized in the actual cases. Typically NOS is studied as contextualized in the reconstructed historical case stories. When the objective is to educate scientifically and technologically literate citizens, as well as scientists of the near future, studying NOS in the contexts of contemporary science is encouraged. Such contextualizations call for revision of the characterization of NOS and the goals of teaching about NOS. As a consequence, this article gives two examples for studying NOS in the contexts of scientific practices with practicing scientists: an interview study with nanomodellers considering NOS in the context of their actual practices and a course on nature of scientific modelling for science teachers employing the same interview method as a studying method. Such scrutinization opens rarely discussed areas and viewpoints to NOS as well as aspects that practising scientists consider as important.

Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

2015-01-01

83

Contextual object understanding through geospatial analysis and reasoning (COUGAR)  

Science.gov (United States)

Military operations in urban areas often require detailed knowledge of the location and identity of commonly occurring objects and spatial features. The ability to rapidly acquire and reason over urban scenes is critically important to such tasks as mission and route planning, visibility prediction, communications simulation, target recognition, and inference of higher-level form and function. Under DARPA's Urban Reasoning and Geospatial ExploitatioN Technology (URGENT) Program, the BAE Systems team has developed a system that combines a suite of complementary feature extraction and matching algorithms with higher-level inference and contextual reasoning to detect, segment, and classify urban entities of interest in a fully automated fashion. Our system operates solely on colored 3D point clouds, and considers object categories with a wide range of specificity (fire hydrants, windows, parking lots), scale (street lights, roads, buildings, forests), and shape (compact shapes, extended regions, terrain). As no single method can recognize the diverse set of categories under consideration, we have integrated multiple state-of-the-art technologies that couple hierarchical associative reasoning with robust computer vision and machine learning techniques. Our solution leverages contextual cues and evidence propagation from features to objects to scenes in order to exploit the combined descriptive power of 3D shape, appearance, and learned inter-object spatial relationships. The result is a set of tools designed to significantly enhance the productivity of analysts in exploiting emerging 3D data sources.

Douglas, Joel; Antone, Matthew; Coggins, James; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Sobel, Erik; Stolle, Frank; Vinciguerra, Lori; Zandipour, Majid; Zhong, Yu

2009-05-01

84

Improving Acquisition Outcomes with Contextual Ambidexterity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The results of research on mergers and acquisitions often point to a need to improve acquisition outcomes and lessen the organizational turmoil that can often follow integration efforts. We assert that viewing acquisition integration through the lens of contextual ambidexterity may improve acquisition outcomes in two ways: by providing an integrated solution to the economic and social tensions in acquisitions, and by enabling managers to effectively confront the competing needs of task and human integration. We also posit that by building on contextual ambidexterity, we can extend the possibilities for both research and practice regarding task and human integration in acquisitions. We also emphasize the role of an integration manager and integration mechanisms in enabling contextual ambidexterity for successful acquisition integration. Finally, we identify implications for research and practice.

Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.

2015-01-01

85

Contextual modulation as de-texturizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual modulation refers to the effect of texture placed outside of a neuron's classical receptive field as well as the effect of surround texture on the perceptual properties of variegated regions within. In this minireview, we argue that one role of contextual modulation is to enhance the perception of contours at the expense of textures, in short to de-texturize the image. The evidence for this role comes mainly from three sources: psychophysical studies of shape after-effects, computational models of neurons that exhibit iso-orientation surround inhibition, and fMRI studies revealing specialized areas for contour as opposed to texture processing. The relationship between psychophysical studies that support the notion of contextual modulation as de-texturizer and those that investigate contour integration and crowding is discussed. PMID:25204771

Gheorghiu, Elena; Kingdom, Frederick A A; Petkov, Nicolai

2014-11-01

86

Bupropion Dose-Dependently Reverses Nicotine Withdrawal Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning  

OpenAIRE

Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, facilitates smoking cessation and reduces some symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. However, the effects of bupropion on nicotine withdrawal-associated deficits in learning remain unclear. The present study investigated whether bupropion has effects on contextual and cued fear conditioning following withdrawal from chronic nicotine or when administered alone. Bupropion was administered alo...

Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

87

The Effect of Contextual Learning in Civic Education on Students' Civic Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Globalization demands civic education to develop civic competence involving civic knowledge, civic skills and civic disposition, which are multidimensional. Civic education learning oriented to ?contextualized multiple intelligences? concept opened the view of the needs to manage more creative, active participation, meaningful and pleasant learning. This research aimed to describe the effects of contextual learning on civic education of Junior High School students? civic competence. Specifically, this research aimed at examining and finding the influence of the application of contextual teaching and learning component in civic education involving the concept applications of interrelationship, direct experience, application, cooperation, self-regulation and authentic assessment towards citizenship competence of Junior High School students. Approach: Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adapted in this study. A survey was used as the Quantitative approach and for the in-depth understanding, interviews were used as the qualitative approach. The population of this research was students from Junior High School in West Java Indonesia. Sample was chosen by using cluster, proportional and systematic random samplings and 1004 Junior High School students were involved. Results: The survey showed that contextual learning in civic education influenced positively and significantly and contributed 26% to the civic competence of Junior High School students. The highest contribution given by applying of cooperation concept (21% and self-regulating concept (20%. Conclusion: It was suggested that contextual teaching and learning in civic education significantly influenced civic competence, the concepts of cooperation and self-regulation were the important factors of civic competence, because they were in accordance with the socio-cultural values. The implications of these findings showed that contextual teaching and learning in civic education was the essence of value education.

Kokom Komalasari

2009-01-01

88

Mechanisms of the contextual interference effect in individuals poststroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although intermixing different motor learning tasks via random schedules enhances long-term retention compared with "blocked" schedules, the mechanism underlying this contextual interference effect has been unclear. Furthermore, previous studies have reported inconclusive results in individuals poststroke. We instructed participants to learn to produce three grip force patterns in either random or blocked schedules and measured the contextual interference effect by long-term forgetting: the change in performance between immediate and 24-h posttests. Nondisabled participants exhibited the contextual interference effect: no forgetting in the random condition but forgetting in the blocked condition. Participants at least 3 mo poststroke exhibited no forgetting in the random condition but marginal forgetting in the blocked condition. However, in participants poststroke, the integrity of visuospatial working memory modulated long-term retention after blocked schedule training: participants with poor visuospatial working memory exhibited little forgetting at 24 h. These counterintuitive results were predicted by a computational model of motor memory that contains a common fast process and multiple slow processes, which are competitively updated by motor errors. In blocked schedules, the fast process quickly improved performance, therefore reducing error-driven update of the slow processes and thus poor long-term retention. In random schedules, interferences in the fast process led to slower change in performance, therefore increasing error-driven update of slow processes and thus good long-term retention. Increased forgetting rates in the fast process, as would be expected in individuals with visuospatial working memory deficits, led to small updates of the fast process during blocked schedules and thus better long-term retention. PMID:21832031

Schweighofer, Nicolas; Lee, Jeong-Yoon; Goh, Hui-Ting; Choi, Youggeun; Kim, Sung Shin; Stewart, Jill Campbell; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Winstein, Carolee J

2011-11-01

89

Using contextual analyses to examine the meaning of neuropsychological variables across samples of English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults  

OpenAIRE

The meanings of several target neuropsychological variables, including measures of executive functioning, were examined using contextual analysis across a sample of English-speakers and a sample of Spanish-speakers. Results of the contextual analysis, which examined the contributions of the latent constructs of memory, psychomotor speed, visual spatial ability, and knowledge and comprehension, to the target neuropsychological variables indicate that each of the target variables likely reflect...

Siedlecki, Karen L.; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Stern, Yaakov; Wright, Clinton B.

2011-01-01

90

How (not to be a fallibilist: Lottery paradox and two types of epistemic contextualism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is one common thing among lotteries from all over the world: there is small number of winning tickets and considerably bigger number of losing tickets. Therefore, the probability that a ticket wins a lottery is quite low, usually so low that we think that it is almost sure the ticket loses. But, we would never say that we know that a ticket will lose, until we see results of the lottery in, for example, some newspapers. And the probability of newspapers making a mistake does not seem to affect our knowledge claims. But why is that, since newspapers could make a mistake more often than a ticket wins? This question presents trouble for fallibilism, which claim that S could know that p, even when the probability that p is less than 1. Contextualist theories give their typical brand of solution: we have a change of context between the two cases, and in one case standard for knowledge claims are higher than the standard in the other case. Because of that, one can know that S lost the lottery when she reads it in newspapers. In this paper, I will present analysis of the lottery paradox, and two types of epistemic contexutalism: simple conversational contextualism and inferential contextualism. I will also present two of the most popular solution based on simple conversational contextualism, made by Lewis and Cohen. Finally, I will introduce some problems for such solutions, and show that the problems could solved if we apply strategy and explanation of inferential contextualism, type of contextualism proposed by Michael Williams. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinami?ki sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

Filipovi? Nenad

2014-01-01

91

Mobility at work : A typology of mobile communities of practice and contextual ambidexterity  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Innovations in mobile technology shape how mobile workers share knowledge and collaborate on the go. We introduce mobile communities of practice (MCOPs) as a lens for understanding how these workers self-organize, and present three MCOP case studies. Working from contextual ambidexterity, we develop a typology of bureaucratic, anarchic, idiosyncratic and adhocratic MCOPs. We discuss how variations in the degree of organizational alignment and individual discretion shape the extent to...

Kietzmann, Jan; Plangger, Kirk; Eaton, Ben; Heilgenberg, Kerstin; Pitt, Leyland; Berthon, Pierre

2013-01-01

92

Individual and Contextual Factors in Career Exploration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined vocational decision-making style, contextual anxiety, and exploratory activity in 148 undergraduate students. Results suggest that individuals who rely upon thinking-oriented approaches to decisions and who experience stress with regard to the specific tasks of exploration are likely to engage in exploration of environment and, to lesser…

Blustein, David L.; Phillips, Susan D.

1988-01-01

93

What Is the Difference? Using Contextualized Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Mr. Carter is about to start a two-day lesson on subtraction of integers with his sixth-grade prealgebra students. He plans to use contextualized problems that will allow his students to develop an interpretation of subtraction that involves the idea of "difference." This article outlines one way to teach students develop number line…

Tillema, Erik S.

2012-01-01

94

Contextual Affordances of Rural Appalachian Individuals  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocational psychology has recently begun examining the career development of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers may affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. Contextual

Bennett, Sara Lynne Rieder

2008-01-01

95

Contextual influences on the development of obesity in children: A case study of UK South Asian communities?  

OpenAIRE

? We examined contextual influences on childhood obesity in South Asian communities. ? We held focus groups with stakeholders from UK South Asian communities. ? Knowledge of context is critical for childhood obesity intervention development. ? Cultural influences on childhood obesity need to be understood in detail.

Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Adab, Peymane

2012-01-01

96

Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. Previous efforts of social psychologists are thus expanded by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among political parties on us–them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical out-group members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce anti-foreigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship becomes more effective in reducing anti-foreigner sentiment when intergroup relations are politicized. These findings demonstrate the need for widening the scope of the intergroup contact theory in order to cover macro-political conditions.

SØnderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter FrØlund

2015-01-01

97

An Intelligent Spatial Proximity System Using Neurofuzzy Classifiers and Contextual Information  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a novel approach to reason with spatial proximity. The approach is based on contextual information and uses a neurofuzzy classifier to handle the uncertainty aspect of proximity. Neurofuzzy systems are a combination of neural networks and fuzzy systems and incorporate the advantages of both techniques. Although fuzzy systems are focused on knowledge representation, they do not allow the estimation of membership functions. Conversely, neuronal networks use powerful learning techniques but they are not able to explain how results are obtained. Neurofuzzy systems benefit from both techniques by using training data to generate membership functions and by using fuzzy rules to represent expert knowledge. Moreover, contextual information is collected from a knowledge base. The complete solution that we propose is integrated in a GIS, enhancing it with proximity reasoning. From an application perspective, the proposed approach was used in the telecommunication domain and particularly in fiber optic monitoring systems. In such systems, a user needs to qualify the distance between a fiber break and the surrounding objects of the environment to optimize the assignment of emergency crews. The neurofuzzy classifier has been used to compute the membership function parameters of the contextual information inputs using a training data set and fuzzy rules.

Barouni, F.; Moulin, B.

2014-11-01

98

A study on factors influencing implementation of knowledge management  

OpenAIRE

Replacement in organization’s employees can results in knowledge loss and turnover faces a serious problem in knowledge based organizations such as knowledge based sectors of governmental organizations. The increases in sizes of some governmental organizations in recent years have increased their structural and contextual dimensions. One of the biggest problems in governmental organizations is employee turnover, which could result to knowledge loss. By using knowledge management it is possi...

Behdad Gitinejad; Mohammad Ali Keramati

2013-01-01

99

Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective  

CERN Document Server

All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

2012-01-01

100

Knowledge about knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

101

Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images.

Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco

2009-01-01

102

Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research. PMID:23130011

Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias

2012-01-01

103

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enablethe conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on aliterature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used.Results: Nurse researchers (N = 100 from 22 countries were invited to participate. Theresponse rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97. The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100. The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22. This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research.Conclusion: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used tostrategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R. Uys

2013-01-01

104

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. OBJECTIVES: The current study [...] aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. METHOD: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. RESULTS: Nurse researchers (N = 100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. CONCLUSION: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R., Uys; Robin P., Newhouse; Arwa, Oweis; Xiaokun, Liang.

2013-01-01

105

Contextual Hypergraph Modelling for Salient Object Detection  

OpenAIRE

Salient object detection aims to locate objects that capture human attention within images. Previous approaches often pose this as a problem of image contrast analysis. In this work, we model an image as a hypergraph that utilizes a set of hyperedges to capture the contextual properties of image pixels or regions. As a result, the problem of salient object detection becomes one of finding salient vertices and hyperedges in the hypergraph. The main advantage of hypergraph mod...

Li, Xi; Li, Yao; Shen, Chunhua; Dick, Anthony; Hengel, Anton Den

2013-01-01

106

Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear  

OpenAIRE

Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

2012-01-01

107

Intelligent Contextual Algorithm For Harmonics Classification  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents methods for classification of harmonics present in the electrical signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Contextual Clustering (CC) and Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA). Power quality meter has been used to collect the electrical signal data from a 40W Fluorescent Lamp (FL). In the captured data, variouselectrical disturbances are introduced through Matlab code. FFT has been used for extraction of features from the acquired electrical signal. The FFT, CC, BPA and BPACC...

Elango, M. K.; Nirmal Kumar, Dr A.; Purushothaman, Dr S.

2010-01-01

108

Synthesising Contextually Appropriate Intonation in Limited Domains  

OpenAIRE

We describe a method of synthesising contextually appropriate intonation with limited domain unit selection voices. The method enables the natural language generation component of a dialogue system to specify its intonation choices via APML, an XML-based markup language. In a pilot study, we built an APML-aware limited domain voice for use in flight information dialogues, and carried out a perception experiment comparing the APML voice to a default version built using the same recordings w...

Baker, Rachel; Clark, Robert A. J.; White, Michael

2004-01-01

109

Contextual Anomaly Detection in Text Data  

OpenAIRE

We propose using side information to further inform anomaly detection algorithms of the semantic context of the text data they are analyzing, thereby considering both divergence from the statistical pattern seen in particular datasets and divergence seen from more general semantic expectations. Computational experiments show that our algorithm performs as expected on data that reflect real-world events with contextual ambiguity, while replicating conventional clustering on data that are eithe...

Jaideep Srivastava; Nisheeth Srivastava; Amogh Mahapatra

2012-01-01

110

Contextuality is about identity of random variables  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual situations are those in which seemingly ‘the same’ random variable changes its identity depending on the conditions under which it is recorded. Such a change of identity is observed whenever the assumption that the variable is one and the same under different conditions leads to contradictions when one considers its joint distribution with other random variables (this is the essence of all Bell-type theorems). In our Contextuality-by-Default approach, instead of asking why or how the conditions force ‘one and the same’ random variable to change ‘its’ identity, any two random variables recorded under different conditions are considered different ‘automatically.’ They are never the same, nor are they jointly distributed, but one can always impose on them a joint distribution (probabilistic coupling). The special situations when there is a coupling in which these random variables are equal with probability 1 are considered noncontextual. Contextuality means that such couplings do not exist. We argue that the determination of the identity of random variables by conditions under which they are recorded is not a causal relationship and cannot violate laws of physics.

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

2014-12-01

111

Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-01

112

Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-19

113

Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

SatoshiShioiri

2012-06-01

114

Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

Klassen, Stephen

2006-09-01

115

Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

Papaioannou Alexandra

2005-07-01

116

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading  

OpenAIRE

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence readi...

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

117

Multiculturalism and contextualism: How is context relevant for political theory?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as ‘‘contextualist.’’ But it is unclear what ‘‘contextualism’’ means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about ‘‘moderate secularism,’’ as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual in each sense is novel and interesting, and whether contextualism is a distinct feature of political theory of multiculturalism. I argue that the forms of contextualism which concern the scope and methodology of political theory are sensible, but not novel or distinctive of multiculturalism. I then discuss the more controversial forms of contextualism, which I call political and theoretical contextualism. Finally, I apply the distinctions to Modood’s argument. I argue that it is not a form of theoretical contextualism and that theoretical contextualism would in fact undermine arguments for multiculturalist policies of accommodation.

Lægaard, Sune

2015-01-01

118

Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be usedto enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving contextual mathematics problem. The results showed that 75% students can not solve contextual mathematics problems precisely (unfinished. Students stop and feel that it was completed when they are able to solve problems mathematically, but mathematical solution has not answered the requested context.

Moch. Lutfianto

2013-07-01

119

Contextual advertisement placement in printed media  

Science.gov (United States)

Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

2010-02-01

120

The Effectiveness Of High Levels Of Knowledge Regarding Hiv/Aids In Reducing Discriminatory Attitudes And Behaviour Towards Hiv-Infected People  

OpenAIRE

The primary objective of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between increasing levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and perceptions of discriminatory attitudes and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS. Employees (3662) from a large accounting firm were exposed to a survey and a response rate of 41% or 1532 was received. The secondary objective of the study was to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in the mean difference of knowledge sc...

Coetsee, W. J.; Pirie, M.

2006-01-01

121

THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE SAMPLE OF CALL CENTERS IN TURKEY  

OpenAIRE

The emerging of knowledge societies brought about a lot of transformations in societies in the last decades. At first, these effects have been appeared in the developed and then in the developing world not only urban area also rural. The diffusion of the technologies that is invented on the mentality of knowledge society, have been effecting all life and promising to have major changes by providing access the opportunities for training and education, media and social networks and remodeling t...

ORHAN KOÇAK; ERSIN KAVI

2011-01-01

122

Intelligent Contextual Algorithm For Harmonics Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents methods for classification of harmonics present in the electrical signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Contextual Clustering (CC and Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA. Power quality meter has been used to collect the electrical signal data from a 40W Fluorescent Lamp (FL. In the captured data, variouselectrical disturbances are introduced through Matlab code. FFT has been used for extraction of features from the acquired electrical signal. The FFT, CC, BPA and BPACC algorithms have been implemented by Matlab. Comparison of performance classification of harmonics by CC, BPA and BPACC are presented.

M.K. ELANGO

2010-06-01

123

Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

Edwards Nancy

2011-08-01

124

Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families  

Science.gov (United States)

Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

2009-01-01

125

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01

126

Sensitive, Sensible Practicum Supervision: A Contextual Application in Saskatchewan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contextual supervision (CS) (an adaptation of situational leadership), the student teacher's (supervisee's) level of confidence and competence determines level of supervisory support and task orientation. CS also encourages a global view of all contextual variables. Observation of 49 untrained pairs of practicum students and cooperating…

Ralph, Edwin G.

1993-01-01

127

Multi-level Contextual Type Theory  

CERN Document Server

Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable ...

Boespflug, Mathieu; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.3

2011-01-01

128

Multi-level Contextual Type Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

Mathieu Boespflug

2011-10-01

129

Contextual poverty, nutrition, and chronic kidney disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrition plays an important role in CKD outcomes. One of the strongest factors that affects nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast-food restaurants within particular regions markedly affect the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium, and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to affect CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods, and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

Gutiérrez, Orlando M

2015-01-01

130

Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from 2 samples of Air Force mechanics supported the hypothesis that contextual performance affects employees' career advancement and rewards over time. Results of hierarchical regressions controlling for experience showed task performance and contextual performance each predicted systemic rewards. Each facet explained separate variance in promotability ratings over 2 years. In both samples, contextual performance explained separate variance in informal rewards but task performance did not. Task performance explained incremental variance in career advancement 1 year later but contextual performance did not. Analyses using correlations corrected for unreliability suggest these results cannot be attributed to measurement error. Contextual performance still explained separate variance in informal rewards, and task performance explained distinct variance in career advancement a year later. PMID:10948797

Van Scotter, J R; Motowidlo, S J; Cross, T C

2000-08-01

131

Translating Contextualized Arabic Euphemisms into English: Socio-Cultural Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the role context plays in determining the translation strategies pursued by translators of Arabic euphemisms into English. Due to different cultural backgrounds, adherence to the employment of euphemism in a social context may differ in both Arabic and English. While some situations call for the use of euphemism in one culture, the other culture finds no point in using such euphemisms for such situations; preserving the original Arabic euphemisms when rendered into English in this case could lead to misunderstanding and may deprive the Source Language (SL from a cultural trait. The study derives evidence from 11 Arabic euphemistic expressions taken from five literary masterpieces written by the Egyptian novelist and Noble Prize winner Najib Mahfouz, and it looks into the English translation of these euphemisms. The present study attempts to advance the proposition that Arabic euphemisms in their context  exhibit fluctuating, unstable meaning, which emanates from various contextual factors such as speakers, addressees, shared knowledge and background information, and hence these factors combined dictate on translators the chosen translation strategy.  

Ekrema Shehab

2014-08-01

132

Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion“ approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

MatthiasJWieser

2012-11-01

133

Opportunistic Adaptation Knowledge Discovery  

CERN Document Server

Adaptation has long been considered as the Achilles' heel of case-based reasoning since it requires some domain-specific knowledge that is difficult to acquire. In this paper, two strategies are combined in order to reduce the knowledge engineering cost induced by the adaptation knowledge (CA) acquisition task: CA is learned from the case base by the means of knowledge discovery techniques, and the CA acquisition sessions are opportunistically triggered, i.e., at problem-solving time.

Badra, Fadi; Lieber, Jean

2009-01-01

134

The Effectiveness Of High Levels Of Knowledge Regarding Hiv/Aids In Reducing Discriminatory Attitudes And Behaviour Towards Hiv-Infected People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between increasing levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and perceptions of discriminatory attitudes and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS. Employees (3662 from a large accounting firm were exposed to a survey and a response rate of 41% or 1532 was received. The secondary objective of the study was to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in the mean difference of knowledge scores of groups created in terms of the different biographical variables. ANOVA’S (to determine the significance of differences between the means, t-tests (two groups only and F-statistics were used for the analysis. Given the large sample size an F-test is not conclusive and the effect of the difference in sample size needs to be taken into account. For this reason it was also necessary to look at the Partial Eta Squared. Results indicate that respondents are generally knowledgeable about the prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS and that respondents’ level of knowledge correlates negatively with discriminatory practices.

W. J. Coetsee

2006-11-01

135

"I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For": Parental Privacy Invasion Predicts Reduced Parental Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

This 3-year, multi-informant study examined whether youths' perceptions of parental privacy invasion predicted lower parental knowledge over time, as a function of increased adolescent secrecy. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (Time 1 M = 13 years, SD = 0.5; 57% boys) and both parents. Higher youth-reported invasion predicted lower…

Hawk, Skyler T.; Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Hale, William W., III; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

2013-01-01

136

Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

Marincola Francesco M

2011-05-01

137

Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. PMID:22899567

Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

2013-01-01

138

Does content knowledge matter for new teachers?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable evidence that new teachers are ill prepared for classroom practice, including self-reported evidence collected from teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), and statistical evidence for differences in the achievement of students with new versus more experienced teachers (Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005). In light of the challenges encountered by new teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), this study examined the value of different forms of teacher knowledge for teachers with different levels of experience. In particular, this study investigated the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teacher content knowledge, and student achievement in mathematics and science. In New York City, Boyd et al. (2009) linked practice-focused teacher preparation to student mathematics achievement in the first year of teaching and teacher content preparation to achievement in the second. However, other studies demonstrated interactions between teaching experience and content knowledge with different interpretations (e.g., Kukla-Acevedo, 2009; Monk, 1994). At the same time, this study examined the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, and student achievement. Extant models of teacher career development (Huberman, 1989; National Research Council, 2010) and how teacher education affects student achievement (e.g., Desimone, 2009) offered theoretical grounding for the study. With nationally representative samples of fourth and eighth grade U.S. students--participants in the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study--this study employed hierarchical linear modeling to address its research questions among an array of student achievement outcomes in the domains of mathematics and science. This study attempted to account for salient student, teacher, and contextual factors, and the probabilities of teachers' receipt of various teacher education "treatments" (i.e., propensity score analysis) to reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

Reeves, Todd D.

139

Contextuality offers device-independent security  

CERN Document Server

The discovery of quantum key distribution by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) bases on the fundamental quantum feature: incompatibility of measurements of quantum non-commuting observables. In 1991 Ekert showed that cryptographic key can be generated at a distance with help of entangled (correlated) quantum particles. Recently Barrett, Hardy and Kent showed that the non-locality used by Ekert is itself a good resource of cryptographic key even beyond quantum mechanics. Their result paved the way to new generation of quantum cryptographic protocols - secure even if the devices are built by the very eavesdropper. However, there is a question, which is fundamental from both practical and philosophical point of view: does Nature offer security on operational level based on the original concept behind quantum cryptography - that information gain about one observable must cause disturbance to another, incompatible one? Here we resolve this problem by using another striking feature of quantum world - contextuality. It is...

Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard; Pawlowski, Marcin; Bourennane, Mohamed

2010-01-01

140

Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization  

CERN Document Server

Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...

Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew

2012-01-01

141

Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”  

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Full Text Available In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker’s profile. We further discuss the proposed system structure, supportive process and context-driven engine. Finally, we describe a scenario using our contextual mobile learning system.

Rene Chalon

2013-08-01

142

Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued, fear following post-training whole body irradiation  

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Full Text Available Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.. To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear-conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation 24 hours later. Animals were given two weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22 days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

Jacob Raber

2014-07-01

143

Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection  

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Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

StefanPollmann

2009-10-01

144

Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups managing shared image collections or other types of information.

Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

2009-01-01

145

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

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Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

2011-04-01

146

Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS) to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker?...

Rene Chalon; Bertrand David; Bingxue Zhang; Chuantao Yin

2013-01-01

147

Windows Phone Application Development for the Contextual Activity Sampling System  

OpenAIRE

The project was carried out to develop a Windows Phone application for CASS-Query tool. The Contextual Activity Sampling System is a research methodology for the contextual tracking of activities. The main purpose of the project was to make the query tool available on Windows platform as requested by University of Helsinki. The goal of the project was to develop the application in a way that users could smoothly interact with it giving them full functionality, making the whole query tool mor...

Damena, Michael

2013-01-01

148

Contextual Conditional Models for Smartphone-based Human Mobility Prediction  

OpenAIRE

Human behavior is often complex and context-dependent. This paper presents a general technique to exploit this ``multidimensional'' contextual variable for human mobility prediction. We use an ensemble method, in which we extract different mobility patterns with multiple models and then combine these models under a probabilistic framework. The key idea lies in the assumption that human mobility can be explained by several mobility patterns that depend on a subset of the contextual variables a...

Do, Trinh-minh-tri; Gatica-perez, Daniel

2012-01-01

149

Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families  

OpenAIRE

Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. However, the theory has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570 two-parent Mexican American families. Results support the negative impact of economic stress on parenting through parental depressive symptoms. Neighborhood ...

White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

2009-01-01

150

Contextual Spaces with Functional Skins as OpenSocial Extension  

OpenAIRE

Portability, flexibility and extensibility are essential features of social media platforms. When such Web platforms are able to take user's context into account, they provide better user experience and enhance the effectiveness of users' actions. In this paper, we discuss an extension to OpenSocial standard, namely contextual space, that shapes the framework, in which people carry out online activities. The proposed contextual space extension defines how a set of Open...

Bogdanov, Evgeny; Salzmann, Christophe; Gillet, Denis

2011-01-01

151

Employment-related stress and preterm delivery: a contextual examination.  

OpenAIRE

Studies of employment-related stress as a risk factor for preterm delivery suggest that contextual factors unrelated to occupation, as well as work-related characteristics, must be examined in assessing this relationship. In this study, the relationship of work and contextual characteristics--assessed at midpregnancy and including scores on an occupational fatigue index--to preterm delivery was examined among 943 black and 425 white low-income multiparous women who were at risk for a poor pre...

Hickey, C. A.; Cliver, S. P.; Mulvihill, F. X.; Mcneal, S. F.; Hoffman, H. J.; Goldenberg, R. L.

1995-01-01

152

Contextual fear conditioning differs for infant, adolescent, and adult rats  

OpenAIRE

Contextual fear conditioning was tested in infant, adolescent, and adult rats in terms of Pavlovian conditioned suppression. When a discrete auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) within the largely olfactory context, infants and adolescents conditioned to the context with substantial effectiveness but adult rats did not. When unpaired presentations of the CS and US occurred within the context, contextual fear conditioning was strong for adul...

Esmori?s-arranz, Francisco J.; Me?ndez, Ca?stor; Spear, Norman E.

2008-01-01

153

Contextual Control of Slot-Machine Gambling: Replication and Extension  

OpenAIRE

Participants were trained and tested to select stimuli of differing physical quantities in the presence of 2 color contextual cues for more than and less than. Following more than and less than relational training, participants allocated the majority of their responses to the slot machine that shared formal properties of color with the contextual cue for more than, despite the identical payout probabilities of the slot machines.

Hoon, Alice; Dymond, Simon; Jackson, James W.; Dixon, Mark R.

2008-01-01

154

A Memory Architecture and Contextual Reasoning Framework for Cognitive Vision  

OpenAIRE

One of the key requirements for a cognitive vision system to support reasoning is the possession of an effective mechanism to exploit context both for scene interpretation and for action planning. Context can be used effectively provided the system is endowed with a conducive memory architecture that supports contextual reasoning at all levels of processing, as well as a contextual reasoning framework. In this paper we describe a unified apparatus for reasoning using context, cast in a Bayesi...

Kittler, J.; Christmas, W.; Kostin, A.; Yan, F.; Kolonias, I.; Windridge, D.

2005-01-01

155

CCG contextual labels in hierarchical phrase-based SMT  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we present a method to employ target-side syntactic contextual information in a Hierarchical Phrase-Based system. Our method uses Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) to annotate training data with labels that represent the left and right syntactic context of target-side phrases. These labels are then used to assign labels to nonterminals in hierarchical rules. CCG-based contextual labels help to produce more grammatical translations by forcing phrases which replace nontermi...

Almaghout, Hala; Jiang, Jie; Way, Andy

2011-01-01

156

Behavioral and autonomic dynamics during contextual fear conditioning in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aversive conditioning to contextual stimulation was performed in mice implanted with ECG transmitters to investigate heart rate (HR) and behavioral responses during contextual retention. The dynamics of HR were analyzed by advanced nonlinear techniques to uncover central neuroautonomic outflow inferred from its sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) projection onto the sinus node of the heart. Mice experienced a single foot shock (US, unconditioned stimulus) either immediately (USi) or late (USl) after placement in the conditioning context. Contextual memory was tested 24 h after training by reexposure to the conditioning context for 32 min. Only mice that experienced the USl exhibited a pronounced and sustained behavioral suppression (immobility) indicative of conditioned contextual fear. In contrast, HR was initially close to its maximal physiological limit (approximately 800 bpm) in all groups, and recovery towards baseline levels was sluggish, the most pronounced delay observed in the USl group. The results demonstrate that behavioral immobility was associated with maximum activation of autonomic system output in response to contextual reexposure. However, advanced complexity analysis of the variability of HR revealed uniform or stereotyped dynamical properties that were interpreted to reflect a generalized state of anticipatory emotional arousal experienced during reexposure to contextual stimuli. It is concluded that the dynamics of HR is a highly sensitive index of the autonomic nervous system response and emotional state elicited by sensory stimulation of an unfamiliar environment. PMID:15507402

Stiedl, Oliver; Tovote, Philip; Ogren, Sven Ove; Meyer, Michael

2004-09-30

157

Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

2014-01-01

158

Analysis of Letter Name Knowledge Using Rasch Measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the…

Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Justice, Laura M.

2011-01-01

159

Efeito de estratégias de codificação sobre a memória contextual em idosos / Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudos recentes mostram que a memória contextual parece ser especialmente suscetível aos efeitos negativos do envelhecimento sobre a cognição. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do uso de estratégias de codificação no desempenho de idosos em uma tarefa de memória contextual. Vinte e qu [...] atro idosos e vinte e um jovens foram divididos em dois subgrupos para a realização da tarefa: um que recebeu orientação específica para estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto e outro que não recebeu essa orientação na fase de codificação. Na fase de teste, os participantes foram submetidos às tarefas de reconhecimento do objeto e do contexto. Os resultados indicam que a estratégia de estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto foi capaz de reverter os déficits de memória contextual dos idosos. Abstract in english Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memo [...] ry task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.

Rosane Papaleo, Freire; Joana Bisol, Balardin; Fábio, Caldana; Cristiane Moro dos, Santos; Luciana Cunha, Krebs; Valdemarina Bidone de Azevedo e, Souza; Nadja, Schröder; Elke, Bromberg.

160

From knowledge to action: participant stories of a population health intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV in three southern African countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes implementation research of an intervention in a complex HIV prevention randomised trial in southern Africa. Researchers collected stories of change attributed by 106 community members to an audio-drama edutainment intervention in 41 sites in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland. The team analysed themes in the stories following a behaviour change model of conscious knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, intention to change, agency, discussion and action (CASCADA). Storytellers attributed positive changes to the intervention in the areas of gender violence, multiple sexual partners, transactional and intergenerational sex and condom use. Their stories illustrate each of the steps in the CASCADA behaviour change model. As well as supporting an enabling environment for other interventions in the trial, the audio-drama also helped some participants to make personal changes. Collecting and discussing the stories were encouraging for the trial fieldworkers. Documenting the experiences of participants and framing the analysis of stories in an explicit behaviour change model allowed us to reflect on potential mechanisms and pathways through which the intervention impacts on individuals and communities. It helped in the design of the quantitative instruments to measure intermediate outcomes of the trial. PMID:24991886

Cameron, Mary; Cockcroft, Anne; Waichigo, Grace Wanjiru; Marokoane, Nobantu; Laetsang, Ditiro; Andersson, Neil

2014-01-01

161

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples ideia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro.Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Maria Eveline de Castro Pereira

2012-06-01

162

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança / The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples i [...] deia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro. Abstract in english Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of [...] teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Maria Eveline de Castro, Pereira; Pedro César Teixeira, Silva; Marco Antonio Ferreira da, Costa; Claudia, Jurberg; Cintia de Moraes, Borba.

1643-16-01

163

A role for anterior thalamic nuclei in contextual fear memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the neural processes that govern the attribution of a predictive value to environmental stimuli is a major issue in behavioural neuroscience. The main strategy to explore this question has been the use of Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms. While a majority of studies have focussed on the specific role of the hippocampus and amygdala in contextual versus cued fear, very few studies examined the potential role of subcortical limbic areas. Among those, the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) connect to both the hippocampus and the amygdala and also to the cingulate region which is known to support fear-related activity. Here, we show that rats sustaining ATN lesions exhibit a specific impairment following context but not tone conditioning. ATN lesions slowed down acquisition without preventing normal freezing behaviour when rats were reexposed to the conditioning context 24 h later. However, ATN rats exhibited poor retrieval of contextual but not cued fear when assessed 3 weeks after conditioning. In addition, extinction was faster in ATN rats and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear was impaired by the lesions. These deficits indicate that contextual fear memories established in the absence of the ATN are not robust. Collectively, these findings support an involvement of the ATN in the circuits underlying contextual fear memory. PMID:23733176

Marchand, A; Faugère, A; Coutureau, E; Wolff, M

2014-09-01

164

Contextuality in Three Types of Quantum-Mechanical Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a formal theory of contextuality for a set of random variables grouped into different subsets (contexts) corresponding to different, mutually incompatible conditions. Within each context the random variables are jointly distributed, but across different contexts they are stochastically unrelated. The theory of contextuality is based on the analysis of the extent to which some of these random variables can be viewed as preserving their identity across different contexts when one considers all possible joint distributions imposed on the entire set of the random variables. We illustrate the theory on three systems of traditional interest in quantum physics (and also in non-physical, e.g., behavioral studies). These are systems of the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type, and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type. Listed in this order, each of them is formally a special case of the previous one. For each of them we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for contextuality while allowing for experimental errors and contextual biases or signaling. Based on the same principles that underly these derivations we also propose a measure for the degree of contextuality and compute it for the three systems in question.

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.; Larsson, Jan-Åke

2015-03-01

165

Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

Joseph Pamela

2012-11-01

166

Identifying Organizational Knowledge Creation Enablers through Content Analysis: The Voice from the Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of the current research was to identify core contextual factors that facilitate or hinder the process of organizational knowledge creation practices. The grounded theory framework and negotiated coding approach were employed. Serving as the fundamental research framework was Nonaka and his colleagues' knowledge creation and…

Song, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Seung Won; Yoon, Hea Jun

2011-01-01

167

Contextual Factors in the Open Approach-Based Mathematics Classroom Affecting Development of Students’ Metacognitive Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect that contextual factors have on the development of students’ metacognitive strategies in the open approach-based mathematics classroom: the framework for learning and teaching activities in the class, the teacher’s role, and students’ role. The methodology was based on ethnographic research and Begle’s conceptual framework (1969, which focused on observation and study on the nature of occurrences. In the context, the researcher conducted participatory classroom observation. The target groups were a mathematics teacher, who is a student as a math teaching practitioner, and four elementary school students at Grade 1 ranging from 6 to 7 years of age from Koo Kham Pittayasan School. Data were collected from 3 learning units totaling 6 study periods. Qualitative data analysis procedures were based on analyzing videos, protocols, students’ written work, and time units for dealing with activities and narrative description. The concept of 4 open approach-based teaching steps (Inprasitha, 2010 was considered for the analysis of the teacher’s teaching behavior and students’ problem solving behavior. The study findings suggest that contextual factors in the open approach-based mathematics classroom affect the development of students’ metacognitive strategies in which the teacher has planned learning management related to learning unit structures and focused on instructional activities allowing students “to create knowledge from learning how to solve problems by themselves”. In addition, the study demonstrates that the teacher and students have different roles in each teaching step.

Ariya Suriyon

2013-09-01

168

Combining ethnography and object-orientation for mobile interaction design : contextual richness and abstract models  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There has been a lot of interest in ethnography within human–computer interaction over the last two decades, and its relevance within systems development is today beyond question. However, one of the challenges reported is that ethnography generates findings and knowledge with such contextual richness that it can be hard to transfer into system design. In the light of recent years' push for the use of ethnography within the area of mobile human–computer interaction, this challenge has resurfaced and is of renewed importance to the research field. In this article we describe an interdisciplinary combination of ethnography with a structured software engineering method supporting the transition from collected data to design and implementation. We explore this combination through two case studies of mobile system development for supporting distributed work activities within industrial process control. We show that when developing mobile systems ethnographic data is a highly valuable source of input for developingobject-oriented models by providing contextual richness, and that in turn, objected-oriented analysis is a highly valuable method for working with ethnographic field data in systems development by supporting the creation of abstract models. Combining the two, we have a method where ethnographic field studies inform core system design.

Kjeldskov, Jesper; Stage, Jan

2012-01-01

169

Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

170

The problem of compatibility in experimental tests of quantum contextuality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kochen-Specker theorem is a famous result in the foundations of quantum mechanics that rules out non-contextual hidden variable models. In such models, individual experimental outcomes are assumed to be independent of jointly performed compatible measurements. It can be expressed in the form of inequalities, which are obeyed by non-contextual models, but violated by quantum mechanics. Recently, several experiments have indeed observed such a violation. However, the interpretation of these tests remains controversial. One of the main reasons for this is that perfect compatibility between measurements is difficult to achieve in any real experiment. We approach this issue by modelling the typical effects of experiment-induced noise on measurement compatibility. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of improving the bounds for non-contextuality, taking these effects into account.

Szangolies, Jochen; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, Universitaet Siegen (Germany)

2012-07-01

171

A Contextual Item-Based Collaborative Filtering Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a contextual item-based collaborative filtering technology, which is based on the traditional item-based collaborative filtering technology. In the process of the recommendation, user’s important mobile contextual information are taken into account, and the technology combines with those ratings on the items in the users’ historical contextual information who are familiar with user’s current context information in order to predict that which items will be preferred by user in his or her current context. At the end, an experiment is used to prove that the technology proposed in this paper can predict user’s preference in his or her mobile environment more accurately.

Pan Pan

2012-05-01

172

A Contextual Risk Model for the Ellsberg Paradox  

CERN Document Server

The Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes show that the expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions. The popular explanation in terms of 'ambiguity aversion' is not completely accepted. On the other hand, we have recently introduced a notion of 'contextual risk' to mathematically capture what is known as 'ambiguity' in the economics literature. Situations in which contextual risk occurs cannot be modeled by Kolmogorovian classical probabilistic structures, but a non-Kolmogorovian framework with a quantum-like structure is needed. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a 'sphere model' within our 'hidden measurement formalism' which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a 'quantum conceptual layer'...

Aerts, Diederik

2011-01-01

173

Contextualization of visualizations of climate data  

Science.gov (United States)

The CHARMe project (http://www.charme.org.uk) is developing tools and approaches to allow users to contextualize climate datasets by linking them to publications, documents, datasets, and other related information (we call this "commentary metadata"). This allows users to benefit from the existing expertise accumulated within the community. In this presentation we describe how we enhance the visualization of climate data by combining interactive web-based visualizations with commentary information, enabling the user to see data in its full context. Visualization tools satisfying the following specific use cases are currently being developed in the context of the CHARMe project: - Plotting timeseries data alongside "significant events" that might affect the quality of the data. This tool is subject of a different abstract submitted by ECMWF. - Visualization of climate data user's commentary related to a subset of a dataset. For many applications it is very useful to be able to provide commentary about specific geographic regions, time windows or even specific pixels within a dataset. For example: recording instances of poor data quality, inaccurate pixel classification or effects of cirrus cloud and sun-glint, etc. This tool is aimed mainly at scientific users and analysts who wish to understand climate datasets in detail, from new users who want to find out more about a feature found in a dataset to experts who want to record, disseminate and evaluate the results of their research work, especially when related to a specific area of the world. The development of this tool is based in existing projects developed at University of Reading, such as ncWMS and BlogMyData. - Visual intercomparison of data and metadata, allowing synchronized interaction with several comparable climate datasets. This will assist users in judging which dataset is best fitted for their purpose as well as provide users with a better understanding of a dataset by measuring observational difference between datasets. This tool will focus on specific examples such as comparison of ESA's CCI SST and Cloud datasets, intercomparison of Climate Impact variables, and Obs4MIPS and CMIP5 data. The presentation will briefly introduce the CHARMe project and explore in more detail the work undergone so far in the development of the tools mentioned above.

Alegre, Raquel; Blower, Jon; Kratzenstein, Frank; Rozum, Iryna; Clifford, Debbie; O'Neil, Alan

2014-05-01

174

Interpretive case studies on the influence of a pre-service contextual science research course on novice science and mathematics teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

I conducted a follow-up, qualitative evaluation to help me understand how participation in a contextual science research course influenced two pre-service science and/or mathematics teacher participants as they begin to teach in their own classrooms as novice teachers. My specific questions for this dissertation were: (1) What are the beliefs towards the culture of science and the culture of science in the classroom of a novice science and a novice mathematics teacher after completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course? (2) What are the classroom practices of these novice teachers after completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course with respect to: (a) implementing constructivist-based, contextual science methodology in their own classrooms? (b) forming collaborations with scientists and the science community? (c) integrating science and mathematics in the classroom? (d) implementing inquiry-based, hands-on science activities? (3) After completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course, what are the influences on the novice teachers' constructions of (a) science content knowledge and/or (b) pedagogical content knowledge? The theoretical framework for this study is that of a constructivist epistemology, using the genre of interpretive case study. I utilized cultural-historical activity theory to look at the contradictions and coherences, to see how these influenced the participants' ability to transfer their experiences from the contextual science research to their own classrooms. To insure fairness and trustworthiness criteria of this study, I utilized fourth generation evaluation and the QSR NVivo software program to categorize and analyze the qualitative data. Findings show that participants learned science content, enhanced their beliefs about the culture of science and the image of the scientist, increased their pedagogical content knowledge with respect to understanding constructivist-based teaching, and integrated science and mathematics. Their practices, however, did not always match their beliefs. While participants were enthusiastic about the idea of forming collaborations with scientists, implementing contextual learning, and implementing the use of inquiry-based, hands-on, instruction, these practices were limited. Reliance on the use of the textbook and lecture were still very apparent. Pressures faced by novice teachers during their induction years could help explain these contradictions. I make suggestions for how to improve the program.

Hahn, Lori Livingston

175

Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual / Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive / Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo pretende, desde uma perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente a categoria gênero. Nas seis seções que o compõem procura realizar uma crítica profunda da ciência social, a partir, porém, de uma ótica menos rígida no tratamento de categorias dicotômicas excludentes tais como masculino- [...] feminino, racional-afetivo, privado-público, liberal-comunitário, para mencionar alguns dos tópicos centrais suscitados pelos vários debates sobre gênero. A metodologia utilizada é a comparativa, a partir da qual se analisam autores como Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre outros. Uma das principais conclusões alcançadas neste trabalho é a de que os esquemas teóricos tradicionais, ainda existentes, dificultam a possibilidade de se alcançar amplos consensos e atrasam o equacionamento de problemas práticos, tais quais, no caso peruano, aqueles oriundos da tradução do discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo pretende, desde una perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente la categoría de género. En los seis apartados que lo componen, se realiza una crítica profunda de la ciencia social pero desde una óptica menos rígida en el planteamiento de categorías dicotómicas excluyentes como [...] masculino-femenino, racional-afectivo, privado-público, o liberal - comunitario, por mencionar algunos tópicos centrales en los que se han suscitado varios de los debates sobre género. La metodología utilizada es la comparativa, a partir de la cual se analizan autores como Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre otros. Una de las principales conclusiones a la que se arriba en este artículo es que los tradicionales esquematismos, aun existentes en la actualidad, hacen muy difícil la posibilidad de alcanzar consensos amplios y postergan riesgosamente el tratamiento de problemas prácticos como los que, en el caso peruano, suponen la traducción del discurso de equidad en acciones y prácticas cotidianas concretas que permitan a los ciudadanos un real acceso a la justicia. Abstract in english This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional [...] , private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

Soledad, Escalante Beltrán.

2006-06-01

176

Analysis of the Contextual Behaviour of Mobile Subscribers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, contextual behavior of mobile subscribers is studied with data collected straight from smartphones. The paper develops an approach to study how people use mobile devices in different contexts, by proposing an algorithm that works with device-based sensor data. This approach consists of context detection and data analysis. The context detection algorithm analyses cellular network radio logs in modeling the location of people. This paper then analyses usage patterns over different contexts. Demonstration of the contextual modeling with a sample of Finnish smartphone users proves that the applications of the approach are numerous.

Verkasalo, Hannu; Salmeron, Borja Jimenez

177

Tools of Contextualization : Extending the Classroom to the Field  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Project based education is growing in importance in elementary schools though it is still quite poorly technologically supported, particularly with respect to actively taking advantage of contextual information. Based on an empirical study of teaching and in particular project based education in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. More specifically, the HyCon-Explorer provides means for: browsing with your feet, annotating the world, and overview at a glance.

Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina

2005-01-01

178

Generalized Quantum Theory, Contextual Emergence and Non-Hierarchic Alternatives  

CERN Document Server

The concept of emergence is critically analyzed in particular with respect to the assumed emergence of mental properties from a neuronal basis. We argue that so-called contextual emergence is needed to avoid an eliminatory reductionism. Quantum-like features of the emergent qualities are to be expected. As a consequence, non-causal relations like entanglement correlations have to be considered as full fledged elements of reality. "Observable extension" is proposed as a contextual alternative to emergence avoiding the asymmetry between purportedly basic and emergent properties.

Römer, Hartmann

2015-01-01

179

Critical knowledge map as a decision tool for knowledge transfer actions  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge transfer is no longer reducible to classical solutions such as face-to-face training, technical education or tutoring. Knowledge to be transferred is professional knowledge (Business Knowledge). It involves the whole Knowledge Capital within an organization. Identifying the knowledge components that are worthwhile transferring is not an easy task. This is the problem addressed in this paper.

Ermine, Jean-louis; Boughzala, Imed; Tounkara, Thierno

2006-01-01

180

Knowledge spaces  

CERN Document Server

Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

Doignon, Jean-Paul

1999-01-01

181

Bringing Standards to Life. A "How To" Guide to Contextual Learning and Curriculum Integration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual explains how to foster contextual learning and curriculum integration. There are 12 sections: "Contextual Learning"; "Connecting Academic Standards with Contextual Learning"; "Using Career Development to Add Context and Relevancy to the Classroom"; "Curriculum Integration"; "Guidelines for Bringing Out the Best in ALL of Our Students";…

McAlonan, Susan; Hotchkiss, Heather; Urich, Laurie

182

A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica / The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vi [...] nculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas. Abstract in english This article deals with the historiographic and archeological contextualization of the Mayan civilization. Its purpose is to trace the profile of the first explorations into archeological sites, the construction of the knowledge created around the first information obtained by Archeology, as well as [...] the diverse research links undertaken in relation to the historical contexts of its time, and the theories used at present by the Mayanists.

Alexandre Guida, Navarro.

183

Hearing Tamar's voice: Contextual readings of 2 Samuel 13:1-22  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The story of Tamar in 2 Sam 13:1-22 formed the basis of a qualitative research inquiry that investigated the intricate functioning of the intercultural Bible reading process. It is a process theoretically based on the combined hermeneutical frameworks of Feminism and African hermeneutics. Although t [...] he research showed that the inter-cultural Bible reading process cannot avoid the complexities of an inherent power dynamic, it proved to be a space that promotes human dignity and has the inherent capacity to facilitate social transformation. The intercultural Bible reading space can thus be described as a dynamic meeting place: a space that facilitates the meeting of individuals from various cultural backgrounds and reading positions, but also the meeting between modern readers and the culturally removed biblical text. In this paper I will look at the reception history of 2 Sam 13:1-22, describing the rape of Tamar in traditional scholarship as well as feminist and African scholarship. Special attention will be given to the feminist scholar, Denise Ackermann's interpretation of hope. I will then discuss the interpretations that were given by the intercultural Bible reading groups that were constructed for the qualitative research inquiry. In doing so, I will show that the intercultural Bible reading space is a dynamic creative space that allows individual readers to draw on a wealth of personal contextual knowledge as a key to interpret the Bible text. In the intercultural Bible reading process, a diversity of readers are thus brought together that find creative new ways to journey through old biblical landscapes by drawing on contextual knowledge and sharing interpretative gifts.

Charlene, van der Walt.

184

On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

185

Testing a Model of Employee Selection: A Contextual Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined selection practices applied to education. The selected contextual factors were tested to see whether school administrators took consideration of person-organization fit (POF) factors when they select applicants during the selection process. The results showed that POF factors affected selection when school size was under…

Harada, Kiyoe; Bowman, Jeffry S.

2004-01-01

186

The Cohomology of Non-Locality and Contextuality  

CERN Document Server

In a previous paper with Adam Brandenburger, we used sheaf theory to analyze the structure of non-locality and contextuality. Moreover, on the basis of this formulation, we showed that the phenomena of non-locality and contextuality can be characterized precisely in terms of obstructions to the existence of global sections. Our aim in the present work is to build on these results, and to use the powerful tools of sheaf cohomology to study the structure of non-locality and contextuality. We use the Cech cohomology on an abelian presheaf derived from the support of a probabilistic model, viewed as a compatible family of distributions, in order to define a cohomological obstruction for the family as a certain cohomology class. This class vanishes if the family has a global section. Thus the non-vanishing of the obstruction provides a sufficient (but not necessary) condition for the model to be contextual. We show that for a number of salient examples, including PR boxes, GHZ states, and the 18-vector configurati...

Abramsky, Samson; Barbosa, Rui Soares

2011-01-01

187

Hierarchical segmentation of malignant gliomas via integrated contextual filter response  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel methodology for the automated segmentation of Glioblastoma Multiforme tumors given only a high-resolution T1 post-contrast enhanced channel, which is routinely done in clinical MR acquisitions. The main contribution of the paper is the integration of contextual filter responses, to obtain a better class separation of abnormal and normal brain tissues, into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation (SWA) algorithm. The SWA algorithm uses neighboring voxel intensities to form an affinity between the respective voxels. The affinities are then recursively computed for all the voxel pairs in the given image and a series of cuts are made to produce segments that contain voxels with similar intensity properties. SWA provides a fast method of partitioning the image, but does not produce segments with meaning. Thus, a contextual filter response component was integrated to label the aggregates as tumor or non-tumor. The contextual filter responses were computed via texture filter responses based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method. The GLCM results in texture features that are used to quantify the visual appearance of the tumor versus normal tissue. Our results indicate the benefit of incorporating contextual features and applying non-linear classification methods to segment and classify the complex case of grade 4 tumors.

Dube, Shishir; Corso, Jason J.; Yuille, Alan; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; El-Saden, Suzie; Sinha, Usha

2008-03-01

188

Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.

2013-01-01

189

Academic Dishonesty in the Middle East: Individual and Contextual Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Little work has been done on academic dishonesty in the Middle East. This research investigates the nature of the relationship between contextual factors and academic dishonesty using a sample from three private universities in Lebanon, and compares the results to a sample from seven large universities in the US. Using the basic model of McCabe et…

McCabe, Donald L.; Feghali, Tony; Abdallah, Hanin

2008-01-01

190

Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA. Co-infusion of ACEA and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioural conditions that, by themselves, did not result in either a reconsolidation impairment by sulfasalazine alone or reactivation-induced upregulation of Zif268 expression. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential.

Jonathan L C Lee

2014-04-01

191

Towards Computational Fronesis: Verifying Contextual Appropriateness of Emotions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…

Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio

2013-01-01

192

The role of extra-contextual and contextual similarities in analogical mapping  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se llevó a cabo un experimento para determinar la validez psicológica del tratamiento que recibe el componente semántico en el establecimiento de correspondencias analógico por parte de la Teoría de Proyección de la Estructura de Gentner (1983, 1989; Gentner & Markman, 1997) y la Teoría de las Múlti [...] ples Restricciones de Holyoak y Thagard (1989a, 1995). Los participantes del grupo experimental recibieron un texto fuente en el que se narraba que un hecho (causa) había provocado un segundo hecho (efecto). Siendo enfrentados después a un texto objetivo en el que se describía un hecho objetivo (similar al hecho efecto fuente) de causa desconocida, se les pidió que, basándose en la narración fuente, hipotetizaran cuál, entre dos hechos candidatos a causa, podía haber provocado el hecho objetivo. La analogía era ambigua si se seguían criterios semánticos y no podía desambiguarse a partir de criterios sintácticos o pragmáticos. Los participantes de este grupo decidieron sus correspondencias siguiendo similitudes semánticas contextuales y no en cambio el tipo de similitudes semánticas extra-contextuales incorporadas por las teorías nombradas en sus modelos computacionales. Los participantes del grupo control debían realizar la misma tarea que el grupo experimental (hipotetizar cuál podía haber sido la causa del hecho objetivo), pero no recibían ningún análogo previo. Estos participantes eligieron como causa el hecho alternativo al elegido por el grupo experimental, lo que indicó que la elección de este grupo no estuvo determinada por la plausibilidad intrínseca, en el dominio objetivo, del hecho elegido. Los resultados son discutidos considerando la crítica de Hofstadter y el Grupo FARG (1995) a la forma en que la semántica es tratada por el modelo estándar del establecimiento de correspondencias analógico. Abstract in english The psychological validity of the treatment given to semantic similarity constraints in analogical mapping by the Structure-Mapping Theory of Gentner (Gentner, 1983, 1989; Gentner, & Markman, 1997), and the Multiconstraint Theory of Holyoak, and Thagard (1989a, 1995) was assessed in an experiment. P [...] articipants were asked to interpret an analogy in which, for some source elements, syntactic, and pragmatic criteria permitted alternative mappings, which were ambiguous when semantic principles were taken into account. Data showed that people base mappings on contextual semantic similarities, rather than on extra-contextual semantic similarities like the ones incorporated by these theories in their computational models. The results are discussed in light of the criticism formulated by Hofstadter, and the FARG Group (1995) of the way semantics is treated by the dominant style of modeling analogical mapping.

Ricardo A., Minervino; Carlos, Molinari Marotto.

193

The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption and intensity, over and above the variation associated with the contextual factors. This study also had implications in program implementation theory, and revealed that resource availability, stringency and adherence had significant impacts on program outcomes. Using seven classification tables, this study categorized and matched the predictors of electricity consumption and intensity with the specific energy sectors in which they demonstrated significance. Project developers, energy advocates, policy makers, program administrators, building occupants and other stakeholders could use study findings in conjunction with other empirical findings, to make informed decisions regarding the adoption, continuation or discontinuation of energy programs, while taking contextual factors into consideration. The adoption and efficient implementation of the most significant programs could reduce U.S. electricity consumption, and in the long term, probably reduce U.S. energy waste, environmental degradation, energy imports, energy prices, and demands for expanding energy generation and distribution infrastructure.

Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

194

The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. PMID:25271215

Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

2014-11-01

195

Multi Agent Knowledge Management Architecture  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays, knowledge in Public Sector environment becomes very vast and increasing day by day at speedy pace. So, to handle and manage the knowledge becomes a tedious job, resulting into degrading the overall affectivity and productivity of the system. Hence, the need of effective architecture arises, which can increase the performance of disseminating knowledge in public sector. This results the implementation of knowledge management (KM) using Multi Agents (MA). Using Multi Agents reduces th...

Prerna Agarwal; Dipti Yadav; Sheikh Amanur Rahman; Pankaj Singh Bisht

2012-01-01

196

Classical systems can be contextual too: Analogue of the Mermin-Peres square  

CERN Document Server

Contextuality lays at the heart of quantum mechanics. In the prevailing opinion it is considered as a signature of "quantumness" that classical theories lack. However, this assertion is hardly justified. Although contextuality is certainly true of quantum mechanics, it can not be taken by itself as discriminating against classical theories. Here we consider a representative example of contextual behavior, the so-called Mermin-Peres square, and present a simple discrete model which faithfully reproduces quantum predictions that lead to contradiction with the assumption of non-contextuality. This shows that quantum-like contextual effects have their analogues in the classical realm too.

Blasiak, Pawel

2013-01-01

197

Contextual Modulation of the Motion Aftereffect  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined center-surround effects for motion perception in human observers. The magnitude of the motion aftereffect (MAE) elicited by a drifting grating was measured with a nulling task and with a threshold elevation procedure. A surround grating of the same spatial frequency, temporal frequency, and orientation significantly reduced

Falkenberg, Helle K.; Bex, Peter J.

2007-01-01

198

Necessary and sufficient condition for state-independent contextual measurement scenarios.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of identifying measurement scenarios capable of revealing state-independent contextuality in a given Hilbert space dimension is considered. We begin by showing that for any given dimension d and any measurement scenario consisting of projective measurements, (i) the measure of contextuality of a quantum state is entirely determined by its spectrum, so that pure and maximally mixed states represent the two extremes of contextual behavior, and that (ii) state-independent contextuality is equivalent to the contextuality of the maximally mixed state up to a global unitary transformation. We then derive a necessary and sufficient condition for a measurement scenario represented by an orthogonality graph to reveal state-independent contextuality. This condition is given in terms of the fractional chromatic number of the graph ?f(G) and is shown to identify all state-independent contextual measurement scenarios including those that go beyond the original Kochen-Specker paradigm. PMID:24580422

Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Horodecki, Pawel

2014-01-31

199

Pay knowledge as a motivator of performance - Case: Neste Oil Corporation  

OpenAIRE

Understanding how much and what employees know about pay determination and pay-related processes can help organizations to improve pay satisfaction and its effectiveness as a motivator. Elevated pay knowledge has been found more effective than pay raises in motivating performance and promoting organizational commitment. Unlike previous survey-based pay knowledge studies covering multiple organizations with low contextualization, this single case study researches pay knowledge in the organizat...

Mikkonen, Juho

2013-01-01

200

A study on factors influencing implementation of knowledge management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Replacement in organization’s employees can results in knowledge loss and turnover faces a serious problem in knowledge based organizations such as knowledge based sectors of governmental organizations. The increases in sizes of some governmental organizations in recent years have increased their structural and contextual dimensions. One of the biggest problems in governmental organizations is employee turnover, which could result to knowledge loss. By using knowledge management it is possible to decrease this phenomenon. This survey identifies the effective factors in implementation of knowledge management system as a solution for preventing knowledge loss. By far this study is the first of its kind in the context of information technology sectors of governmental organizations of ARAK Province of Iran.

Behdad Gitinejad

2013-09-01

201

Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

Meliha Handzic

2001-11-01

202

Knowledge Alive  

Science.gov (United States)

The strategies that expose learners to the large volume of knowledge, enables them for creative thinking, self-management and deep reading. The different ways of creating knowledge with the help of creativity, communication, organization, problem solving and decision-making are discussed.

Perkins, David

2004-01-01

203

Mathematical knowledge  

CERN Document Server

What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. - ;What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. Written by some of the world''s leading philosophers of mathematics, psychologists, and mathematicians, Mathematical Knowledge gives a lively sense of the. current state of debate in this fascinating field. -

Leng, Mary; Potter, Michael

2007-01-01

204

Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

205

Intact neurogenesis is required for benefits of exercise on spatial memory but not motor performance or contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6J mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammalian hippocampus continues to generate new neurons throughout life. Experiences such as exercise, anti-depressants, and stress regulate levels of neurogenesis. Exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and enhances behavioral performance on rotarod, contextual fear and water maze in rodents. To directly test whether intact neurogenesis is required for gains in behavioral performance from exercise in C57BL/6J mice, neurogenesis was reduced using focal gamma irradiation (3 sessions of 5 Gy). Two months after treatment, mice (total n=42 males and 42 females) (Irradiated or Sham), were placed with or without running wheels (Runner or Sedentary) for 54 days. The first 10 days mice received daily injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The last 14 days mice were tested on water maze (two trials per day for 5 days, then 1 h later probe test), rotarod (four trials per day for 3 days), and contextual fear conditioning (2 days), then measured for neurogenesis using immunohistochemical detection of BrdU and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) mature neuronal marker. Consistent with previous studies, in Sham animals, running increased neurogenesis fourfold and gains in performance were observed for the water maze (spatial learning and memory), rotarod (motor performance), and contextual fear (conditioning). These positive results provided the reference to determine whether gains in performance were blocked by irradiation. Irradiation reduced neurogenesis by 50% in both groups, Runner and Sedentary. Irradiation did not affect running or baseline performance on any task. Minimal changes in microglia associated with inflammation (using immunohistochemical detection of cd68) were detected at the time of behavioral testing. Irradiation did not reduce gains in performance on rotarod or contextual fear, however it eliminated gain in performance on the water maze. Results support the hypothesis that intact exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis is required for improved spatial memory, but not motor performance or contextual fear in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:18664375

Clark, P J; Brzezinska, W J; Thomas, M W; Ryzhenko, N A; Toshkov, S A; Rhodes, J S

2008-09-01

206

Implementations of the HL7 Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval (“Infobutton”) Standard: Challenges, Strengths, Limitations, and Uptake  

OpenAIRE

To support clinical decision-making,computerized information retrieval tools known as “infobuttons” deliver contextually-relevant knowledge resources intoclinical information systems.The Health Level Seven International(HL7)Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval (Infobutton) Standard specifies a standard mechanism to enable infobuttons on a large scale.

Del Fiol, Guilherme; Huser, Vojtech; Strasberg, Howard R.; Maviglia, Saverio M.; Curtis, Clayton; Cimino, James J.

2012-01-01

207

Functional mapping of the circuits involved in the expression of contextual fear responses in socially defeated animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have aimed at outlining the neural systems underlying the expression of contextual fear to social defeat. First, we have developed an experimental procedure, where defeated animals could express, without the presence of a dominant aggressive male, robust and reliable conditioned fear responses to the context associated with social defeat. Next, by examining the pattern of Fos expression, we have been able to outline a brain circuit comprising septal and amygdalar sites, as well as downstream hypothalamic paths, putatively involved in the expression of contextual fear to social threat. Of particular relevance, we have found that exposure to a defeat-associated context results in a striking Fos up-regulation in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMDdm). To further understand the role of the PMDdm in the circuit organizing conditioned fear to social threats, we have been able to observe that pharmacological blockade of the PMDdm reduced fear responses to a social defeat-associated context. Next, we observed that pharmacological blockade of the dorsomedial part of the periaqueductal gray, one of the main targets of the PMDdm, produced an even higher reduction of conditioned fear in defeated intruders, and appears as an important node for the expression of contextual defensive responses to social threats. The present results help to elucidate the basic organization of the neural circuits underlying contextual conditioned responses to social defeat, and reveal that they share at least part of the same circuit involved in innate responses to social defeat to an aggressive conspecific. PMID:23546547

Faturi, C B; Rangel, M J; Baldo, M V C; Canteras, N S

2014-05-01

208

Dinámica contextual de la educción de requisitos software / Contextual dynamic of the software requirements elicitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La educción de requisitos software desde los stakeholders ha sido declarada como una actividad clave que influye poderosamente sobre la calidad de los requisitos especificados y, por lo tanto, del producto final del desarrollo. Por esta razón, es incuestionable la necesidad de contar con guías clara [...] s para conducir la interacción con los propietarios de la información del dominio y de las necesidades a las que se pretende dar solución. Este trabajo se centra en la modelación de la educción considerando la influencia de los agentes contextuales del proceso tales como: eductor, quien conduce la actividad; informante, quien posee la información relevante; dominio del problema, características de la problemática a atacar; y proceso, características y restricciones de la actividad misma. El artículo analiza la dinámica que relaciona y condiciona estos factores para seleccionar la técnica a aplicar en cada sesión de educción. Finalmente, el trabajo contribuye con un modelo temporal del proceso y con la representación de la casuística principal del proceso de educción. Abstract in english The software requirements elicitation from stakeholders has been stated as a key activity influencing strongly on quality of specified requirements and, therefore, of the final development product. For this raison, is undoubtly the necessity to dispose clear guidelines to drive the interrelationship [...] with the owners of the domain information and the needs that require solutions.This work focuses on the model of the elicitation considering the influence of the contextual agents of the process, such as: elicitor, who drive the activity; informant, who possess the relevant information; problem domain, characteristics of the problematic to tackle; and process, characteristics and restrictions of the activity itself. The article analyses the dynamic that relates these factors to select the technique to use in each elicitation session. Finally, the work contributes with a time model of the process and with the representation of the main casuistic of elicitation process.

Dante, Carrizo.

2013-12-01

209

Entrepreneurship Education at University Level : Contextual Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Entrepreneurship has been declared the most significant driver in the future development of societal welfare. Business, organisations and the individual person should be motivated for - and develop competence in - perceiving new opportunities through reflective action and hence participate in the creation of change and growth in society. This capacity and inclination for change and innovation is thus conceived as an important human trait, which has come to be known as "enterprising behaviour" in international research. In which ways do these demands challenge the universities and its role in regional and societal context? Interaction between universities, business sector and political system through the so-called "triple-helix-model" is said to be the basis for growth and innovation. Does it mean that knowledge creation and exchange should be based on the concept of entrepreneurial university? Related to that, what are then the internal challenges for the entire education culture and for the role of the teacher / researcher? It is some of the questions the paper tries to answer or at least give some deeper insight to.

Blenker, Per; Dreisler, Poul

2006-01-01

210

TECHNOLOGICAL INTEGRATION FOR INCREASING THE CONTEXTUAL LEVEL OF INFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile devices and applications are becoming increasingly present in everyday life and they represent an important success factor in business. Through this work we aim to provide end users a significant increase in the level of contextual information using the Android platform for mobile application development. The idea of the "Where?" application is based on a collaborative architecture involving actors from the business (pharmacies, banks, restaurants, hospitals, etc. and the end users as primary beneficiaries of the system. In essence, the user needs a service that will be able to locate the best deal to suit its contextual and temporal and spatial availability of the service provider. The proposed new architecture and the application have the possibility to integrate into a single system the local customer needs and business opportunities, directing the beneficiary to the most appropriate location, taking into account the custom criteria.

Octavian DOSPINESCU

2011-01-01

211

Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design : a Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer relations. Involving customer relations in the design project had a powerful effect: it was revealed that the system the organization believed they needed was irrelevant, while they needed another system nobody had thought of beforehand. The paper presents the case by describing the setting and starting point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design.

Simonsen, Jesper

1996-01-01

212

Almost compatible observables in quantum tests of contextuality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kochen-Specker-Theorem proves that in a hidden variable description of a quantum system, the value of a particular property (observable) depends on the context in which the value is to be revealed. The conflict here is between the hidden variable approach and the theory of quantum mechanics. In order to establish this conflict as the inability to employ a hidden variable description of an actual experiment, it has been suggested to extend the notion of non-contextuality to sequential measurements of compatible observables. However, in an experimental implementation the requirement of perfect compatibility cannot be reached. We show that this ''compatibility loophole'' can be addressed and that a recent experiment using trapped ions then excludes a large class of non-contextual hidden variable models.

Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Kleinmann, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Larsson, Jan-Ake [Institutionen foer Systemteknik och Matematiska Institutionen, Linkoepings Universitet (Sweden); Kirchmair, Gerhard; Zaehringer, Florian; Gerritsma, Rene; Blatt, Rainer; Roos, Christian [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-07-01

213

Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

2009-01-01

214

Neural segregation of objective and contextual aspects of fairness  

OpenAIRE

Perception of fairness can influence outcomes in human exchange. However, an inherent subjectivity in attribution renders it difficult to manipulate fairness experimentally. Here using a modified ultimatum game, within a varying social context, we induced a bias in human subjects' acceptance of objectively identical offers. To explain this fairness-related behavior, we use a computational model to specify metrics for the objective and contextual aspects of fairness, testing for correlations b...

Wright, Nd; Symmonds, M.; Fleming, Sm; Dolan, Rj

2011-01-01

215

Testing contextuality on quantum ensembles with one clean qubit  

CERN Document Server

We present a protocol to evaluate the expectation value of the correlations of measurement outcomes for ensembles of quantum systems, and use it to experimentally demonstrate--under an assumption of fair sampling--the violation of an inequality that is satisfied by any non-contextual hidden-variables (NCHV) theory. The experiment is performed on an ensemble of molecular nuclear spins in the solid state, using established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques for quantum information processing (QIP).

Moussa, O; Cory, D G; Laflamme, R

2009-01-01

216

The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques  

OpenAIRE

The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has beco...

Saiful Hasan Tariq; Mahbuba Afroz Jinia

2013-01-01

217

Contextual social cognition and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia  

OpenAIRE

The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3)...

Iban?ez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo

2012-01-01

218

AUTOMATIC CONTEXTUAL TEXT CORRECTION USING THE LINGUISTIC HABITS GRAPH LHG  

OpenAIRE

Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG) also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were comp...

Marcin Gadamer; Adrian Horzyk

2009-01-01

219

Comparative Effectiveness of Contextual and Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary  

OpenAIRE

The study was conducted to find out effectiveness of contextual an, structural method of teaching vocabulary in English at secondary level. It was an experimental study in which the pretest posttest design was used. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Government secondary schools of Rawalpindi District. Purposive and random sampling was applied to select the school and subjects. The significance of difference between the scores of groups at 0.05 level...

Malik Behlol; Mohammad Kaini

2011-01-01

220

Prefrontal microcircuit underlies contextual learning after hippocampal loss  

OpenAIRE

Specific brain circuits have been classically linked to dedicated functions. However, compensation following brain damage suggests that these circuits are capable of dynamic adaptation. Such compensation is exemplified by Pavlovian fear conditioning following damage to the dorsal hippocampus (DH). Although the DH normally underlies contextual fear and fear renewal after extinction, both can be learned in the absence of the DH, although the mechanisms and nature of this compensation are curren...

Zelikowsky, Moriel; Bissiere, Stephanie; Hast, Timothy A.; Bennett, Rebecca Z.; Abdipranoto, Andrea; Vissel, Bryce; Fanselow, Michael S.

2013-01-01

221

Individual and contextual variation in Thomas langur male loud calls  

OpenAIRE

Individual and contextual differences in male loud calls of wild Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) were studied in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Loud calls were given in the following contexts: morning calls, vocal responses to other groups, between-group encounter calls and alarmcalls. Loud call spectrograms were analysed for a large number of variables. With discriminant analyses, 14 variables were found to be important in distinguishing individuals and contexts. Loud calls were as...

Wich, S. A.; Koski, S.; Vries, Han; Schaik, Carel P.

2003-01-01

222

Emergence of non-contextuality in macroscopic systems  

CERN Document Server

Quantum theory is no doubt the most successful invention of humanity on par with Cuban cigars and single malt whiskey. Nevertheless it has been plagued by numerous interpretational and conceptual problems since its birth. One such problem is the emergence of the classicality of the macroscopic world from its underlying quantum structure. In particular, the macroscopic world doesn't appear to be contextual, even though the fabric of reality is; we propose an explanation for this.

Kurzynski, Pawel; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2011-01-01

223

Personal and contextual factors in the construction of acting careers  

OpenAIRE

The present research intends to explore the personal and contextual factors that are the basis of the formulation and the implementation of vocational choices in acting careers. The twenty eight student actors that participated in the study were asked to write an auto-biographical description of the personal factors and the educational opportunities they recognised as de-terminant for their career choice. The analysis of the results allowed the identification of per-sonal features, such as au...

Bahia, Sara; Janeiro, Isabel; Duarte, Ricardo

2007-01-01

224

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

OpenAIRE

The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African ed...

Seugnet Blignaut; Christo Els; Sarah Howie

2010-01-01

225

Non-contextuality and free will in modal quantum theory  

OpenAIRE

Modal quantum theory (MQT) is a simplified cousin of ordinary Hilbert space quantum theory. We show that two important theorems of actual quantum theory, the Kochen-Specker theorem excluding non-contextual hidden variables and the Conway-Kochen "free will theorem" about entangled systems, have direct analogues in MQT. The proofs of these analogue theorems are similar to, but much simpler than, the originals. We also show that the structure of possible measurement results for...

Schumacher, Benjamin; Westmoreland, Michael D.

2010-01-01

226

It from Qubit: How to Draw Quantum Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wheeler’s observer-participancy and the related it from bit credo refer to quantum non-locality and contextuality. The mystery of these concepts slightly starts unveiling if one encodes the (incompatibilities between qubit observables in the relevant finite geometries. The main objective of this treatise is to outline another conceptual step forward by employing Grothendieck’s dessins d’enfants to reveal the topological and (nonalgebraic machinery underlying the measurement acts and their information content.

Michel Planat

2014-04-01

227

It from qubit: how to draw quantum contextuality  

OpenAIRE

Wheeler's {\\it observer-participancy} and the related {\\it it from bit} credo refer to quantum non-locality and contextuality. The mystery of these concepts slightly starts unveiling if one encodes the (in)compatibilities between qubit observables in the relevant finite geometries. The main objective of this treatise is to outline another conceptual step forward by employing Grothendieck's {\\it dessins d'enfants} to reveal the topological and (non)algebraic machinery underly...

Michel Planat

2014-01-01

228

A molecular dissociation between cued and contextual appetitive learning  

OpenAIRE

In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific molecular signaling pathways within the striatum underlie one form of learning or the other. Here, we show that while the striatum-enriched isoform of ad...

Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

2010-01-01

229

Contextual interactions in a generalized energy model of complex cells  

OpenAIRE

We propose a generalized energy model of complex cells to describe modulatory contextual influences on the responses of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1). Many orientationselective cells in V1 respond to contrast of orientation and motion of stimuli exciting the classical receptive field (CRF) and the non-CRF, or surround. In the proposed model, a central spatiotemporal filter, defining the CRF, is nonlinearly combined with a spatiotemporal filter extending into the non- ...

Dellen, Babette; Clark, John W.; Wessel, Ralf

2009-01-01

230

Using contextual analysis to investigate the nature of spatial memory  

OpenAIRE

The present study investigated the properties of episodic spatial memory by conducting contextual analysis on spatial memory tasks in a large sample of individuals (N = 778) between the ages of 18 and 92. The results suggest that episodic spatial memory as measured by a dot location task is not uniquely influenced by memory but is strongly influenced by fluid ability (Gf). The spatial memory–Gf relationship is evident and robust even when spatial memory is operationalized with a very simple...

Siedlecki, Karen L.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

231

Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23317835

Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit

2013-01-01

232

Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

2012-09-01

233

Taking in account of contextual parameters in post accidental radioecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences on agricultural or breeding products of a radioactive accidental release are strongly linked to the context in which radioactive deposits occur: for example conditions of deposition in relation with agricultural and feeding schedules. These contextual parameters lead to a variation of results given by models greater than transfer factors uncertainties. For example, cow milk contamination stretches on several decades during the months following deposit as a function of feeding practices. In the same way, if a wheat plant receives the deposit during grain development, harvested grains will have a contamination level 103 to 104 times higher that if deposition occurs before the growing stage. To create a decision support system like the ASTRAL software, the need to realize a modelling of these contextual parameters has been encountered. Moreover, to help experts for evaluations, default informations relative to agricultural and breeding practices for France are given through databases. However, in case of a real accident, it would be important to re-initialize these contextual parameters which change from year to year, in order to obtain more precise assessments. (authors)

234

Scalable mobile image retrieval by exploring contextual saliency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, it is very convenient to capture photos by a smart phone. As using, the smart phone is a convenient way to share what users experienced anytime and anywhere through social networks, it is very possible that we capture multiple photos to make sure the content is well photographed. In this paper, an effective scalable mobile image retrieval approach is proposed by exploring contextual salient information for the input query image. Our goal is to explore the high-level semantic information of an image by finding the contextual saliency from multiple relevant photos rather than solely using the input image. Thus, the proposed mobile image retrieval approach first determines the relevant photos according to visual similarity, then mines salient features by exploring contextual saliency from multiple relevant images, and finally determines contributions of salient features for scalable retrieval. Compared with the existing mobile-based image retrieval approaches, our approach requires less bandwidth and has better retrieval performance. We can carry out retrieval with <200-B data, which is <5% of existing approaches. Most importantly, when the bandwidth is limited, we can rank the transmitted features according to their contributions to retrieval. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25775488

Yang, Xiyu; Qian, Xueming; Xue, Yao

2015-06-01

235

The neural basis of contextual influences on face categorization.  

Science.gov (United States)

From only brief exposure to a face, individuals spontaneously categorize another's race. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that visual context may affect such categorizations. We used fMRI to examine the neural basis of contextual influences on the race categorization of faces. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along a White-Asian morph continuum and were surrounded by American, neutral, or Chinese scene contexts. As expected, the context systematically influenced categorization responses and their efficiency (response times). Neuroimaging results indicated that the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) exhibited highly sensitive, graded responses to the compatibility of facial and contextual cues. These regions showed linearly increasing responses as a face became more White when in an American context, and linearly increasing responses as a face became more Asian when in a Chinese context. Further, RSC activity partially mediated the effect of this face-context compatibility on the efficiency of categorization responses. Together, the findings suggest a critical role of the RSC and OFC in driving contextual influences on face categorization, and highlight the impact of extraneous cues beyond the face in categorizing other people. PMID:24006403

Freeman, Jonathan B; Ma, Yina; Barth, Maria; Young, Steven G; Han, Shihui; Ambady, Nalini

2015-02-01

236

Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

237

Knowledge Innovative Organization: The Effect of Constant Organization Renewal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term ‘knowledge’ is getting increased importance as the economy is becoming progressively knowledge intensive. Contemporary view of innovation management is acknowledging knowledge as the most effective source of innovation. Success of the business depends on how successfully knowledge is used for innovation. As a result, organizations are increasingly embracing knowledge strategy for their innovation scheme. Incorporating knowledge in the innovation process; building innovative capabilities and identifying essential features of a knowledge innovative organization are the key concerns of this study. Knowledge is a context specific notion. In this case study, the use of knowledge for innovation has been analyzed from an individual organization point of view so that contextual elements of a knowledge in-novative organization can be identified more precisely along with the institutional implications. Thus, this article would be able to provide a good number of meaningful indications in using knowledge for innovation; it would also shed light on constant capability building for innovation; nurturing of creativity and developing of knowledge infrastructure of a knowledge innovative organization. In addition, this study will be revealing the true nature of knowledge strategy and its application in the context of a developing country.

Umana Anjalin

2009-12-01

238

Knowledge of sexual abuse amongst female students in Malawi  

OpenAIRE

Sexual abuse is an increasing problem in Malawi amongst female students, and is associated with physical and mental health problems. This study aimed to determine existing knowledge of sexual abuse amongst female students in tertiary education institutions in Malawi. A descriptive, comparative, quantitative and contextual research design was used. Participants (n=219) were selected through systematic random sampling from a population of female students aged 18 to 21, at fifteen (n= 15) tertia...

Dzimadzi, R.; Klopper, H.

2007-01-01

239

Contextually authentic science for young children: A study of two summer herpetology programs  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge, skills, and dispositions enabled for elementary school participants in two summer herpetology programs, one in North Carolina and one in Florida. An additional purpose of this study was to examine the normative scientific practices in which participants engaged and to describe how these experiences differed across each of the herpetology programs. Finally, the program structures of Herpetology and Reptiles were compared to determine how each herpetology program's activities and methodologies impacted participants' perceptions of authentic science. A goal of this study was to expand and broaden the understanding of how authentic science program structure impacts what is enabled for participants in terms of knowledge, skills, and dispositions gained. This study built on previous research of contextually authentic science practices (Buxton, 2006). This study was conducted and the data analyzed using an interpretative case study, mixed methods approach. Data collected included: video and audio data from classroom and field sessions, participant focus group interviews, photographs, and photo elicitation interviews. Participants' science journals were collected and analyzed. Pre- and post-assessments and surveys were administered and analyzed for twenty-four participants, twelve participants from the Herpetology program and twelve participants from the Reptiles program.

Scott, Catherine Marie

240

Teaching Intercultural Communication in China and Australia: Intellectual and Contextual Constraints and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the world turns more towards China through trade, tourism and knowledge exchange, Chinese professionals will increasingly need to communicate directly with foreigners inside China. This face-to-face communication will require not only linguistic and communicative competence, but also a deep cultural knowledge of China as well as of other cultures, to help strangers adapt effectively to Chinese cultural contexts and to improve mutual understanding. In this paper we suggest that it might be useful for Chinese teachers of intercultural communication to examine their assumptions and practices by comparing them with those in other countries. We illustrate this argument through a comparison of the teaching of intercultural communication in Yunnan with an equivalent program in professional education in Melbourne. We argue that there are many similarities in the two programs, reflecting their common disciplinary basis. There are also differences between the programs reflecting different assumptions about teaching and learning, and different contexts of intercultural communication. This comparison helps identify the cultural and contextual influences on what is currently identified as appropriate in Yunnan, and the possible constraints on how much the program could be altered without clashing with acceptable aims, strategies and outcomes.
Key words: Intercultural Communication; Communicative Competence; Professional Education; Globalization

Ying HUANG

2011-06-01

241

En los ojos de Guliver: información contextual y sentido de orientación / In Gulliver's eyes: contextual information and sense of orientation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este manuscrito estudia el sentido de orientación de las personas en situaciones en que existe información de tipo contextual, que permite a las personas a ver locaciones muy distantes. Para ello se preguntó a 133 individuos indicar la ubicación de cinco hitos próximos y lejanos de la ciudad de Valp [...] araíso, en 2 situaciones distintas: miradores urbanos y lugares en el medio de la trama urbana en el que la visión de información contextual no es posible. Los resultados mostraron que no existía una asociación entre la Precisión Promedio por Persona y el sexo, edad, o el grado familiaridad, pero que sí con el lugar donde se habían hecho estas estimaciones. Abstract in english This manuscript examines how people gain a sense of orientation in scenarios where large-scale, contextual information is available. Two locations of the city of Valparaiso where one can see the entire city from the heights were selected for an experiment, as well as two areas in the middle of the u [...] rban grid where no large-scale information was available. A total of 133 people were asked to point to five non-visible landmarks in these scenarios and their estimations were compared with the real position of each target. Results showed no association between this value and people's gender, age or familiarity with the neighborhood. However, a positive relationship was found between this value and the places in which estimates were made.

Rodrigo I., Mora.

2013-12-01

242

A Textural–Contextual Model for Unsupervised Segmentation of Multipolarization Synthetic Aperture Radar Images  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a novel unsupervised, non-Gaussian, and contextual segmentation method that combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual informa-tion for multilook polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR)data. This extends on previous studies that have shown the added value of both non-Gaussian modeling and contextual smoothing individually or for intensity channels only. The method is based on a Markov random field (MRF) model that integrates a K-Wishart d...

Akbari, Vahid; Doulgeris, Anthony Paul; Gabriele, Moser; Eltoft, Torbjørn; Sebastiano, B. Serpico; Anfinsen, Stian Normann

2013-01-01

243

Factors governing single-trial contextual fear conditioning in the weanling rat  

OpenAIRE

Although contextual fear conditioning emerges later in development than explicit-cue fear conditioning, little is known about the stimulus parameters and biological substrates required at early ages. The current experiments adapted methods for investigating hippocampus function in adult rodents to identify determinants of contextual fear conditioning in developing rats. Experiment 1 examined the duration of exposure required by weanling rats at postnatal day (PND) 23 to demonstrate contextual...

Burman, M. A.; Murawski, N. J.; Schiffino, F. L.; Rosen, J. B.; Stanton, M. E.

2009-01-01

244

State-independent experimental test of quantum contextuality in solid state system  

OpenAIRE

Quantum mechanics implies that not all physical properties can be simultaneously well defined, such as the momentum and position due to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Some alternative theories have been explored, notably the non-contextual hidden variable theories in which the properties of a system have pre-defined values which are independent of the measurement contextual. However, the Kochen-Specker theorem showed that such non-contextual hidden variable theories are i...

Pan, Xin-yu; Chang, Yan-chun; Liu, Gang-qin; Fan, Heng

2012-01-01

245

How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changing urban development in more sustainable directions poses numerous challenges for planning practitioners. Expert knowledge could be helpful for planners aiming at facing up to these challenges by developing innovative ways of meeting seemingly contradictive objectives and solving planning problems. This paper examines how planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge affect the content and goal achievement of plans, and discusses how changes in planning practice and research practice can contribute to improve goal achievement potentials. Goal achievement potential refers to whether the plans (if implemented) contribute to achieve defined objectives, which in this paper concern transition toward more sustainable mobility patterns and reduction of traffic volumes. The expert knowledge in question concerns how land use and transport systems developments influence traffic volumes in urban regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning this issue have emerged, but few empirical studies have been presented. The research in this paper involves case studies of strategic plan-making processes in three Scandinavian cities. A main finding is that whether the expert knowledge in question is used or not, and how it is used, indeed affect the goal achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call fortraffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge in question for explaining that these measures reduce the goal achievement potential of plans, for several reasons. It may seem as if the knowledge sometimes is ousted when it challenges the contextual agenda. Further, planners do not turn to written or research- based sources of knowledge for help in solving their planning problems. Instead, they rely on their embedded professional knowledge, which is sometimes outdated or misleading. It is found that changing towards land use and transport systems developments contributing to more sustainable mobility patterns requires considerable efforts from planning practitioners, as well as from planning researchers.

TennØy, Aud; Lissandrello, Enza

2014-01-01

246

A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews in decision-making in this sector. Future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these summary formats for a variety of end-users in different contexts. PMID:25383916

Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Raji?, Andrijana

2014-12-01

247

Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

2009-01-01

248

Dynamic Capitalization and Visualization Strategy in Collaborative Knowledge Management System for EI Process  

CERN Document Server

Knowledge is attributed to human whose problem-solving behavior is subjective and complex. In today's knowledge economy, the need to manage knowledge produced by a community of actors cannot be overemphasized. This is due to the fact that actors possess some level of tacit knowledge which is generally difficult to articulate. Problem-solving requires searching and sharing of knowledge among a group of actors in a particular context. Knowledge expressed within the context of a problem resolution must be capitalized for future reuse. In this paper, an approach that permits dynamic capitalization of relevant and reliable actors' knowledge in solving decision problem following Economic Intelligence process is proposed. Knowledge annotation method and temporal attributes are used for handling the complexity in the communication among actors and in contextualizing expressed knowledge. A prototype is built to demonstrate the functionalities of a collaborative Knowledge Management system based on this approach. It is...

Oladejo, Bolanle; David, Amos

2010-01-01

249

Knowledge-based utility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

250

Aprendizagem motora e síndrome de Down: efeitos da frequência relativa reduzida de conhecimento de resultados / Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos de duas frequências (100 e 33%) de conhecimento de resultados (CR) na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora em indivíduos com síndrome de Down (SD). Vinte participantes com SD foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em dois grupos. O grupo 100% recebeu [...] CR após cada tentativa, enquanto o grupo 33% recebeu CR em um terço das tentativas, ou seja, uma tentativa com CR em cada bloco de três tentativas. A tarefa consistiu em arremessar um implemento em um alvo, com a mão dominante, sem visualizar o alvo. A fase de aquisição constou de 60 tentativas de prática, enquanto a fase de retenção, realizada 48 horas após, de 10 tentativas, sem CR. Os resultados indicaram a inexistência de diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclui-se que frequências relativas reduzidas de CR podem ser tão efetivas quanto altas frequências para a aprendizagem de habilidades motoras em adultos com SD. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33%) of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups.While the 100% group received KR aft [...] er each trial, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acquisition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

Suzete, Chiviacowsky; Camila, Machado; Alexandre Carriconde, Marques; José Francisco Gomes, Schild; Ricardo, Drews.

2013-04-01

251

Teaching a neuromedical-contextual approach to psychosomatic medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of psychosomatic medicine in the general hospital setting can be challenging, particularly for the inexperienced trainee. Guidance for how to approach a psychiatric consultation can be nonspecific or lacking altogether. In response, we offer a pedagogical model that emphasizes patient-specific neurological, medical, and contextual variables. A stepwise, "ABC" approach to psychiatric consultation is elaborated, beginning with collection of critical history ("Admission, Background, Consultation Question"), followed by both patient encounter ("Appearance, Behavior, Context") and actual patient examination ("Arousal, Brain/Body, Cognitive Assessment"), ultimately informing any given case formulation. Multiple clinical vignettes illustrate this approach and are offered for educational purposes in dissemination to trainees. PMID:25026951

Jimenez, Xavier F; Azzam, Pierre N; Gopalan, Priya

2015-04-01

252

Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting “hybrid” entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion by employing a q plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also nonlocal, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

Karimi, Ebrahim; Leach, Jonathan; Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J.; Santamato, Enrico

2010-08-01

253

Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting "hybrid" entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion, by employing a $q$-plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also non-local, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022115

2011-01-01

254

The contextual brain: implications for fear conditioning, extinction and psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contexts surround and imbue meaning to events; they are essential for recollecting the past, interpreting the present and anticipating the future. Indeed, the brain's capacity to contextualize information permits enormous cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behaviour. Dysfunction in this network may be involved in several forms of psychopathology, including post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23635870

Maren, Stephen; Phan, K Luan; Liberzon, Israel

2013-06-01

255

Pushing Personhood into Place : Situating Media in the Transfer of Rural Knowledge in Africa  

OpenAIRE

Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...

Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias

2011-01-01

256

Movement, activity and action: the role of knowledge in the perception of motion.  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents several approaches to the machine perception of motion and discusses the role and levels of knowledge in each. In particular, different techniques of motion understanding as focusing on one of movement, activity or action are described. Movements are the most atomic primitives, requiring no contextual or sequence knowledge to be recognized; movement is often addressed using either view-invariant or view-specific geometric techniques. Activity refers to sequences of movemen...

Bobick, A. F.

1997-01-01

257

INSEAD Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Touted as "your portal to today's most prominent business," INSEAD Knowledge is a publication of INSEAD business school, which is based in France with campuses in Europe and Asia. INSEAD Knowledge prides itself on its easy-to-use format including simple, intuitive navigation, quick-reading abstracts of working papers and case studies, professors' insights into a variety of business-related issues, and in-depth examinations of business research. Along the left side of the Website, users will find eighteen themes including globalization, Asia focus, corporate development, and marketing. Each theme links to a variety of articles and related research sites. Users must complete the short free registration in order to view the full text of articles.

258

Knowledge management as an element in realizing nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A company is not defined by its competences but it lives in realizing these competences in products. The technical knowledge within the field, i.e. here in nuclear technology, is taken as granted at a first glance. For analyzing the role of knowledge management (KM) in the application this knowledge for our products, one can follow two different dimensions, thereby elucidating the needs and development requirements for KM methods: When first considering the 'operational' dimension, one can start from the scope of the manufacturer's knowledge which covers the construction of plants, then accompanying its life cycle, and pursues the development of the technology for the future. A board spectrum of KM activities has been established yet for these different phases, comprising tools with close product orientation or KM elements applied in 'support processes'. In cases of close KM integration in the business process, diversity over the different sectors of the company has emerged: 'locally' optimized solutions are favoured due to specific requirements of the technical field, to continuity or to ease of daily application. On the other hand, 'global' KM tools are often preferred for integration in 'global' support processes (as human resource (HR) management). This can be illustrated by some examples deployed yet, and their benefit: 1. Feedback procedures for new plant projects: capturing the experience during construction (e.g. by standardised reports), thereby strengthening quality criteria for the project and integrating evaluation into the project management (PM) process of the current project; thus reducing erection time - and related capital cost - for future plants. 2. Follow up event information on nuclear plants globally: by collecting and assessing events systematically for proactive technical action and as input for quality management (QM); thus identifying market needs in advance also. 3. IT based KM tool used in nuclear maintenance service: supporting PM as a planning tool, making available technical data, checklists and 'lessons learned' by a systematic data base solution; thus resulting in plant service optimized in respect to technical reliability and duration. 4. Expert networks: leading the technological progress in our own core competences, while keeping high quality by 'distributed' evaluation of the new developments; thus optimizing R and D budget allocation and follow-up development success. 5. Developing human resources (HR): defining consistent knowledge profiles for the employees for future projects; thus ensuring a well adjusted workforce - a main cost factor within the company. 6. Mentoring: for transfer of project skills and experience, fostering new ways and solutions; thus maintaining knowledge and facilitating the start-up phase for young employees. 7. External co-operations in R and D: an approach for complementing own knowledge by identifying alternative approaches; thus resulting in mutual benefit for the external institution and the company, keeping it on the edge of progress in a competitive environment. For the second step, the analysis of KM in the other - 'contextual' - dimension, it becomes apparent from examples that knowledge is applied usually in the context of project management and quality management. Both PM and QM are well established and organized under standards and guidelines, using 'best practices' and tools often applicable in other industries as well - a goal for KM as well. Obviously successful projects require close, complementary interaction of the three management aspects, and none of them can replace one of the others. KM is not a stand-alone basis for the product; in contrary, PM and QM are focused more tightly to the business process, relying on KM support in the 'back office' - and in many cases they are 'driving forces' for KM deployment. In this way, most of the aspects discussed usually for KM - as identification of knowledge gaps, acquisition of knowledge, its development, sharing, use, preservation and evaluation - derive the criteria from the busi ness

259

A Pilot Study of a Functional Contextual Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the initial development of a treatment for bulimia nervosa using a functional contextual treatment approach. Seven women (6 with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and 1 with a diagnosis of eating disorder not otherwise specified) completed 12 sessions of functional contextual treatment. Participants were assessed with the Eating…

Anderson, Drew A.; Simmons, Angela M.

2008-01-01

260

Contextual Modulation During Processing of Facial Expressions. Behavioral, fMRI and ERP Investigations.  

OpenAIRE

Facial expressions of emotions are assumed to be processed rapidly and automatically and therefore should be immune to simultaneous task induced interference. Recent functional and electrophysiological studies however reported that contextual features modulate the processing of emotional expressions when presented in the temporal and spatial context of these expressions. Therefore, additional contextual features which specifically signal incongruent emotional information compared to task-rele...

Fru?hholz, Sascha

2008-01-01

261

Post-Training Unilateral Amygdala Lesions Selectively Impair Contextual Fear Memories  

Science.gov (United States)

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) are both structures with key roles in contextual fear conditioning. During fear conditioning, it is postulated that contextual representations of the environment are formed in the hippocampus, which are then associated with foot shock in the amygdala. However, it is not known to what…

Flavell, Charlotte R.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

2012-01-01

262

Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

2010-01-01

263

Contextualize Technical Writing Assessment to Better Prepare Students for Workplace Writing: Student-Centered Assessment Instruments  

Science.gov (United States)

To teach students how to write for the workplace and other professional contexts, technical writing teachers often assign writing tasks that reflect real-life communication contexts, a teaching approach that is grounded in the field's contextualized understanding of genre. This article argues to fully embrace contextualized literacy and better…

Yu, Han

2008-01-01

264

Developmental Differences in the Impact of Contextual Factors on Susceptibility to Retroactive Interference  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of contextual similarity on children's recognition memory performance was examined using a retroactive interference paradigm. In the study, 9- and 12-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of two contextual conditions. In both conditions, target and interfering information were presented in distinctive contexts by using different…

Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli

2010-01-01

265

Contextual factors modulate concurrent planning of sequential saccades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural vision typically involves making multiple eye movements to interpret complex visual scenes. Although previous work has shown that individual saccadic end points are modulated by cognitive context, whether and how contextual factors quantitatively influence the planning of sequential saccades is still unclear. We compared performance of subjects in a modified double-step task under different task instructions (FOLLOW vs. REDIRECT; Ray, Schall, & Murthy, 2004) as well as task structure (40% and 100% FOLLOW). The results support the idea of restricted concurrent preparation when the second saccade was part of the sequence as per task demands as opposed to being inadvertently made following an error. Also, increasing the probability of double-target trials in the task (100% vs. 40% FOLLOW) tended to enhance concurrent planning even when the serial order of saccades continued to remain important. Taken together, these data reveal how the concurrent planning of sequential saccades can be contextually regulated by means of task instruction and trial statistics. PMID:25761339

Sharika, K M; Murthy, Aditya

2015-01-01

266

Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

2014-12-01

267

Leveraging Wikipedia concept and category information to enhance contextual advertising  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As a prevalent type of Web advertising, contextual advertising refers to the placement of the most relevant ads into a Web page, so as to increase the number of ad-clicks. However, some problems of homonymy and polysemy, low intersection of keywords etc., can lead to the selection of irrelevant ads for a page. In this paper, we present a new contextual advertising approach to overcome the problems, which uses Wikipedia concept and category information to enrich the content representation of an ad (or a page). First, we map each ad and page into a keyword vector, a concept vector and a category vector. Next, we select the relevant ads for a given page based on a similarity metric that combines the above three feature vectors together. Last, we evaluate our approach by using real ads, pages, as well as a great number of concepts and categories of Wikipedia. Experimental results show that our approach can improve the precision of ads-selection effectively.

Wu, Zongda; Xu, Guandong

2011-01-01

268

Prefrontal microcircuit underlies contextual learning after hippocampal loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific brain circuits have been classically linked to dedicated functions. However, compensation following brain damage suggests that these circuits are capable of dynamic adaptation. Such compensation is exemplified by Pavlovian fear conditioning following damage to the dorsal hippocampus (DH). Although the DH normally underlies contextual fear and fear renewal after extinction, both can be learned in the absence of the DH, although the mechanisms and nature of this compensation are currently unknown. Here, we report that recruitment of alternate structures, specifically the infralimbic and prelimbic prefrontal cortices, is required for compensation following damage to the hippocampus. Disconnection of these cortices in DH-compromised animals and immediate early gene induction profiles for amygdala-projecting prefrontal cells revealed that communication and dynamic rebalancing within this prefrontal microcircuit is critical. Additionally, the infralimbic cortex normally plays a role in limiting generalization of contextual fear. These discoveries reveal that plasticity through recruitment of alternate circuits allows the brain to compensate following damage, offering promise for targeted treatment of memory disorders. PMID:23676273

Zelikowsky, Moriel; Bissiere, Stephanie; Hast, Timothy A; Bennett, Rebecca Z; Abdipranoto, Andrea; Vissel, Bryce; Fanselow, Michael S

2013-06-11

269

Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience. PMID:24830835

Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

2014-09-01

270

Enrichment rescues contextual discrimination deficit associated with immediate shock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult animals continue to modify their behavior throughout life, a process that is highly influenced by past experiences. To shape behavior, specific mechanisms of neural plasticity to learn, remember, and recall information are required. One of the most robust examples of adult plasticity in the brain occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is strongly upregulated by external factors such as voluntary wheel running (RUN) and environmental enrichment (EE); however, the functional differences between these two factors remain unclear. Although both manipulations result in increased neurogenesis, RUN dramatically increases the proliferation of newborn cells and EE promotes their survival. We hypothesize that the method by which these newborn neurons are induced influences their functional role. Furthermore, we examine how EE-induced neurons may be primed to encode and recognize features of novel environments due to their previous enrichment experience. Here, we gave mice a challenging contextual fear-conditioning (FC) procedure to tease out the behavioral differences between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis. Despite the robust increases in neurogenesis seen in the RUN mice, we found that only EE mice were able to discriminate between similar contexts in this task, indicating that EE mice might use a different cognitive strategy when processing contextual information. Furthermore, we showed that this improvement was dependent on EE-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a fundamental functional difference between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis. PMID:25330953

Clemenson, Gregory D; Lee, Star W; Deng, Wei; Barrera, Vanessa R; Iwamoto, Kei S; Fanselow, Michael S; Gage, Fred H

2015-03-01

271

Subchronic lithium treatment increases the anxiolytic-like effect of mirtazapine on the expression of contextual conditioned fear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lithium not only has a mood-stabilizing effect but also the augmentation effect of an antidepressant, the mechanism of which remains unclear. Although lithium may augment the effect of mirtazapine, this augmentation has not been confirmed. Using a contextual fear conditioning test in rats, an animal model of anxiety or fear, we examined the effect of subchronic lithium carbonate (in diet) in combination with systemic mirtazapine on the expression of contextual conditioned fear. Mirtazapine (10mg/kg) reduced freezing one day after fear conditioning dose-dependently, whereas the anxiolytic-like effect of mirtazapine (10mg/kg) diminished seven days after fear conditioning. When the interval between fear conditioning and testing was seven days, only the combination of subchronic 0.2% Li2CO3 but not 0.05% Li2CO3 with acute mirtazapine (10mg/kg) reduced freezing significantly. These results indicate that subchronic 0.2% Li2CO3 treatment enhanced the anxiolytic-like effect of systemic mirtazapine. This augmentation therapy might be useful for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25438255

An, Yan; Inoue, Takeshi; Kitaichi, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shin; Wang, Ce; Chen, Chong; Song, Ning; Kusumi, Ichiro

2015-01-15

272

Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries : The Tension between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed.

Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

2012-01-01

273

Effect of ablated hippocampal neurogenesis on the formation and extinction of contextual fear memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Newborn neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampus incorporate into the dentate gyrus and mature. Numerous studies have focused on hippocampal neurogenesis because of its importance in learning and memory. However, it is largely unknown whether hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in memory extinction per se. Here, we sought to examine the possibility that hippocampal neurogenesis may play a critical role in the formation and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory. By methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM or gamma-ray irradiation, hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in adult mice. Under our experimental conditions, only a severe impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis inhibited the formation of contextual fear memory. However, the extinction of contextual fear memory was not affected. These results suggest that although adult newborn neurons contribute to contextual fear memory, they may not be involved in the extinction or erasure of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory.

Ko Hyoung-Gon

2009-01-01

274

The impact of invisible illness on identity and contextual age across the life span.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the impact invisible illness has on identity, specifically contextual age, throughout the life span. It was grounded in the assumption that an individual's identity is formed through communicative interaction. Using social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) as a framework, individuals' identities after disclosure of invisible illness were explored. Rubin and Rubin's (1986) Contextual Age Questionnaire was used to determine self-perceived as well as other-perceived contextual age. Invisibly ill individuals reported significantly "higher" contextual age scores than did same chronologically aged, matched non-ill individuals. In addition, the friends of invisibly ill individuals reported "higher" contextual age scores for the invisibly ill individuals than the self-reported scores of the same chronologically aged non-ill individuals. Interviews further revealed that illness instilled insight and that disclosure of illness provoked comments from others that led invisibly ill individuals to identify with older individuals. Future directions and limitations of this study are also discussed. PMID:12788678

Kundrat, Amanda L; Nussbaum, Jon F

2003-01-01

275

Exploring knowledge exchange at the research-policy-practice interface in children's behavioral health services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study explored core components of knowledge exchange among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners within the context of the Rosie D. versus Romney class action lawsuit in Massachusetts and the development and implementation of its remedial plan. We identified three distinct, sequential knowledge exchange episodes with different purposes, stakeholders, and knowledge exchanged, as decision-making moved from Federal Medicaid policy to state Medicaid program standards and to community-level practice. The knowledge exchanged included research regarding Wraparound, a key component of the remedial plan, as well as contextual information critical for implementation (e.g., Federal Medicaid policy, managed care requirements, community organizations' characteristics). PMID:24464480

Leslie, Laurel K; Maciolek, Susan; Biebel, Kathleen; Debordes-Jackson, Gifty; Nicholson, Joanne

2014-11-01

276

Knowledge Technology Applications for Knowledge Management  

OpenAIRE

We investigate how the knowledge in knowledge technology applications for knowledge management can be represented to let the user directly manage the knowledge content of the applications. In paper I we design a representation of diagnosis knowledge that allows the user to add new components and inspect the function of the device. The representation allows an integration of model based knowledge with compiled and heuristic knowledge so that the device and its function can be represented a sui...

Andersson, Kent

2000-01-01

277

IC Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

IC Knowledge is a company that serves the semiconductor industry. Besides providing information about its products, the company's Web site has a few very interesting features. Of particular interest is the technology trends section, which covers microprocessors, die size, DRAM, microlithography, and MOS logic complexity. In History of the IC, the integrated circuit is examined to show how it evolved on a decade-by-decade basis. An extensive glossary of terms defines many of the technical words and acronyms that are often tossed around by professionals. Articles dealing with the economics of the semiconductor industry are also available on the site, as well as a handy table of physical constants.

278

Evaluating a Contextual-Based Course on Data Analysis for the Physics Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The interpretation of data and construction and understanding of graphs are central practices in science; therefore, an important skill needed in the undergraduate physics laboratory is the ability to analyze data obtained from experiments. Often students are not able to reach logical deductions based on data, acquired from the experiments that they conducted, because they lack appropriate analysis skills. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a short teaching unit developed for this purpose, among undergraduate students. Learning in context approach was implemented in building the unit. Also, both procedural and conceptual knowledge were given emphasis. The "data analysis" questionnaire was used to compare the results between the experimental group and control group. The findings indicate that students who participated in the teaching unit arrived at significantly better results in the data analysis questionnaire as compared to students in the control group. This study may contribute to those who wish to design a contextual-based learning environment for physics laboratory data analysis.

Kukliansky, Ida; Eshach, Haim

2013-06-01

279

Atender o cuidar. Un problema contextual por discernir en la práctica profesional de enfermería / To assist or to care. A contextual problem to discern in the nursing professional practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El objeto de una ciencia comprende fenómenos tanto de la naturaleza como de la vida social; incluye las propiedades de la actividad mental de los hombres como resultado de la imaginación, y entraña operaciones del pensamiento abstracto, tales como: concepto, juicio y razonamiento. No constituye una [...] certidumbre dada para siempre, es transformable; preserva cierto grado de estabilidad y designa la esencia de la actuación científica direccional del actor cultural, pero si en la ciencia existe bilateralidad terminológica, entonces habrá disgregación de la esencia de su surgimiento y desarrollo. El modo lógico básico de formación del conocimiento será difuso, y distinguir la singularidad del saber al cual se apega creará dispersión del pensamiento. Por tales razones se realizó este trabajo para desentrañar el problema contextual existente entre los conceptos cuidar/atender que rectoran la práctica profesional de enfermería en Cuba. Abstract in english The object of a science comprises phenomena either from nature as from social life; it includes properties from mental activity of men as a result of the imagination, and it involves functions of the abstract thought, such as: concept, judgment and reasoning. It doesn't constitute a certainty given [...] forever, it is transformable; it preserves certain degree of stability and it designs the essence of the cultural actor's directional scientific performance, but if in science terminological bilaterality exists, then there will be disintegration of the essence of its emergence and development. The basic logical way of emergence of knowledge will be diffuse, and to distinguish the singularity of the knowledge to which it joints will create dispersion in thinking. For such reasons this work was carried out to decipher the existent contextual problem between the concepts to care/to assist which guide the nursing professional practice in Cuba.

Félix, Kindelán Delís.

2013-06-01

280

Animacy-based predictions in language comprehension are robust: Contextual cues modulate but do not nullify them.  

Science.gov (United States)

Couldn?t a humble coconut hurt a gardener? At least in the first instance, the brain seems to assume that it should not: we perceive inanimate entities such as coconuts as poor event instigators ("Actors"). Ideally, entities causing a change in another entity should be animate and this assumption not only influences event perception but also carries over to language comprehension. We present three auditory event-related brain potential (ERP) studies on the processing of inanimate and animate subjects and objects in simple transitive sentences in Tamil. ERP responses were measured at the second argument (event participant) in all three studies. Experiment 1 employed all possible animacy combinations of Actors and Undergoers (affected participants) in Actor- and Undergoer-initial verb-final orders. Experiments 2 and 3 employed a fairly novel context design that enabled us to compare ERPs evoked by identical auditory material to differing contextual expectations: Experiment 2 focussed on constructions in which an inanimate Actor acts upon an inanimate Undergoer, whereas Experiment 3 examined whether and how a preceding context modulates the prediction for an ideal Actor. Results showed an N400 effect when the prediction for an ideal (animate) Actor following an Undergoer was not met, thus further supporting the cross-linguistically robust nature of animacy preferences. In addition, though specific contextual cues that are indicative of a forthcoming non-ideal Actor may reduce this negativity in comparison to when such cues are not available, they nevertheless do not nullify it, suggesting that animacy-based predictions are stronger than contextual cues in online language comprehension. PMID:25619551

Muralikrishnan, R; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

2015-05-22

281

Short-term inhibition of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11?-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11?-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. PMID:25497454

Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R; Holmes, Megan C; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

2015-04-01

282

Short-term inhibition of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice  

Science.gov (United States)

High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11?-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11?-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. PMID:25497454

Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R.; Holmes, Megan C.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yau, Joyce L.W.

2015-01-01

283

Ego boundary as process: a systemic-contextual approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the ego boundary construct, outlining its origin and development within psychoanalytic theory and demonstrating the ways in which its interpretation and use have been affected and circumscribed by the structural model upon which psychoanalytic theory is based. In particular, I will discuss the sequence of reasoning by which the construct boundary became synonymous with barrier at the expense of consideration of its role in maintaining contact and exchange with the world. The contributions and limitations of the mathematical model of Kurt Lewin are also discussed. An alternative systemic-contextual model is proposed, a model which describes boundary not as barrier but as dialectical processes of separation and inclusion which mediate a person's complex relationship with the world. PMID:6622600

Polster, S

1983-08-01

284

The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra

285

AUTOMATIC CONTEXTUAL TEXT CORRECTION USING THE LINGUISTIC HABITS GRAPH LHG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were compared with commercial programs which also enableto make text correction: Microsoft Word 2007, Open Office Writer 3.0 and search engineGoogle. The achieved results of text correction were much better than correction made bythese commercial tools.

Marcin Gadamer

2009-01-01

286

Contextual processing of brightness and color in Mongolian gerbils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brightness and color cues are essential for visually guided behavior. However, for rodents, little is known about how well they do use these cues. We used a virtual reality setup that offers a controlled environment for sensory testing to quantitatively investigate visually guided behavior for achromatic and chromatic stimuli in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In two-alternative forced choice tasks, animals had to select target stimuli based on relative intensity or color with respect to a contextual reference. Behavioral performance was characterized using psychometric analysis and probabilistic choice modeling. The analyses revealed that the gerbils learned to make decisions that required judging stimuli in relation to their visual context. Stimuli were successfully recognized down to Weber contrasts as low as 0.1. These results suggest that Mongolian gerbils have the perceptual capacity for brightness and color constancy. PMID:25589297

Garbers, Christian; Henke, Josephine; Leibold, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Thurley, Kay

2015-01-01

287

Personalization and Contextualization of Learning Experiences based on Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.

Nicola Capuano

2014-04-01

288

Entorhinal cortex contribution to contextual fear conditioning extinction and reconsolidation in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

During contextual fear conditioning a rat learns a temporal contiguity association between the exposition to a previously neutral context (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) as a footshock. This condition determines in the rat the freezing reaction during the subsequent re-exposition to the context. Potentially the re-exposition without US presentation initiates two opposing and competing processes: reconsolidation and extinction. Reconsolidation process re-stabilizes and strengthens the original memory and it is initiated by a brief re-exposure to context. Instead the extinction process leads to the decrease of the expression of the original memory and it is triggered by prolonged re-exposure to the context. Here we analyzed the entorhinal cortex (ENT) participation in contextual fear conditioning reconsolidation and extinction. The rats were trained in contextual fear conditioning and 24h later they were subjected either to a brief (2 min) reactivation session or to a prolonged (120 min) re-exposition to context to induce extinction of the contextual fear memory. Immediately after the reactivation or the extinction session, the animals were submitted to bilateral ENT TTX inactivation. Memory retention was assessed as conditioned freezing duration measured 72 h after TTX administration. The results showed that ENT inactivation both after reactivation and extinction session was followed by contextual freezing retention impairment. Thus, the present findings point out that ENT is involved in contextual fear memory reconsolidation and extinction. This neural structure might be part of parallel circuits underlying two phases of contextual fear memory processing. PMID:24569052

Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado

2014-04-01

289

The impact of signal-to-noise ratio on contextual cueing in children and adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual cueing refers to a form of implicit spatial learning where participants incidentally learn to associate a target location with its repeated spatial context. Successful contextual learning produces an efficient visual search through familiar environments. Despite the fact that children exhibit the basic ability of implicit spatial learning, their general effectiveness in this form of learning can be compromised by other development-dependent factors. Learning to extract useful information (signal) in the presence of various amounts of irrelevant or distracting information (noise) characterizes one of the most important changes that occur with cognitive development. This research investigated whether signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) affects contextual cueing differently in children and adults. S/N was operationally defined as the ratio of repeated versus new displays encountered over time. Three ratio conditions were created: high (100%), medium (67%), and low (33%) conditions. Results suggested no difference in the acquisition of contextual learning effects in the high and medium conditions across three age groups (6- to 8-year-olds, 10- to 12-year-olds, and young adults). However, a significant developmental difference emerged in the low S/N condition. As predicted, adults exhibited significant contextual cueing effects, whereas older children showed marginally significant contextual cueing and younger children did not show cueing effects. Group differences in the ability to exhibit implicit contextual learning under low S/N conditions and the implications of this difference are discussed. PMID:25594946

Yang, Yingying; Merrill, Edward C

2015-04-01

290

Differential roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor contextual fear conditioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of fear memory is important for understanding various anxiety disorders in which patients experience persistent recollections of traumatic events. These memories often involve associations of contextual cues with aversive events; consequently, Pavlovian classical conditioning is commonly used to study contextual fear learning. The use of predator odor as a fearful stimulus in contextual fear conditioning has become increasingly important as an animal model of anxiety disorders. Innate fear responses to predator odors are well characterized and reliable; however, attempts to use these odors as unconditioned stimuli in fear conditioning paradigms have proven inconsistent. Here we characterize a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using coyote urine as the unconditioned stimulus. We found that contextual conditioning induced by exposure to coyote urine produces long-term freezing, a stereotypic response to fear observed in mice. This paradigm is context-specific and parallels shock-induced contextual conditioning in that it is responsive to extinction training and manipulations of predator odor intensity. Region-specific lesions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus indicate that both areas are independently required for the long-term expression of learned fear. These results in conjunction with c-fos immunostaining data suggest that while both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are required for forming a contextual representation, the ventral region also modulates defensive behaviors associated with predators. This study provides information about the individual contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to ethologically relevant fear learning. PMID:23460388

Wang, Melissa E; Fraize, Nicolas P; Yin, Linda; Yuan, Robin K; Petsagourakis, Despina; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

2013-06-01

291

MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3. Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.

Kottmann Renzo

2010-06-01

292

The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3 the effect of the living values-based contextual learning model on students? character improvement. Approach: This study used Research and Development design. The technique of data collection used observation, documentation, Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative data used data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion stages. Meanwhile, quantitative data analysis used correlation and regression analysis. The subjects of study were 98 students of Civic Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education of academic year 2011/2012. Results: The finding showed that: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing was the integration of living values into material, method, media, learning source and lecturing evaluation conceptually; (2 the living values-based contextual learning model was implemented through value learning variation in contextual learning (problem-based learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, service learning and work-based learning; (3 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model had an effect by 26% on the students? character development Conclusion: The living values-based contextual learning is an alternative of character education integration model in university learning process. This model can be applied in lecturing to develop the students? characters including religious, honest, tolerant, well-mannered, discipline, hard working, creative, independent, democratic, homeland love, respecting achievement, collaborating and responsible.

Kokom Komalasari

2012-01-01

293

Individual and contextual covariates of burnout: a cross-sectional nationwide study of French teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information on the covariates of burnout syndrome in French teachers is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of individual and contextual factors on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in 2005 among 20,099 education workers (in activity or retired selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. The response rate was 52.4%. Teachers in activity currently giving classes to students who participated in the survey (n = 3,940 were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 2,558 teachers provided complete data (64.9%. Variables associated with high emotional exhaustion (highest quartile of score, high depersonalization (highest quartile, and reduced personal accomplishment (lowest quartile were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, job dissatisfaction, experienced difficulties at work, and teaching motivations. Results Different variables were associated with each burnout dimension. Female teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment, whereas male teachers were more susceptible to high depersonalization. Elementary school teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion, but less susceptible to high depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment than their higher school level counterparts. Experienced difficulties with pupils were associated with all three dimensions. A socio-economically underprivileged school neighbourhood was also related to high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalization. Conclusion Programs to enhance teaching environment might be an interesting approach to try to prevent burnout. It would be useful to take the different dimensions into account in planning the intervention.

Nerrière Eléna

2009-09-01

294

Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal explanations, assumptions, models and evidence in engineering analysis need to include and interpret also non-numerical and contextual data

295

The Glocalization of Responsible Investment : Contextualization Work in France and Québec  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actor–network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work that sustains RI glocalization. Empirical data from two case studies highlight how entrepreneurial actors imported the notion of RI from the US to France and Québec. Our findings uncover three types of contextualization work—filtering, repurposing, and coupling—that sustain RI glocalization, and show how actors employed them in both settings to overcome the lack of technical, cultural, or political fit between the imported practice and their local context. Our results explain how divergent glocalized versions of RI are developed and adapted through contextualization work. Last, we discuss how our repertoire of contextualization work can account for local forms of a global concept and the uneven pattern of its diffusion.

Gond, Jean-Pascal; Boxenbaum, Eva

2013-01-01

296

Effect of decoherence on the contextual and nonlocal properties of a biphoton  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum contextuality is a nonintuitive property of quantum mechanics that distinguishes it from any classical theory. A complementary quantum property is quantum nonlocality, which is an essential resource for many quantum information tasks. Here we experimentally study the contextual and nonlocal properties of polarization biphotons. First, we investigate the ability of the biphotons to exhibit contextuality by testing the violation of the Klyachko-Can-Binicio?lu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality. In order to do so, we used the original protocol suggested in the KCBS paper and adjusted it to the real scenario, where some of the biphotons are distinguishable. Second, we transmitted the biphotons through different unital channels with a controlled amount of noise. We measured the decohered output states and demonstrated that the ability to exhibit quantum contextuality using the KCBS inequality is more fragile to noise than the ability to exhibit nonlocality.

Shaham, A.; Eisenberg, H. S.

2015-02-01

297

Contextual Influences on Financial Behavior: A Proposed Model for Adult Financial Literacy Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter presents an ecological model that highlights the importance of considering multiple contextual influences on behavior as well as other factors that may impact learning when designing research and practice aimed at enhancing financial capability.

Way, Wendy L.

2014-01-01

298

Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)

Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

2011-01-01

299

Children's responses to social atypicality among group members - advantages of a contextualized social developmental account.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abrams, Rutland, Palmer, Ferrell, and Pelletier (2014) showed that better second-order mental state understanding facilitates 6-7-year-olds' ability to link a partially disloyal child's atypicality to inclusive or exclusive reactions by in-group or outgroup members. This finding is interpreted in terms of predictions from the developmental subjective group dynamics model. We respond to thoughtful commentaries by Rhodes and Chalik, Patterson, and Rakoczy. Children face a significant developmental challenge in becoming able to recognize and interpret social atypicality in intergroup contexts. Researching that ability to contextualize judgements raises new questions about the nature of peer inclusion and exclusion, about children's social cognition, and about the way that social cognitive development and social experience combine. Rather than individual-focused cognition taking priority over category-based cognition, we argue the two become more systematically integrated during development. We note that loyalty is but one example of typicality, and we also consider the role of more advanced perspective taking among older children, and the role of multiple classification skill among younger children, as well as potential implications for intervention to reduce peer victimization and prejudice. PMID:24954093

Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B; Purewal, Kiran

2014-09-01

300

Cardiac genes show contextual SWI/SNF interactions with distinguishable gene activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experimental evidence indicates that cardiac and chromatin remodeling are associated with changes in gene expression mediated by Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), a member of the large group of SWI/SNF subunits. The second catalytic member of this family is Brahma (Brm), which shares close sequence homology to Brg1. Despite the sequence similarities, these determinants are found in distinct regulatory complexes; however, the precise nature and role of these remodeling enzymes in the failing heart remains unknown. Here we have hypothesized that Brg1 and Brm form distinct complexes in regulating gene expression in an animal model of cardiac hypertrophy. We have identified that the hypertrophic myocardium is characterized by profound morphological changes associated with increased expression of ANP (Nppa), BNP (Nppb) and ?-MHC (Myh7) genes, correlating with reduced expression of the ?-MHC (Myh6) and SERCA2A (Atp2a2) genes. Histone deacetylase inhibition prevented left ventricular hypertrophy indicating that the re-expression of gene activity can be associated with both contextual and distinct SWI/SNF interactions. We hypothesize that cardiac hypertrophy and the fetal gene expression program are associated with distinguishable binding of Brm and Brg1 on genes present in distinct complexes, suggesting possible independent-regulatory roles. PMID:21586902

Chang, Lisa; Kiriazis, Helen; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Du, Xiao-Jun; El-Osta, Assam

2011-06-01

301

Contextual Information and Covariance Descriptors for People Surveillance: An Application for Safety of Construction Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In computer science, contextual information can be used both to reduce computations and to increase accuracy. This paper discusses how it can be exploited for people surveillance in very cluttered environments in terms of perspective (i.e., weak scene calibration and appearance of the objects of interest (i.e., relevance feedback on the training of a classifier. These techniques are applied to a pedestrian detector that uses a LogitBoost classifier, appropriately modified to work with covariance descriptors which lie on Riemannian manifolds. On each detected pedestrian, a similar classifier is employed to obtain a precise localization of the head. Two novelties on the algorithms are proposed in this case: polar image transformations to better exploit the circular feature of the head appearance and multispectral image derivatives that catch not only luminance but also chrominance variations. The complete approach has been tested on the surveillance of a construction site to detect workers that do not wear the hard hat: in such scenarios, the complexity and dynamics are very high, making pedestrian detection a real challenge.

Prati Andrea

2011-01-01

302

CardioKnowledge: A Knowledge Management Environment  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the comm...

Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, A?lvaro; Rabelo, Lisia

2003-01-01

303

Contextual behavioral science: Creating a science more adequate to the human condition  

OpenAIRE

The present article describes the nature, scope, and purpose of Contextual Behavioral Science (CBS). Emerging from behavioral psychology but expanding from those roots, CBS is based on contextual assumptions regarding the centrality of situated action, the nature of epistemology versus ontology, and a pragmatic truth criterion linked to the specific goal of predicting-and-influencing psychological events with precision, scope, and depth. These assumptions and goals explain the characteristic ...

Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-holmes, Dermot; Wilson, Kelly G.

2012-01-01

304

Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, incl...

Joseph Pamela; Davis A; Miller Ruby; Hill Karen; McCarthy Honey; Banerjee Ananya; Chow Clara; Mente Andrew; Anand Sonia S

2012-01-01

305

The word is life : African theology as biblical and contextual theology  

OpenAIRE

This article reflects on the development of African theology from its beginning up to the end of the twentieth century. A critical assessment of this development and the current state of African theology is given. The future and possible shortcomings of African theology are also discussed. It is argued that for African theology to make a difference in a multi-cultural and multi-contextual Africa, it should consider being contextual and Biblical. For Christians the Word mea...

Eck, Ernest

2006-01-01

306

Individual and Contextual Factors of Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth Perinatally Infected with HIV  

OpenAIRE

This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV?infected (PHIV+), HIV?affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV? caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the eff...

Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose? A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J.; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A.

2012-01-01

307

Incorporating Personalized Contextual Information in Item-based Collaborative Filtering Recommendation  

OpenAIRE

After reviewing the prior work and problem of collaborative filtering recommendation approaches, an approach incorporating personalized contextual information in item-based collaborative filtering is proposed to solve the problem. The approach provides recommendations based on user personalized contextual information besides the typical information on users and items used in most of the current recommendation systems. In this paper, several approaches are proposed to calculate context-based i...

Min Gao; Zhongfu Wu

2010-01-01

308

Personal-Accentuation and Contextual-Amplification Models of Pubertal Timing: Predicting Youth Depression  

OpenAIRE

This research examined personal-accentuation and contextual-amplification models of pubertal timing, wherein personal and contextual risks magnify the effects of earlier pubertal maturation on youth depression. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their maternal caregivers completed semi-structured interviews and questionnaires at two waves. Consistent with a personal-accentuation model, earlier pubertal maturation more strongly predicted subsequent depression in youth w...

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-gordon, Wendy

2010-01-01

309

Sub-poissonian statistics as an experimental test for the contextuality of quantum theory  

OpenAIRE

It is argued that the phenomenon of sub-poissonian statistics can be regarded as experimental evidence for the contextual character of quantum theory. To this end, it is shown that the statistics predicted by non-contextual hidden-variable theories must satisfy certain inequalities which are a kind of local counterparts of the famous Bell inequalities and which exclude sub-poissonian statistics.

Arnoldus, H. F.; Dieks, Dennis; Nienhuis, G.

1984-01-01

310

Study of career development in children from a developmental-contextual perspective Estudio del desarrollo de la orientación vocacional en la infancia desde la perspectiva evolutivo-contextual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Career development is a longitudinal process, from childhood to adulthood, which is influenced by personal and contextual factors. Vocational literature has described childhood as a formative period for career development, as the bases of career exploration and vocational interests, values, attitudes and skills are established in the first years of life. This study starts with an overview of the major theoretical approaches and research trends in the study of children’s career development. A particular focus on the developmental-contextual approach to career development is adopted, as an integrative framework to capture the complexity of career developmental processes and results that occur in the first years of life. The application of such a perspective to the study of children’s career development leads to a discussion of the nature of change in the first years of life, of the child as a shaper of development and context, and of the impact of contexts on children’s development. Finally, we present implications of the adoption of a developmental-contextual approach to the study of children’s career development for future research.

Keywords: Career development, vocational guidance, childhood, contextual theories.
El desarrollo de la orientación vocacional debemos entenderlo como un proceso longitudinal, que se extiende desde la infancia hasta la edad adulta y que está influido por factores personales y contextuales. La literatura existente, ha descrito la infancia como un período clave para este proceso, pues las bases de la exploración profesional, los intereses, los valores, las actitudes y las habilidades vocacionales, se forman en los primeros años de vida. Este estudio, describe los principales enfoques teóricos y las tendencias de la investigación en la actualidad sobre este tema y su relación con la infancia, poniendo especial énfasis en el enfoque contextual, como marco integrador explicativo de la complejidad de los procesos que se ven implicados en el desarrollo vocacional y la importancia que tienen los primeros años de vida. El uso de esa perspectiva, en el estudio de la orientación profesional en la infancia, surge a raíz de las controversias existente en referencia a la naturaleza del cambio en los primeros años de vida, de la idea del niño como regulador del desarrollo y del contexto, así como también, del impacto contextual en los procesos evolutivos. Finalmente, el trabajo presenta las implicaciones -para futuras investigaciones- de la relevancia de la teoría contextual.

Palabras clave: Desarrollo, orientación vocacional, infancia, teoría contextual.

Alexandra M. Araújo

2009-06-01

311

Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified [...] knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.

Solange Laurentino dos, Santos; Gabriel, Parra-Henao; Mírcia Betânia Costa e, Silva; Lia Giraldo da Silva, Augusto.

2014-12-01

312

Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment. PMID:25626660

Santos, Solange Laurentino Dos; Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Silva, Mírcia Betânia Costa E; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva

2014-12-01

313

Pre-exposure of repeated search configurations facilitates subsequent contextual cuing of visual search.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual cuing is the enhancement of visual search when the configuration of distractors has been experienced previously. It has been suggested that contextual cuing relies on associative learning between the distractor locations and the target position. Four experiments examined the effect of pre-exposing configurations of consistent distractors on subsequent contextual cuing. The findings demonstrate a facilitation of subsequent cuing for pre-exposed configurations compared to novel configurations that have not been pre-exposed. This facilitation suggests that learning of repeated visual search patterns involves acquisition of not just distractor-target associations but also associations between distractors within the search context, an effect that is not captured by the Brady and Chun (2007) connectionist model of contextual cuing. We propose a new connectionist model of contextual cuing that learns associations between repeated distractor stimuli, enabling it to predict an effect of pre-exposure on contextual cuing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24999706

Beesley, Tom; Vadillo, Miguel A; Pearson, Daniel; Shanks, David R

2015-03-01

314

Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( [...] TRC) South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a postapartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

Christoffel H., Thesnaar.

2014-02-01

315

Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

316

Thermokinetic model of borosilicate glass dissolution: contextual affinity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short and long-term geochemical interactions of R7T7 nuclear glass with water at 1000C were simulated with the DISSOL thermokinetic computer code. Both the dissolved glass quantity and the resulting water composition, saturation states and mineral quantities produced were calculated as a function of time. The rate equation used in the simulation was first proposed by Aagaard and Helgeson. It simulates a gradually diminishing dissolution rate as the reaction affinity diminishes. The best agreement with 1-year experimental data was obtained with a reaction affinity calculated from silica activity (Grambow's hypothesis) rather than taking into account the activity of all the glass components as proposed by Jantzen and Plodinec. The concept of residual affinity was introduced by Grambow to express the fact that the glass dissolution rate does not cease. We prefer to replace the term residual affinity by contextual affinity, which expresses the influence on the dissolution rate of three factors: the solution chemistry, the metastability of SiO2(m), and the possible precipitation of certain aluminosilicates such as zeolites. 19 refs

317

Scene classification using combined spectral, textural, and contextual information  

Science.gov (United States)

A classification scheme incorporating spectral, textural, and contextual information is detailed in this paper. The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated to generate texture features. Those features are then subjected to a selection process for joining with spectral data in order to evaluate their discrimination capability in classification performance. The classification result is further enhanced with contexture in terms of a refined Markov random field (MRF) model. Multiscale edge features are derived to overcome the bias generally contributed by the presence of edge pixels during the MRF classification process. The smooth weighting parameter for the refined MRF model is chosen based on the probability histogram analysis of those edge pixels. The maximum a posterior margin (MPM) algorithm is used to search the solution. The joining of texture with spectral data produces a significant enhancement in classification accuracy. The refined MRF-model with a soft version line process, in comparison with the traditional MRF model, successfully restricted the commonly found over-smoothed result, and simultaneously improved the classification accuracy and visual interpretation.

Tso, Brandt; Olsen, Richard C.

2004-08-01

318

Providing Adapted Contextual Information in an Overlay Vehicular Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current vehicular networks are developed upon commercial solutions based on cellular networks (CNs or vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs, both present in numerous research proposals. Current approximations are not enough to cover the communication necessities of several applications at the same time, and they are not suitable for future vehicular pervasive services. The vehicular network presented in this paper fills the existent gap between solutions lacking in flexibility, mainly supported by an infrastructure deployment, and those highly local and distributed, such as sole-VANET approximations. In this manner, an overlay communication platform which can work over the CN basis has been designed and developed. This architecture is complemented by an additional support of an information system located at the infrastructure side. Moreover, since most of the information received from current notification services is not relevant for the driver, an additional subsystem has been devised to provide adapted information to users. This has been carried out by means of an ontology model which represents users' preferences and contextual information. Finally, using a whole prototype of the telematic platform, the performance of this interring process has been evaluated to point out its impact on the system operation.

Andrés Muñoz

2010-01-01

319

Multisensor ISR in geo-registered contextual visual dataspace (CVD)  

Science.gov (United States)

Current ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) systems require an analyst to observe each video stream, which will result in analyst overload as systems such as ARGUS or Gorgon Stare come into use with many video streams generated by those sensor platforms. Full exploitation of these new sensors is not possible using today's one video stream per analyst paradigm. The Contextual Visual Dataspace (CVD) is a compact representation of real-time updating of dynamic objects from multiple video streams in a global (geo-registered/annotated) view that combines automated 3D modeling and semantic labeling of a scene. CVD provides a single integrated view of multiple automatically-selected video windows with 3D context. For a proof of concept, a CVD demonstration system performing detection, localization, and tracking of dynamic objects (e.g., vehicles and pedestrians) in multiple infrastructure camera views was developed using a combination of known computer vision methods, including foreground detection by background subtraction, ground-plane homography mapping, and appearance model-based tracking. Automated labeling of fixed and moving objects enables intelligent context-aware tracking and behavior analysis and will greatly improve ISR capabilities.

Kim, Kyungnam; Owechko, Yuri; Flores, Arturo; Korchev, Dmitriy

2011-06-01

320

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand th [...] e pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv) teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Seugnet, Blignaut; Christo, Els; Sarah, Howie.

321

A support method for the contextual interpretation of biomechanical data.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the clinical field, biomechanical data provided by advanced technical devices are still underexploited. Data analysis usually consists of extracting attributes or computing synthetic values from temporal data and exploiting them by means of a monovariable statistical method. This article proposes a method to support clinicians, especially those in orthopedics, in the contextual interpretation of biomechanical data. We propose to characterize temporal biomechanical data by means of fuzzy space-time windows and to induce fuzzy decision trees to map the biomechanical and clinical data related to patients. Then, we present a method for objectively explaining a given clinical characteristic of a particular patient; this method is derived using the fuzzy rule base generated from the trees and a satisfiability measure. We have applied our method to real data in order to provide an objective explanation of the subjective self-evaluation of the functional status of patients with a shoulder prosthesis, and evaluate it by means of the stratified tenfold cross validation method. The mean explanation rate--which corresponds to the mean proportion of the patients belonging to test sets whose functional state is explained by the proposed method--exceeds 80% for more than half of the decision trees, and exceeds 70% for 94% of the trees. By supporting clinicians during the biomechanical data interpretation process, our method helps them take the objective biomechanical measurements in the medical practice into account, particularly in orthopedics. It can also make subjective evaluations more objective by mapping subjective and objective data. PMID:16445256

Roux, Emmanuel; Godillon-Maquinghen, Anne-Pascale; Caulier, Patrice; Bouilland, Stéphane; Bouttens, Denis

2006-01-01

322

Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Eriksson, I. [Maelardalen University (Sweden)

2004-04-01

323

Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

324

Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

2014-10-01

325

A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning  

OpenAIRE

The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searchin...

Eicke Godehardt

2009-01-01

326

Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations  

OpenAIRE

In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type...

Madalina Cristina Tocan

2012-01-01

327

Doctoring the Knowledge Worker  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…

Tennant, Mark

2004-01-01

328

Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a doma...

Weichselbraun, A.; Gindl, S.; Scharl, A.

2014-01-01

329

Exploiting Semantic Web and Knowledge Management Technologies for E-learning  

OpenAIRE

This work explores the potential applications of semantic web and knowledge management technologies for e-learning systems. The problem of reusing existing pedagogical resources is dealt with through a process called semantization. In this process, pedagogical content is semi-automatically annotated with ontological concepts, from several points of view (domain, pedagogy, structure, etc.). This process aims at contextualizing the material with regard to the teacher´s conceptualization and pe...

Dehors, Sylvain

2007-01-01

330

Towards policy relevant environmental modeling: contextual validity and pragmatic models  

Science.gov (United States)

"What makes for a good model?" In various forms, this question is a question that, undoubtedly, many people, businesses, and institutions ponder with regards to their particular domain of modeling. One particular domain that is wrestling with this question is the multidisciplinary field of environmental modeling. Examples of environmental models range from models of contaminated ground water flow to the economic impact of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. One of the distinguishing claims of the field is the relevancy of environmental modeling to policy and environment-related decision-making in general. A pervasive view by both scientists and decision-makers is that a "good" model is one that is an accurate predictor. Thus, determining whether a model is "accurate" or "correct" is done by comparing model output to empirical observations. The expected outcome of this process, usually referred to as "validation" or "ground truthing," is a stamp on the model in question of "valid" or "not valid" that serves to indicate whether or not the model will be reliable before it is put into service in a decision-making context. In this paper, I begin by elaborating on the prevailing view of model validation and why this view must change. Drawing from concepts coming out of the studies of science and technology, I go on to propose a contextual view of validity that can overcome the problems associated with "ground truthing" models as an indicator of model goodness. The problem of how we talk about and determine model validity has much to do about how we perceive the utility of environmental models. In the remainder of the paper, I argue that we should adopt ideas of pragmatism in judging what makes for a good model and, in turn, developing good models. From such a perspective of model goodness, good environmental models should facilitate communication, convey—not bury or "eliminate"—uncertainties, and, thus, afford the active building of consensus decisions, instead of promoting passive or self-righteous decisions.

Miles, Scott B.

2000-01-01

331

Auto-caotización en la sociedad mundial: Lineamientos para una teoría de la diferenciación contextual / Self-chaotization in World Society: An Outline for a Theory of Contextual Differentiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sociedad mundial moderna se caracteriza por su alta complejidad, es decir, por la continuamente cambiante interrelación de sus elementos. El resultado de ello es una constante diferenciación y especialización de espacios sociales orientada a manejar la incertidumbre que esa complejidad genera. Pa [...] radójicamente, la diferenciación y especialización es nuevamente una fuente de complejidad. Para enfrentar esta ambigüedad auto-producida, determinadas operaciones sociales se distinguen por generar interdependencias estructurales que logran una estabilidad operacional suficiente para distinguirlas de su entorno. A ello se le denomina en este artículo diferenciación contextual, esto es, la emergencia de contextos diferenciados de interacción, decisión y simbolización que posibilitan una concretización múltiple de funciones sociales en espacios supranacionales. Esto se observa especialmente a propósito de la diferenciación del derecho, la economía y el deporte, y se ilustra con cuatro estudios de caso: la Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, el Bank for International Settlements, la FIFA, el juego y sus públicos, y el arbitraje comercial internacional. Abstract in english A high level of complexity and a continuous and always changing relationship among its elements characterizes modern world society. As a result, a constant differentiation and specialization of diverging social fields aiming to reduce the uncertainty emerging from that complexity takes place. Parado [...] xically, as differentiation and specialization increase, they become a new source of uncertainty. In order to confront this self-producing ambiguity, some social operations develop structural interdependencies with a sufficient level of operational stability that distinguish them from their environment. In this paper this is called contextual differentiation, i.e. the emergence of differentiated contexts of interaction, decision and symbolization that make possible a mutilayered concretization of social functions in supranational contexts. With regard to the differentiation of law, economy and sports this process is analyzed and illustrated in four case studies: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Bank for International Settlements, FIFA, the game and its publics, and the international commercial arbitration.

Aldo, Mascareño.

2012-09-01

332

The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011

Martin, Andrew J

2014-12-01

333

Knowledge Management Basics for Emerging Economies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this fast moving world of Globalisation, the World economy is getting much more service driven and knowledge oriented one. Compared to the previous era of imperialistic and localised economic growth orientation, the current trend in Global economic growth is a Trans - national one. The national barriers are reduced, supported by liberal economic policies of developing nations in South America, Asia – Pacific and the like. Especially in an IT driven economic development, Knowledge management is the need of the hour to safeguard the organisations to give themselves the Competitive edge. The paper discusses on the fundamentals of Knowledge management (KM, KM models, KM strategies, the Knowledge management life cycle, Knowledge capture techniques, Knowledge transfer, Motivation and Knowledge sharing and KM ethical issues.

Kalpana

2008-12-01

334

The NEA knowledge management project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Over the last 50 years significant knowledge has been accumulated in nuclear technology. This knowledge can be categorized as explicit and tacit. Explicit knowledge includes documented information while tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge acquired by experts over a long time and is more difficult to capture. The goals of knowledge management program are to retain explicit and tacit knowledge, encourage sharing of this knowledge, create and facilitate communities of practice and insure that knowledge is easy to find and readily accessible. The NEA committees have had extensive involvement in the accumulation of technical information in the scientific research, engineering studies, state of the art reports and many other endeavours that contribute to the technical basis for many safety and technology decisions. Many of the NEA reports (SOARs, Survey reports on safety topics, etc.) are in fact examples of knowledge management activities. The NEA committees' working groups are an excellent example of communities of practice. Over the past decade or more there has been an erosion of scientific resources due to reductions in budgets, aging and retirement of many outstanding scientists, engineers and managers, loss of experimental facilities and reductions in educational programs in nuclear engineering. The NEA has fully recognized this concern and has published many reports on this topic (e.g. Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, Future Nuclearaining: Cause for Concern?, Future Nuclear Regulatory Challenges). With the industry push to reduce conservatisms in decisions and increased interest in building new nuclear power plants it becomes imperative that additional mechanisms be developed to make available both the tacit and the explicit knowledge to the new generation of engineers and scientists for safety and technology decisions. The NEA strategic plan (also the individual committees' strategic plans) recognizes the importance of this issue and recommends: - Promote the transfer and management of knowledge; - Promote the collection and safeguarding of important and well documented results from experimental studies. A small magnitude of effort pilot project, focused on documented (codifiable and explicit) activities of three committees, was undertaken. Boron Dilution was selected as the pilot topic based on previously agreed to prioritization criteria by the three committees. This presentation provides the lessons learned regarding the ease or the difficulty of accessibility of the documented information on the pilot topic as well as the clarity of purpose and the relevance of the results as documented. This project also examined the degree of integration and linking of the documented activities of the three committees on boron dilution. These lessons will be considered by the NEA to determine what NEA processes could be improved to ease access and transfer of relevant NEA generated scientific information. (author)

335

Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

The attention paid to the burgeoning "knowledge economy" continues to grow, particularly within the halls of higher education, the federal government, and in the private sector. This past January, the National Science Foundation (in collaboration with other institutions) convened a conference designed "to broaden and deepen common understanding of how difficult-to-measure knowledge resources drive an increasing virtualized economy and to assess prospects for advancing and regenerating knowledge infrastructure, institutions, and policies." While the conference itself is finished, users interested in these themes will appreciate this site, which offers some material about these various issues, along with material on the program itself and the work presented there. After examining these background materials, visitors will want to peruse the draft papers presented at the conference, which deal with networks of knowledge, measuring knowledge, and knowledge clusters.

336

Different brain activity in response to emotional faces alone and augmented by contextual information.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the extent to which emotional face stimuli differ from the neural reactivity associated with more ecological contextually augmented stimuli. Participants were scanned when they viewed contextually rich pictures depicting both emotional faces and context, and pictures of emotional faces presented alone. Emotional faces alone were more strongly associated with brain activity in paralimbic and social information processing regions, whereas emotional faces augmented by context were associated with increased and sustained activity in regions potentially representing increased complexity and subjective emotional experience. Furthermore, context effects were modulated by emotional intensity and valence. These findings suggest that cortical elaboration that is apparent in contextually augmented stimuli may be missed in studies of emotional faces alone, whereas emotional faces may more selectively recruit limbic reactivity. PMID:24964216

Lee, Kyung Hwa; Siegle, Greg J

2014-11-01

337

TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory formation requires de novo protein synthesis, and memory disorders may result from misregulated synthesis of critical proteins that remain largely unidentified. Plasma membrane ion channels and receptors are likely candidates given their role in regulating neuron excitability, a candidate memory mechanism. Here we conduct targeted molecular monitoring and quantitation of hippocampal plasma membrane proteins from mice with intact or impaired contextual fear memory to identify putative candidates. Here we report contextual fear memory deficits correspond to increased Trpc3 gene and protein expression, and demonstrate TRPC3 regulates hippocampal neuron excitability associated with memory function. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for enhanced contextual fear memory reported herein following knockdown of TRPC3 in hippocampus. Collectively, TRPC3 modulates memory and may be a feasible target to enhance memory and treat memory disorders. PMID:25513972

Neuner, Sarah M; Wilmott, Lynda A; Hope, Kevin A; Hoffmann, Brian; Chong, Jayhong A; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; O'Connell, Kristen M; Tryba, Andrew K; Greene, Andrew S; Savio Chan, C; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

2015-03-15

338

Using Puppet to contextualize computing resources for ATLAS analysis on Google Compute Engine  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of commercial as well as institutional and national clouds, new opportunities for on-demand computing resources for the HEP community become available. The new cloud technologies also come with new challenges, and one such is the contextualization of computing resources with regard to requirements of the user and his experiment. In particular on Google's new cloud platform Google Compute Engine (GCE) upload of user's virtual machine images is not possible. This precludes application of ready to use technologies like CernVM and forces users to build and contextualize their own VM images from scratch. We investigate the use of Puppet to facilitate contextualization of cloud resources on GCE, with particular regard to ease of configuration and dynamic resource scaling.

Öhman, Henrik; Panitkin, Sergey; Hendrix, Valerie; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

339

Gender differences and the effect of contextual features on game enjoyment and responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the effect of gender and contextual features on emotional reactions, identification toward game characters, and game enjoyment. Two aspects of contextual features are specifically examined: the moral justification of game characters and violence. An experiment was conducted by allowing participants to play either a morally justified character of a non-violent game, a morally justified character of a violent game, or a morally unjustified character of a violent game. The results show that participants felt less guilty and identified with the characters more when playing the morally justified characters of the non-violent game. Furthermore, males and females demonstrate different patterns of enjoyment to different contextual features of video games. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20950177

Lin, Shu-Fang

2010-10-01

340

Incorporating Personalized Contextual Information in Item-based Collaborative Filtering Recommendation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After reviewing the prior work and problem of collaborative filtering recommendation approaches, an approach incorporating personalized contextual information in item-based collaborative filtering is proposed to solve the problem. The approach provides recommendations based on user personalized contextual information besides the typical information on users and items used in most of the current recommendation systems. In this paper, several approaches are proposed to calculate context-based item differences, learn personalized contextual information for every user and predict ratings based on well-known item-based collaborative filtering Slope One. Finally, we experimentally evaluate our approach and compare it to Slope One. The experimental results show that our approach provides more precision recommendations than Slope One.

Min Gao

2010-07-01

341

Implicit Motives, Explicit Traits, and Task and Contextual Performance at Work  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Lang, J.W.B.; Zettler, Ingo

2012-01-01

342

Implicit motives, explicit traits, and task and contextual performance at work.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. PMID:22867444

Lang, Jonas W B; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, Christian; Hülsheger, Ute R

2012-11-01

343

The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust : A Multidimensional Cross-level Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule, and cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The empirical results, based on a hierarchical linear model with a sample of 444 employees from 82 firms in China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of context–trust–behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences.

Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao

2012-01-01

344

Effect of intensity of unconditional stimulus on reconsolidation of contextual fear memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory reconsolidation is ubiquitous across species and various memory tasks. It is a dynamic process in which memory is modified and/or updated. In experimental conditions, memory reconsolidation is usually characterized by the fact that the consolidated memory is disrupted by a combination of memory reactivation and inhibition of protein synthesis. However, under some experimental conditions, the reactivated memory is not disrupted by inhibition of protein synthesis. This so called "boundary condition" of reconsolidation may be related to memory strength. In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the intensity of unconditional stimulus (US) determines the strength of the fear memory. In this study, we examined the effect of the intensity of US on the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Strong contextual fear memory, which is conditioned with strong US, is not disrupted by inhibition of protein synthesis after its reactivation; however, a weak fear memory is often disrupted. This suggests that a US of strong intensity can inhibit reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. PMID:23118552

Kwak, Chuljung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Bakes, Joseph T; Lee, Kyungmin; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

2012-10-01

345

Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study  

CERN Document Server

M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment). We are studying various mobile learning contexts related to professional activities, in order to master appliances (Installation, Use, Breakdown diagnostic and Repairing). Contextualization, traceability and checking of execution of prescribed operations are based mainly on the use of RFID labels. Investigation of the appropriate training methods for this kind of learning situation, applying mainly a constructivist approach known as "Just-in-time learning", "learning by doing", "learning and doing", constitutes an important topic of this project. From an organizational point of view we are in perfect...

David, Bertrand; Chalon, René

2010-01-01

346

Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

2014-11-01

347

Knowledge and Its Enemies  

Science.gov (United States)

As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

Kruk, Miroslav

2007-01-01

348

The sheaf-theoretic structure of non-locality and contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting that generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples—due to Bell, Hardy and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively—occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for the Kochen-Specker-type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the ‘parity proofs’ commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product.

Abramsky, Samson; Brandenburger, Adam

2011-11-01

349

The sheaf-theoretic structure of non-locality and contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting that generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples—due to Bell, Hardy and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively—occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for the Kochen-Specker-type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the ‘paritygiven, which generalizes the ‘parity proofs’ commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product. (paper)

350

Enhancing knowledge representations by ontological relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several medical natural language processing (NLP) systems currently base on ontologies that provide the domain knowledge. But, relationships between concepts defined in ontologies as well as relations predefined in a semantic network are widely unused in this context. The objective of this paper is to analyse potentials of using ontological relations to produce correct semantic structures for a medical document automatically and to ameliorate and enrich these structures. Knowledge representations to unstructured medical narratives are generated by means of the method SeReMeD. This approach is based on semantic transformation rules for mapping syntactic information to semantic roles. Contextual relations expressed in natural language are automatically identified and represented in the generated structures. To achieve additional semantic relationships between concepts, the UMLS Medical Semantic Network and relationships between concepts predefined in the UMLS Metathesaurus are used to support the structuring process of SeReMeD. First results show that these relations can enhance and ameliorate the automatically generated semantic structures. PMID:18487828

Denecke, Kerstin

2008-01-01

351

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

352

Youth Education Attainment and Participation in Europe: The Role of Contextual Factors and the Scope of Education Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…

Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard

2014-01-01

353

Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries and the Tension Between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection : Evidence from the Semiconductor Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries' trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we build a conceptual framework suggesting that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries' willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary's knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed

Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

2014-01-01

354

Effects of age on contextually mediated associations in paired associate learning  

OpenAIRE

Older and younger participants learned single-function lists of paired associates with no contextual overlap (e.g., J-K, L-M) and double-function lists of paired associates consisting of chains of pairs (e.g., A-B, B-C). Although younger adults out-performed older adults on both pair types, there was a robust pair-type by age interaction. Evidence from intrusion analyses argues that older adults performed better than would be expected on the contextually overlapping double-function pairs beca...

Provyn, Jennifer P.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Howard, Marc W.

2007-01-01

355

The effects of repeating a recognition test in lorazepam-induced amnesia: evidence for impaired contextual memory as a cause of amnesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two experiments, a recognition test for an earlier presented list was given twice in immediate succession (Test 1 and Test 2). On the hypothesis that anterograde amnesia for episodic memory involves a deficit in contextual memory, amnesic subjects should confuse familiarity with distractor items gained during Test 1 with familiarity gained during original list presentation. As a result, they should think that they recognize more items on Test 2. This will lower recognition efficiency in Test 2 by increasing false alarms rather than by reducing hits. For subjects with an amnesia induced by lorazepam, but not for control subjects, recognition efficiency was substantially reduced in Test 2 in both experiments. As predicted, this impairment was due to a large increase in false alarms, with no decrease in the number of hits. The impairment could not be explained by a difference in recognition level between lorazepam and control subjects on Test 1. These findings therefore support the contextual memory deficit hypothesis of anterograde amnesia. Their implications for understanding the relationship between recall and recognition in amnesia are discussed. PMID:2195602

Brown, J; Brown, M W

1990-05-01

356

What influences Knowledge Sharing?  

OpenAIRE

In the competitive environment, organizational knowledge became one of the most valuable strategic resources for a company. Indeed, it is said to be the only resource that cannot be imitated, and thus, that provides a reliable competitive advantage. Hence, knowledge management has become a highly investigated field of study. In fact, knowledge sharing, one of the facets of knowledge management is considered as a helpful leverage within a company’s strategy. Knowledge sharing has been studie...

Gru?nfelder, Manon; Hartner, Angelika

2013-01-01

357

Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook  

CERN Document Server

Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

Kantola, Jussi

2012-01-01

358

Personal knowledge techniques  

OpenAIRE

Work towards the development of a new computer-assisted methodology for psychological study and intervention is described. This is referred to as the Personal Knowledge Methodology since it focuses on the elicitation and presentation of personal knowledge. Personal knowledge includes the knowledge individuals have of their life history, their behaviours, their moods, their relationships, their ambitions, and so on. Principles and techniques used in Knowledge Engineering form the basis of the ...

Milton, Nicholas Ross

2003-01-01

359

Critiquing Human Judgment Using Knowledge-Acquisition Systems  

OpenAIRE

Automated knowledge-acquisition systems have focused on embedding a cognitive model of a key knowledge worker in their software that allows the system to acquire a knowledge base by interviewing domain experts just as the knowledge worker would. Two sets of research questions arise: (1) What theories, strategies, and approaches will let the modeling process be facilitated; accelerated; and, possibly, automated? If automated knowledge-acquisition systems reduce the bottleneck associated with a...

Silverman, Barry G.

1990-01-01

360

Teacher Knowledge-Ability and Pupil Achievement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of schools and the levels of investment in schooling have been in question since the 1966 Coleman report "Equality of Educational Opportunity." Based on a theory of "knowledge-ability," this study challenges the assumption that given "inputs" will yield equivalent effects or "outputs." In this study, 120 elementary schools were…

Tanner, Daniel; Celso, Nicholas

361

Question Answering using Syntactic Patterns in a Contextual Search Engine  

OpenAIRE

Question Answering (QA) systems promise to enhance both usability and accuracy when searching for knowledge. This thesis presents a prototype QA system built to leverage the extraction capabilities of a modern, context-aware search platform; Fast ESP. Questions in plain English are transformed to queries which target specific entities in the text that correspond with the identified answer types. A small set of unified patterns is demonstrated as adequate to classify a wide variety of syntacti...

Sand, Kim Andre

2006-01-01

362

Relação entre consciência morfológica e leitura contextual medida pelo teste de Cloze The relationship between morphological awareness and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta habilidade está associada à leitura e escrita e parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre a consciência morfológica e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda parte, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação. Os resultados mostram que a consciência morfológica está associada à leitura contextual no português e que, até certo ponto, essa contribuição é independente do processamento fonológico.Morphological awareness is the awareness of the morphemes of the words. This ability is related to spelling, reading and it seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading. In this kind of reading besides phonological information, syntactic-semantic information is required as well. This study intends to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension measured by the Cloze Test. In the first part of the study the relationship between the Cloze test scores and morphological awareness are explored by simple correlations. In the second part, the specificity of this relationship is further explored. The results showed that to some extent this relationship is independent of phonological awareness.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

2009-01-01

363

Nuclear knowledge management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

364

Extending E-Book with Contextual Knowledge Recommender for Reading Support on a Web-Based Learning System  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading content of the Web is increasingly popular. When students read the same material, each student has a unique comprehension of the text and requires individual support from appropriate references. Most references in typical web learning systems are unorganized. Students are often required to disrupt their reading to locate references. This…

Chen, Gwo-Dong; Wei, Fu-Hsiang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lee, Jih-Hsien

2007-01-01

365

Leitura contextual e processamento metalingüístico no português do Brasil: um estudo longitudinal / Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing in Brazilian portuguese: a longitudinal study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Habilidade metalingüística é a habilidade de refletir sobre a linguagem como objeto do pensamento. Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas duas parecem estar associadas à leitura e a escrita: a consciência morfológica e consciência fonológica. Consciência fonológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre o [...] s fonemas que compõem a fala e a consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta última parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre essas habilidades e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze em um estudo longitudinal. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação utilizando-se regressões múltiplas. Os resultados dão certo apoio à hipótese de que a consciência morfológica contribui independentemente da fonológica para leitura contextual no português. Abstract in english Metalinguistic skill is the ability to reflect upon language as an object of thought. Amongst metalinguistic skills, two seem to be associated with reading and spelling: morphological awareness and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the phonemes that com [...] pose words, and morphological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the morphemes that compose the words. The latter seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading, as beyond phonological information, syntactic and semantic information are required. This study is set to investigate - with a longitudinal design - the relation between those abilities and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test. The first part of the study explores the relationship between morphological awareness tasks and Cloze scores through simple correlations and, in the second part, the specificity of such relationship was inquired using multiple regressions. The results give some support to the hypothesis that morphological awareness offers an independent contribution regarding phonological awareness to contextual reading in Brazilian Portuguese.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da, Mota; Marcel de Toledo, Vieira; Ronaldo Rocha, Bastos; Jaqueline, Dias; Nádia, Paiva; Stella, Mansur-Lisboa; Danielle, Andrade-Silva.

366

Leitura contextual e processamento metalingüístico no português do Brasil: um estudo longitudinal Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing in Brazilian portuguese: a longitudinal study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Habilidade metalingüística é a habilidade de refletir sobre a linguagem como objeto do pensamento. Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas duas parecem estar associadas à leitura e a escrita: a consciência morfológica e consciência fonológica. Consciência fonológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os fonemas que compõem a fala e a consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta última parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre essas habilidades e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze em um estudo longitudinal. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação utilizando-se regressões múltiplas. Os resultados dão certo apoio à hipótese de que a consciência morfológica contribui independentemente da fonológica para leitura contextual no português.Metalinguistic skill is the ability to reflect upon language as an object of thought. Amongst metalinguistic skills, two seem to be associated with reading and spelling: morphological awareness and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the phonemes that compose words, and morphological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the morphemes that compose the words. The latter seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading, as beyond phonological information, syntactic and semantic information are required. This study is set to investigate - with a longitudinal design - the relation between those abilities and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test. The first part of the study explores the relationship between morphological awareness tasks and Cloze scores through simple correlations and, in the second part, the specificity of such relationship was inquired using multiple regressions. The results give some support to the hypothesis that morphological awareness offers an independent contribution regarding phonological awareness to contextual reading in Brazilian Portuguese.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

2012-01-01

367

Governance and Knowledge Exchange within and Between Epistemic Communities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

All knowledge is context dependent. The relevant context is the social community where it resides, i.e. the `epistemic community' formed as groups of people define and legitimize the knowledge they possess. In the mutual engagement in a common enterprise, epistemic communities develop, maintain and nurture the codes, tools and theories that provide the basis of their practice. Commonalities of code, tools and theory facilitate both voluntary transfer and involuntary imitation of knowledge within communities, also ones spanning organizational boundaries. Conversely, knowledge transfer between different epistemic communities, whether desired or unintended, is often cumbersome and fraught with difficulties. In order to achieve effective integration and cooperation between its various professional communities and subcultures, firms must therefore undertake investments in boundary-spanning mechanisms. Since these investments are specific to the context in which they take place and to the transactions that they enable, they cannot easily be organized through arm's length contracts. Firms exist because they have a relative advantage over markets in the integration of diverse knowledge. However, the associated capabilities need not translate into a relative advantage also in the transfer of knowledge, i.e. knowledge exchanged between members of the same epistemic community. Within communities, knowledge disseminates with relative ease both intentionally and through emulation. Knowledge thus acquired can generally be applied also outside the context of the exchange and the effort or investment expended in its acquisition is not transaction specific. The governance mode applied in such exchanges is therefore determined by strategic and contextual factors, including those of traditional transaction cost logic.

Håkanson, Lars

2004-01-01

368

The Contextual Functionality of Black Student Unions in Higher Education: An Ecological Systems Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Black Student Unions (BSUs) in higher education represent a valued resource as they often engage in activities to recruit and retain students from underrepresented communities. Student groups in higher education, however, are beset by a variety of institutional and contextual complexities and complications that can impede or derail their growth.…

Johnson, John

2011-01-01

369

Teaching Engineering Statistics with Technology, Group Learning, Contextual Projects, Simulation Models and Student Presentations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses our teaching approach in graduate level Engineering Statistics. It is based on the use of modern technology, learning groups, contextual projects, simulation models, and statistical and simulation software to entice student motivation. The use of technology to facilitate group projects and presentations, and to generate,…

Romeu, Jorge Luis

2008-01-01

370

THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR  

Science.gov (United States)

The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD? ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

371

How Do Self-Efficacy, Contextual Variables and Stressors Affect Teacher Burnout in an EFL Context?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among stressors, contextual variables, self-efficacy and teacher burnout in Iran as an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) context. A battery of questionnaires was administered to 216 English language teachers of private language institutes. Using Amos version 20, structural equation…

Khani, Reza; Mirzaee, Alireza

2015-01-01

372

What does an experimental test of quantum contextuality prove or disprove?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of experimentally testing the Bell–Kochen–Specker theorem is investigated critically, following the demonstrations by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton–Kent that the predictions of quantum mechanics are indistinguishable (up to arbitrary precision) from those of a non-contextual model, and the subsequent debate about the extent to which these models are actually classical or non-contextual. The present analysis starts from a careful consideration of these ‘finite-precision’ approximations. A stronger condition for non-contextual models, dubbed ontological faithfulness, is exhibited. It is shown that this allows us to approximately formulate the constraints in Bell–Kochen–Specker theorems, such as to render the usual proofs robust. Consequently, one can experimentally test to finite precision ontologically faithful non-contextuality, and thus experimentally refute explanations from this smaller class. We include a discussion of the relation of ontological faithfulness to other proposals to overcome the finite precision objection. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

373

Exploring contextual factors and patient activation: evidence from a nationally representative sample of patients with depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with mental health care access and utilization. However, evidence of their association with patient activation is still lacking. Using data from the Health Tracking Household Survey 2007 and Area Health Resource File 2008, we examine the association between contextual factors and self-reported activation levels among patients with depression. We investigate two types of contextual factors--(a) site of usual source of care and (b) community characteristics, measured by mental health care resources availability, population demographics, and socioeconomic characteristics at the county level. Results show significant variation in activation levels by contextual factors. The availability of community mental health centers, lower proportion of foreign-born individuals, and higher income in the local community are associated with higher patient activation. Our results also show that depressed patients having a usual source of care at a physician's office have significantly higher patient activation levels than those with a usual source of care in the emergency department or hospital outpatient clinics. Results suggest that primary care setting is critical to having a sustained relationship between patients and physicians in order to enhance patient engagement in mental health care. Interventions in communities with low income and high immigrant populations are necessary. PMID:24786791

Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin

2014-12-01

374

The Linguistic and the Contextual in Applied Genre Analysis: The Case of the Company Audit Report  

Science.gov (United States)

By means of an analysis of the genre of the audit report, this study highlights the respective roles of linguistic and contextual analysis in genre analysis, if the results are to be of maximum use in ESP course design. On the one hand, based on a corpus of current and authentic written auditors' reports produced in a large international Hong Kong…

Flowerdew, John; Wan, Alina

2010-01-01

375

Contextualized Assessment with Battered Women: Strategic Safety Planning to Cope with Multiple Harms  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the prevalence of domestic violence and the likelihood that many victims will not receive services from specialized domestic violence providers, this article provides a framework for contextualized assessment that can be used by generalist practitioners. Drawing from stress and coping theory, the authors discuss the relevance of assessing…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Nurius, Paula; Macy, Rebecca J.

2005-01-01

376

Software requirements for the study of contextual classifiers and label imperfections  

Science.gov (United States)

The software requirements for the study of contextual classifiers and imperfections in the labels are presented. In particular, the requirements are described for updating the posteriori probability of the picture element under consideration using information from its local neighborhood, designing the Fisher classifier, and other required routines. Only the necessary equations are given for the development of software.

Chittineni, C. B.

1979-01-01

377

Communication and Gender in Workplace 2000: Creating a Contextually-based Integrated Paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses gender-difference and gender-sameness theory in workplace communication. Presents an integrated paradigm of gender as only one of many contextually-based factors that characterize an organization's patterns. Critiques the gender-difference and gender-integrated paradigms with five criteria for theory effectiveness and provides an example…

Barker, Randolph T.; Zifcak, Lisa

1999-01-01

378

Same, Varied, or Both? Contextual Support Aids Young Children in Generalizing Category Labels  

Science.gov (United States)

Children have a difficult time in generalizing among changes in background context. We examined the role of two processes that may aid in generalizing category labels in new contexts. In this study, 2-year-old children were taught novel object categories in one type of contextual condition and were tested for category generalization in a new…

Goldenberg, Elizabeth R.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

2013-01-01

379

Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

2013-01-01

380

Can Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Extract Emotions out of Contextual Cues?  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are able to recognize facial expressions of emotion and objects missing on the basis of contextual cues. While most of these studies focused on facial emotion recognition, here we examined the ability to extract emotional information on the basis…

Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Rondan, Cecilie; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

2009-01-01

381

A Discrete Population of Neurons in the Lateral Amygdala Is Specifically Activated by Contextual Fear Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no clear identification of the neurons involved in fear conditioning in the amygdala. To search for these neurons, we have used a genetic approach, the "fos-tau-lacZ" (FTL) mouse, to map functionally activated expression in neurons following contextual fear conditioning. We have identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral…

Wilson, Yvette M.; Murphy, Mark

2009-01-01

382

Taken out of Context: Differential Processing in Contextual and Isolated Word Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments are reported that investigate the cognitive processes underlying contextual and isolated word reading. In Phase 1, undergraduate participants were exposed to 75 target words under three conditions. The participants generated 25 words from definitions, read 25 words in context and read 25 in isolation. In Phase 2, volunteers…

Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2013-01-01

383

The Impact of Contextual Factors on the Use of Students' Conceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the impacts of contextual factors on the use of students' conceptions. A total of 106 students received a questionnaire involving open-ended questions on acid-base and equilibrium concepts. Of these students, 16 students who provided complete and accurate responses to the questions participated in an interview. In…

Saglam, Yilmaz; Karaaslan, Emre Harun; Ayas, Alipasa

2011-01-01

384

Developmental Differences in the Naming of Contextually Non-Categorical Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the naming process of contextually non-categorical objects in children from 3 to 9 plus 13-year-olds. 112 children participated in the study. Children were asked to narrate a story individually while looking at Mercer Mayer's textless, picture book "Frog, where are you?" The narratives were audio recorded and transcribed.…

Ozcan, Mehmet

2012-01-01

385

Differential Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist on Social Discrimination and Contextual Fear in Amygdala and Hippocampus  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 5 [mu]g/side) microinjected into the hippocampus or the amygdala would differentially affect memory processes in a neutral vs. an aversive task. In the aversive contextual fear task, WIN into the basolateral amygdala impaired fear acquisition/consolidation, but not retrieval.…

Segev, Amir; Akirav, Irit

2011-01-01

386

The Cross-Contextual Transfer of Problem Solving Strategies from Logo to Non-Computer Domains.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report investigated the relationship between learning to program LOGO and the development of problem solving skills. Subjects were 133 students in grades 4-8 who had at least 30 hours of experience with both graphics and lists programming in Logo. Students were randomly assigned to one of three contextual groupings, which received graphics,…

Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

387

The Role of Morphological and Contextual Information in L2 Lexical Inference  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the role of morphological and contextual information in inferring the meaning of unknown L2 words during reading. Four groups of college-level ESL students, beginning (n?=?34), intermediate (n?=?27), high-intermediate (n?=?21), and advanced (n?=?25), chose the inferred meanings of 20 pseudo compounds (e.g.,…

Hamada, Megumi

2014-01-01

388

The Convergence of Supervision and Mentoring via "Contextual Supervision": Promising Findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the contextual supervision (CS) model that has been developed and applied in several practicum settings of teacher education programs over the past 12 years. The study synthesizes the research findings on the potential effectiveness of CS in assisting faculty supervisors and classroom cooperating teachers with the task of…

Ralph, Edwin G.

389

Thermodynamics in Context: A Case Study of Contextualized Teaching for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical thermodynamics that is often considered abstract and demanding could be made more accessible by taking a contextualized approach. The trial of a course designed for chemistry majors dealing with gas laws and the first law of thermodynamics in the existing course are illustrated.

Holman, John; Pilling, Gwen

2004-01-01

390

Contextual Supports and Barriers to Academic Choices: A Policy-Capturing Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we use an experimental methodology called policy capturing to examine the effects of contextual barriers and supports on students' decisions to change academic majors. Consistent with Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), we found that information about family supportiveness, peer supportiveness, financial status, and job market…

Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.

2010-01-01

391

Context Pre-Exposure Obscures Amygdala Modulation of Contextual-Fear Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

We report that post-training inactivation of basolateral amygdala region (BLA) with muscimol impaired memory for contextual-fear conditioning (as measured by freezing) and intra-BLA norepinephrine enhanced this memory. However, pre-exposure to the context eliminated both of these effects. These findings provide a likely explanation of why an…

Huff, Nicole C.; Wright-Hardesty, Karli J.; Higgins, Emily A.; Matus-Amat, Patricia; Rudy, Jerry W.

2005-01-01

392

Hippocampal Structural Plasticity Accompanies the Resulting Contextual Fear Memory Following Stress and Fear Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…

Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.

2013-01-01

393

The Amygdala Is Critical for Trace, Delay, and Contextual Fear Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous investigations have definitively shown amygdalar involvement in delay and contextual fear conditioning. However, much less is known about amygdala contributions to trace fear conditioning, and what little evidence exists is conflicting as noted in previous studies. This discrepancy may result from selective targeting of individual nuclei…

Kochli, Daniel E.; Thompson, Elaine C.; Fricke, Elizabeth A.; Postle, Abagail F.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

2015-01-01

394

Sport Education and Extracurricular Sport Participation: An Examination Using the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we used the trans-contextual model of motivation (TCM) to examine the effect of Sport Education (SE) on students' participation in a voluntary lunch recess sport club. A total of 192 participants (ages 9-14 years) completed measures of the TCM constructs before and after a 12-week SE intervention period. Participants had the…

Wallhead, Tristan L.; Hagger, Martin; Smith, Derek T.

2010-01-01

395

Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

396

Toward a Developmental/Contextual Model of the Effects of Parental Spanking on Children's Aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers who employ contextual models of parenting contend that it is not spanking per se, but rather the context in which spanking occurs and the meanings children ascribe to spanking, that predict child outcomes. This study proposed two plausible meanings that children may ascribe to spanking--a legitimate expression of parental authority or…

Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Mariner, Carrie Lea

397

Examining the Differences of the 8th-Graders' Estimation Performance between Contextual and Numerical Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Two 12-question estimation instruments were designed to compare the differences of estimating strategies used by the 8th-graders when solving contextual and numerical problems. Both instruments are parallel, meaning that the numbers used in both instruments are the same; however, they were presented differently. One hundred and ninety-eight…

Yang, Der-Ching; Wu, Shin-Shin

2012-01-01

398

Basic Elements of Knowledge Management  

OpenAIRE

The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom), knowledge sources (internal, external), and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social). Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization). At the end of the article there is mentioned the know...

Staniewski, Marcin W.

2007-01-01

399

Contextual priming in grapheme-color synesthetes and yoked controls: 400 msec in the life of a synesthete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grapheme-color synesthesia is a heritable trait where graphemes ("2") elicit the concurrent perception of specific colors (red). Researchers have questioned whether synesthetic experiences are meaningful or simply arbitrary associations and whether these associations are perceptual or conceptual. To address these fundamental questions, ERPs were recorded as 12 synesthetes read statements such as "The Coca-Cola logo is white and 2," in which the final grapheme induced a color that was either contextually congruous (red) or incongruous ("...white and 7," for a synesthetes who experienced 7 as green). Grapheme congruity was found to modulate the amplitude of the N1, P2, N300, and N400 components in synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia impacts perceptual as well as conceptual aspects of processing. To evaluate whether observed ERP effects required the experience of colored graphemes versus knowledge of grapheme-color pairings, we ran three separate groups of controls on a similar task. Controls trained to a synesthete's associations elicited N400 modulation, indicating that knowledge of grapheme-color mappings was sufficient to modulate this component. Controls trained to synesthetic associations and given explicit visualization instructions elicited both N300 and N400 modulations. Lastly, untrained controls who viewed physically colored graphemes ("2" printed in red) elicited N1 and N400 modulations. The N1 grapheme congruity effect began earlier in synesthetes than colored grapheme controls but had similar scalp topography. Data suggest that, in synesthetes, achromatic graphemes engage similar visual processing networks as colored graphemes in nonsynesthetes and are in keeping with models of synesthesia that posit early feed-forward connections between form and color processing areas in extrastriate cortex. The P2 modulation was unique to the synesthetes and may reflect neural activity that underlies the conscious experience of the synesthetic induction. PMID:20350175

Brang, David; Kanai, Stanley; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S; Coulson, Seana

2011-07-01

400

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tacit knowledge, regarding its essence, is a kind of “understanding”, comprehension, and the process of grasping and re-organizing experiences. Moreover, such ability can be controlled at will. However, spiritual understanding enables people to display the function of dominance and determination of knowledge. Therefore, this study first proposed the tacit knowledge transfer mode; there are two major strategies for the Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM: depict the essence instead of the appearance and understand spiritually. In other words, it allows learners to represent the knowledge learned and transfer it into body memory in order to apply it to similar situations through deduction and inference. This study aims to integrate Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM into sketch instruction. The first phase was “knowledge accumulation”: we used “Mu” way to accumulate drawing knowledge. The phase two was “knowledge transfer”: we used “Lin” way to transfer drawing knowledge. In the process, the students in Department of Design are divided into the experimental group and the controlled group for comparisons. Seven design experts evaluate the teaching effectiveness on the two groups (Mixed and anonymous, aiming at students’ learning achievement. The experiment concludes two main results: firstly, based on the expert evaluation scores, Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM proves the significant effect of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM on Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity of freehand sketch; secondly, from the experiment process and survey results, it was evident that Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM has direct correlation with participants’ assertiveness. If there is a conflict between norm knowledge the effectiveness of transfer will be reduced significantly.

Jia-Cheng Chang

2014-11-01

401

Taxonomies of Organizational Knowledge  

OpenAIRE

The paper systematizes organizational knowledge, starting from the classical dichotomy of tacit and explicit, and outlining the importance of these taxonomies, which may seem reductive, in properly understanding the nature of organizational knowledge and operating with it in business.

Stancov, Vitalie; Dima, Alina Mihaela

2008-01-01

402

Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors. Most research focus on individual level factors and little research concern contextual level factors. The objective of this presentation is to identify individual level and school level factors associated with mental distress. Methods We used the Danish HBSC study 2010 including 11, 13 and 15 year old students in a random sample of schools, n=4922. Students answered the standardized HBSC questionnaire including several items about their mental health and the psychosocial school environment. Further, school-leaders answered a questionnaire on school environment. We applied multilevel analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at three levels, individuals nested in classes nested in schools. Results Large variations in psychological complaints from one school to another were found. One example is that the proportion of students with at daily experience of emotional complaints varied between 7% and 32% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together, there was a high prevalence of psychological complaints (P=0.0076). This finding suggests contextual effects on psychological complaints. Conclusion and implications for research Although we expected individual level factors to explain much of the variation in psychological complaints between schools (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.

Meilstrup, Charlotte; ErsbØll, Annette Kjær

403

Knowledge Transfer Between Projects  

OpenAIRE

The practice of knowledge management in organizations is an issue that has recieved increasing attention during the last 20 years. This focus on knowledge management has also reached the public sector in Norway. Since 2001 the Directorate of Taxes has shown an interest in adopting methods and technologies to improve management of knowledge especially through the use of technology. This thesis aims to evaluate the current transfer of knowledge between projects in the Directorate of Taxes...

Høisæter, Anne-lise Anastasiadou

2008-01-01

404

Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

Wole M. Olatokun

2012-09-01

405

Knowledge, People, and Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's mandate is to take risks to got into space while applying its best knowledge. NASA's knowledge is the result of scientific insights from research, engineering wisdom from experience, project management skills, safety and team consciousness and institutional support and collaboration. This presentation highlights NASA's organizational knowledge, communication and growth efforts.

Rogers, Edward W.

2008-01-01

406

Knowledge management review criteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents knowledge management review criteria, which are intended to be used by a nuclear power plant operating organization in conducting a self-assessment or an external review of knowledge management functions. Most of these criteria have been used by IAEA experts during the missions on knowledge management at Krsko nuclear power plant, Slovenia and Kozloduy nuclear power plant, Bulgaria. (author)

407

Educational Knowledge Based Environment  

OpenAIRE

In this paper a knowledge based environment is represented which facilitates easy creation and preparation of wide range of educational software. The heart of the environment is the knowledge representation tool providing a hybrid knowledge representation formalism combining frames, production rules and logic. The environment is built on the basis of the logic programming language Prolog.

Dimitrova, Galina; Stefanov, Krassen

1991-01-01

408

Transactional relations across contextual strain, parenting quality, and early childhood regulation and adaptation in a high-risk sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation examined transactional relations across contextual strain, parenting quality, and child adjustment in 209 mothers and children at 24, 42, and 72 months of age. Independent ratings of mothers' stressful life events, social support, and relationship quality provided an objective measure of maternal contextual strain. Observers evaluated parenting quality during parent-child interactions at each time point. Child regulatory functioning during laboratory tasks at 24 and 42 months was evaluated by independent observers based on both behavioral (e.g., noncompliance, distractibility) and emotional (e.g., frustration, anger) indices. At 72 months, teachers reported on children's externalizing behaviors, and children completed objective measures of academic achievement. Nested path analyses were used to evaluate increasingly complex models of influence, including transactional relations between child and parent, effects from contextual strain to parenting and child adaptation, and reciprocal effects from child and parent behavior to contextual strain. Over and above stability within each domain and cross-sectional cross-domain covariation, significant paths emerged from maternal contextual strain to subsequent child adjustment. Bidirectional relations between parenting and child adjustment were especially prominent among boys. These findings counter unidirectional models of parent-mediated contextual effects by highlighting the direct influences of contextual strain and parent-child transactions on early childhood behavioral and academic adjustment, respectively. PMID:20576177

Yates, Tuppett M; Obradovi?, Jelena; Egeland, Byron

2010-08-01

409

Appendix XX: Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal is to offer professionals in the nuclear field a direct and efficient access path to scientific and technical expert knowledge. Knowledge ultimately resides with people, it comprises the information and skills that a knowledgeable person commands. In complex systems, knowledge may also exist in a distributed form: A group may be able to succeed in tasks, which exceed the knowledge of every one individual member of the group. In the latter case, there must be at least one person who has the additional organizational knowledge of where key subject knowledge resides within the group. Individual experts may gain knowledge in three ways: - by studying (reading and understanding documented information); - by example and explanation from an expert (on-the-job training, tutoring); - by research (observation, discovery, reasoning). Research is the only way of creating original knowledge which is either truly novel or has existed before, but was lost without sufficient record. It is also the slowest, most expensive and in some cases (failed experiments) the most dangerous way. However, given time and resources, research work will always enable mankind to regain lost knowledge, how ever expensive that may be. While the IAEA has been actively coordinating and fostering nuclear research and development for many years, there are other aspects of nuclear knowledge management, which are now gaining in importance, too. In particular taining in importance, too. In particular the stimulation of interest in the nuclear field in the younger generation and activities associated with succession planning are increasingly recognized as important aspects of knowledge management. Experts who are presently leaving the nuclear field due to retirement or because of professional re-orientation have in many cases gained their knowledge by direct research (scientists) or have been instructed by the original researchers (engineers). Ideally, they should now pass their knowledge on to the next generation of nuclear workers. However, because of the generally reduced interest in the nuclear field, the nuclear workforce is shrinking in a number of countries and it becomes therefore more and more difficult to extend or even to maintain humankind's present knowledge in the nuclear field. The main function of the proposed nuclear knowledge portal is therefore to support and enhance the existing infrastructure for knowledge transmission. The portal will facilitate access to archived materials (on-line and off-line) and foster professional contacts in academic and industrial contexts by identifying centers of excellence (universities, institutes, industries) where nuclear knowledge presently resides

410

Ontology-based knowledge management in service-oriented systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative framework for knowledge management in service-oriented systems. An important novelty of our framework is that it allows for automatic instance level evolution of the knowledge base and that it integrates conceptual level knowledge base evolution with the overall service-oriented system framework. In the paper, we identify several opportunities that have arisen in the field of knowledge management with the wider acceptance of SOA and its technology stack, and we present a framework that addresses these opportunities. We focus on ontology-based knowledge management systems, which have become one of the most important technologies for implementation of knowledge management systems. The framework reduces the required input for knowledge management by knowledge engineers, increases information completeness in the knowledge base and provides a simple way for storing more up-to-date information in the knowledge base.

Ana Sasa

2011-06-01

411

Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Involvement in the Enhancement of Contextual Fear Conditioning by Nicotine  

OpenAIRE

Contextual fear conditioning is enhanced by nicotine, but the cellular mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) has been shown to play an integral role in the formation of contextual fear memories. As such, it is possible that ERK 1/2 is involved in the enhancement of contextual fear conditioning by nicotine. To determine whether ERK 1/2 plays a role in this enhancement, a dose of SL327 (a selective, systemic ERK 1/2 inhibitor) that is...

Raybuck, Jonathan D.; Gould, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

412

Practicing Knowledge Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The knowledge-based theory of the firm suggests that knowledge is the organizational asset that enables sustainable competitive advantage in hypercompetitive environments. The emphasis on knowledge intoday's organizations is based on the assumption that barriers to the transfer and replication of knowledge endow it with strategic importance. Many organizations are developing information systems designed specifically to facilitate the sharing and integration of knowledge. Such systems are referred to as Knowledge Management System (KMS. The current study provides an analysis of current practices and outcomes of KMS and the nature of KMS as they are evolving in organizations. The findings suggest that interest in KMS across a variety of industries is very high, the technological foundations are varied, and the major concerns revolve around achieving the correct amount and type of accurate knowledge andgarnering support for contributing to the KMS. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are drawn from the study findings.

Jaspal Singh

2013-11-01

413

Reducing sedentarism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reducing Sedentarism Brown, WJ*1; Brown, WJ*1; Andersen, LB*2; Anderssen, SA*3 1The University of Queensland, Australia; 2University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; 3Norwegian School of Sports Medicine, Norway Western lifestyles have changed remarkably over the last century, with decreasing levels of physical activity and increased sitting in most populations. While the health impacts of low physical activity have been extensively researched in the last 50 years, the epidemiology of sitting has only recently emerged as a scientific area of enquiry. Recent estimates suggest that working adults spend between 7 and 10 hours each day sitting, with about half this time spent sitting at work. This paper will examine the hypothesis that too much sitting is a risk factor for poor health, even in those who meet the current physical activity guidelines. First, the biological plausibility of too much sitting being a health risk will be briefly considered. Second, a review of the evidence on the health effects of sitting will be presented. This will include results from observational cohort studies on the relationships between sitting and diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, depression, obesity and all-cause mortality, as well as from experimental studies on the relationships between sitting and metabolic risk factors. Although some findings indicate clear dose-response relationships between sitting and health outcomes, it is difficult to define a deleterious 'dose' of sitting as few studies have considered sitting in all domains (eg work, leisure, transport). There is however increasing evidence to suggest that sitting for >8 hours a day is associated with increased risk of many health outcomes. Wendy J Brown Numerous epidemiological studies have found an association between amount of sitting, TV-viewing or other sedentary behaviours and different health outcomes. A meta-analysis recently showed that TV-viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. However, measures of sedentary behaviour may be surrogate measures for lack of physical activity, and interventions aiming to reduce sedentary activities may fail to increase physical activity and health. There are very few well designed studies where the amount of physical activity is controlled for when the detrimental effect of sedentary behaviour is analyzed, and only one randomized trial has manipulated sedentary behaviour with small breaks to improve health without changing physical activity substantially. Many studies have adjusted the analysis between sedentary behaviour and health for physical activity level, but is the information on physical activity level sufficiently good to avoid too much residual confounding? This presentation will look at problems related to showing that sedentary behaviour is decreasing health independent of physical activity level. The problem is important because future preventive strategies may change substantially if it turns out that reducing sedentary behaviour may be as effective as increasing physical activity. Some countries have already changed physical activity guidelines and included special recommendations related to sedentary time, but it is questionable if these changes are based on solid evidence. Lars B Andersen Sedentary behaviors include sitting during leisure time, at work, and during commuting. Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing, using a computer or driving a car typically demands low levels of energy expenditure. Youth and adults spend most of their waking time sitting or doing light activities, and most of them do little of moderate to vigorous intensity activity. This combination leads to an overall low energy expenditure which has a detrimental effect on many health outcomes. Dealing with this combination – giving low levels of energy expenditure - would reduce the risks of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, musculoskeletal diseases, and psychological disorders. Inaddition, low level of energy expenditure is one of the key determinants of th

Brown, Wendy; Andersen, Lars Bo

414

Using cartography to sustain inter-generation knowledge transfer : the M3C methodology  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge transfer problem between two generations of professionals (usually from the old one to the new one) to a new dimension. Knowledge transfer is no longer reducible to classical solutions as face to face training, technical education, tutoring. Knowledge to transfer is professional knowledge (Business Knowledge). It involves the whole Knowledge Capital within an organization. Identify the knowledge components that are worthwhile to transfer is not an easy task. This is the problem addr...

Ermine, Jean-louis; Boughzala, Imed; Tounkara, Thierno

2005-01-01

415

Nuclear knowledge management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear knowledge is characterized by high-complexity and variety of the component topics and long duration required by the build-up of individual competence. At organizational level, these characteristics made the power of an organization or institution to be determined by the capital accumulated of existing knowledge. Furthermore, the capacity of an organization to re-generate and raise the knowledge capital according to the specific processes it is running according to the existing demand decides its position/ranking in the economy of nuclear field. Knowledge management emphasizes re-utilization of existing practice and experience, upgrade, enrich and re-value of accumulated knowledge. The present paper identifies and classifies the nuclear knowledge steps, namely: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge, preserving, transfer, knowledge capture etc. On this basis there are identified the existing problems of nuclear knowledge management in Romania such as: difficulties to keep within the country the existing expertise, lack of interest in nuclear education, low level of organization of existing knowledge due to a small number of data bases, an insufficient integration of existing knowledge in IT systems, lack of ontology and taxonomy or an average structuralism. Nuclear knowledge in Romania is facing a major challenge which is generated by the future development of nuclear facilities. It is related to the rising demand of expertise and experts. This challenge is bettertise and experts. This challenge is better solved by partnership between end users and institutions of Research and Development and university organization as well which could ensure the generation, transfer and preservation of nuclear knowledge. (authors)

416

Interferência contextual e nível de habilidade na aprendizagem do serviço do voleibol / Contextual interference and level of skill in the learning of volleyball serve / Interferencia contextual y nivel de habilidad en el aprendizaje del servicio de voleibol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da interferência contextual (IC) na aquisição do serviço do voleibol em adolescentes com diferentes níveis de habilidade, considerando os testes de transferência imediato e retardado. A amostra foi composta por 56 meninas com idade entre 14 e 16 anos, distribuídas em [...] quatro grupos de prática: aleatório com nível superior de habilidade (GAS), blocos com nível superior de habilidade (GBS), aleatório com nível inferior de habilidade (GAI) e blocos com nível inferior de habilidade (GBI). A tarefa motora consistiu dos serviços por baixo e por cima direcionados a alvos na quadra. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito da IC não foi observado nos grupos GAI e GBI, por outro lado, os grupos GAS e GBS apresentaram melhor desempenho no teste de transferência imediato. A ausência de diferenças significativas no teste de transferência retardado sugere que o efeito da IC pode ser temporário. Abstract in spanish Este estudio investigó el efecto de la interferencia contextual (IC) en la adquisición del servicio de voleibol en adolescentes con diferentes niveles de habilidad, teniendo en cuenta las pruebas de transferencia inmediata y retardada. La muestra estuvo conformada por 56 niñas de edades comprendidas [...] entre 14 y 16 años, divididas en cuatro grupos de práctica: al azar con mayor nivel de habilidad (GAS), por bloques con mayor nivel de habilidad (GBS), al azar con menor nivel de habilidad (GAI ) y por bloques con menor nivel de habilidad (GBI). La tarea motora consistió de servicios por abajo y por encima dirigidos a objetivos en la cancha. Los resultados mostraron que no se observó el efecto de la IC en los grupos GAI y GBI, por otra parte, los grupos GAS y GBS presentaron mejor rendimiento en la prueba de transferencia inmediata. La ausencia de diferencias significativas en la prueba de transferencia de retraso sugiere que el efecto de la IC puede ser temporario. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of contextual interference on acquiring the volleyball serve in adolescents with different skill levels, considering then immediate and delayed transfer tests. Participants were 56 schoolgirls separated in four practice groups: random practice [...] with higher level skill subjects (GAS), blocked practice with higher level skill subjects (GBS), random practice with lower level skill subjects (GAI) and blocked practice with lower level skill subjects (GBI). The acquisition task consisted in performing underhand and overhead services directed at two targets affixed to the ground. The results showed no effect of contextual interference on the lower level skill subjects. However when comparing the types of practice between the higher level skill subjects, the effect was observed in the immediate transfer test. The absence of significant differences between groups in the delayed transfer test suggest that the contextual interference effect may be temporary.

Domingos Manuel, Nhamussua; António, Prista; Luciano, Basso; Go, Tani.

2012-12-01

417

Contextual and individual influences on diabetes and heart disease in Havana primary care catchment areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A population health profile is a cumulative product of socioenvironmental and political factors that create the contexts in which health problems arise, as well as opportunities and barriers to addressing them. Research on context has focused on demonstrating its effects, direct or ind [...] irect, on health indicators, but has made few incursions into assessing its role as a mediator of other factors. While individual risk factors for chronic diseases are well known, the same cannot be said for the complex of contextual factors operating at various levels and over the lifespan. OBJECTIVE: stimate relative influences by contextual versus individual factors as determinants of diabetes type 2 and heart disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in populations served by 12 family doctor-and-nurse practices in Havana, in 840 families selected by simple random sampling, 70 per practice. Principal components analysis was used, as well as contextual logistic regression models with a nested model strategy, whose fit was meant to estimate the relative contributions of contextual compared to individual risk factors for diabetes and heart disease. Context was described and analyzed at two levels: that of the family or household and that of the catchment area served by a family doctor-and-nurse practice (geographically defined as a neighborhood). RESULTS: For diabetes, the contextual effect of neighborhood was modified when household effect was removed; that is, the effect of neighborhood was indirect and mediated by household. Individual coefficients were practically invariant; the principal effect of household changed noticeably on removal of individual effects, while age maintained its effect without variation. For heart disease, the effect of neighborhood was slightly modified when household effect was controlled for. Individual coefficients showed little change. There was an important direct effect of household on risk of heart disease. Age and high blood pressure coefficients hardly varied. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed interactions between individual and contextual (neighborhood and household) factors, whose effects on individual health are not entirely mediated by individual factors. Research needs to pay more attention to context beyond its direct effect on individual risk factors.

Georgia, Díaz-Perera; Jorge, Bacallao; Eduardo, Alemañy.

2013-04-01

418

Too much coffee... - Negotiation of Knowledge Forms in Participatory Research Settings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context we in fact co-produce in-interaction. The analysis shows that there appears to be two major reasons for this undesired nature of the conversations. First, all participants (including us) orient to a formal and monological learning context in which there seems to be a hierarchical relationship between the participants in the workshop relating primarily to level of education. Secondly, we confuse the participants in the workshop because there is a mismatch between our orientation to a formal learning context as described above and our search for their local, concrete and lived experiences - i.e. a situated knowledge. The analysis indicates that this mismatch potentially adds to the confusion because we on the one hand meet the practitioners’ expectations to us as researchers when we invoke a more formal learning context. On the other hand we do probably not meet their expectations when we are looking for sensitive and contextualized knowledge because a representational and de-contextualized knowledge form is closely linked to a more formalized learning context.

Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

419

False recall is reduced by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex: implications for understanding the neural correlates of schematic memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the "false memory effect" of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

Warren, David E; Jones, Samuel H; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel

2014-05-28

420

D-Cycloserine Does Not Facilitate Fear Extinction by Reducing Conditioned Stimulus Processing or Promoting Conditioned Inhibition to Contextual Cues  

Science.gov (United States)

The NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) enhances the extinction of learned fear in rats and exposure therapy in humans with anxiety disorders. Despite these benefits, little is known about the mechanisms by which DCS promotes the loss of fear. The present study examined whether DCS augments extinction retention (1) through reductions…

Baker, Kathryn D.; McNally, Gavan P.; Richardson, Rick

2012-01-01

421

Developing a geoscience knowledge framework for a national geological survey organisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological survey organisations (GSOs) are established by most nations to provide a geoscience knowledge base for effective decision-making on mitigating the impacts of natural hazards and global change, and on sustainable management of natural resources. The value of the knowledge base as a national asset is continually enhanced by the exchange of knowledge between GSOs as data and information providers and the stakeholder community as knowledge 'users and exploiters'. Geological maps and associated narrative texts typically form the core of national geoscience knowledge bases, but have some inherent limitations as methods of capturing and articulating knowledge. Much knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D) spatial interpretation and its derivation and uncertainty, and the wider contextual value of the knowledge, remains intangible in the minds of the mapping geologist in implicit and tacit form. To realise the value of these knowledge assets, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has established a workflow-based cyber-infrastructure to enhance its knowledge management and exchange capability. Future geoscience surveys in the BGS will contribute to a national, 3D digital knowledge base on UK geology, with the associated implicit and tacit information captured as metadata, qualitative assessments of uncertainty, and documented workflows and best practice. Knowledge-based decision-making at all levels of society requires both the accessibility and reliability of knowledge to be enhanced in the grid-based world. Establishment of collaborative cyber-infrastructures and ontologies for geoscience knowledge management and exchange will ensure that GSOs, as knowledge-based organisations, can make their contribution to this wider goal.

Howard, Andrew S.; Hatton, Bill; Reitsma, Femke; Lawrie, Ken I. G.

2009-04-01

422

Reducing costs by reducing size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

423

Knowledge Management Basics for Emerging Economies  

OpenAIRE

In this fast moving world of Globalisation, the World economy is getting much more service driven and knowledge oriented one. Compared to the previous era of imperialistic and localised economic growth orientation, the current trend in Global economic growth is a Trans - national one. The national barriers are reduced, supported by liberal economic policies of developing nations in South America, Asia – Pacific and the like. Especially in an IT driven economic development, Knowledge managem...

Kalpana; Premkumar, B.

2008-01-01

424

Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning  

OpenAIRE

Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly) ‘incompatible’ with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (re)organizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subseq...

AndreaOhst

2014-01-01

425

Contextualized Trajectory Parsing with Spatio-Temporal Graph.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work investigates how to automatically parse object trajectories in surveillance videos, that aims to jointly solve three subproblems: i) spatial segmentation, ii) temporal tracking, and iii) object categorization. We present a novel representation spatio-temporal graph (ST-Graph), in which: i) graph nodes express the motion primitives, each representing a short sequence of small-size patches over consecutive images; and ii) every two neighbor nodes are linked with either a positive edge or a negative edge to describe their collaborative or exclusive relationship of belonging to the same object trajectory. Phrasing the trajectory parsing as a graph multi-coloring problem, we propose a unified probabilistic formulation to integrate various types of context knowledge as informative priors. An efficient composite cluster sampling algorithm is employed in search of the optimal solution by exploiting both the collaborative and the exclusive relationships between nodes. The proposed framework is evaluated over challenging videos from public datasets, and results show that it can achieve state-of-the-art tracking accuracy. PMID:23648583

Liu, Xiaobai; Lin, Liang; Jin, Hai

2013-04-30

426

Looking for the GAP effect in manual responses and the role of contextual influences in reaction time experiments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When the offset of a visual stimulus (GAP condition precedes the onset of a target, saccadic reaction times are reduced in relation to the condition with no offset (overlap condition - the GAP effect. However, the existence of the GAP effect for manual responses is still controversial. In two experiments using both simple (Experiment 1, N = 18 and choice key-press procedures (Experiment 2, N = 12, we looked for the GAP effect in manual responses and investigated possible contextual influences on it. Participants were asked to respond to the imperative stimulus that would occur under different experimental contexts, created by varying the array of warning-stimulus intervals (0, 300 and 1000 ms and conditions (GAP and overlap: i intervals and conditions were randomized throughout the experiment; ii conditions were run in different blocks and intervals were randomized; iii intervals were run in different blocks and conditions were randomized. Our data showed that no GAP effect was obtained for any manipulation. The predictability of stimulus occurrence produced the strongest influence on response latencies. In Experiment 1, simple manual responses were shorter when the intervals were blocked (247 ms, P < 0.001 in relation to the other two contexts (274 and 279 ms. Despite the use of choice key-press procedures, Experiment 2 produced a similar pattern of results. A discussion addressing the critical conditions to obtain the GAP effect for distinct motor responses is presented. In short, our data stress the relevance of the temporal allocation of attention for behavioral performance.

Faria Jr. A.J.P.

2004-01-01

427

Stress before Puberty Exerts a Sex- and Age-Related Impact on Auditory and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological changes. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In this study, we evaluated the impact of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform experienced before puberty (days 28–30 on fear memories and hormonal response of male and female rats during adolescence and early adulthood. Stress before puberty impacted in a sex- and age-specific way on the responses to auditory and contextual fear conditioning in adolescence and adulthood: (a increased conditioned fear to the tone in males during adolescence but not during adulthood; (b impaired extinction to the tone in adult males; and (c reduced freezing responses to the context in adolescent females. Stress before puberty did not influence the corticosterone levels 30 minutes after an additional stressor given in adulthood. These results indicate that stress experienced prior to puberty can exert a sex-related differential impact on fear-related behaviors displayed by individuals during late adolescence and early adulthood.

Carmen Sandi

2007-06-01

428

Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this hypothesis. The location of the recently explored documentary sources evidence that there was no notarial activity in this particular area at that time. The importance of the economic and political dominance of Bordeaux during the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries has to be taken into account in order to apprehend the way the earthquake was reported by the population at the regional scale. Elements related to chimneys forms or construction techniques could in turn help in identifying regional peculiarities allowing better quantifying the vulnerability aspects of the region.

Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

2014-05-01

429

Activating Event Knowledge  

OpenAIRE

An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and object...

Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; Mcrae, Ken

2009-01-01

430

KNOWLEDGE WORKERS’ MANAGEMENT  

OpenAIRE

The empirical research of this paper deals with knowledge workers in Romanian organizations from different fields of activity, with the purpose of distinguishing them from other types of employees and clarifying their profile and individual characteristics. Also, the paper presents the most important challenges concerning the knowledge workers’ management: identifying, developing and evaluating knowledge workers, motivating and rewarding them, as well as describing specific structure of the...

Todericiu, Ramona; Stanit, Alexandra; Serban, Anca

2014-01-01

431

Williamson on inexact knowledge  

OpenAIRE

Timothy Williamson claims that margin for error principles govern all cases of inexact knowledge. I show that this claim is unfounded: there are cases of inexact knowledge where Williamson's argument for margin for error principles does not go through. The problematic cases are those where the value of the relevant parameter is fixed across close cases. I explore and reject two responses to my objection, before concluding that Williamson's account of inexact knowledge is not compelling. © 20...

Mahtani, A.

2008-01-01

432

GKB - Geographic Knowledge Base  

OpenAIRE

This paper introduces GKB, a repository based on a domain-independent meta-model for integrating geographic knowledge collected from multiple sources. We present the architecture, the repository design and the data cleaning and knowledge integration processes. We also describe the rules developed to add new knowledge to the repository. GKB includes tools for generating ontologies, which are being used by multiple Semantic Web applications. In addition GKB supports multiple languages. To illus...

Chaves, Marcirio; Martins, Bruno; Silva, Ma?rio J.

2005-01-01

433

INTELLIGENT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a system for managing knowledge in organizations, supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. ‘Information management’ is an umbrella term that encompasses all the systems and processes within an organization for the creation and use of corporate information. The idea of a KM (Knowledge Management) system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization’s documented base of facts, source of info...

Chitta Hrudaya Neeharika; Janga Reddy, M.; Baswaraj, D.

2013-01-01

434

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge management is the process by which the organizations generate wealth from their intellectual assets putting both tacit and explicit knowledge into action. Nowadays having access to data and information is something ordinary and easy to be done thanks to the advancements in IT and communications; still this is not enough when it comes to solving a problem: having the tools does not imply that one has the knowledge of how to use them.

Popa, Bri?ndus?a Maria

2010-01-01

435

The Use of Dictionary and Contextual Guessing Strategies for Vocabulary Learning by Advanced English-Language Learners  

OpenAIRE

The present study provides insight into the use of dictionaries and contextual guessing by advanced English-language learners. This report identifies dictionary use and contextual guessing strategies used by these learners most often and least often. Participants were 100 international graduate students at a large southwestern U.S. university who completed a vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire. The results indicated that these learners consulted a dictionary most often to find out the ...

Shufen Huang; Zohreh Eslami

2013-01-01