WorldWideScience
 
 
1

The Evidence for Contextualism about Knowledge Ascriptions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In my thesis I discuss contextualism about knowledge ascriptions. Contextualism about knowledge ascriptions is the view that the expression 'know' as it occurs in ascriptions of propositional knowledge is context sensitive. There are many context sensitive expressions in English. Consider for instance, the indexical 'I'. The contribution of 'I' to the truth conditions of utterances of sentences that contain it depends on who is speaking in the context in which it is uttered. The sentence 'I a...

Huvenes, Torfinn Thomesen

2006-01-01

2

A qualitative study of contextual factors' impact on measures to reduce surgery cancellations  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Contextual factors influence quality improvement outcomes. Understanding this influence is important when adapting and implementing interventions and translating improvements into new settings. To date, there is limited knowledge about how contextual factors influence quality improvement processes. In this study, we explore how contextual factors affected measures to reduce surgery cancellations, which are a persistent problem in healthcare. We discuss the usefulness of the theoretical framework provided by the model for understanding success in quality (MUSIQ) for this kind of research. Method We performed a qualitative case study at Førde Hospital, Norway, where we had previously demonstrated a reduction in surgery cancellations. We interviewed 20 clinicians and performed content analysis to explore how contextual factors affected measures to reduce cancellations of planned surgeries. Results We identified three common themes concerning how contextual factors influenced the change process: 1) identifying a need to change, 2) facilitating system-wide improvement, and 3) leader involvement and support. Input from patients helped identify a need to change and contributed to the consensus that change was necessary. Reducing cancellations required improving the clinical system. This improvement process was based on a strategy that emphasized the involvement of frontline clinicians in detecting and improving system problems. Clinicians shared information about their work by participating in improvement teams to develop a more complete understanding of the clinical system and its interdependencies. This new understanding allowed clinicians to detect system problems and design adequate interventions. Middle managers’ participation in the improvement teams and in regular work processes was important for successfully implementing and adapting interventions. Conclusion Contextual factors interacted with one another and with the interventions to facilitate changes in the clinical system, reducing surgery cancellations. The MUSIQ framework is useful for exploring how contextual factors influence the improvement process and how they influence one another. Discussing data in relation to a theoretical framework can promote greater uniformity in reporting findings, facilitating knowledge-building across studies.

2014-01-01

3

Contextualizing Instruction: Leveraging Students' Prior Knowledge and Experiences to Foster Understanding of Middle School Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextualizing science instruction involves utilizing students' prior knowledge and everyday experiences as a catalyst for understanding challenging science concepts. This study of two middle school science classrooms examined how students utilized the contextualizing aspects of project-based instruction and its relationship to their science…

Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2008-01-01

4

Role of explicit contextual knowledge in learning concepts to improve performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation addresses some of the difficulties encountered when using artificial intelligence-based, inductive-concept learning methods to improve an existing system's performance. The underlying problem is that inductive methods are insensitive to changes in the system being improved by learning. This insensitivity is due to the manner in which contextual knowledge is represented in an inductive system. This research investigates the advantages of making contextual knowledge explicit in a concept learning system by representing that knowledge directly, in terms of express declarative structures. The thesis of this research is that, aside from facilitating adaptation to change, explicit contextual knowledge can support two additional capabilities not supported in most existing inductive systems. First, using explicit contextual knowledge, a system can learn approximate concept descriptions when necessary or desirable in order to improve performance. Second, with explicit contextual knowledge, a learning system can generate its own concept learning tasks. To investigate the thesis, this study introduces an alternative concept learning framework - the concept operationalization framework - that requires various types of contextual knowledge as explicit inputs.

Keller, R.M.

1987-01-01

5

Socio-contextual Network Mining for User Assistance in Web-based Knowledge Gathering Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

Web-based Knowledge Gathering (WKG) is a specialized and complex information seeking task carried out by many users on the web, for their various learning, and decision-making requirements. We construct a contextual semantic structure by observing the actions of the users involved in WKG task, in order to gain an understanding of their task and requirement. We also build a knowledge warehouse in the form of a master Semantic Link Network (SLX) that accommodates and assimilates all the contextual semantic structures. This master SLX, which is a socio-contextual network, is then mined to provide contextual inputs to the current users through their agents. We validated our approach through experiments and analyzed the benefits to the users in terms of resource explorations and the time saved. The results are positive enough to motivate us to implement in a larger scale.

Rajendran, Balaji; Kombiah, Iyakutti

6

Cloud-Savvy Contextual Spaces as Agile Personal Learning Environments or Informal Knowledge Management Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents how advanced social media platforms can be exploited to construct and share contextual spaces enabling the instantiation of agile personal learning environments or informal knowledge management solutions. The usefulness of open plugins to collect resources from the cloud in such dedicated contextual spaces is discussed. The mechanisms for the personalization of spaces from an interaction point of view once populated with resources and their sharing across platforms are als...

2013-01-01

7

Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer : A multiple case study on disparate contexts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries. A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts promote different learning preferences and possibly complementarities may exist between these. Furthermore, double loop learning is not required for beneficial reverse knowledge transfer.

Søberg, Peder Veng

2010-01-01

8

New Teacher Learning: Substantive Knowledge and Contextual Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

This article brings together an overview of ideas about teacher learning from both teacher education and workplace learning literature, and examines what and how newly qualified secondary school teachers learn in the early years of their career. We discuss the types of knowledge new teachers encounter and present a typology of teacher learning.…

Wilson, Elaine; Demetriou, Helen

2007-01-01

9

Increase Motivation and Knowledge the Environment through Contextual Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this exploratory study is to determine the development of curriculum Environmental Sciences which applies scientific lecture materials that are integrated in the environment, application of environmental knowledge, and character development curriculum on motivation. This study involved 45 students who were selected randomly. Data from samples were obtained by using a questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the survey instrument was conducted by performing a pilot study invol...

Yustina Yustina; Elya Febrita

2013-01-01

10

Knowledge Utilisation in Swedish Neonatal Nursing : Studies on Guideline Implementation, Change Processes and Contextual Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The overall aim of this thesis was to study the implementation of guidelines, change processes and contextual variables from the perspective of improvements and neonatal nursing care’s endeavours to be more evidenced-based. Because health care is exposed to extensive change pressure and because the impact of effectiveness research on clinical practice is limited, it becomes urgent to understand how knowledge utilisation initiatives can be facilitated. Three studies involved managers and nur...

2003-01-01

11

A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics and literacies embedded, and supported by ICT. Here, we present an evaluation of new technology that might bridge generations and preserve key elements of local IK in Namibia. We describe how we applied insights, generated by ethnographic, dialogical and participatory action research, in designing a structure in which users can store, organize and retrieve user-generated videos in ways that are compatible with their knowledge system. The structure embeds videos in a scenario-based 3D visualization of a rural village. It accounts for some of the ways this rural community manages information, socially, spatially and temporally and provides users with a recognizable 3D simulated environment in which to re-contextualize de-contextualized video clips. Our formative in situ evaluation of a prototype suggests the visualization is legible to community members, provokes participation in design discussions, offers opportunities for local appropriation and may facilitate knowledge sharing between IK holders and more youthful IK assimilators. Simultaneously differing interpretations of scenarios and modeled objects reveal the limitations of our modeling decisions and raises various questions regarding graphic design details and regional transferability.

Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2011-01-01

12

Using Wikipedia as an External Knowledge Source for Supporting Contextual Disambiguation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every term has a meaning but there are terms which have multiple meanings. Identifying the correct meaning of a term in a specific context is the goal of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD applications. Identifying the correct sense of a term given a limited context is even harder. This research aims at solving the problem of identifying the correct sense of a term given only one term as its context. The main focus of this research is on using Wikipedia as the external knowledge source to decipher the true meaning of each term using a single term as the context. We experimented with the semantically rich Wikipedia senses and hyperlinks for context disambiguation. We also analyzed the effect of sense filtering on context extraction and found it quite effective for contextual disambiguation. Results have shown that disambiguation with filtering works quite well on manually disambiguated dataset with the performance accuracy of 86%.

2013-01-01

13

Contextual Computing  

CERN Document Server

This book uses the latest in knowledge representation and human-computer interaction to address the problem of contextual computing in artificial intelligence. It uses high-level context to solve some challenging problems in natural language understanding.

Porzel, Robert

2011-01-01

14

Transient and Robust Knowledge: Contextual Support and the Dynamics of Children's Reasoning about Density  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual support for performance and understanding plays an important role in learning and teaching. This study investigated the temporal course of the effects of support--how it affects complexity and correctness of judgments about density in kindergarten (n = 35) and second-grade (n = 29) children. In the experimental group, a teacher provided…

Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Koepke, Margy F.; Fischer, Kurt W.

2007-01-01

15

The Development of a Contextual Information Framework Model as a Potential IAEA Strategy to Maintain Radioactive Waste Knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A contextual framework comprises 'entities' that exhibit one or more definable relationships with a particular 'event'. People, organisations, concepts, ideas, places, natural phenomena, events themselves, cultural artefacts including records, books, works of art can all be conceptualised as entities. If these entities are registered in an information management system where the relationships between them can be defined and systematically managed then it is possible to create a contextual information framework that represents a particular view of what occurs in real life. The careful identifying and mapping of the relationships between these entities and the selected event can lead rapidly to the creation of an information network that closely reflects the human approach to knowledge acquisition and application. The 'event' referred to in this paper is the safe management of radioactive waste. It is widely accepted that society will expect that knowledge about the waste will be maintained for many decades, if not centuries. Delivering on this expectation will demand the application of management approaches that are both innovative and sustainable. Effective inter-generational transfer of information using many 'conventional' techniques will be highly dependent on societal stability - something that cannot be guaranteed over such long periods of time. Consequently, alternative approaches should be explored and, where appropriate, implemented to give reasonable assurance that future generations of waste custodians will not be unduly burdened by the need to recreate information about the waste long after its disposal. In actual fact, the contextual information framework model is not 'new technology' but simply a means for rationalising and representing the way humans naturally tend to use information in the pursuit of knowledge enhancement. By making use of multiple information entities and their relationships, it is often possible to convert otherwise impossibly complex socio-technical environments into information architectures or networks with remarkable and useful properties. The International Atomic Energy Agency, in its ongoing work to encourage the application of systems to manage radioactive waste information over the long term, has embraced the contextual information framework as a potentially viable approach to this particular challenge. To this end, it invited Member States to contribute to the production of a Safety Report that used the contextual information framework model, building on the wealth of existing IAEA guidance. The report focuses, not on the important area of records management, but on the benefits that can arise from the development of an information management approach that increases the likelihood that future generations will recognise the significance and value of the information contained in these records. Our understanding of 'inter-generational transfer' should extend beyond the simple physical transfer of records into an archival repository towards the establishment of a working culture that places sufficient contemporary information into a form that ensures it remains accessible, and ultimately enhances, the knowledge of future generations. Making information accessible is therefore the key and whilst the use of stable records media, storage environments and quality assurance are important elements, they cannot be considered solutions in themselves. This paper articulates some of the lessons that have been learned about using the contextual information framework model when applied to the long term management of radioactive waste. The draft IAEA Safety Report entitled 'Preservation and Transfer to Future Generations of Information Important to the Safety of Waste Disposal Facilities', on which this paper is based, is expected to be published in 2007. (authors)

2007-03-01

16

How to take into account general and contextual knowledge for interactive aiding design: Towards the coupling of CSP and CBR approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is to show how it is possible to support design decisions with two different tools relying on two kinds of knowledge: case-based reasoning operating with contextual knowledge embodied in past cases and constraint filtering that operates with general knowledge formalized using constraints. Our goals are, firstly to make an overview of existing works that analyses the various ways to associate these two kinds of aiding tools essentially in a sequential way. Secondly, we p...

Vareilles, Elise; Aldanondo, Michel; Codet Boisse, Aurelien; Coudert, Thierry; Gaborit, Paul; Geneste, Laurent

2012-01-01

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Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education â?? Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science based reflections related to the use and uptake of technology in society often conflicts with engineering studentsâ?? self-understanding and identity. Another dilemma is related to the specificity and modeling reductionism in engineering science compared to the complexity of problems in engineering practice. Consequently courses added into engineering curricula emphasizing contextual issues stay in stark contrast to the dominant instrumental disciplines of mathematics and techno-science content of core engineering courses. Based on several years of teaching and experimenting with Theory of Science at the Technical University of Denmark, the paper argues that teaching contextual knowledge needs to overcome several barriersthat tend to be neglected in engineering educations.

Jørgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, Søsser

2011-01-01

18

A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics and literacies embedded, and supported by ICT. Here, we present an evaluation of new technology that might bridge generations and preserve key elements of local IK in Namibia. We describe how we applied...

Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-theophilus, Heike; Bidwell, Nicola J.; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias; Kapuire, Gereon Koch

2011-01-01

19

Reduce costs with knowledge-based maintenance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human psychology plays a major role in this situation. A repairman is employed to ''do maintenance.'' That's his job. Management evaluates his performance on how actively he goes about his work. In experience-based maintenance programs, repairmen are not employed to ''not do maintenance.'' It would be unthinkable to have idle repairmen even though the plant is operating perfectly well and needs no attention. People must work to earn their pay. Knowledge-based maintenance programs start with the management philosophy that doing maintenance is an unproductive and uneconomic activity. The goal is to have a 100 percent reliable plant that never needs any maintenance of any kind; not a single manhour during the life of the plant. Unfortunately, that is an unattainable goal. Plants can't operate without maintenance. Consequently, management's policy becomes one of identifying essential maintenance, doing that work, doing it well and eliminating or at least minimizing all other work. In an earlier paper, the author defined three kinds of maintenance work: essential, optional and luxury. The usual objective is to do the essential work and that part of the optional work that is economically beneficial. The uneconomical optional and luxury work are avoided. Knowledge-based maintenance programs are structured to achieve these objectives.

Finley, H.F.

1987-01-01

20

Putting it in Perspective : Designing a 3D Visualization to Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Namibia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a long-term research and co-design project we are creating a 3D visualization interface for an indigenous knowledge (IK) management system with rural dwellers of the Herero tribe in Namibia. Evaluations of earlier prototypes and theories on cultural differences in perception led us to further investigate the suitability of different perspectives of view for the given user group. Through a combination of drawing sessions, design discussions and a high-fidelity technology probe we explored the visual perceptions and preferences of community members; specifically focusing on representation and recognition of objects and places in their everyday environment. We report how the findings from the study have informed design decisions for our particular system while also suggesting that certain viewing angles for 3D visualizations could be more suitable for the Herero and similar rural cultures in general.

Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Evaluating human knowledge and the knowledge assessment method (KAM) - reducing risk arising from defective knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under normal circumstances, plant operator decisions are made in accordance with the operators understanding of written procedures and of the plant which they are controlling. To ensure plant safety, an operator must have sufficient knowledge to respond correctly when both routine and unusual events place demands on his knowledge and understanding of the plant and procedures. In order that plant operating procedures or the methods used in qualifying operators may be improved a quantitative measure of understanding is required. This paper proposes a methodology which could be developed to yield a quantitative assessment of an individual's understanding. An extension is outlined where the knowledge relevant at each stage of a progressing task is assessed. This is intended to allow the identification of those parts of a task which are only weakly supported by an operator's background knowledge and where for example additional training and/or improved documentation could be introduced to greatest effect. (author)

1990-01-01

22

Context aware decision system in a smart home : knowledge representation and decision making using uncertain contextual information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research addresses the issue of building home automation systems reactive to voice for improved comfort and autonomy at home. The paper presents a complete framework that acquires data from sensors and interprets them, by means of IA techniques, to provide contextual information for decision making. The system uses a two-level ontology to represent the different concepts handled during the processing which also contains SWRL instances to automatise some of the reasoning. The focus of thi...

Chahuara, Pedro; Portet, Franc?ois; Vacher, Michel

2012-01-01

23

Contextual Text Mining  

Science.gov (United States)

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

24

Contextual Epistemic Logic  

CERN Document Server

One of the highlights of recent informal epistemology is its growing theoretical emphasis upon various notions of context. The present paper addresses the connections between knowledge and context within a formal approach. To this end, a "contextual epistemic logic", CEL, is proposed, which consists of an extension of standard S5 epistemic modal logic with appropriate reduction axioms to deal with an extra contextual operator. We describe the axiomatics and supply both a Kripkean and a dialogical semantics for CEL. An illustration of how it may fruitfully be applied to informal epistemological matters is provided.

Rebuschi, Manuel

2009-01-01

25

The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.

Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

26

Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’, and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities.Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged since it allows individuals to achieve personal goals and may lead to effective management of oneself, other people and tasks. In addition, students do not appear to recognise the role of mobile phones in enhancing knowledge transfer. More awareness of this role needs to be created in institutions of learning in order to improve group learning and student performance.

Michael E. Kyobe

2011-03-01

27

Non-contextual and contextual implicature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of communication involves two types of meaning: explicit and implicit. An attempt is made to draw a distinction between two carriers of implicit meaning- presupposition and implicature. It is argued that presupposition is what the speaker assumes before making an utterance, and implicature is what the addressee infers from a linguistic structure used in an appropriate linguistic context. Implicature is of two types: non-contextual (or non-situational) and contextual (or situationa...

2005-01-01

28

Competing definitions of contextual environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what constitutes the boundaries of the communities. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle was preferred because it focused attention on the most frequently used spaces and it controlled potential aggregation problems. There is a need to further examine the validity of different methods proposed here. Given that no method is likely to capture the full complexity of human-environment interactions, we would need baseline data describing people's daily activity patterns along with expert knowledge of the area to evaluate our neighborhood units.

Jerrett Michael

2006-12-01

29

Informação e competitividade: a contextualização da gestão do conhecimento nos processos organizacionais / Information and competitiveness: the contextualization of knowledge management in organizational processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No âmbito das organizações empresariais, este artigo se propõe a discutir a visualização da gestão do conhecimento na organização em três níveis diferentes, mas fortemente inter-relacionados: o estratégico, o tático e o operacional. O primeiro nível trata da ligação entre competitividade da empresa [...] e o trabalho com os conhecimentos para a criação de competências organizacionais. O segundo nível destaca a importância de se considerar a gestão de conhecimentos na organização como sendo parte relevante de seus processos de negócio e não somente de suas áreas departamentais. E finalmente, em um terceiro nível, está o lado operacional da gestão do conhecimento ligado à aprendizagem, aos formatos que o conhecimento assume e ao papel desempenhado pela tecnologia da informação. Este artigo, baseado principalmente em um estudo diversificado de várias referências bibliográficas, procura trazer algumas contribuições iniciais para esta discussão. Abstract in english In the context of the entrepreneurial organizations, this article aims to discuss the visualization of knowledge management on three different but greatly interrelated levels: the strategic, the tactical and the operational. The first level deals with the link between competitiveness of enterprises [...] and work with knowledge for creation of organizational competencies. The second level highlights the importance of considering knowledge management in the organization as being a relevant part of its business processes and not only of its departmental areas. And, finaly, the third treats of the operational aspect of knowledge management linked to learning, to the formats by which knowledge is presented and the role performed by information technology. Based mainly on a diversified study of several bibliographic references, this article seeks to bring some initial contributions to this discussion.

Sergio Luis da, Silva.

30

A Laboratory Study Designed for Reducing the Gap between Information Security Knowledge and Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Companies often have the knowledge on procedures to prevent or mitigate against information technology security risks. Yet these companies may not take adequate measures to implement these procedures, and instead, leave themselves vulnerable to security breaches. Potential reasons for this gap between information security knowledge and implementation are provided based on interviews with information technology managers at a global automobile sales and marketing company. Four mechanisms to reduce this gap are proposed, along with a new approach to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of these mechanisms, applied independently and in combinations.

Revital Elitzur

2010-06-01

31

Contextual Multiple Sequence Alignment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a recently proposed contextual alignment model, efficient algorithms exist for global and local pairwise alignment of protein sequences. Preliminary results obtained for biological data are very promising. Our main motivation was to adopt the idea of context dependency to the multiple-alignment setting. To this aim the relaxation of the model was developed (we call this new model averaged contextual alignment and a new family of amino acids substitution matrices are constructed. In this paper we present a contextual multiple-alignment algorithm and report the outcomes of experiments performed for the BAliBASE test set. The contextual approach turned out to give much better results for the set of sequences containing orphan genes.

Gambin Anna

2005-01-01

32

The contextualization of theology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The answer to the question concerning the possibility, necessity and legitimation of a contextualization o f theology, depends on the answer to the question regarding theology itself.

Henk van der Laan

1980-03-01

33

Contextual Multiple Sequence Alignment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a recently proposed contextual alignment model, efficient algorithms exist for global and local pairwise alignment of protein sequences. Preliminary results obtained for biological data are very promising. Our main motivation was to adopt the idea of context dependency to the multiple alignment setting. To this aim the relaxation of the model was developed (we call this new model averaged contextual alignment) and a new family of amino acids substitution matrices are c...

Gambin, Anna; Otto, Rafa?

2005-01-01

34

Contextual Social Networking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis centers around the multi-faceted research question of how contexts may be detected and derived that can be used for new context aware Social Networking services and for improving the usefulness of existing Social Networking services, giving rise to the notion of Contextual Social Networking. In a first foundational part, we characterize the closely related fields of Contextual-, Mobile-, and Decentralized Social Networking using different methods and focusing on diff...

Groh, Georg

2013-01-01

35

Experimental fully contextual correlations  

CERN Document Server

Quantum correlations are contextual yet, in general, nothing prevents the existence of even more contextual correlations. We identify and test a simple noncontextual inequality in which the quantum violation cannot be improved by any hypothetical post-quantum resource, and use it to experimentally obtain correlations in which the maximum noncontextual content, defined as the maximum fraction of noncontextual correlations, is less than 0.06. Our correlations are experimentally generated from the outcomes of sequential compatible measurements on a four-state quantum system encoded in the polarization and path of a single photon.

Amselem, Elias; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J; Portillo, Jose R; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

2011-01-01

36

Contextually Based Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors detail a study of a three-year professional development project designed to increase in-service teachers' classroom technology integration. Participants engaged in learning activities that modeled technology integration from a contextually based perspective that included technology, and pedagogical and content…

Blocher, J. Michael; Armfield, Shadow W.; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Tucker, Gary; Willis, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

37

On Counterfactuals and Contextuality  

CERN Multimedia

Although by definition a nonoperational, untestable method, counterfactual reasoning abounds in quantum mechanics. Many mind-boggling features such as contextuality are consequences of the assumption that elements of physical reality exist irrespective of their actual measurement. Yet quantum mechanically any operational, experimental existence is limited to a single maximal operator; i.e., to a single complete context. Quanta can only be prepared and measured in a single context. If quanta are measured in a context different from what they have been prepared for, the measurement device may or may not be capable of translating one context into the other. Counterfactual reasoning and contextuality is defined and critically evaluated with regard to its nonempirical content. To this end, a uniqueness property of states, explosion views and link observables are introduced. If only a single context associated with a particular maximum set of observables can be operationalized, then a context translation principle ...

Svozil, K

2005-01-01

38

Knowledges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

Berling, Trine Villumsen

2012-01-01

39

Monogamy of contextuality  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we demonstrate that the property of monogamy seen for quantum correlations in composite systems also carries over to single quantum systems. In particular, we construct monogamy relations for contextual inequalities using the principle of no-disturbance in an analogous manner to the construction of Bell monogamy relations using the principle of no-signaling. We interpret violation of these relations in terms of a violation of causality.

Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Kurzynski, Pawel; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2012-01-01

40

Competing definitions of contextual environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1) and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2) defined communities using...

Tatalovich Zaria; Wilson John P; Milam Joel E; Jerrett Michael; McConnell Rob

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Quantum contextuality emerging from relativity  

CERN Document Server

The quantum predictions for a single nonrelativistic spin-1/2 particle can be reproduced by noncontextual hidden variables. Here we show that quantum contextuality naturally emerges if relativistic effects are taken into account. Specifically, we show that the contextuality of a free relativistic electron and of a relativistic electron moving in a Coulomb potential (a relativistic hydrogen atom) can be observed through the violation of noncontextual inequalities. We discuss how to experimentally observe quantum contextuality on a free relativistic electron.

Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Dong-Ling; Cabello, Adan; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H

2012-01-01

42

Reducing Disaster Vulnerability through Local Knowledge and Capacity. The Cace of Earthquake Prone Rural Communities in India and Nepal.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation investigates the past and present status of local knowledge, skills and capacity of rural communities in India and Nepal for reducing their vulnerability to earthquakes. Disaster vulnerability is investigated not only as pre disaster condition but also as a continuous process, which is influenced by underdevelopment, process and various response decisions in post disaster situation. To get an integrated and dynamic picture of how local knowledge and capacity and disaster vul...

Jigyasu, Rohit

2002-01-01

43

The Effect of Contextual Learning in Civic Education on Students' Civic Competence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Globalization demands civic education to develop civic competence involving civic knowledge, civic skills and civic disposition, which are multidimensional. Civic education learning oriented to ?contextualized multiple intelligences? concept opened the view of the needs to manage more creative, active participation, meaningful and pleasant learning. This research aimed to describe the effects of contextual learning on civic education of Junior High School s...

Kokom Komalasari

2009-01-01

44

Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system-centered perspective. The main focus has been on developing content-based algorithms similar to document search. These algorithms identify matching experts primarily on the basis of the textual content of documents with which experts are associated. Other factors, such as the ones identified by expertise-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling the identified factors and integrate them with content- based retrieval models. Our experiments show that models combining content-based and contextual factors can significantly outperform existing content-based models.

Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian

2010-01-01

45

Comparing, Contextualizing, and Conceptualizing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic research mainly focuses on objective variables found in census and survey data. As demographers' interests expand to socially constructed phenomena, the discipline needs to incorporate new tools appropriate for understanding more subjective phenomena. The integration of quantitative and qualitative methods provides the opportunity to analyze data both rich in local meaning and generalizable beyond a small "N." This type of triangulation is particularly necessary in the study of women's situation, an area where quantitative results have generally confounded demographers. Using survey and ethnographic data, this paper demonstrates ways in which qualitative data complements quantitative data on women's situation. I argue that such an iterative methodological process can enrich future investigations in this area by comparing findings, contextualizing quantitative results, and improving the conceptualization of future quantitative measures.

2003-09-01

46

Georgia Tech: Contextual Computing Group  

Science.gov (United States)

The Contextual Computing Group is a research organization at Georgia Tech College of Computing that focuses on the field of contextually-aware, wearable computing systems. The group is interested in "how the continued emergence of on-body computational resources will impact society." Topics addressed in its work include Wearable Computing, Augmented Reality, Lifelong Everyday Interfaces, Natural Gestural Interfaces, First-Person Perceptive Agents, Contextual Computing Devices, Human Computer Interaction, Computer Vision, Memory Prostheses, Embedded Computers, and Sensor Fusion. Projects related to Wearable Computing have yielded hardware products that are available to purchase. Resources that the group has found useful are available to download free of charge.

47

Contextual Query Perfection by Affective Features Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback in Multimedia Information Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia Information may have multiple semantics depending on context, a temporal interest and user preferences. Hence we are exploiting the plausibility of context associated with semantic concept in retrieving relevance information. We are proposing an Affective Feature Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback (AICSRF to investigate whether audio and speech along with visual could determine the current context in which user wants to retrieve the information and to further investigate whether we could employ Affective Feedback as an implicit source of evidence in CSRF cycle to increase the systems contextual semantic understanding. We introduce an Emotion Recognition Unit (ERU that comprises of spatiotemporal Gabor filter to capture spontaneous facial expression and emotional word recognition system that uses phonemes to recognize the spoken emotional words. We propose Contextual Query Perfection Scheme (CQPS to learn, refine the current context that could be used in query perfection in RF cycle to understand the semantic of query on the basis of relevance judgment taken by ERU. Observations suggest that CQPS in AICSRF incorporating such affective features reduce the search space hence retrieval time and increase the systems contextual semantic understanding.

Anil K. Tripathi

2012-09-01

48

Entropic test of quantum contextuality  

CERN Document Server

In this letter, we construct an entropic inequality, analogous to the entropic Bell inequalities derived by Braunstein and Caves in [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 61}, 662 (1988)], that must be satisfied by all non-contextual theories and argue that this is the simplest contextual inequality of this kind. We also construct measurements for its optimal violation by a single three-level quantum system.

Kurzynski, Pawel; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2012-01-01

49

Evaluation of a Fotonovela to Increase Depression Knowledge and Reduce Stigma Among Hispanic Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fotonovelas—small booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions—represent a powerful health education tool for low-literacy and ethnic minority audiences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a depression fotonovela in increasing depression knowledge, decreasing stigma, increasing self-efficacy to recognize depression, and increasing intentions to seek treatment, relative to a text pamphlet. Hispanic adults attending a community adult school (N = 157, 47.5 % f...

Unger, Jennifer B.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Molina, Gregory B.; Contreras, Sandra; Baron, Melvin

2013-01-01

50

Architecture knowledge management: challenges, approaches, and tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capturing the technical knowledge, contextual information, and rationale surrounding the design decisions underpinning system architectures can greatly improve the software development process. If not managed, this critical knowledge is implicitly

Ali Babar, Muhammad; Gorton, Ian

2007-01-01

51

Empathy and contextual social cognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM. PMID:23955101

Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

2014-03-01

52

Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

Ron Wilburn

2006-12-01

53

Pavlovian Conditioning: Role of Contextual Cues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role that contextual cues play in the learning and performance of conditioned responses was analyzed. Two generalizations have emerged about the role of contextual cues in autoshaping: (1) Context conditioning is quite rapid and (2) Context conditioni...

P. D. Balsam

1984-01-01

54

Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

55

Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

2003-04-01

56

Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' Knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

2003-04-01

57

Semi-Bracketed Contextual Grammars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bracketed and fully bracketed contextual grammars were introduced to bring the concept of a tree structure to the strings by associating a pair of parentheses to the adjoined contexts in the derivation. In this paper, we show that these grammars fail to g...

L. Kuppusamy

2008-01-01

58

Contextuality: Wheeler's universal regulating principle  

CERN Document Server

In this essay I develop quantum contextuality as a potential candidate for Wheeler's universal regulating principle, arguing -- \\textit{contrary} to Wheeler -- that this ultimately implies that `bit' comes from `it.' In the process I develop a formal definition of physical determinism in the languages of domain theory and category theory.

Durham, Ian T

2013-01-01

59

Contextuality, Nonlocality and Counterfactual Arguments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, following an elementary line of thought which somewhat differs from the usual one, we prove once more that any deterministic theory predictively equivalent to quantum mechanics unavoidably exhibits a contextual character. The purpose of adopting this perspective is that of paving the way for a critical analysis of the use of counterfactual arguments when dealing with nonlocal physical processes.

Ghirardi, Giancarlo; Wienand, Karl

2009-01-01

60

Contextual Aspects of Pronoun Assignment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect of contextual restraints on pronoun assignment. Pronoun selection is based on integration of the context even where it is already syntactically constrained. Integration occurs during and not following the assignment of the pronoun. (PMJ)

Hirst, William; Brill, Gary A.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM, limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org, combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods: We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results: Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96% completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001; this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions: Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa.

Elise M van der Elst

2013-12-01

62

Contextual Region of Interest Based Medical Image Compression using Contextual Listless SPIHT Algorithm for Brain Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical Imaging plays a major role in medical diagnosis. Storing these medical images and transmitting them is quite challenging. Due to the extensive use of medical images like CT and MR scan, the application of digital imaging technology in the medical domain has grown rapidly. These medical imagery are stored for a longer period for the continuous monitoring of the patients. So, the medical images need to be compressed to reduce the storage cost and for transmission without any loss. In this paper, a context based method called Contextual Listless Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (CLSPIHT algorithm for brain images is proposed to overcome this challenge. Here, the region containing the most inportant information for diagnosis purpose is referred as contextual region of interest. In this method, the Contextual Region of Interest(CROI is encoded separately with a low compression rate ie, with high bpp and the Back Ground region(BG is encoded with low bpp. Finally, the two regions are merged together to construct the output image. Our experimental results show that the proposed Contextual Listless SPIHT (CLSPIHT yields very good image quality without any diagnostic loss. Compression performance parameters (Mean Square Error, Peak Signal to Noice Ratio, and Coefficient of Correlation are improved by our method and it is compared with the other existing methods of JPEG2000,and the ROI based methods such as CSPIHT and CVQ on magnetic resonance images. As a result, it is found that our proposed algorithm gives better results and using this method, we can overcome the limitations in storage and transmission of medical images.

Mrs. S.Sridevi

2013-10-01

63

R-CoRe: A Rule-based Contextual Reasoning Platform for AmI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present R-CoRe; a rule-based contextual reasoning platform for Ambient Intelligence environments. R-CoRe integrates Contextual Defeasible Logic (CDL) and Kevoree, a component-based software platform for Dynamically Adaptive Systems. Previously, we explained how this integration enables to overcome several reasoning and technical issues that arise from the imperfect nature of context knowledge, the open and dynamic nature of Ambient Intelligence environments, and the restricti...

Moawad, Assaad; Bikakis, Antonis; Caire, Patrice; Nain, Gre?gory; Le Traon, Yves

2013-01-01

64

Mobile and contextual learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

2009-12-01

65

[Personal contextual factors, part I].  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) does not yet classify personal contextual factors. To determine the interaction of these factors on activities and participation of a person as well as their influence on the probable outcome of interventions, they must be taken into account in individual sociomedical expertises. Therefore, a group of medical experts working for the social health insurance medical advisory boards in Germany compiled a proposal for a systematic classification of personal contextual factors into domains, categories and items with respect to the ethical guidelines of the ICF. In a second step the main issues were transferred into the preliminary draft for a short version which will be published later to give support for practical daily use in health insurance matters. PMID:17203449

Viol, M; Grotkamp, S; van Treeck, B; Nüchtern, E; Hagen, T; Manegold, B; Eckardt, S; Penz, M; Seger, W

2006-12-01

66

Contextual approach to quantum formalism  

CERN Multimedia

The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

Khrennikov, Andrei

2009-01-01

67

Quantum contextuality in complex systems  

CERN Document Server

We show that, for a system of several qubits, there is an inequality for the correlations between three compatible dichotomic measurements which must be satisfied by any noncontextual theory, but is violated by any quantum state. Remarkably, the violation grows exponentially with the number of qubits, and the tolerated error per correlation also increases with the number of qubits, showing that state-independent quantum contextuality is experimentally observable in complex systems.

Cabello, Adan

2010-01-01

68

Memory cost of quantum contextuality  

CERN Document Server

The simulation of quantum effects requires certain classical resources, and quantifying them is an important step in order to understand the difference between quantum and classical physics. We investigate the minimum classical memory needed to simulate the phenomenon of state-independent quantum contextuality in sequential measurements. We derive optimal simulation strategies for several important cases and prove that two bits of classical memory do not suffice to reproduce the results of sequential measurements on a two-qubit system.

Kleinmann, Matthias; Portillo, José R; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Cabello, Adán

2010-01-01

69

Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects? attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects? task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. PMID:24593900

Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

2014-04-01

70

Using expert knowledge to increase realism in environmental system models can dramatically reduce the need for calibration  

Science.gov (United States)

Conceptual environmental systems models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of model for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, strategies for better parameter identification were developed in the past, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding regarding how a catchment works into the process of parameterizing a conceptual model has still not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effect of imposing semi-quantitative, relational expert knowledge into the model development and parameter selection, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e. wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simplicity to complexity, three model set-ups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC have been developed based on these functional units. While FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC introduce increasingly more complexity by distinguishing 2 and 3 functional units, respectively. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters as well as states and fluxes of their different functional units to each other. Based on these comparisons, expert knowledge based, semi-quantitative relational constraints have been imposed on three models structures. More complexity of models allows more imposed constraints. It was shown that a constrained but uncalibrated semi-distributed model, FLEXC, can predict runoff with similar performance than a calibrated lumped model, FLEXA. In addition, when constrained and calibrated, the semi-distributed model FLEXC exhibits not only higher performance but also reduced uncertainty for prediction, compared to the calibrated, lumped FLEXA model.

Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2013-12-01

71

A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT  

Science.gov (United States)

Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%.

Hamill, James J.; Brunken, Richard C.; Bybel, Bohdan; Di Filippo, Frank P.; Faul, David D.

2006-06-01

72

Knowledge translation of research findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

Grimshaw Jeremy M

2012-05-01

73

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Efficacy of a Knowledge-Contact Program to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma and Improve Mental Health Literacy in Adolescents  

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The purpose of this school-based cluster-randomized trial was to determine the initial acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of an existing community-based intervention, In Our Own Voice, in a sample of US adolescent girls aged 13–17 years (n=156). In Our Own Voice is a knowledge-contact intervention that provides knowledge about mental illness to improve mental health literacy and facilitates intergroup contact with persons with mental illness as a means to reduce mental illness stigma....

Pinto-foltz, Melissa D.; Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Myers, John A.

2011-01-01

74

Contextual control of problem behavior in students with severe disabilities.  

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We investigated the impact of contextual variation on the effectiveness of two interventions. The problem behavior of 2 students with severe disabilities was analyzed across two contexts (task and leisure). Effects of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and time-out procedures were examined in the two contexts. Results indicated that in the task context the DRO procedure effectively reduced the problem behavior and increased task performance, whereas the time-out procedure was ...

Haring, T. G.; Kennedy, C. H.

1990-01-01

75

A Constructivist's Perspective on Functional Contextualism  

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In this paper, the author presents his arguments to Fox's premise that functional contextualism has an implications for designing instruction. Fox argues that functional contextualism is an alternative to constructivism because constructivism has not empirically demonstrated its effectiveness. However, the author finds this assertion troubling for…

Jonassen, David H.

2006-01-01

76

Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory  

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Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

Anna Voigt

2008-03-01

77

Using Cluster Analysis to Identify Patterns in Students' Responses to Contextually Different Conceptual Problems  

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This study examined the evolution of student responses to seven contextually different versions of two Force Concept Inventory questions in an introductory physics course at the University of Arkansas. The consistency in answering the closely related questions evolved little over the seven-question exam. A model for the state of student knowledge

Stewart, John; Miller, Mayo; Audo, Christine; Stewart, Gay

2012-01-01

78

Proposed experiments of qutrit state-independent contextuality and two-qutrit contextuality-based nonlocality  

CERN Document Server

Recent experiments have demonstrated ququart state-independent quantum contextuality and qutrit state-dependent quantum contextuality. So far, the most basic form of quantum contextuality pointed out by Kochen and Specker, and Bell, has eluded experimental confirmation. Here we present an experimentally feasible test to observe qutrit state-independent quantum contextuality using single photons in a three-path setup. In addition, we show that if the same measurements are performed on two entangled qutrits, rather than sequentially on the same qutrit, then the noncontextual inequality becomes a Bell inequality. We show that this connection also applies to other recently introduced noncontextual inequalities.

Cabello, Adan; Blanchfield, Kate; Bourennane, Mohamed; Bengtsson, Ingemar; 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.032108

2012-01-01

79

Chapter 2 - Contextual background - ARCHIVE: Defra  

This section provides contextual information on how Lantra evolved, how it is \\organised and ... various sector bodies signed up to the concept and led to ATB-\\Landbase being ... increased use of new technology and diversification \\pressures.

80

Implicit Spatial Contextual Learning in Healthy Aging  

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Three experiments investigated the aging of implicit spatial and spatiotemporal context learning in 2 tasks. In contextual cuing, people learn to use repeated spatial configurations to facilitate search for a target, whereas in higher order serial learning, they learn to use subtle sequence regularities to respond more quickly and accurately to a series of events. Results reveal a dissociation; overall contextual cuing is spared in healthy aging, whereas higher order sequence learning is impa...

Howard, James H.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Howard, Darlene V.; Yankovich, Helen; Vaidya, Chandan J.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Investigating the Effect of Contextual Clues on the Processing of Unfamiliar Words in Second Language Listening Comprehension  

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This study examines the effect of contextual clues on the use of strategies (inferencing and ignoring) and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, world knowledge, and others) for processing unfamiliar words in listening comprehension. Three types of words were investigated: words with local co-text clues, global co-text clues and extra-textual…

Cai, Wei; Lee, Benny P. H.

2010-01-01

82

Knowledge brokering between researchers and policymakers in Fiji to develop policies to reduce obesity: a process evaluation  

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Background The importance of using research evidence in decisionmaking at the policy level has been increasingly recognized. However, knowledge brokering to engage researchers and policymakers in government and non-government organizations is challenging. This paper describes and evaluates the knowledge exchange processes employed by the Translational Research on Obesity Prevention in Communities (TROPIC) project that was conducted from July 2009 to April 2012 in Fiji. TROPIC aimed to enhance: the evidence-informed decisionmaking skills of policy developers; and awareness and utilization of local and other obesity-related evidence to develop policies that could potentially improve the nation’s food and physical activity environments. The specific research question was: Can a knowledge brokering approach advance evidence-informed policy development to improve eating and physical activity environments in Fiji. Methods The intervention comprised: recruiting organizations and individuals; mapping policy environments; analyzing organizational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking (EIPM); developing EIPM skills; and facilitating development of evidence-informed policy briefs. Flexible timetabling of activities was essential to accommodate multiple competing priorities at both individual and organizational levels. Process diaries captured the duration, frequency and type of each interaction and/or activity between the knowledge brokering team and participants or their organizations. Results Partnerships were formalized with high-level officers in each of the six participating organization. Participants (n?=?49) developed EIPM skills (acquire, assess, adapt and apply evidence) through a series of four workshops and applied this knowledge to formulate briefs with ongoing one-to-one support from TROPIC team members. A total of 55% of participants completed the 12 to18 month intervention, and 63% produced one or more briefs (total?=?20) that were presented to higher-level officers within their organizations. The knowledge brokering team spent an average of 30 hours per participant during the entire TROPIC process. Conclusions Active engagement of participating organizations from the outset resulted in strong individual and organizational commitment to the project. The TROPIC initiative provided a win-win situation, with participants expanding skills in EIPM and policy development, organizations increasing EIPM capacity, and researchers providing data to inform policy.

2013-01-01

83

Context Awareness Framework Based on Contextual Graph  

CERN Document Server

Nowadays computing becomes increasingly mobile and pervasive. One of the important steps in pervasive computing is context-awareness. Context-aware pervasive systems rely on information about the context and user preferences to adapt their behavior. However, context-aware applications do not always behave as user's desire, and can cause users to feel dissatisfied with unexpected actions. To solve these problems, context-aware systems must provide mechanisms to adapt automatically when the context changes significantly. The interesting characteristic of context is its own behaviors which depend on various aspects of the surrounding contexts. This paper uses contextual graphs to solve the problem "the mutual relationships among the contexts". We describe the most relevant work in this area, as well as ongoing research on developing context-aware system for ubiquitous computing based on contextual graph. The usage of contextual graph in context-awareness is expected to make it effective for developers to develop...

Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai

2010-01-01

84

Cued and contextual fear conditioning in BTBR mice is improved with training or atomoxetine.  

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The BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) strain of mice is a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). These mice display reduced social behavior, altered communication, and high levels of repetitive behavior. BTBR mice have shown a deficit in learning cued and contextual fear conditioning. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine if either changes in training or drug administration would improve learning in BTBR mice when compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice in contextual and cued fear conditioning. The first experiment examined the effects of three conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) training paradigms; a 1P (1 CS-US pairing), 4P (4 CS-US pairings), and 10P (10 CS-US pairings). Increasing the number of CS-US pairings to 10 caused an increase in freezing behavior by the BTBR mice in contextual and cued conditioning indicating that more training facilitated BTBR learning. B6 mice had a more complex reaction to the increased training; the mice increased freezing behavior in the cued fear conditioning but not contextual fear conditioning. The second experiment determined whether atomoxetine, a noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor that has been shown to improve attention and decrease hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social withdrawal, would enhance learning. There was a significant increase in freezing behavior in contextual fear conditioning following atomoxetine administration in BTBR mice but not in B6 mice. Our data demonstrates that contextual and cued learning in BTBR mice is facilitated by increased training. Furthermore, contextual learning is improved in BTBR mice with use of atomoxetine, which helps to improve attention. Both increased training and pharmacological intervention improved learning in the BTBR mice suggesting a role for the combination of the two. PMID:23827222

Stapley, Nathan W; Guariglia, Sara R; Chadman, Kathryn K

2013-08-01

85

Fundamental monogamy relation between contextuality and nonlocality.  

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We show that the no-disturbance principle imposes a tradeoff between locally contextual correlations violating the Klyachko-Can-Biniciog?lu-Shumovski inequality and spatially separated correlations violating the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. The violation of one inequality forbids the violation of the other. We also obtain the corresponding monogamy relation imposed by quantum theory for a qutrit-qubit system. Our results show the existence of fundamental monogamy relations between contextuality and nonlocality that suggest that entanglement might be a particular form of a more fundamental resource. PMID:24679270

Kurzy?ski, Pawe?; Cabello, Adán; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2014-03-14

86

The Effect of Contextual Learning in Civic Education on Students' Civic Competence  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Globalization demands civic education to develop civic competence involving civic knowledge, civic skills and civic disposition, which are multidimensional. Civic education learning oriented to ?contextualized multiple intelligences? concept opened the view of the needs to manage more creative, active participation, meaningful and pleasant learning. This research aimed to describe the effects of contextual learning on civic education of Junior High School students? civic competence. Specifically, this research aimed at examining and finding the influence of the application of contextual teaching and learning component in civic education involving the concept applications of interrelationship, direct experience, application, cooperation, self-regulation and authentic assessment towards citizenship competence of Junior High School students. Approach: Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adapted in this study. A survey was used as the Quantitative approach and for the in-depth understanding, interviews were used as the qualitative approach. The population of this research was students from Junior High School in West Java Indonesia. Sample was chosen by using cluster, proportional and systematic random samplings and 1004 Junior High School students were involved. Results: The survey showed that contextual learning in civic education influenced positively and significantly and contributed 26% to the civic competence of Junior High School students. The highest contribution given by applying of cooperation concept (21% and self-regulating concept (20%. Conclusion: It was suggested that contextual teaching and learning in civic education significantly influenced civic competence, the concepts of cooperation and self-regulation were the important factors of civic competence, because they were in accordance with the socio-cultural values. The implications of these findings showed that contextual teaching and learning in civic education was the essence of value education.

Kokom Komalasari

2009-01-01

87

Bupropion Dose-Dependently Reverses Nicotine Withdrawal Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning  

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Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, facilitates smoking cessation and reduces some symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. However, the effects of bupropion on nicotine withdrawal-associated deficits in learning remain unclear. The present study investigated whether bupropion has effects on contextual and cued fear conditioning following withdrawal from chronic nicotine or when administered alone. Bupropion was administered alo...

Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

88

Contextual Affordances of Rural Appalachian Individuals  

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Vocational psychology has recently begun examining the career development of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers may affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. Contextual

Bennett, Sara Lynne Rieder

2008-01-01

89

Influence diagrams for contextual information retrieval  

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The purpose of contextual information retrieval is to make some exploration towards designing user specific search engines that are able to adapt the retrieval model to the variety of differences on user's contexts. In this paper we propose an influence diagram based retrieval model which is able to incorporate contexts, viewed as user's long-term interests into the retrieval process.

Tamine-lechani, Lynda; Boughanem, Mohand

2006-01-01

90

Reducing drug related deaths: a pre-implementation assessment of knowledge,barriers and enablers for naloxone distribution through general practice  

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Background The Scottish Naloxone Programme aims to reduce Scotland’s high number of drug-related deaths (DRDs) caused by opiate overdose. It is currently implemented through specialist drug services but General Practitioners (GPs) are likely to have contact with drug using patients and their families and are therefore in an ideal position to direct them to naloxone schemes, or provide it themselves. This research gathered baseline data on GP’s knowledge of and willingness to be involved in DRD prevention, including naloxone administration, prior to the implementation of primary care based delivery. Methods Mixed methods were used comprising a quantitative, postal survey and qualitative telephone interviews. A questionnaire was sent to 500 GPs across Scotland. An initial mailing was followed by a reminder. A shortened questionnaire containing seven key questions was posted as a final reminder. Telephone interviews were conducted with 17 GPs covering a range of demographic characteristics and drug user experience. Results A response rate of 55% (240/439) was achieved. There was some awareness of the naloxone programme but little involvement (3.3%), 9% currently provided routine overdose prevention, there was little involvement in displaying overdose prevention information (<20%). Knowledge of DRD risk was mixed. There was tentative willingness to be involved in naloxone prescribing with half of respondents willing to provide this to drug users or friends/family. However half were uncertain GP based naloxone provision was essential to reduce DRDs. Factors enabling naloxone distribution were: evidence of effectiveness, appropriate training, and adding to the local formulary. Interviewees had limited awareness of what naloxone distribution in primary care may involve and considered naloxone supply as a specialist service rather than a core GP role. Wider attitudinal barriers to involvement with this group were expressed. Conclusions There was poor awareness of the Scottish National Naloxone Programme in participants. Results indicated GPs did not currently feel sufficiently skilled or knowledgeable to be involved in naloxone provision. Appropriate training was identified as a key requirement.

2014-01-01

91

Contextual influences on the development of obesity in children: A case study of UK South Asian communities?  

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? We examined contextual influences on childhood obesity in South Asian communities. ? We held focus groups with stakeholders from UK South Asian communities. ? Knowledge of context is critical for childhood obesity intervention development. ? Cultural influences on childhood obesity need to be understood in detail.

Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Adab, Peymane

2012-01-01

92

Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis  

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Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.

C. Shannon Stokes

2004-12-01

93

Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.  

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We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

2014-03-18

94

Contextual Pavlovian conditioning in the crab Chasmagnathus.  

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In contextual conditioning, a complex pattern of information is processed to associate the characteristics of a particular place with incentive or aversive reinforcements. This type of learning has been widely studied in mammals, but studies of other taxa are scarce. The context-signal memory (CSM) paradigm of the crab Chasmagnathus has been extensively used as a model of learning and memory. Although initially interpreted as habituation, some characteristics of contextual conditioning have been described. However, no anticipatory response has been detected for animals exposed to the training context. Thus, CSM could be interpreted either as an associative habituation or as contextual conditioning that occurs without a context-evoked anticipatory response. Here, we describe a training protocol developed for contextual Pavlovian conditioning (CPC). For each training trial, the context (conditioned stimulus, CS) was discretely presented and finished together with the unconditioned stimulus (US). In agreement with the CSM paradigm, a robust freezing response was acquired during the 15 training trials, and clear retention was found when tested with the US presentation after short (2 and 4 h) and long (1-4 days) delays. This CPC memory showed forward but not simultaneous presentation conditioning and was context specific and protein synthesis dependent. Additionally, a weak CPC memory was enhanced during consolidation. One day after training, CPC was extinguished by repeated CS presentation, while one presentation induced a memory labilisation-reconsolidation process. Finally, we found an anticipatory conditioned response (CR) during the CS presentation for both short-term (4 h) and long-term memory (24 h). These findings support the conditioning nature of the new paradigm. PMID:23114692

Fustiñana, María Sol; Carbó Tano, Martín; Romano, Arturo; Pedreira, María Eugenia

2013-03-01

95

Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems  

CERN Multimedia

Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multi-boson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.

Benatti, F; Genovese, M; Olivares, S

2011-01-01

96

Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear  

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Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

2012-01-01

97

Contextual Influences on Superintendents' Time Usage  

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Full Text Available Using data from a survey of superintendents in four states, this study explored how contextual factors and the real and perceived stringency of accountability measures influence the attention superintendents pay to the different roles comprising their work. A major concern was the extent to which stringent accountability was associated with superintendents’ tendency to emphasize educational leadership rather than managerial functions. Recognizing that other circumstances also might contribute to superintendents’ decisions about how to balance their work, the study included five contextual variables: enrollment, locale, SES, funding, and percentage minority. From a sample of 941 superintendents, 68% returned questionnaires. Findings: although superintendents’ perceptions of the stringency of state accountability measures were related to their location in high- or low-stringency states, contextual factors and especially enrollment and the location of a district in a rural region had the most pronounced effects on their attention to managerial tasks. Allocation of time varied by state; however, across states very few superintendents’ devoted the majority of their time to educational leadership.

Kim Jones

2009-12-01

98

Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-19

99

Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa  

Science.gov (United States)

Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

Klopfenstein, Marie

2005-09-01

100

Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect  

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Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

SatoshiShioiri

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-01

102

Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

Klassen, Stephen

2006-09-01

103

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

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Full Text Available Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enablethe conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on aliterature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used.Results: Nurse researchers (N = 100 from 22 countries were invited to participate. Theresponse rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97. The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100. The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22. This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research.Conclusion: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used tostrategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R. Uys

2013-01-01

104

Faces in Context: A Review and Systematization of Contextual Influences on Affective Face Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion” approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

Wieser, Matthias J.; Brosch, Tobias

2012-01-01

105

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. OBJECTIVES: The current study [...] aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. METHOD: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. RESULTS: Nurse researchers (N = 100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. CONCLUSION: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Uys, Leana R.; Newhouse, Robin P.; Oweis, Arwa; Liang, Xiaokun.

106

Knowledge about knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

2006-01-01

107

Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective  

CERN Document Server

All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

2012-01-01

108

Intelligent Contextual Algorithm For Harmonics Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents methods for classification of harmonics present in the electrical signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Contextual Clustering (CC and Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA. Power quality meter has been used to collect the electrical signal data from a 40W Fluorescent Lamp (FL. In the captured data, variouselectrical disturbances are introduced through Matlab code. FFT has been used for extraction of features from the acquired electrical signal. The FFT, CC, BPA and BPACC algorithms have been implemented by Matlab. Comparison of performance classification of harmonics by CC, BPA and BPACC are presented.

M.K. ELANGO

2010-06-01

109

Contextual design defining customer-centered systems  

CERN Multimedia

This book introduces a customer-centered approach to business by showing how data gathered from people while they work can drive the definition of a product or process while supporting the needs of teams and their organizations. This is a practical, hands-on guide for anyone trying to design systems that reflect the way customers want to do their work. The authors developed Contextual Design, the method discussed here, through their work with teams struggling to design products and internal systems. In this book, you'll find the underlying principles of the method and how to apply them to diff

Beyer, Hugh

1997-01-01

110

Probabilistic Generation of Quantum Contextual Sets  

CERN Multimedia

We give a method for exhaustive generation of a huge number of Kochen-Specker contextual sets, based on the 600-cell, for possible experiments and quantum gates. The method is complementary to our previous parity proof generation of these sets, and it gives all sets while the parity proof method gives only sets with an odd number of edges in their hypergraph representation. Thus we obtain 35 new kinds of critical KS sets with an even number of edges. Using a random sample of the sets generated with our method, we give a statistical estimate of the number of sets that might be obtained in an eventual exhaustive enumeration.

Megill, Norman D; Waegell, Mordecai; Aravind, P K; Pavicic, Mladen

2011-01-01

111

Minimal proofs of state-independent contextuality  

CERN Document Server

We show that a corollary of the results in arXiv:1112.5149v1 provides proofs of state-independent contextuality (SIC) in any finite dimension d>2 with a smaller number of rays than those recently presented by Yu and Oh (arXiv:1112.5513v1). Specifically, we show that d+10 rays are sufficient to prove SIC. These results are compared with the Kochen-Specker (KS) sets with the smallest number of rays known. We also identify in which dimensions the minimum SIC and KS sets are still unknown.

Cabello, Adan

2012-01-01

112

Contextual classification of hyperspectral remote sensing images Application in vegetation monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this thesis is the study of strategies for including contextual information in the classification of hyperspectral remote sensing images. The objectives are twofold. The first objective is the development of new techniques for including contextual information. To this end, an important category of techniques, i.e. modelling the relationships between local pixel neighbourhoods as Markov Random Fields, is first considered. A strategy to extend the flexibility of this technique, by describing the classification problem at hand by an extended hierarchical tree, is introduced. The second technique under study, i.e. the state-of-the-art approach to extract contextual information in the form of attribute profiles, is extended to colour images. As a practical application, two images from the same scene, including a hyperspectral and a high spatial resolution colour image, are jointly classified by first extracting colour attribute profiles from the latter. In addition, a hybrid decision fusion approach is proposed to perform the classification. The third technique, developed in this work, is an approach for assessing the accuracy of contextual classification results, by introducing a new reference, and considering a new measure, based on the complexity of edges, i.e. transitions between classes. The second objective of this thesis is the application of contextual classification techniques to the essential problem of assessing the conservation status of Natura 2000 habitats. The main challenge is in the structural complexity of most of the habitats under study, since these habitats display a high degree of heterogeneity and, in addition, cannot be simply identified by the presence of a single or a few dominant species. In order to handle this complexity, a contextual framework has been developed to reduce the problem to a number of more manageable sub-problems. First, the list of habitats is translated to a hierarchical scheme that includes the most important land cover types that these habitats are composed of. Second, the already developed hierarchical Markov Random Field approach is applied for classification. Finally, a contextual reclassification approach is applied to the resulting land cover map in order to construct a habitat map, suitable for determining the conservation status of the habitats.

Thoonen, Guy

113

Iterative contextual CV model for liver segmentation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a novel iterative active contour algorithm, i.e. Iterative Contextual CV Model (ICCV), and apply it to automatic liver segmentation from 3D CT images. ICCV is a learning-based method and can be divided into two stages. At the first stage, i.e. the training stage, given a set of abdominal CT training images and the corresponding manual liver labels, our task is to construct a series of self-correcting classifiers by learning a mapping between automatic segmentations (in each round) and manual reference segmentations via context features. At the second stage, i.e. the segmentation stage, first the basic CV model is used to segment the image and subsequently Contextual CV Model (CCV), which combines the image information and the current shape model, is iteratively performed to improve the segmentation result. The current shape model is obtained by inputting the previous automatic segmentation result into the corresponding self-correcting classifier. The proposed method is evaluated on the datasets of MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge. The experimental results show that we obtain more and more accurate segmentation results by the iterative steps and satisfying results are obtained after about six iterations. Also, our method is comparable to the state-of-the-art work on liver segmentation.

Ji, Hongwei; He, Jiangping; Yang, Xin

2014-01-01

114

Multi-level Contextual Type Theory  

CERN Document Server

Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable ...

Boespflug, Mathieu; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.3

2011-01-01

115

Learning speed and contextual isolation in bumblebees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bumblebees will learn to approach one of a pair of patterns (a 45 degrees grating) and to avoid the other (a 135 degrees grating) to reach a feeder, and to do the opposite to reach their nest (approach a 135 degrees grating and avoid a 45 degrees grating). These two potentially competing visuo-motor associations are insulated from each other because they are set in different contexts. We investigated what training conditions allow the two sets of associations to be acquired without mutual interference. If the discrimination at the feeder has already been learnt, then the discrimination at the nest can be readily acquired without disrupting the bees' performance at the feeder. But, if the two are learnt simultaneously, there is mutual interference. Prior experience of the two contexts before the discriminations are learnt does not prevent interference. We conclude that visual patterns and contextual cues must already be associated with each other for a visuo-motor association to be isolated from the interfering effects of a competing association that is acquired in a separate context. This pattern of results was mimicked in a simple neural network with Hebbian synapses, in which local and contextual cues were bound together into a configural unit. PMID:11916996

Fauria, Karine; Dale, Kyran; Colborn, Matthew; Collett, Thomas S

2002-04-01

116

Contextual Control of Slot-Machine Gambling: Replication and Extension  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants were trained and tested to select stimuli of differing physical quantities in the presence of 2 color contextual cues for more than and less than. Following more than and less than relational training, participants allocated the majority of their responses to the slot machine that shared formal properties of color with the contextual

Hoon, Alice; Dymond, Simon; Jackson, James W.; Dixon, Mark R.

2008-01-01

117

Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42 received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle and skin conductance responses. In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on fear potentiated startle data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by skin conductance responses, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events.

VanessaAnnaVan Ast

2012-10-01

118

Stability of Recent and Remote Contextual Fear Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories…

Frankland, Paul W.; Ding, Hoi-Ki; Takahashi, Eiki; Suzuki, Akinobu; Kida, Satoshi; Silva, Alcino J.

2006-01-01

119

Using spatial hypertext to visualize composite knowledge in emergency responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Having the right information at the right time is crucial to make decisions during emergency responses. To fulfill this requirement, emergency management systems must provide emergency managers with knowledge management and visualization tools. The goal is twofold: on one hand, to organize knowledge coming from different sources, mainly the emergency response plans (the formal knowledge) and the information extracted from the emergency development (the contextual knowledge); on the other hand...

Canos, Jose H.; Penades, Maria Carmen; Solis, Carlos; Borges, Marcos R. S.; Llavador, Manuel

2010-01-01

120

Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

Papaioannou Alexandra

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion“ approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

MatthiasJWieser

2012-11-01

122

Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization  

CERN Document Server

Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...

Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew

2012-01-01

123

Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals  

CERN Document Server

This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further develops Eugene Garfield's notions of a field's 'citation potential' defined as the average length of references lists in a field and determining the probability of being cited, and the need in fair performance assessments to correct for differences between subject fields. A journal's subject field is defined as the set of papers citing that journal. SNIP is defined as the ratio of the journal's citation count per paper and the citation potential in its subject field. It aims to allow direct comparison of sources in different subject fields....

Moed, Henk F

2009-01-01

124

Probabilistic generation of quantum contextual sets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We give a method for exhaustive generation of a huge number of Kochen-Specker contextual sets, based on the 600-cell, for possible experiments and quantum gates. The method is complementary to our previous parity proof generation of these sets, and it gives all sets while the parity proof method gives only sets with an odd number of edges in their hypergraph representation. Thus we obtain 35 new kinds of critical KS sets with an even number of edges. We also give a statistical estimate of the number of sets that might be obtained in an eventual exhaustive enumeration. -- Highlights: ? We generate millions of new Kochen-Specker noncontextual set. ? We find thousands of novel critical Kochen-Specker (KS) sets. ? We give algorithms for generating KS sets from a new 4-dim class. ? We represent KS sets by means of hypergraphs and their figures. ? We give a new exact estimation method for random sampling of sets.

2011-09-12

125

Accident prevention in a contextual approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law or as a focus on developing the insurance system to establish (economic) motivation. This paper suggests a more elaborated theoretical approach emphasising a differentiated understanding of the external and internal actors and how these relations form the actions of the actors. The theoretical components of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions and programs on accident prevention.

Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

2003-01-01

126

Ontological models and the interpretation of contextuality  

CERN Multimedia

Studying the extent to which realism is compatible with quantum mechanics teaches us something about the quantum mechanical universe, regardless of the validity of such realistic assumptions. It has also recently been appreciated that these kinds of studies are fruitful for questions relating to quantum information and computation. Motivated by this, we extend the ontological model formalism for realistic theories to describe a set of theories emphasizing the role of measurement and preparation devices by introducing `hidden variables' to describe them. We illustrate both the ontological model formalism and our generalization of it through a series of example models taken from the literature. Our extension of the formalism allows us to quantitatively analyze the meaning contextuality (a constraint on successful realistic theories), finding that - taken at face-value - it can be realized as a natural interaction between the configurations of a system and measurement device. However, we also describe a property...

Harrigan, Nicholas

2007-01-01

127

Contextuality offers device-independent security  

CERN Document Server

The discovery of quantum key distribution by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) bases on the fundamental quantum feature: incompatibility of measurements of quantum non-commuting observables. In 1991 Ekert showed that cryptographic key can be generated at a distance with help of entangled (correlated) quantum particles. Recently Barrett, Hardy and Kent showed that the non-locality used by Ekert is itself a good resource of cryptographic key even beyond quantum mechanics. Their result paved the way to new generation of quantum cryptographic protocols - secure even if the devices are built by the very eavesdropper. However, there is a question, which is fundamental from both practical and philosophical point of view: does Nature offer security on operational level based on the original concept behind quantum cryptography - that information gain about one observable must cause disturbance to another, incompatible one? Here we resolve this problem by using another striking feature of quantum world - contextuality. It is...

Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard; Pawlowski, Marcin; Bourennane, Mohamed

2010-01-01

128

Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

129

Contextual Bandit Learning with Predictable Rewards  

CERN Document Server

Contextual bandit learning is a reinforcement learning problem where the learner repeatedly receives a set of features (context), takes an action and receives a reward based on the action and context. We consider this problem under a realizability assumption: there exists a function in a (known) function class, always capable of predicting the expected reward, given the action and context. Under this assumption, we show three things. We present a new algorithm---Regressor Elimination--- with a regret similar to the agnostic setting (i.e. in the absence of realizability assumption). We prove a new lower bound showing no algorithm can achieve superior performance in the worst case even with the realizability assumption. However, we do show that for any set of policies (mapping contexts to actions), there is a distribution over rewards (given context) such that our new algorithm has constant regret unlike the previous approaches.

Agarwal, Alekh; Kale, Satyen; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

2012-01-01

130

Active Architecture for Pervasive Contextual Services  

CERN Multimedia

Pervasive services may be defined as services that are available "to any client (anytime, anywhere)". Here we focus on the software and network infrastructure required to support pervasive contextual services operating over a wide area. One of the key requirements is a matching service capable of as-similating and filtering information from various sources and determining matches relevant to those services. We consider some of the challenges in engineering a globally distributed matching service that is scalable, manageable, and able to evolve incrementally as usage patterns, data formats, services, network topologies and deployment technologies change. We outline an approach based on the use of a peer-to-peer architecture to distribute user events and data, and to support the deployment and evolution of the infrastructure itself.

Kirby, Graham; Morrison, Ron; Dunlop, Mark; Connor, Richard; Nixon, Paddy

2010-01-01

131

Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

Edwards Nancy

2011-08-01

132

Negatively-Marked MCQ Assessments That Reward Partial Knowledge Do Not Introduce Gender Bias Yet Increase Student Performance and Satisfaction and Reduce Anxiety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The ‘Single Answer’ (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are...

Bond, A. Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O. F.; Jones, D. Hugh; Restall, Colin J.; Dudley, Edward; Keulen, Geertje

2013-01-01

133

Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. We present our approach in this paper and highlight a number of future extensions with additional contextual information.

Bogers, Toine

134

The Use of Contextual Problems to Support Mathematical Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the use of contextual problems to supportmathematical learning based on current classroom practice. The usecontextual problems offers some potentials to engage and motivatestudents in learning mathematics but it also presents some challengesfor students in classrooms. Examples of the use of contextual problemsfrom several primary classrooms in Indonesia will be discussed.Contextual problems do not lend themselves to a meaningful learningfor students. Teachers need to engage students in interpreting thecontext in order to explore key mathematical ideas. It is critical toestablish explicit links between the context and the mathematics ideasto support students’ progression in their mathematical thinking.

Wanty Widjaja

2013-07-01

135

Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders / Efeito de estratégias de codificação sobre a memória contextual em idosos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memory task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.

Rosane Papaleo Freire

2008-01-01

136

Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups managing shared image collections or other types of information.

Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

2009-01-01

137

Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

StefanPollmann

2009-10-01

138

Uplink Transfer of Live Video Synchronized with Multiple Contextual Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A promising feature brought along the progressive deployment of LTE concerns the increase of the uplink bandwidth. We focus in this paper on an innovative usage associated with this new capability and defined by the simultaneous transmission toward websites or distant spectators of live video caught through end user devices like smartphones, together with contextual data generated by the device. The contextual information may indeed be precious to the spectator for several reasons. On one sid...

Bouabdallah, Ahmed; Wehbe, Houssein; Stevant, Bruno

2012-01-01

139

Contextual fear conditioning differs for infant, adolescent, and adult rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contextual fear conditioning was tested in infant, adolescent, and adult rats in terms of Pavlovian conditioned suppression. When a discrete auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) within the largely olfactory context, infants and adolescents conditioned to the context with substantial effectiveness but adult rats did not. When unpaired presentations of the CS and US occurred within the context, contextual fear conditioning was strong for adul...

Esmori?s-arranz, Francisco J.; Me?ndez, Ca?stor; Spear, Norman E.

2008-01-01

140

Contextualizing an EFL teacher's beliefs about grammar teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on a qualitative study that focused on an EFL teacher's beliefs and her practices concerning grammar teaching. The study aimed at investigating how the teacher's beliefs could be contextualized with classroom data. In the first stage of data collection and analysis, an open questionnaire was given to the teacher. Then, as a means of contextualizing the beliefs found in the analysis of the questionnaire data, the second stage of data collection and analysis focused on epis...

Gloria Gil; Marcia Regina Pawlas Carazzai

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Stability of recent and remote contextual fear memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories engages a number of different cortical regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). To examine whether this reorganization leads to greater ...

2006-01-01

142

Contextual Spaces with Functional Skins as OpenSocial Extension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Portability, flexibility and extensibility are essential features of social media platforms. When such Web platforms are able to take user's context into account, they provide better user experience and enhance the effectiveness of users' actions. In this paper, we discuss an extension to OpenSocial standard, namely contextual space, that shapes the framework, in which people carry out online activities. The proposed contextual space extension defines how a set of Open...

Bogdanov, Evgeny; Salzmann, Christophe; Gillet, Denis

2011-01-01

143

Sampling mobile opinion: A contextual postcard questionnaire study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding requirements of mobile communities is challenging because of their geographical distribution and frequent movement. We present a study of backpackers travelling in Australia which utilizes a research method called contextual postcard questionnaires. The method uses brief, open–ended questions to solicit contextual responses from backpackers that are relevant for development of tourism and mobile communication technologies. Eight hundred postcards were distributed via hoste...

Axup, Jeff; Viller, Stephen

2006-01-01

144

A Contextual Behavioral Approach for Obesity Surgery Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates a contextual behavioral approach for obesity surgery patients. In a contextual approach a behavior is interpreted as inseparable from its current and historical context. Candidates for bariatric surgery often have a history of self-stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating for emotional relief. Despite losing a large amount of weight post surgery, psychological problems may still be present for some patients. One possible common underlying process observed in body conce...

2012-01-01

145

Contextual-value approach to the generalized measurement of observables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a detailed motivation for and definition of the contextual values of an observable, which were introduced by Dressel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 240401 (2010)]. The theory of contextual values extends the well-established theory of generalized state measurements by bridging the gap between partial state collapse and the observables that represent physically relevant information about the system. To emphasize the general utility of the concept, we first construct ...

Dressel, J.; Jordan, A. N.

2011-01-01

146

Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph...

Bogers, Toine

2011-01-01

147

Ontological representation of context knowledge for visual data fusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context knowledge is essential to achieve successful information fusion, especially at high JDL levels. Context can be used to interpret the perceived situation, which is required for accurate assessment. Both types of knowledge, contextual and perceptual, can be represented with formal languages such as ontologies, which support the creation of readable representations and reasoning with them. In this paper, we present an ontology-based model compliant with JDL to represent knowledge in cogn...

Go?mez Romero, Juan; Patricio Guisado, Miguel A?ngel; Garci?a, Jesu?s; Molina, Jose? M.

2009-01-01

148

Data matching of building polygons at multiple map scales improved by contextual information and relaxation  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of matching spatial data at different map scales is to find corresponding objects at different levels of detail (LODs) that represent the same real-world phenomena. This is a prerequisite for integrating, evaluating and updating spatial data collected and maintained at various scales. However, matching spatial data is not straightforward due to the ambiguities caused by problems like many-to-many correspondence, non-systematic displacement and different LODs between data sets. This paper proposes an approach to matching areal objects (e.g. buildings) based on relaxation labeling techniques widely applied in pattern recognition and computer vision. The underlying idea is to utilize contextual information (quantified by compatibility coefficient) in an iterative process, where the ambiguities are reduced until a consistent matching is achieved. This paper describes (1) a domain-specific extension to previous relaxation schemes and (2) a new compatibility coefficient that exploits relative relationships between areal object pairs in spatial data. Our approach were validated through extensive experiments using building data sets at 1:10k and 1:50k as an example. Our contextual approach showed superior performance against a non-contextual approach in general and especially in ambiguous situations. The proposed approach can also be applied to matching other areal features and/or for a different scale range.

Zhang, Xiang; Ai, Tinghua; Stoter, Jantien; Zhao, Xi

2014-06-01

149

Activation of nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor impairs contextual fear learning in mice through glutamatergic mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated whether the selective nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor agonist, Ro64-6198, impairs acquisition of fear conditioning through glutamatergic mechanisms. Systemic administration of Ro64-6198 (0.3 and 1mg/kg) or the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.03 and 0.1mg/kg) prior to conditioning severely impaired contextual but not cued fear learning in C57BL/6N mice. When administered together at sub-effective doses, Ro64-6198 (0.5mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.05mg/kg), synergistically impaired contextual fear learning, but left cued fear learning intact. We next used the immediate shock deficit paradigm (ISD) to examine the effects of Ro64-6198 and MK-801 on contextual memory formation in the absence of the foot-shock. As expected, naive mice that were shocked briefly after being placed in the training chamber displayed no contextual fear conditioning. This learning deficit was elevated by prior exposure of mice to the training context. Furthermore, administration of Ro64-6198 and MK-801, either separately at amnesic doses (1mg/kg and 0.1mg/kg, respectively) or concomitantly at sub-effective doses (0.5mg/kg and 0.05mg/kg, respectively) significantly reduced the facilitating effects of context preexposure. These findings demonstrate the existence of functional antagonism between NOP and NMDA receptors that predominantly contributes to modulation of conditioned fear learning which involves spatial-processing demands. PMID:19100850

Goeldner, Celia; Reiss, Davids; Wichmann, Jürgen; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib

2009-05-01

150

The Costs of Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology, almost infinite amounts of information are instantly available, it still takes the same amount of time and work to learn French as it did in the year 1800-or to master physics or philosophy.

Prusak, Laurence

2008-01-01

151

Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization  

Science.gov (United States)

We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

2014-01-01

152

Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

2014-01-01

153

The Effectiveness Of High Levels Of Knowledge Regarding Hiv/Aids In Reducing Discriminatory Attitudes And Behaviour Towards Hiv-Infected People  

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Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between increasing levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and perceptions of discriminatory attitudes and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS. Employees (3662 from a large accounting firm were exposed to a survey and a response rate of 41% or 1532 was received. The secondary objective of the study was to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in the mean difference of knowledge scores of groups created in terms of the different biographical variables. ANOVA’S (to determine the significance of differences between the means, t-tests (two groups only and F-statistics were used for the analysis. Given the large sample size an F-test is not conclusive and the effect of the difference in sample size needs to be taken into account. For this reason it was also necessary to look at the Partial Eta Squared. Results indicate that respondents are generally knowledgeable about the prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS and that respondents’ level of knowledge correlates negatively with discriminatory practices.

W. J. Coetsee

2006-11-01

154

Efeito de estratégias de codificação sobre a memória contextual em idosos / Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudos recentes mostram que a memória contextual parece ser especialmente suscetível aos efeitos negativos do envelhecimento sobre a cognição. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do uso de estratégias de codificação no desempenho de idosos em uma tarefa de memória contextual. Vinte e qu [...] atro idosos e vinte e um jovens foram divididos em dois subgrupos para a realização da tarefa: um que recebeu orientação específica para estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto e outro que não recebeu essa orientação na fase de codificação. Na fase de teste, os participantes foram submetidos às tarefas de reconhecimento do objeto e do contexto. Os resultados indicam que a estratégia de estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto foi capaz de reverter os déficits de memória contextual dos idosos. Abstract in english Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memo [...] ry task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.

Freire, Rosane Papaleo; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Caldana, Fábio; Santos, Cristiane Moro dos; Krebs, Luciana Cunha; Souza, Valdemarina Bidone de Azevedo e; Schröder, Nadja; Bromberg, Elke.

155

Efeito de estratégias de codificação sobre a memória contextual em idosos Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudos recentes mostram que a memória contextual parece ser especialmente suscetível aos efeitos negativos do envelhecimento sobre a cognição. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do uso de estratégias de codificação no desempenho de idosos em uma tarefa de memória contextual. Vinte e quatro idosos e vinte e um jovens foram divididos em dois subgrupos para a realização da tarefa: um que recebeu orientação específica para estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto e outro que não recebeu essa orientação na fase de codificação. Na fase de teste, os participantes foram submetidos às tarefas de reconhecimento do objeto e do contexto. Os resultados indicam que a estratégia de estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto foi capaz de reverter os déficits de memória contextual dos idosos.Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memory task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.

Rosane Papaleo Freire

2008-01-01

156

Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development. PMID:21569250

Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

2011-01-01

157

Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

Marincola Francesco M

2011-05-01

158

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança / The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples i [...] deia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro. Abstract in english Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of [...] teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Pereira, Maria Eveline de Castro; Silva, Pedro César Teixeira; Costa, Marco Antonio Ferreira da; Jurberg, Claudia; Borba, Cintia de Moraes.

159

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança / The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples i [...] deia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro. Abstract in english Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of [...] teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Pereira, Maria Eveline de Castro; Silva, Pedro César Teixeira; Costa, Marco Antonio Ferreira da; Jurberg, Claudia; Borba, Cintia de Moraes.

160

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which manag...

Ionescu, Vladimir-codrin; Cornescu, Viorel

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

2011-04-01

162

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU

2012-11-01

163

The time course of contextual effects on visual word recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sentence comprehension depends on continuous prediction of upcoming words. However, when and how contextual information affects the bottom-up streams of visual word recognition is unknown. This study examined the effects of word frequency and contextual predictability (cloze probability of a target word embedded in the sentence on N1, P200, and N400 components, which are related to various cognitive operations in early visual processing, perceptual decoding, and semantic processing. The data exhibited a significant interaction between predictability and frequency at the anterior N1 component. The predictability effect, in which the low predictability words elicited a more negative N1 than high predictability words, was only observed when reading a high frequency word. A significant predictability effect occurred during the P200 time window, in which the low predictability words elicited a less positive P200 than high predictability words. These data suggest that the contextual information facilitate visual-feature detection and orthographic pre-activation in the early stage of visual word processing. There is also a significant predictability effect on the N400 component; low predictability words elicited a greater N400 than high predictability words, although this effect did not interact with frequency. The temporal dynamics of the manner in which contextual information affects the visual word recognition is discussed. These findings support the interactive account, suggesting that contextual information facilitates visual-feature and orthographic processing in the early stage, and semantic integration in the later stage.

Chia-YingLee

2012-08-01

164

Modality effect on contextual integration in people with Williams syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study meaningful social stimuli were used as probes in a task requiring the judgment of semantic appropriateness to investigate contextual integration ability to test the ability of people with Williams syndrome (WS) to integrate information, as opposed to the use of meaningless syllables in audiovisual studies (the McGurk effect). Participants were presented with background auditory primes followed by targets that were either congruent or incongruent with the prime. Two modes of target were presented: a visual target (AV task) or an auditory target (AA task). Participants were asked to respond yes to contextually appropriate pairs and no to those that were contextually inappropriate. The congruency effect was measured as an index of successful central coherence. Similar to normally developing controls, people with WS showed shorter response latencies and greater accuracy in recognizing congruent pairs compared with incongruent pairs. Their performance did not differ from that of controls matched by mental age, but was inferior to that of controls matched by chronological age. The results revealed generalized contextual integration for auditory primes in both tasks, consistent with previous studies using visual presentation of social-related stimuli in people with WS (Hsu, 2013a, 2013c). Further demonstration of the presence of a modality effect on contextual coherence implies that cross-modal learning may be advantageous compared with unimodal learning. PMID:24769430

Hsu, Ching-Fen

2014-07-01

165

The Cohomology of Non-Locality and Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a previous paper with Adam Brandenburger, we used sheaf theory to analyze the structure of non-locality and contextuality. Moreover, on the basis of this formulation, we showed that the phenomena of non-locality and contextuality can be characterized precisely in terms of obstructions to the existence of global sections. Our aim in the present work is to build on these results, and to use the powerful tools of sheaf cohomology to study the structure of non-locality and contextuality. We use the Cech cohomology on an abelian presheaf derived from the support of a probabilistic model, viewed as a compatible family of distributions, in order to define a cohomological obstruction for the family as a certain cohomology class. This class vanishes if the family has a global section. Thus the non-vanishing of the obstruction provides a sufficient (but not necessary condition for the model to be contextual. We show that for a number of salient examples, including PR boxes, GHZ states, the Peres-Mermin magic square, and the 18-vector configuration due to Cabello et al. giving a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem in four dimensions, the obstruction does not vanish, thus yielding cohomological witnesses for contextuality.

Samson Abramsky

2012-10-01

166

Early onset problem behavior, young adult psychopathology, and contextual risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective study of 692 male twins was undertaken to investigate the relationships among early adolescent problem behavior, contextual risk, and disinhibitory psychopathology. Early adolescent problem behavior was assessed by the number of the following behaviors engaged in by the time of the age-14 assessment: (1) tobacco use, (2) alcohol use, (3) marijuana use, (4) other illicit drug use, (5) sexual intercourse, and (6) police contact. Contextual risk was assessed as a composite of measures of peer models, parent-offspring conflict, and academic engagement from the age-14 assessment. Disinhibitory psychopathology was assessed by symptoms of nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and adult antisocial behavior at the age-18 assessment. Early adolescent problem behavior and contextual risk were strongly correlated (r = .53) and both were strongly and independently associated with symptoms of disinhibitory psychopathology (r from .35 to .60). The association of early adolescent problem behavior with both contextual risk and disinhibitory psychopathology was mediated entirely by genetic factors while the association between contextual risk and disinhibitory psychopathology was mediated by both genetic and nonshared environmental factors. The results are discussed in the context of emerging research on the prognostic significance of early adolescent problem behavior for risk of adult psychopathology. PMID:17539364

Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

2007-02-01

167

Contextualization of visualizations of climate data  

Science.gov (United States)

The CHARMe project (http://www.charme.org.uk) is developing tools and approaches to allow users to contextualize climate datasets by linking them to publications, documents, datasets, and other related information (we call this "commentary metadata"). This allows users to benefit from the existing expertise accumulated within the community. In this presentation we describe how we enhance the visualization of climate data by combining interactive web-based visualizations with commentary information, enabling the user to see data in its full context. Visualization tools satisfying the following specific use cases are currently being developed in the context of the CHARMe project: - Plotting timeseries data alongside "significant events" that might affect the quality of the data. This tool is subject of a different abstract submitted by ECMWF. - Visualization of climate data user's commentary related to a subset of a dataset. For many applications it is very useful to be able to provide commentary about specific geographic regions, time windows or even specific pixels within a dataset. For example: recording instances of poor data quality, inaccurate pixel classification or effects of cirrus cloud and sun-glint, etc. This tool is aimed mainly at scientific users and analysts who wish to understand climate datasets in detail, from new users who want to find out more about a feature found in a dataset to experts who want to record, disseminate and evaluate the results of their research work, especially when related to a specific area of the world. The development of this tool is based in existing projects developed at University of Reading, such as ncWMS and BlogMyData. - Visual intercomparison of data and metadata, allowing synchronized interaction with several comparable climate datasets. This will assist users in judging which dataset is best fitted for their purpose as well as provide users with a better understanding of a dataset by measuring observational difference between datasets. This tool will focus on specific examples such as comparison of ESA's CCI SST and Cloud datasets, intercomparison of Climate Impact variables, and Obs4MIPS and CMIP5 data. The presentation will briefly introduce the CHARMe project and explore in more detail the work undergone so far in the development of the tools mentioned above.

Alegre, Raquel; Blower, Jon; Kratzenstein, Frank; Rozum, Iryna; Clifford, Debbie; O'Neil, Alan

2014-05-01

168

Knowledge Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

1999

169

Contextual Normalization Applied to Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Diagnosis  

CERN Multimedia

Diagnosing faults in aircraft gas turbine engines is a complex problem. It involves several tasks, including rapid and accurate interpretation of patterns in engine sensor data. We have investigated contextual normalization for the development of a software tool to help engine repair technicians with interpretation of sensor data. Contextual normalization is a new strategy for employing machine learning. It handles variation in data that is due to contextual factors, rather than the health of the engine. It does this by normalizing the data in a context-sensitive manner. This learning strategy was developed and tested using 242 observations of an aircraft gas turbine engine in a test cell, where each observation consists of roughly 12,000 numbers, gathered over a 12 second interval. There were eight classes of observations: seven deliberately implanted classes of faults and a healthy class. We compared two approaches to implementing our learning strategy: linear regression and instance-based learning. We have...

Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Halasz, Michael

1993-01-01

170

A Contextual-Bandit Approach to Personalized News Article Recommendation  

CERN Multimedia

Personalized web services strive to adapt their services (advertisements, news articles, etc) to individual users by making use of both content and user information. Despite a few recent advances, this problem remains challenging for at least two reasons. First, web service is featured with dynamically changing pools of content, rendering traditional collaborative filtering methods inapplicable. Second, the scale of most web services of practical interest calls for solutions that are both fast in learning and computation. In this work, we model personalized recommendation of news articles as a contextual bandit problem, a principled approach in which a learning algorithm sequentially selects articles to serve users based on contextual information about the users and articles, while simultaneously adapting its article-selection strategy based on user-click feedback to maximize total user clicks. The contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we propose a new, general contextual bandit algorithm that is ...

Li, Lihong; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

2010-01-01

171

State-independent quantum contextuality with single photons  

CERN Document Server

Bell's theorem states that quantum predictions cannot be reproduced with hidden variable theories satisfying locality. The Kochen-Specker theorem states that quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced with non-contextual hidden variables. The result of a measurement is non-contextual when it is not affected by other compatible measurements being carried out on the same individual system. While Bell's theorem applies only to entangled states of composite systems, a distinguishing feature of the Kochen-Specker theorem is that it is valid for any quantum state, entangled or not, of any system, even for single systems. We present the first experimental state-independent violation of an inequality for non-contextual theories on single particles in the spirit of the original Kochen-Specker theorem. The tested inequality involves correlations between results of sequential compatible measurements on single photons. We show that 20 different single-photon states, ranging from states with maximal internal entanglement to m...

Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

2009-01-01

172

Tight inequalities for qutrit state-independent contextuality  

CERN Document Server

Recently, Yu and Oh have proposed a noncontextuality inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 030402 (2012)] which involves the simplest and hence most fundamental scenario for state-independent quantum contextuality. As we show, Yu and Oh's inequality is neither tight (i.e., it does not belong to the minimal set which completely separates contextual and noncontextual correlations) nor optimal (i.e., its quantum violation is not maximal). Moreover, we provide a method for obtaining state-independent noncontextuality inequalities with the maximal violation and, using it, we identify two essentially different state-independent tight inequalities with maximal quantum violation for Yu and Oh's scenario. These inequalities allow for an easier and more significant experimental test of qutrit state-independent quantum contextuality.

Cabello, Adan; Gühne, Otfried; Kleinmann, Matthias; Larsson, Jan-Ake

2012-01-01

173

Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

2007-07-01

174

Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual / Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive / Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo pretende, desde uma perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente a categoria gênero. Nas seis seções que o compõem procura realizar uma crítica profunda da ciência social, a partir, porém, de uma ótica menos rígida no tratamento de categorias dicotômicas excludentes tais como masculino- [...] feminino, racional-afetivo, privado-público, liberal-comunitário, para mencionar alguns dos tópicos centrais suscitados pelos vários debates sobre gênero. A metodologia utilizada é a comparativa, a partir da qual se analisam autores como Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre outros. Uma das principais conclusões alcançadas neste trabalho é a de que os esquemas teóricos tradicionais, ainda existentes, dificultam a possibilidade de se alcançar amplos consensos e atrasam o equacionamento de problemas práticos, tais quais, no caso peruano, aqueles oriundos da tradução do discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo pretende, desde una perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente la categoría de género. En los seis apartados que lo componen, se realiza una crítica profunda de la ciencia social pero desde una óptica menos rígida en el planteamiento de categorías dicotómicas excluyentes como [...] masculino-femenino, racional-afectivo, privado-público, o liberal - comunitario, por mencionar algunos tópicos centrales en los que se han suscitado varios de los debates sobre género. La metodología utilizada es la comparativa, a partir de la cual se analizan autores como Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre otros. Una de las principales conclusiones a la que se arriba en este artículo es que los tradicionales esquematismos, aun existentes en la actualidad, hacen muy difícil la posibilidad de alcanzar consensos amplios y postergan riesgosamente el tratamiento de problemas prácticos como los que, en el caso peruano, suponen la traducción del discurso de equidad en acciones y prácticas cotidianas concretas que permitan a los ciudadanos un real acceso a la justicia. Abstract in english This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional [...] , private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

Soledad, Escalante Beltrán.

175

Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

Joseph Pamela

2012-11-01

176

Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

Strange, Winifred

2005-04-01

177

Contextual Factors in the Open Approach-Based Mathematics Classroom Affecting Development of Students’ Metacognitive Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect that contextual factors have on the development of students’ metacognitive strategies in the open approach-based mathematics classroom: the framework for learning and teaching activities in the class, the teacher’s role, and students’ role. The methodology was based on ethnographic research and Begle’s conceptual framework (1969, which focused on observation and study on the nature of occurrences. In the context, the researcher conducted participatory classroom observation. The target groups were a mathematics teacher, who is a student as a math teaching practitioner, and four elementary school students at Grade 1 ranging from 6 to 7 years of age from Koo Kham Pittayasan School. Data were collected from 3 learning units totaling 6 study periods. Qualitative data analysis procedures were based on analyzing videos, protocols, students’ written work, and time units for dealing with activities and narrative description. The concept of 4 open approach-based teaching steps (Inprasitha, 2010 was considered for the analysis of the teacher’s teaching behavior and students’ problem solving behavior. The study findings suggest that contextual factors in the open approach-based mathematics classroom affect the development of students’ metacognitive strategies in which the teacher has planned learning management related to learning unit structures and focused on instructional activities allowing students “to create knowledge from learning how to solve problems by themselves”. In addition, the study demonstrates that the teacher and students have different roles in each teaching step.

Ariya Suriyon

2013-09-01

178

Contextual advertising in the process of the web-community positioning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the role of contextual advertising in the process of web-communities’ positioning is described, the main web-communities’ sites quality characteristics are distinguished, the approaches to the improvement of contextual

Sloboda, Kateryna

2012-01-01

179

Interpreting the rhetoric of contextual instrumentality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Progress is synonymous with scientific/technological research. Research stands at the pinnacle of scholarly practice. Universities wage intense public relations for pre-eminence in the ‘research university’ wars. What is rated ‘1.0’ in the politics of PBRF*? A double-blind refereed, peer-reviewed book published by a university press. Research authority is synonymous with its mode of dissemination. Books confer professional credibility as repositories for new knowledge extracted from r...

2006-01-01

180

Knowledge Technologies  

CERN Multimedia

Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

Milton, Nick

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Knowledge Flows and Knowledge Externalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diffusion of knowledge in the world generates positive externalities if knowledge flows increase the productivity of R&D. Our work analyzes knowledge diffusion and knowledge externalities in generating innovation and in determining productivity. We first estimate the determinants of knowledge flows across 141 sub-national regions in 19 countries of Europe and North America as revealed by patent citation between US-granted patents. Then we estimate the impact of these flows on productivity...

Peri, Giovanni

2002-01-01

182

Constructing Knowledge through a Role-Play in a Web-Based Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to find out how and on what level the students of two separate secondary schools shared and constructed knowledge on imperialism by interacting through historical role characters in a Web-based environment. Furthermore, the study aimed to find out how social and contextual features affected the nature of knowledge sharing and…

Arvaja, Maarit; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Hakkinen, Paivi; Etelapelto, Anneli

2003-01-01

183

Identifying Organizational Knowledge Creation Enablers through Content Analysis: The Voice from the Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of the current research was to identify core contextual factors that facilitate or hinder the process of organizational knowledge creation practices. The grounded theory framework and negotiated coding approach were employed. Serving as the fundamental research framework was Nonaka and his colleagues' knowledge creation and…

Song, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Seung Won; Yoon, Hea Jun

2011-01-01

184

The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2009-01-01

185

O efeito da interferência contextual em idosos / The contextual interference effect in elderly people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da interferência contextual (EIC) na aquisição de habilidades motoras em idosos. Foi utilizada uma tarefa de posicionamento manual, caracterizada pelo transporte de três bolas de tênis em uma seqüência e tempo alvo pré-determinados. O experimen [...] to constou de 4 fases: 1) aquisição, 2) transferência 1 (T1), 3) transferência 2 (T2) e 4) retenção da aquisição. Os sujeitos foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=12): grupo de prática aleatória-aleatória (A-A), que realizou a tarefa de forma aleatória na aquisição e na retenção; grupo de prática aleatória-blocos (A-B), que realizou a aquisição de forma aleatória e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-blocos (B-B), que realizou a aquisição e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-aleatória (B-A), que realizou a aquisição em blocos e a retenção de forma aleatória. Os resultados mostraram que um dos grupos que praticou em regime aleatório apresentou-se mais variável durante a fase de aquisição que os grupos que praticaram em blocos. Entretanto, este mesmo grupo aleatório, no primeiro bloco do teste de retenção da aquisição, mostrou-se mais preciso que um dos grupos em blocos. Esses resultados confirmaram parcialmente o EIC em idosos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference effect (CIE) in the acquisition of motor skills in elderly people. A manual positioning task was used, it was characterized by the transport of three tennis ball in a movement sequence and predetermined target times. The experi [...] ment consisted of 4 phases: 1) acquisition, 2) transfer 1 (T1), 3) transfer 2 (T2) and 4) retention of the acquisition. The subjects were randomly distributed into four groups: random-random group (R-R), which performed the tasks in a random order in the acquisition and retention; random-blocked group (R-B), which performed the acquisition in a random order and the retention in a blocked order; blocked-blocked group (B-B), which performed the tasks in a blocked order in the acquisition and retention; blocked-random group (B-R), which performed the acquisition in a blocked order and the retention in a random order. The results showed that one of the random groups was more variable during the acquisition compared to the both blocked groups. However, this random group, in the first block of the retention was more precise than one of the blocked groups. These results partially confirm the CIE in elderly people.

Gonçalves, Wesley R.; Lage, Guilherme M.; Silva, Alexandro B. da; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Benda, Rodolfo N..

186

Hierarchical segmentation of malignant gliomas via integrated contextual filter response  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel methodology for the automated segmentation of Glioblastoma Multiforme tumors given only a high-resolution T1 post-contrast enhanced channel, which is routinely done in clinical MR acquisitions. The main contribution of the paper is the integration of contextual filter responses, to obtain a better class separation of abnormal and normal brain tissues, into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation (SWA) algorithm. The SWA algorithm uses neighboring voxel intensities to form an affinity between the respective voxels. The affinities are then recursively computed for all the voxel pairs in the given image and a series of cuts are made to produce segments that contain voxels with similar intensity properties. SWA provides a fast method of partitioning the image, but does not produce segments with meaning. Thus, a contextual filter response component was integrated to label the aggregates as tumor or non-tumor. The contextual filter responses were computed via texture filter responses based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method. The GLCM results in texture features that are used to quantify the visual appearance of the tumor versus normal tissue. Our results indicate the benefit of incorporating contextual features and applying non-linear classification methods to segment and classify the complex case of grade 4 tumors.

Dube, Shishir; Corso, Jason J.; Yuille, Alan; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; El-Saden, Suzie; Sinha, Usha

2008-04-01

187

Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA. Co-infusion of ACEA and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioural conditions that, by themselves, did not result in either a reconsolidation impairment by sulfasalazine alone or reactivation-induced upregulation of Zif268 expression. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential.

JonathanL CLee

2014-04-01

188

New Automata for Parsing Semi-Bracketed Contextual Grammars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bracketed and fully bracketed contextual grammars were introduced to bring the concept of tree structure to the strings by associating a pair of parentheses to the adjoined contexts in the derivation. But these grammars fail to generate the basic non-cont...

K. Lakshmanan M. Anand

2008-01-01

189

Contextual objectivity a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics  

CERN Document Server

An attempt is made to formulate quantum mechanics (QM) in physical rather than in mathematical terms. It is argued that the appropriate conceptual framework for QM is "contextual objectivity", which includes an objective definition of the quantum state. This point of view shines a new light on topics such as the reduction postulate and the quantum measurement process.

Grangier, P

2000-01-01

190

State-independent quantum contextuality for continuous variables  

CERN Document Server

Recent experiments have shown that nature violates noncontextual inequalities regardless of the state of the physical system. So far, all these inequalities involve measurements of dichotomic observables. We show that state-independent quantum contextuality can also be observed in the correlations between measurements of observables with genuinely continuous spectra, highlighting the universal character of the effect.

Plastino, Angel R

2010-01-01

191

A Contextual-Functional Meta-Framework for Counselling Supervision  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an approach to clinical supervision, entitled the Contextual-Functional Meta-Framework (CFM), is developed and articulated, based on a consideration of current literature and the author's extensive practice experience. First, the context for the development of the CFM, and its formative influences, are examined, followed by a review…

Chang, Jeff

2013-01-01

192

Testing a Model of Employee Selection: A Contextual Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined selection practices applied to education. The selected contextual factors were tested to see whether school administrators took consideration of person-organization fit (POF) factors when they select applicants during the selection process. The results showed that POF factors affected selection when school size was under…

Harada, Kiyoe; Bowman, Jeffry S.

2004-01-01

193

Strategic Word Attack: Acquired Contextual Strategies in Young Readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study demonstrated that young children who have difficulty with phonics can be taught to read through other methods, that phonics is only one of the many useful strategies that a child can employ, and that many contextual strategies are easier to learn and more reliable than phonics. A case study was conducted during an intervention with a young…

Matz, Karl A.

194

Formas de construtivismo: mudança conceitual e construtivismo contextual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Geelan¿s (1997 two-dimensional model of forms of constructivism, William Cobern¿s contextual constructivism is opposed to conceptual change pedagogy, which Geelan associates with personal constructivism. In this paper, we discuss the relationships between these two forms of constructivism, highlighting some consequences to science teaching.

Charbel Ni\\u00F1o El-Hani

2002-01-01

195

Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, kno...

F. Hayes-Roth

1980-01-01

196

Detecting Malapropisms Using Measures of Contextual Fitness Détection d'erreurs grammaticales à l'aide de mesures d'adéquation contextuelle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While detecting simple language errors (e.g. misspellings, number agreement, etc.) is nowadays standard functionality in all but the simplest text-editors, other more complicated language errors might go unnoticed. A difficult case are errors that come in the disguise of a valid word that fits syntactically into the sentence. We use the Wikipedia revision history to extract a dataset with such errors in their context. We evaluate statistical and knowledge-based measures of contextual fitness ...

Torsten Zesch

2013-01-01

197

Necessary and sufficient condition for state-independent contextual measurement scenarios.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of identifying measurement scenarios capable of revealing state-independent contextuality in a given Hilbert space dimension is considered. We begin by showing that for any given dimension d and any measurement scenario consisting of projective measurements, (i) the measure of contextuality of a quantum state is entirely determined by its spectrum, so that pure and maximally mixed states represent the two extremes of contextual behavior, and that (ii) state-independent contextuality is equivalent to the contextuality of the maximally mixed state up to a global unitary transformation. We then derive a necessary and sufficient condition for a measurement scenario represented by an orthogonality graph to reveal state-independent contextuality. This condition is given in terms of the fractional chromatic number of the graph ?f(G) and is shown to identify all state-independent contextual measurement scenarios including those that go beyond the original Kochen-Specker paradigm. PMID:24580422

Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Horodecki, Pawel

2014-01-31

198

KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

Ovidiu NICOLESCU

2007-01-01

199

Neurabin contributes to hippocampal long-term potentiation and contextual fear memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurabin is a scaffolding protein that interacts with actin and protein phosphatase-1. Highly enriched in the dendritic spine, neurabin is important for spine morphogenesis and synaptic formation. However, less is known about the role of neurabin in hippocampal plasticity and its possible effect on behavioral functions. Using neurabin knockout (KO) mice, here we studied the function of neurabin in hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and behavioral memory. We demonstrated that neurabin KO mice showed a deficit in contextual fear memory but not auditory fear memory. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings in the hippocampal CA1 neurons showed that long-term potentiation (LTP) was significantly reduced, whereas long-term depression (LTD) was unaltered in neurabin KO mice. Moreover, increased AMPA receptor but not NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission was found in neurabin KO mice, and is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of GluR1 at the PKA site (Ser845) but no change at the CaMKII/PKC site (Ser831). Pre-conditioning with LTD induction rescued the following LTP in neurabin KO mice, suggesting the loss of LTP may be due to the saturated synaptic transmission. Our results indicate that neurabin regulates contextual fear memory and LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:18183288

Wu, Long-Jun; Ren, Ming; Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhuo, Min

2008-01-01

200

Environmental complexity affects contextual fear conditioning following hippocampal lesions in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual fear conditioning has become a benchmark measure for hippocampal function, even though several studies report successful acquisition in hippocampal-damaged rodents. The current study examined whether environmental complexity may account for these discrepancies. We directly compared single-session contextual fear conditioning in rats in a simple vs. complex environment. Hippocampal lesions led to reduced fear conditioning in both contexts, as measured by freezing, but the effect was significantly greater in the complex context. As well, lesions led to generalized fear when the complex context was paired with shock, but not when the simple context was paired. We suggest that the representation of the simple context formed by rats with hippocampal lesions was adequate to support associative learning, but the representation of the complex context, which depended to a greater extent on relational learning, was not. The results were interpreted as consistent with theories of hippocampal function that emphasize its role in integrating multiple stimulus elements in a memory trace. PMID:17415748

Moses, Sandra N; Winocur, Gordon; Ryan, Jennifer D; Moscovitch, Morris

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Dinámica contextual de la educción de requisitos software / Contextual dynamic of the software requirements elicitation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La educción de requisitos software desde los stakeholders ha sido declarada como una actividad clave que influye poderosamente sobre la calidad de los requisitos especificados y, por lo tanto, del producto final del desarrollo. Por esta razón, es incuestionable la necesidad de contar con guías clara [...] s para conducir la interacción con los propietarios de la información del dominio y de las necesidades a las que se pretende dar solución. Este trabajo se centra en la modelación de la educción considerando la influencia de los agentes contextuales del proceso tales como: eductor, quien conduce la actividad; informante, quien posee la información relevante; dominio del problema, características de la problemática a atacar; y proceso, características y restricciones de la actividad misma. El artículo analiza la dinámica que relaciona y condiciona estos factores para seleccionar la técnica a aplicar en cada sesión de educción. Finalmente, el trabajo contribuye con un modelo temporal del proceso y con la representación de la casuística principal del proceso de educción. Abstract in english The software requirements elicitation from stakeholders has been stated as a key activity influencing strongly on quality of specified requirements and, therefore, of the final development product. For this raison, is undoubtly the necessity to dispose clear guidelines to drive the interrelationship [...] with the owners of the domain information and the needs that require solutions.This work focuses on the model of the elicitation considering the influence of the contextual agents of the process, such as: elicitor, who drive the activity; informant, who possess the relevant information; problem domain, characteristics of the problematic to tackle; and process, characteristics and restrictions of the activity itself. The article analyses the dynamic that relates these factors to select the technique to use in each elicitation session. Finally, the work contributes with a time model of the process and with the representation of the main casuistic of elicitation process.

Dante, Carrizo.

202

Entrepreneurship Education at University Level : Contextual Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Entrepreneurship has been declared the most significant driver in the future development of societal welfare. Business, organisations and the individual person should be motivated for - and develop competence in - perceiving new opportunities through reflective action and hence participate in the creation of change and growth in society. This capacity and inclination for change and innovation is thus conceived as an important human trait, which has come to be known as "enterprising behaviour" in international research. In which ways do these demands challenge the universities and its role in regional and societal context? Interaction between universities, business sector and political system through the so-called "triple-helix-model" is said to be the basis for growth and innovation. Does it mean that knowledge creation and exchange should be based on the concept of entrepreneurial university? Related to that, what are then the internal challenges for the entire education culture and for the role of the teacher / researcher? It is some of the questions the paper tries to answer or at least give some deeper insight to.

Blenker, Per; Dreisler, Poul

2006-01-01

203

Contextual Classification of Image Patches with Latent Aspect Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a novel approach for contextual classification of image patches in complex visual scenes, based on the use of histograms of quantized features and probabilistic aspect models. Our approach uses context in two ways: (1 by using the fact that specific learned aspects correlate with the semantic classes, which resolves some cases of visual polysemy often present in patch-based representations, and (2 by formalizing the notion that scene context is image-specific—what an individual patch represents depends on what the rest of the patches in the same image are. We demonstrate the validity of our approach on a man-made versus natural patch classification problem. Experiments on an image collection of complex scenes show that the proposed approach improves region discrimination, producing satisfactory results and outperforming two noncontextual methods. Furthermore, we also show that co-occurrence and traditional (Markov random field spatial contextual information can be conveniently integrated for further improved patch classification.

Florent Monay

2009-02-01

204

Contextual Classification of Image Patches with Latent Aspect Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a novel approach for contextual classification of image patches in complex visual scenes, based on the use of histograms of quantized features and probabilistic aspect models. Our approach uses context in two ways: (1 by using the fact that specific learned aspects correlate with the semantic classes, which resolves some cases of visual polysemy often present in patch-based representations, and (2 by formalizing the notion that scene context is image-specific—what an individual patch represents depends on what the rest of the patches in the same image are. We demonstrate the validity of our approach on a man-made versus natural patch classification problem. Experiments on an image collection of complex scenes show that the proposed approach improves region discrimination, producing satisfactory results and outperforming two noncontextual methods. Furthermore, we also show that co-occurrence and traditional (Markov random field spatial contextual information can be conveniently integrated for further improved patch classification.

Quelhas Pedro

2009-01-01

205

Contextual equivalence for higher-order pi-calculus revisited  

CERN Document Server

The higher-order pi-calculus is an extension of the pi-calculus to allow communication of abstractions of processes rather than names alone. It has been studied intensively by Sangiorgi in his thesis where a characterisation of a contextual equivalence for higher-order pi-calculus is provided using labelled transition systems and normal bisimulations. Unfortunately the proof technique used there requires a restriction of the language to only allow finite types. We revisit this calculus and offer an alternative presentation of the labelled transition system and a novel proof technique which allows us to provide a fully abstract characterisation of contextual equivalence using labelled transitions and bisimulations for higher-order pi-calculus with recursive types also.

Jeffrey, A; Jeffrey, Alan; Rathke, Julian

2005-01-01

206

Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

René Chalon

2007-10-01

207

Services surround you: Physical-virtual linkage with contextual bookmarks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our daily life is pervaded by digital information and devices, not least the common mobile phone. However, a seamless connection between our physical world, such as a movie trailer on a screen in the main rail station and its digital counterparts, such as an online ticket service, remains difficult. In this paper, we present contextual bookmarks that enable users to capture information of interest with a mobile camera phone. Depending on the user’s context, the snapshot is mapped to a digit...

Henze, Niels; Reiners, Rene?; Righetti, Xavier; Rukzio, Enrico; Boll, Susanne

2008-01-01

208

Insights from societal psychology: a contextual politics of societal change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we demonstrate that societal psychology makes a unique contribution to the study of change through its focus on the 'contextual politics' of change, examining the different interests at stake within any social context. Societal psychology explores the contexts which promote or inhibit social and societal change and can be seen as a bridge between social and political psychology. It focuses on how the context shapes the ways in which societal change is understood, supported or re...

Howarth, Caroline; Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora; Franks, Bradley; Garcia-lorenzo, Lucia; Gillespie, Alex; Gleibs, Ilka H.; Goncalves-portelinha, I.; Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Lahlou, Saadi; Mannell, Jenevieve Claire; Reader, Tom W.; Tennant, C.

2013-01-01

209

Emergence of non-contextuality in macroscopic systems  

CERN Document Server

Quantum theory is no doubt the most successful invention of humanity on par with Cuban cigars and single malt whiskey. Nevertheless it has been plagued by numerous interpretational and conceptual problems since its birth. One such problem is the emergence of the classicality of the macroscopic world from its underlying quantum structure. In particular, the macroscopic world doesn't appear to be contextual, even though the fabric of reality is; we propose an explanation for this.

Kurzynski, Pawel; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2011-01-01

210

A contextual interference account of distinctiveness effects in recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we report on two experiments that aimed to shed light on the memorability effect that derives from varying the uniqueness of contextual cues presented at encoding and retrieval. We sought to understand the locus of the recognition advantage for studying and testing words with nominally irrelevant features that are rarely shared with other words (“low-fan” features) as compared with features that are studied with more words (“high-fan” features). Each word was studied ...

Park, Heekyeong; Arndt, Jason; Reder, Lynne M.

2006-01-01

211

Contextual equivalence for higher-order pi-calculus revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The higher-order pi-calculus is an extension of the pi-calculus to allow communication of abstractions of processes rather than names alone. It has been studied intensively by Sangiorgi in his thesis where a characterisation of a contextual equivalence for higher-order pi-calculus is provided using labelled transition systems and normal bisimulations. Unfortunately the proof technique used there requires a restriction of the language to only allow finite types. We revisit th...

Jeffrey, Alan; Rathke, Julian

2005-01-01

212

Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV) system for road following. However, current vision?based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour), variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured ro...

Erke Shang; Xiangjing An; Jian Li; Lei Ye; Hangen He

2013-01-01

213

Contextual and time dependent pain in fibromyalgia: An explorative study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Little is known about contextual effects on chronic pain, and how vulnerability factors influence pain in different contexts. We wanted to examine if fibromyalgia (FM) pain varied between two social contexts, i.e. at home versus in a doctor office, when it was measured the same day, and if pain was stable for 14 years when measured in similar contexts (doctor office). Our secondary aim was to explore if pain vulnerability factors varied in the two differen...

Fors Egil A; Landmark Tormod; Bakke Øyvind

2012-01-01

214

Improving information retrieval-based concept location using contextual relationships  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For software engineers to find all the relevant program elements implementing a business concept, existing techniques based on information retrieval (IR) fall short in providing adequate solutions. Such techniques usually only consider the conceptual relations based on lexical similarities during concept mapping. However, it is also fundamental to consider the contextual relationships existing within an application’s business domain to aid in concept location. As an example, this paper prop...

2012-01-01

215

Personal and contextual factors in the construction of acting careers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research intends to explore the personal and contextual factors that are the basis of the formulation and the implementation of vocational choices in acting careers. The twenty eight student actors that participated in the study were asked to write an auto-biographical description of the personal factors and the educational opportunities they recognised as de-terminant for their career choice. The analysis of the results allowed the identification of per-sonal features, such as au...

Bahia, Sara; Janeiro, Isabel; Duarte, Ricardo

2007-01-01

216

A Contextual Information Retrieval Model based on Influence Diagrams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A key challenge in information retrieval is the use of contex- tual evidence within the ad-hoc retrieval. Our contribution is particularly based on the belief that contextual retrieval is a decision-making prob- lem. For this reason we propose to apply influence diagrams witch are an extension of Bayesian networks to such problems, in order to solve the hard problem of user based relevance estimation. The basic underlying idea is to substitute to the traditional relevance function which measu...

Zemirli, Nesrine; Tamine-lechani, Lynda; Boughanem, Mohand

2007-01-01

217

Top-k Queries with Contextual Fuzzy Preferences  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the interpretation of database queries with preference conditions of the form “attribute is low (resp. medium, high)” in the situation where the user is not aware of the actual content of the database but still wants to retrieve the best possible answers (relatively to that content). An approach to the definition of the terms “low”, “medium” and “high” in a contextual and relative manner is introduced.

Bosc, Patrick; Pivert, Olivier; Mokhtari, Amine

218

AUTOMATIC CONTEXTUAL TEXT CORRECTION USING THE LINGUISTIC HABITS GRAPH LHG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. This paper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a Linguistic Habit Graph (LHG) also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler has been constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graph after text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis of this algorithm using this LHG were...

Marcin Gadamer; Adrian Horzyk

2009-01-01

219

Mining Contextual Information for Ephemeral Digital Video Preservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For centuries the archival community has understood and practiced the art of adding contextual information while preserving an artifact. The question now is how these practices can be transferred to the digital domain. With the growing expansion of production and consumption of digital objects (documents, audio, video, etc.) it has become essential to identify and study issues related to their representation. A cura­tor in the digital realm may be said to have the same responsibilities as on...

2009-01-01

220

Contextualizing Risk in the Assessment of Intellectually Disabled Individuals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we examine the idea of expanding structured clinical judgement from primarily offender variables to a broader framework in which environmental (including staff variables are given equal consideration in a comprehensive risk appraisal conducted for risk management purposes of intellectually disabled individuals. It is posited that only by contextualizing the individual’s risk within environmental variables can an accurate portrayal of current dynamic risk (and hence the management of that risk be construed.

Douglas P. Boer

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Representing idioms: syntactic and contextual effects on idiom processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work on the processing of idiomatic expressions argues against the idea that idioms are simply big words. For example, hybrid models of idiom representation, originally investigated in the context of idiom production, propose a priority of literal computation, and a principled relationship between the conceptual meaning of an idiom, its literal lemmas and its syntactic structure. We examined the predictions of the hybrid representation hypothesis in the domain of idiom comprehension. We conducted two experiments to examine the role of syntactic, lexical and contextual factors on the interpretation of idiomatic expressions. Experiment I examines the role of syntactic compatibility and lexical compatibility on the real-time processing of potentially idiomatic strings. Experiment 2 examines the role of contextual information on idiom processing and how context interacts with lexical information during processing. We find evidence that literal computation plays a causal role in the retrieval of idiomatic meaning and that contextual, lexical and structural information influence the processing of idiomatic strings at early stages during processing, which provide support for the hybrid model of idiom representation in the domain of idiom comprehension. PMID:24416962

Holsinger, Edward

2013-09-01

222

Sharing knowledge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

2009-07-01

223

Ontological semantics for gathering and routing contextual knowledge in highly distributed autonomic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much recent research has focused on applying Autonomic Computing principles to achieve constrained self-management in adaptive systems, through self-monitoring and analysis, strategy planning, and self adjustment. However, in a highly distributed system, just monitoring current operation and context is a complex and largely unsolved problem domain. This difficulty is particularly evident in the areas of network management, pervasive computing, and autonomic communications. This paper presents...

2007-01-01

224

"Knowledge Must Be Contextual": Some Possible Implications of Complexity and Dynamic Systems Theories for Educational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now widely accepted that qualitative and quantitative research traditions, rather than being seen as opposed to or in competition with each other (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995; Furlong, 2004 ) should be used, where appropriate, in some kind of combination (Bryman & Cramer, 1999; Moore et al., 2003 ). How this combining is to be understood…

Haggis, Tamsin

2008-01-01

225

Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

2006-01-01

226

Pay knowledge as a motivator of performance - Case: Neste Oil Corporation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding how much and what employees know about pay determination and pay-related processes can help organizations to improve pay satisfaction and its effectiveness as a motivator. Elevated pay knowledge has been found more effective than pay raises in motivating performance and promoting organizational commitment. Unlike previous survey-based pay knowledge studies covering multiple organizations with low contextualization, this single case study researches pay knowledge in the organizat...

Mikkonen, Juho

2013-01-01

227

Distinct contribution of the parietal and temporal cortex to hand configuration and contextual judgements about tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropsychological studies showed that manipulatory and semantic knowledge can be independently impaired in patients with upper-limb apraxia, leading to different tool use disorders. The present study aimed to dissociate the brain regions involved in judging the hand configuration or the context associated to tool use. We focussed on the left supramarginalis gyrus (SMG) and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), whose activation, as evidenced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, suggests that they may play a critical role in tool use. The distinctive location of SMG in the dorsal visual stream led us to postulate that this parietal region could play a role in processing incoming information about tools to shape hand posture. In contrast, we hypothesized that MTG, because of its interconnections with several cortical areas involved in semantic memory, could contribute to retrieving semantic information necessary to create a contextual representation of tool use. To test these hypotheses, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere transiently with the function of either left SMG or left MTG in healthy participants performing judgement tasks about either hand configuration or context of tool use. We found that SMG virtual lesions impaired hand configuration but not contextual judgements, whereas MTG lesions selectively interfered with judgements about the context of tool use while leaving hand configuration judgements unaffected. This double dissociation demonstrates that the ability to infer a context of use or a hand posture from tool perception relies on distinct processes, performed in the temporal and parietal regions. The present findings suggest that tool use disorders caused by SMG lesions will be characterized by difficulties in selecting the appropriate hand posture for tool use, whereas MTG lesions will yield difficulties in using tools in the appropriate context. PMID:23313011

Andres, Michael; Pelgrims, Barbara; Olivier, Etienne

2013-09-01

228

Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management tech-nology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowl-edge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowl-edge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

Meliha Handzic

2001-11-01

229

En los ojos de Guliver: información contextual y sentido de orientación / In Gulliver's eyes: contextual information and sense of orientation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este manuscrito estudia el sentido de orientación de las personas en situaciones en que existe información de tipo contextual, que permite a las personas a ver locaciones muy distantes. Para ello se preguntó a 133 individuos indicar la ubicación de cinco hitos próximos y lejanos de la ciudad de Valp [...] araíso, en 2 situaciones distintas: miradores urbanos y lugares en el medio de la trama urbana en el que la visión de información contextual no es posible. Los resultados mostraron que no existía una asociación entre la Precisión Promedio por Persona y el sexo, edad, o el grado familiaridad, pero que sí con el lugar donde se habían hecho estas estimaciones. Abstract in english This manuscript examines how people gain a sense of orientation in scenarios where large-scale, contextual information is available. Two locations of the city of Valparaiso where one can see the entire city from the heights were selected for an experiment, as well as two areas in the middle of the u [...] rban grid where no large-scale information was available. A total of 133 people were asked to point to five non-visible landmarks in these scenarios and their estimations were compared with the real position of each target. Results showed no association between this value and people's gender, age or familiarity with the neighborhood. However, a positive relationship was found between this value and the places in which estimates were made.

Rodrigo I., Mora.

230

Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Knowledge, and Children's Subsequent Developmental Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M[subscript age] = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M[subscript age] = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child…

Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.

2014-01-01

231

Whose Knowledge?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sir Rudolph Peierls, in a reply to John Bell's last critique of the state of our understanding of quantum mechanics, maintained that it is easy to give an acceptable account of the physical significance of the quantum theory. The key is to recognize that all the density matrix characterizing a physical system ever represents is knowledge about that system. In answer to Bell's implicit rejoinder "Whose knowledge?" Peierls offered two simple consistency conditions that must be...

Mermin, N. David

2001-01-01

232

A Textural–Contextual Model for Unsupervised Segmentation of Multipolarization Synthetic Aperture Radar Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a novel unsupervised, non-Gaussian, and contextual segmentation method that combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual informa-tion for multilook polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR)data. This extends on previous studies that have shown the added value of both non-Gaussian modeling and contextual smoothing individually or for intensity channels only. The method is based on a Markov random field (MRF) model that integrates a K-Wishart d...

2013-01-01

233

The Nesting of Search Contexts within Natural Scenes: Evidence from Contextual Cuing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a contextual cuing paradigm, we examined how memory for the spatial structure of a natural scene guides visual search. Participants searched through arrays of objects that were embedded within depictions of real-world scenes. If a repeated search array was associated with a single scene during study, then array repetition produced significant contextual cueing. However, expression of that learning was dependent on instantiating the original scene in which the learning occurred: Contextual ...

Brooks, Daniel I.; Rasmussen, Ian P.; Hollingworth, Andrew

2010-01-01

234

The Problem of Contextuality and the Impossibility of Experimental Metaphysics Thereof  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently a new impulse has been given to the experimental investigation of contextuality. In this paper we show that for a widely used definition of contextuality there can be no decisive experiment on the existence of contextuality. To this end, we give a clear presentation of the hidden variable models due to Meyer, Kent and Clifton (MKC), which would supposedly nullify the Kochen-Specker Theorem. Although we disagree with this last statement, the models play a significant...

Hermens, Ronnie

2010-01-01

235

Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase is Essential for Maintenance of Remote Contextual Fear Memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although molecular mechanisms for hippocampus-dependent memory have been extensively studied, much less is known about signaling events important for remote memory. Here we report that mice lacking type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) are able to establish and retrieve remote contextual memory but unable to sustain it as long as wild type mice. Interestingly, mice over-expressing AC1 show superior remote contextual memory even though they exhibit normal hippocampus-dependent contextual memory. These...

Shan, Qiang; Chan, Guy C. -k; Storm, Daniel R.

2008-01-01

236

Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a short-term longitudinal design (6 months), this study examined cumulative contextual risk as a predictor of effortful control (EC) and social competence in a community sample of children (N = 80, ages 33–40 months at time 1). Maternal parenting was examined as a mediator of contextual risk. EC was assessed using laboratory tasks, and parenting was assessed using observational ratings. Time 1 contextual risk was negatively related to time 2 EC after controlling for time 1 EC. Mothers...

2007-01-01

237

The Preventive Health Education and Medical Home Project: a predictive and contextual model for low-income families.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Preventive Health Education and Medical Home Project (PHEMHP) is a predictive and contextual model intended to reduce low levels of health services utilization and improve preventive health techniques and disease self-management for low-income families in South Central Los Angeles, with the ultimate goal of attaching each child to a medical home. The model is designed to be implemented through educational and case management strategies. This paper presents the conceptual framework, critical intervention activities, and the different implementation variations the PHEMHP has already assumed. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:19821189

Tataw, David B; James, Frederick; Bazargan, Shahrzad

2009-01-01

238

Haunted quantum contextuality versus value indefiniteness - a minority report  

CERN Multimedia

Physical entities are ultimately (re)constructed from elementary yes/no events, in particular clicks in detectors or measurement devices recording quanta. Recently, the interpretation of certain such clicks has given rise to unfounded claims which are neither necessary nor sufficient, although they are presented in that way. In particular, clicks can neither inductively support nor "(dis)prove" the Kochen-Specker theorem, which is a formal result that has a deductive proof by contradiction. More importantly, the alleged empirical evidence of quantum contextuality, which is "inferred" from violations of bounds of classical probabilities by quantum correlations, is based on highly nontrivial assumptions, in particular on physical omniscience.

Svozil, Karl

2011-01-01

239

Proposed experiment for testing quantum contextuality with neutrons  

CERN Document Server

We show that an experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality using 2 degrees of freedom of single neutrons based on a violation of an inequality derived from the Peres-Mermin proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem would be more conclusive than those obtained from previous experiments involving pairs of ions [M. A. Rowe et al., Nature (London) 409, 791 (2001)] and single neutron [Y. Hasegawa et al., Nature (London) 425, 45 (2003)] based on violations of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-like inequalities.

Cabello, Adan; Rauch, Helmut; Hasegawa, Yuji

2008-01-01

240

On the Nature of Institutional Research and the Knowledge and Skills It Requires.  

Science.gov (United States)

Institutional research in higher education is seen as comprised of three levels of intelligence/information: (1) technical and analytical; (2) understanding of student, faculty, financial, and facilities issues; and (3) contextual intelligence concerning the culture of higher education and the particular institution. Knowledge and skills required…

Terenzini, Patrick T.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Time to Tango: Expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience. PMID:24830835

Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Alvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

2014-09-01

242

Impulsivity makes more susceptible to overeating after contextual appetitive conditioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animals can learn that specific contexts are associated with important biological events such as food intake through classical conditioning. Very few studies suggest this is also possible in humans and contextual appetitive conditioning might even be a main determinant of habitual overeating in vulnerable humans. A Virtual Reality laboratory was used to test whether humans show conditioned responding (increased food desires and expectations, increased salivation and increased food intake) to a specific context after repeated pairings of this context with intake. It was also examined whether the personality trait impulsivity strengthens this contextual appetitive conditioning. Conditioned context-induced reactivity was indeed demonstrated and impulsivity predicted increased intake in only the intake-associated context. It is concluded that humans easily learn desires to eat in intake-related environments. The data also suggest that in particular more impulsive people are vulnerable for conditioned context-induced overeating. This relatively easy learning of associations between specific contexts and intake might stimulate habitual overeating and contribute to increased obesity prevalence. PMID:23831016

van den Akker, Karolien; Jansen, Anita; Frentz, Florentine; Havermans, Remco C

2013-11-01

243

Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). PMID:24744449

D'Antona, Anthony D; Christiansen, Jens H; Shevell, Steven K

2014-01-01

244

Secondary Students' Stable and Unstable Optics Conceptions Using Contextualized Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on elucidating and explaining reasons for the stability of and interrelationships between students' conceptions about Light Propagation and Visibility of Objects using contextualized questions across 3 years of secondary schooling from Years 7 to 9. In a large-scale quantitative study involving 1,233 Korean students and 1,149 Singaporean students, data were analyzed from responses to the Light Propagation Diagnostic Instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different problem situations. Findings show that only about 10-45 % of students could apply their conceptions of basic optics in contextualized problem situations giving rise to both stable and unstable alternative conceptions. Students' understanding of Light Propagation concepts compared with Visibility of Objects concepts was more stable in different problem situations. The concepts of Light Propagation and Visibility of Objects were only moderately correlated. School grade was not a strong predictive variable, but students' school achievement correlated strongly with their conceptual understanding in optics. The teaching and learning approach and education systems in the two countries may have had some influence on students' conceptual understanding.

Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.

2014-04-01

245

Steps toward knowledge-based machine translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers the possibilities for knowledge-based automatic text translation in the light of recent advances in artificial intelligence. It is argued that competent translation requires some reasonable depth of understanding of the source text, and, in particular, access to detailed contextual information. The following machine translation paradigm is proposed. First, the source text is analyzed and mapped into a language-free conceptual representation. Inference mechanisms then apply contextual world knowledge to augment the representation in various ways, adding information about items that were only implicit in the input text. Finally, a natural-language generator maps appropriate sections of the language-free representation into the target language. We discuss several difficult translation problems from this viewpoint with examples of English-to-Spanish and English-to-Russian translations; and illustrate possible solutions as embodied in a computer understander called SAM, which reads certain kinds of newspaper stories, then summarizes or paraphrases them in a variety of languages. PMID:21868959

Carbonell, J G; Cullingford, R E; Gershman, A V

1981-04-01

246

Neuroleptic Drugs Revert the Contextual Fear Conditioning Deficit Presented by Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Potential Animal Model of Emotional Context Processing in Schizophrenia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of the present study was to characterize the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Adult male normotensive Wistar rats and SHR were submitted to the CFC task. Sensitivity of the animals to the shock and the ...

Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Regina Helena; Frussa-filho, Roberto; Abi?lio, Vanessa Costhek

2009-01-01

247

Contextual and individual assessment of dental pain period prevalence in adolescents: a multilevel approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Despite evidence that health and disease occur in social contexts, the vast majority of studies addressing dental pain exclusively assessed information gathered at individual level. Objectives To assess the association between dental pain and contextual and individual characteristics in Brazilian adolescents. In addition, we aimed to test whether contextual Human Development Index is independently associated with dental pain after adjusting f...

2010-01-01

248

Performance and Levels of Contextualization in a Selection of OECD Countries in PISA 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

Correct responses to the unitized items of PISA 2006 rely to differing extents on the contextual stimulus supplied. This difference is referred to in this study as the degree of contextualization. A selection of science items from PISA 2006 has been assigned to two categories, not by competencies as in the framework for the PISA survey, but by the…

Nentwig, Peter; Roennebeck, Silke; Schoeps, Katrin; Rumann, Stefan; Carstensen, Claus

2009-01-01

249

Intertrial Temporal Contextual Cuing: Association across Successive Visual Search Trials Guides Spatial Attention  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual cuing refers to the facilitation of performance in visual search due to the repetition of the same displays. Whereas previous studies have focused on contextual cuing within single-search trials, this study tested whether 1 trial facilitates visual search of the next trial. Participants searched for a T among Ls. In the training phase,…

Ono, Fuminori; Jiang, Yuhong; Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

2005-01-01

250

Contextual Admissions and Affirmative Action: Developments in Higher Education Policy in England  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the value of explaining contextual admissions policy directives through the conceptual lenses of meritocracy and social reproduction. It is suggested that examining these concepts can assist in highlighting some of the ideological and practical complexities associated with contextual admissions whilst providing opportunities to…

Lane, Laura; Birds, Rachel

2013-01-01

251

Post-Training Unilateral Amygdala Lesions Selectively Impair Contextual Fear Memories  

Science.gov (United States)

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) are both structures with key roles in contextual fear conditioning. During fear conditioning, it is postulated that contextual representations of the environment are formed in the hippocampus, which are then associated with foot shock in the amygdala. However, it is not known to what…

Flavell, Charlotte R.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

2012-01-01

252

Solving a Contextual Problem with the Spreadsheet as an Environment for Algebraic Thinking Development  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we report and discuss a contextual problem solving task that was proposed to a class of 8th grade (13-14-year-old) students. These students had been developing a reasonable experience in the use of the spreadsheet to model relations within contextual problems and chose to use this tool to solve the mentioned problem, engaging in…

Nobre, Sandra; Amado, Nelia; Carreira, Susana

2012-01-01

253

Does ignorance of the whole imply ignorance of the parts? - Large violations of non-contextuality in quantum theory  

CERN Document Server

A central question in our understanding of the physical world is how our knowledge of the whole relates to our knowledge of the individual parts. One aspect of this question is the following: to what extent does ignorance about a whole preclude knowledge of at least one of its parts? Relying purely on classical intuition, one would certainly be inclined to conjecture that a strong ignorance of the whole cannot come without significant ignorance of at least one of its parts. Indeed, we show that this reasoning holds in any non-contextual hidden variable model (NC-HV). Curiously, however, such a conjecture is false in quantum theory: we provide an explicit example where a large ignorance about the whole can coexist with an almost perfect knowledge of each of its parts. More specifically, we provide a simple information-theoretic inequality satisfied in any NC-HV, but which can be arbitrarily violated by quantum mechanics. Our inequality has interesting implications for quantum cryptography. More fundamentally, ...

Vidick, Thomas

2010-01-01

254

Compositional and contextual predictors for emotional problems among adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from a random sample of Danish schools. Students answered a questionnaire including mental health and the classroom environment. The outcome measure emotional problems was defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having difficulties falling asleep. Further, school-administrators answered a questionnaire on school environment and characteristics, e.g. policies against bullying. We applied multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at individual, classroom and school levels. Results Initially a large variation in emotional problems was observed from one school to another. The proportion of students with daily experience of emotional problems varied between 7% and 32% across schools. Individual level variables such as socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Students from low (OR=1.74 (CI:1.37;2.22)) and medium (OR=1.53 (CI:1.24;1.87)) social class, girls (OR=1.37 (CI:1.15;1.63)) and students exposed to bullying (OR=3.20 (CI:2.17;4.72)), had increased odds of experiencing emotional problems. At the classroom level, a high proportion of students who reported a negative classroom climate was significantly associated with emotional problems (OR=1.43 (CI:1.07;1.92)). Further, bullying seems to reach beyond the individual. In classes with a high prevalence of bullying, students have significantly higher odds (OR=1.33 (CI:1.05;1.70)) of experiencing emotional problems compared to classes where bullying didn´t appear. These findings suggest that contextual exposure affects emotional problems. Conclusions We expected compositional factors to explain much of the variation in prevalence of emotional problems between schools. This study suggests that contextual factors at the school and class level are important to take into account in studies of emotional problems among children and adolescents.

Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

255

On pigs and packers: Radically contextualizing a practice of science with Mexican immigrant students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on instructional practices observed in a high school English Learner (EL) Science course serving newcomer Mexican immigrant youth. The school is located in a rural Midwestern meatpacking community in which labor at the hog plant is economically- and racially-segmented; it is the town's Mexican residents, many of them undocumented, who comprise most of the unskilled labor force. The general purpose of the paper is to document how the economic and racial context of this community influences science instruction in the EL Science course and to describe how this presents particular challenges in achieving equitable science instruction for Mexican immigrant youth in these rural, globalizing places. Entering the data via critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995) and then utilizing Barton's (2003) "practice of science" perspective, with an eye toward achieving "radical contextuality" (Grossberg, 1997), we describe the science events, identities, and structures of the pig dissection lesson and detail how what these students could do with science, as rendered by that lesson, was limited by the roles the teacher attributed to the students, her inability to draw on their funds of knowledge as resources for learning, and the voice and position she allowed them to take up. The data reinforce conventional understandings of schools as sites of cultural reproduction (Bowels & Gintis, 1976), as well as of resistance (Giroux, 1983), but afford us a glimpse of the particularity of those mechanisms within the demographically-transitioning American Heartland, iconic of the era of global capitalism.

Richardson Bruna, Katherine; Vann, Roberta

2007-01-01

256

How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changing urban development in more sustainable directions poses numerous challenges for planning practitioners. Expert knowledge could be helpful for planners aiming at facing up to these challenges by developing innovative ways of meeting seemingly contradictive objectives and solving planning problems. This paper examines how planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge affect the content and goal achievement of plans, and discusses how changes in planning practice and research practice can contribute to improve goal achievement potentials. Goal achievement potential refers to whether the plans (if implemented) contribute to achieve defined objectives, which in this paper concern transition toward more sustainable mobility patterns and reduction of traffic volumes. The expert knowledge in question concerns how land use and transport systems developments influence traffic volumes in urban regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning this issue have emerged, but few empirical studies have been presented. The research in this paper involves case studies of strategic plan-making processes in three Scandinavian cities. A main finding is that whether the expert knowledge in question is used or not, and how it is used, indeed affect the goal achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call fortraffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge in question for explaining that these measures reduce the goal achievement potential of plans, for several reasons. It may seem as if the knowledge sometimes is ousted when it challenges the contextual agenda. Further, planners do not turn to written or research- based sources of knowledge for help in solving their planning problems. Instead, they rely on their embedded professional knowledge, which is sometimes outdated or misleading. It is found that changing towards land use and transport systems developments contributing to more sustainable mobility patterns requires considerable efforts from planning practitioners, as well as from planning researchers.

Tennøy, Aud; Lissandrello, Enza

2014-01-01

257

Atender o cuidar. Un problema contextual por discernir en la práctica profesional de enfermería / To assist or to care. A contextual problem to discern in the nursing professional practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objeto de una ciencia comprende fenómenos tanto de la naturaleza como de la vida social; incluye las propiedades de la actividad mental de los hombres como resultado de la imaginación, y entraña operaciones del pensamiento abstracto, tales como: concepto, juicio y razonamiento. No constituye una [...] certidumbre dada para siempre, es transformable; preserva cierto grado de estabilidad y designa la esencia de la actuación científica direccional del actor cultural, pero si en la ciencia existe bilateralidad terminológica, entonces habrá disgregación de la esencia de su surgimiento y desarrollo. El modo lógico básico de formación del conocimiento será difuso, y distinguir la singularidad del saber al cual se apega creará dispersión del pensamiento. Por tales razones se realizó este trabajo para desentrañar el problema contextual existente entre los conceptos cuidar/atender que rectoran la práctica profesional de enfermería en Cuba. Abstract in english The object of a science comprises phenomena either from nature as from social life; it includes properties from mental activity of men as a result of the imagination, and it involves functions of the abstract thought, such as: concept, judgment and reasoning. It doesn't constitute a certainty given [...] forever, it is transformable; it preserves certain degree of stability and it designs the essence of the cultural actor's directional scientific performance, but if in science terminological bilaterality exists, then there will be disintegration of the essence of its emergence and development. The basic logical way of emergence of knowledge will be diffuse, and to distinguish the singularity of the knowledge to which it joints will create dispersion in thinking. For such reasons this work was carried out to decipher the existent contextual problem between the concepts to care/to assist which guide the nursing professional practice in Cuba.

Félix, Kindelán Delís.

258

Pushing Personhood into Place : Situating Media in the Transfer of Rural Knowledge in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...

Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias

2010-01-01

259

Pushing Personhood into Place : Situating Media in the Transfer of Rural Knowledge in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...

Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias

2011-01-01

260

Aprendizagem motora e síndrome de Down: efeitos da frequência relativa reduzida de conhecimento de resultados / Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos de duas frequências (100 e 33%) de conhecimento de resultados (CR) na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora em indivíduos com síndrome de Down (SD). Vinte participantes com SD foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em dois grupos. O grupo 100% recebeu [...] CR após cada tentativa, enquanto o grupo 33% recebeu CR em um terço das tentativas, ou seja, uma tentativa com CR em cada bloco de três tentativas. A tarefa consistiu em arremessar um implemento em um alvo, com a mão dominante, sem visualizar o alvo. A fase de aquisição constou de 60 tentativas de prática, enquanto a fase de retenção, realizada 48 horas após, de 10 tentativas, sem CR. Os resultados indicaram a inexistência de diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclui-se que frequências relativas reduzidas de CR podem ser tão efetivas quanto altas frequências para a aprendizagem de habilidades motoras em adultos com SD. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33%) of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups.While the 100% group received KR aft [...] er each trial, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acquisition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Machado, Camila; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde; Schild, José Francisco Gomes; Drews, Ricardo.

 
 
 
 
261

The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

Vourdas, A. [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)

2013-08-15

262

Personalization and Contextualization of Learning Experiences based on Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.

Nicola Capuano

2014-04-01

263

An Optimal High Probability Algorithm for the Contextual Bandit Problem  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the problem of learning to predict with expert advice in an adversarial, on-line bandit setting. We study how to behave in a way that achieves nearly as much reward as the best expert with high probability, rather than in expectation. We provide the algorithm Exp4.P for solving this contextual bandit problem. We prove that Exp4.P competes with any set of policies or experts of size $N$ while incurring regret at most $O(\\sqrt{KT\\ln(N/\\delta)})$ with probability $1-\\delta$, where $K$ is the number of actions and $T$ is the number of rounds of interaction. This guarantee improves on all previous algorithms for this problem, whether in a stochastic or adversarial setting. We also test the new algorithm experimentally.

Beygelzimer, Alina; Li, Lihong; Reyzin, Lev; Schapire, Robert E

2010-01-01

264

The Information Systems Discipline in Australian Universities: A Contextual Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the contextual framework for a multi-method, multi-study of the State of the Information Systems Academic Discipline in Australia, and relates the genesis of the Australian study as preliminary to a larger Pacific-Asia study. Analysis of prior literature on the state of IS and on relevant theory, underpins a series of individual Australian state case studies that are combined with several conceptual analyses and a research issues survey. The paper outlines the methodological approach employed, with emphasis on the case study method of the multiple state studies. The process of multiple peer review of the studies is described. Importantly, this paper summarises and analyses each of the related sub-studies, also outlining ongoing work, beyond the overarching study reported herein.

Guy Gable

2006-11-01

265

Airport runway recognition in complex infrared image using contextual information  

Science.gov (United States)

Airport runway recognition is of great significance in fields like remote sensing, navigation and traffic monitoring. An airport runway recognition method using the "hypothesize-and-verify" paradigm is proposed. Firstly, local line segments of runway contour are extracted in complex infrared image. Secondly, basing on a new Line Segment Hough Transform, local line segments vote fuzzily in the parameter space to obtain global line segment clustering, and then parallel straight lines are extracted on the basis of parameter space to form hypotheses of potential airport runways. Finally, using contextual information of airport constructions, hypotheses disambiguation and verification of runway is accomplished primarily by extraction of runway markings and segmentation of transportation network, i.e. taxiways and apron. Experimental results demonstrate the good performance of our method on a variety of complex scenes.

Niu, Zhaodong; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Dinghe; Tang, Da; Chen, Zengping

2013-10-01

266

Simple unified proof of state-independent contextuality  

CERN Document Server

For years, the statement that quantum mechanics exhibits state-independent contextuality (SIC) has been based on a mathematical result pointed out by Kochen and Specker (KS) and Bell: the existence of the so-called KS sets. Recently, Yu and Oh have observed that KS sets are not necessary to prove SIC. Here we show that a set of observables in dimension d represented by rank-1 projectors reveals SIC if and only if the graph in which vertices represent vectors and edges link orthogonal ones has chromatic number larger than d. This provides a simple unified characterization of all SIC proofs, including KS, Peres-Mermin, Yu-Oh, and others' proofs. We apply this result to prove Yu and Oh's conjecture about the simplest SIC proof and to prove that any SIC set assisted with maximum entanglement generates nonlocality which cannot be improved by nonsignaling resources.

Cabello, Adan

2011-01-01

267

The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra

2013-08-01

268

ICT Enabled Knowledge Sharing – Impact of ICT on Knowledge Sharing Barriers : The Case of Avanade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies in recent years have revealed that use of ICT can significantly impact knowledge sharing in organizations by enhancing the knowledge sharing process, reducing knowledge sharing barriers, and introducing technology barriers. While this has been identified in many studies and a significant research has been carried out to identify knowledge sharing barriers, there exists a considerable dearth of research when the question of ‘which knowledge sharing barriers can ICT reduce and how?’...

Alamgir, Rana; Ahmed, Shahid

2011-01-01

269

Local model for contextual modulation in the cerebral cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

A neural response to a sensory stimulus in cerebral cortex is modulated when other stimuli are presented simultaneously. The other stimuli can modulate responses even when they do not drive the neural output alone, indicating a non-linear summation of synaptic activity. The mechanisms of the nonlinearity have remained unclear. Here, I explore a model which considers both network and intracellular processes, and which can account for various types of contextual modulation. The processes include synaptic sensitivity function, determination of inhibition strength, dendritic decay of membrane voltage, and summation of excitatory and inhibitory membrane voltages. First, the model assumes that excitatory and inhibitory units have the same input sensitivity function, which is more broadly tuned than the output tuning function. Second, a central property of the model is that inhibition is a fraction of excitation, determined by covariance between the input and the sensitivity function. With proper fraction, a model neuron sums apparently decorrelated input, regardless of correlations in the original input. Third, the model assumes that synaptic input lands anisotropically on the dendrites, which together with passive dendritic decay cause exponential decay in summation along the input space. This explains the difference between input sensitivity function and output tuning function, and thus accounts for the division between driving classical and modulating extra-classical receptive fields. The model simulations replicate single-cell area summation function, far surround facilitation, and a shift in tuning function due to contextual stimulation. The model is very general, and should be applicable to various interactions between cortical representations. PMID:21978829

Vanni, Simo

2012-01-01

270

Contextual and time dependent pain in fibromyalgia: An explorative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about contextual effects on chronic pain, and how vulnerability factors influence pain in different contexts. We wanted to examine if fibromyalgia (FM pain varied between two social contexts, i.e. at home versus in a doctor office, when it was measured the same day, and if pain was stable for 14 years when measured in similar contexts (doctor office. Our secondary aim was to explore if pain vulnerability factors varied in the two different contexts. Findings Fifty-five female FM patients were included in the study and scored pain in both contexts at baseline. Their age ranged between 21–68 years (mean 45.7, mean education level was 11 years and mean FM-duration was 15.6 years. Their mean pain was perceived significantly lower at home than in a doctor context the same day. However, pain was much more stable when measured in two similar contexts 14 year apart where 30 subjects (54.5% completed. Predictor analyses revealed that pain vulnerability factors apparently varied by home and doctor contexts. Conclusion Pain and pain predictors seem to vary by contexts and time, with less pain at home than to a doctor the same day, but with unchanged pain in the same context after 14 years. Thus, contextual pain cues should be accounted for when pain is measured and treated, e.g. by focusing more on home-measured pain and by optimizing the doctor office context. This explorative study should be followed up by a larger full-scale study.

Fors Egil A

2012-11-01

271

Knowledge management as an element in realizing nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A company is not defined by its competences but it lives in realizing these competences in products. The technical knowledge within the field, i.e. here in nuclear technology, is taken as granted at a first glance. For analyzing the role of knowledge management (KM) in the application this knowledge for our products, one can follow two different dimensions, thereby elucidating the needs and development requirements for KM methods: When first considering the 'operational' dimension, one can start from the scope of the manufacturer's knowledge which covers the construction of plants, then accompanying its life cycle, and pursues the development of the technology for the future. A board spectrum of KM activities has been established yet for these different phases, comprising tools with close product orientation or KM elements applied in 'support processes'. In cases of close KM integration in the business process, diversity over the different sectors of the company has emerged: 'locally' optimized solutions are favoured due to specific requirements of the technical field, to continuity or to ease of daily application. On the other hand, 'global' KM tools are often preferred for integration in 'global' support processes (as human resource (HR) management). This can be illustrated by some examples deployed yet, and their benefit: 1. Feedback procedures for new plant projects: capturing the experience during construction (e.g. by standardised reports), thereby strengthening quality criteria for the project and integrating evaluation into the project management (PM) process of the current project; thus reducing erection time - and related capital cost - for future plants. 2. Follow up event information on nuclear plants globally: by collecting and assessing events systematically for proactive technical action and as input for quality management (QM); thus identifying market needs in advance also. 3. IT based KM tool used in nuclear maintenance service: supporting PM as a planning tool, making available technical data, checklists and 'lessons learned' by a systematic data base solution; thus resulting in plant service optimized in respect to technical reliability and duration. 4. Expert networks: leading the technological progress in our own core competences, while keeping high quality by 'distributed' evaluation of the new developments; thus optimizing R and D budget allocation and follow-up development success. 5. Developing human resources (HR): defining consistent knowledge profiles for the employees for future projects; thus ensuring a well adjusted workforce - a main cost factor within the company. 6. Mentoring: for transfer of project skills and experience, fostering new ways and solutions; thus maintaining knowledge and facilitating the start-up phase for young employees. 7. External co-operations in R and D: an approach for complementing own knowledge by identifying alternative approaches; thus resulting in mutual benefit for the external institution and the company, keeping it on the edge of progress in a competitive environment. For the second step, the analysis of KM in the other - 'contextual' - dimension, it becomes apparent from examples that knowledge is applied usually in the context of project management and quality management. Both PM and QM are well established and organized under standards and guidelines, using 'best practices' and tools often applicable in other industries as well - a goal for KM as well. Obviously successful projects require close, complementary interaction of the three management aspects, and none of them can replace one of the others. KM is not a stand-alone basis for the product; in contrary, PM and QM are focused more tightly to the business process, relying on KM support in the 'back office' - and in many cases they are 'driving forces' for KM deployment. In this way, most of the aspects discussed usually for KM - as identification of knowledge gaps, acquisition of knowledge, its development, sharing, use, preservation and evaluation - derive the criteria from the busi ness

2007-06-01

272

Entorhinal cortex contribution to contextual fear conditioning extinction and reconsolidation in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

During contextual fear conditioning a rat learns a temporal contiguity association between the exposition to a previously neutral context (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) as a footshock. This condition determines in the rat the freezing reaction during the subsequent re-exposition to the context. Potentially the re-exposition without US presentation initiates two opposing and competing processes: reconsolidation and extinction. Reconsolidation process re-stabilizes and strengthens the original memory and it is initiated by a brief re-exposure to context. Instead the extinction process leads to the decrease of the expression of the original memory and it is triggered by prolonged re-exposure to the context. Here we analyzed the entorhinal cortex (ENT) participation in contextual fear conditioning reconsolidation and extinction. The rats were trained in contextual fear conditioning and 24h later they were subjected either to a brief (2 min) reactivation session or to a prolonged (120 min) re-exposition to context to induce extinction of the contextual fear memory. Immediately after the reactivation or the extinction session, the animals were submitted to bilateral ENT TTX inactivation. Memory retention was assessed as conditioned freezing duration measured 72 h after TTX administration. The results showed that ENT inactivation both after reactivation and extinction session was followed by contextual freezing retention impairment. Thus, the present findings point out that ENT is involved in contextual fear memory reconsolidation and extinction. This neural structure might be part of parallel circuits underlying two phases of contextual fear memory processing. PMID:24569052

Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado

2014-04-01

273

The Problem of Contextuality and the Impossibility of Experimental Metaphysics Thereof  

CERN Multimedia

Recently a new impulse has been given to the experimental investigation of contextuality. In this paper we show that for a widely used definition of contextuality there can be no decisive experiment on the existence of contextuality. To this end, we give a clear presentation of the hidden variable models due to Meyer, Kent and Clifton (MKC), which would supposedly nullify the Kochen-Specker Theorem. Although we disagree with this last statement, the models play a significant role in the discussion on the meaning of contextuality. In fact, we introduce a specific MKC-model of which we show that it is non-contextual and completely in agreement with quantum mechanical predictions. We also investigate the possibility of other definitions of non-contextuality --with an emphasis on operational definitions-- and argue that any useful definition relies on the specification of a theoretical framework. It is therefore concluded that no experimental test can yield any conclusions about contextuality on a metaphysical le...

Hermens, Ronnie

2010-01-01

274

MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3. Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.

Kottmann Renzo

2010-06-01

275

Knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge in school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of school knowledge from the point of view of scientific knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The starting point is that neither school nor curricula pay attention to what knowledge is, what types of knowledge there are, and what kind of relationship exists between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The first part offers an answer to the question what knowledge is. In the second part presented are some theoretical viewpoints on knowledge: gnoseological, sociological and psychological. The third part deals with the notions of ignorance and "faulty" knowledge. Pointed out are some forms of mystical ignorance. The forms of faulty knowledge are: erroneous notions, prejudices, illusions. In the final part, the author considers their relationship in school education. The starting point is that ignorance is a predecessor of any knowledge. The difference between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge exists in every system of school education, but differs in extent and mode when it comes to nature, society, man and art. The author maintains that school should not be defined as an absolute carrier of knowledge, or the system of foolproof knowledge that the student should acquire uncritically. Instead of absolute confidence in scientific knowledge, the paper concludes with suggesting the option of an "elastic form" of school knowledge. This is a type of knowledge which, in its programme, counts on both ignorance and faulty knowledge and their differing roles in studying and real life of students.

Avramovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

276

Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Her...

2011-01-01

277

Multi Agent Knowledge Management Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, knowledge in Public Sector environment becomes very vast and increasing day by day at speedy pace. So, to handle and manage the knowledge becomes a tedious job, resulting into degrading the overall affectivity and productivity of the system. Hence, the need of effective architecture arises, which can increase the performance of disseminating knowledge in public sector. This results the implementation of knowledge management (KM using Multi Agents (MA. Using Multi Agents reduces the time overhead for serving relevant knowledge to end users. The objective of this paper is to propose KM architecture using MA which will be helpful and effective in circulating knowledge to public sectors in a much better and easier manner, due to which it enhances the productivity and performance. The paper firstly, gives the understanding of literature on various knowledge management frameworks and tools for implementing Multi Agents. Then it proposes a MA enterprise knowledge management architecture (MAEKM, stating that how knowledge circulation will be done. At the end, using JADE framework, paper implements MAEKM architecture for public sector. The paper describes the necessity of implementing this architecture and its usefulness in disseminating knowledge in public sectors.

Prerna Agarwal

2012-01-01

278

Individual and contextual covariates of burnout: a cross-sectional nationwide study of French teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information on the covariates of burnout syndrome in French teachers is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of individual and contextual factors on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in 2005 among 20,099 education workers (in activity or retired selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. The response rate was 52.4%. Teachers in activity currently giving classes to students who participated in the survey (n = 3,940 were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 2,558 teachers provided complete data (64.9%. Variables associated with high emotional exhaustion (highest quartile of score, high depersonalization (highest quartile, and reduced personal accomplishment (lowest quartile were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, job dissatisfaction, experienced difficulties at work, and teaching motivations. Results Different variables were associated with each burnout dimension. Female teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment, whereas male teachers were more susceptible to high depersonalization. Elementary school teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion, but less susceptible to high depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment than their higher school level counterparts. Experienced difficulties with pupils were associated with all three dimensions. A socio-economically underprivileged school neighbourhood was also related to high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalization. Conclusion Programs to enhance teaching environment might be an interesting approach to try to prevent burnout. It would be useful to take the different dimensions into account in planning the intervention.

Nerrière Eléna

2009-09-01

279

The Effects of a Contextual Visual on Recall Measures of Listening Comprehension in Beginning College German.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted to test the effects of visual support for listening comprehension with beginning German students at the United States Air Force Academy. It was hypothesized that a contextual visual would facilitate listening comprehension o...

G. A. Mueller

1979-01-01

280

The Glocalization of Responsible Investment : Contextualization Work in France and Québec  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actorâ??network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work that sustains RI glocalization. Empirical data from two case studies highlight how entrepreneurial actors imported the notion of RI from the US to France and Québec. Our findings uncover three types of contextualization workâ??filtering, repurposing, and couplingâ??that sustain RI glocalization, and show how actors employed them in both settings to overcome the lack of technical, cultural, or political fit between the imported practice and their local context. Our results explain how divergent glocalized versions of RI are developed and adapted through contextualization work. Last, we discuss how our repertoire of contextualization work can account for local forms of a global concept and the uneven pattern of its diffusion.

Boxenbaum, Eva

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)

Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

2011-01-01

282

Family context, Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' parenting knowledge, and children's subsequent developmental outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; Mage = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (Mage = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child assessments. Adolescents both underestimated and overestimated children's developmental timing, and showed differences in their knowledge of specific developmental domains. Instrumental support from mother figures was positively linked to adolescents' knowledge accuracy, whereas emotional support was negatively related to adolescents' knowledge confidence. Furthermore, whereas mother figures' autonomy granting was positively linked to knowledge confidence, psychological control was associated with less accurate adolescent parenting knowledge. Toddlers of adolescents with more accurate knowledge showed positive developmental functioning. Intervention implications are discussed. PMID:24004448

Jahromi, Laudan B; Guimond, Amy B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Toomey, Russell B

2014-01-01

283

Personal-Accentuation and Contextual-Amplification Models of Pubertal Timing: Predicting Youth Depression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research examined personal-accentuation and contextual-amplification models of pubertal timing, wherein personal and contextual risks magnify the effects of earlier pubertal maturation on youth depression. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their maternal caregivers completed semi-structured interviews and questionnaires at two waves. Consistent with a personal-accentuation model, earlier pubertal maturation more strongly predicted subsequent depression in youth w...

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-gordon, Wendy

2010-01-01

284

Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment) covering our university campus in which we prototype and test our approach. We ar...

David, Bertrand T.; Yin, Chuantao; Chalon, Rene

2009-01-01

285

The word is life : African theology as biblical and contextual theology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reflects on the development of African theology from its beginning up to the end of the twentieth century. A critical assessment of this development and the current state of African theology is given. The future and possible shortcomings of African theology are also discussed. It is argued that for African theology to make a difference in a multi-cultural and multi-contextual Africa, it should consider being contextual and Biblical. For Christians the Word mea...

Eck, Ernest

2006-01-01

286

Sub-poissonian statistics as an experimental test for the contextuality of quantum theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is argued that the phenomenon of sub-poissonian statistics can be regarded as experimental evidence for the contextual character of quantum theory. To this end, it is shown that the statistics predicted by non-contextual hidden-variable theories must satisfy certain inequalities which are a kind of local counterparts of the famous Bell inequalities and which exclude sub-poissonian statistics.

1984-01-01

287

Individual talker differences in voice-onset-time: Contextual influences1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous research indicates that talkers differ in phonetically relevant properties of speech, including voice-onset-time (VOT) in word-initial stop consonants; some talkers have characteristically shorter VOTs than others. Previous research also indicates that VOT is robustly affected by contextual influences, including speaking rate and place of articulation. This paper examines whether these contextual influences on VOT are themselves talker-specific. Many tokens of alveolar ?ti? (expe...

Theodore, Rachel M.; Miller, Joanne L.; Desteno, David

2009-01-01

288

Contextual cueing based on specific and categorical properties of the environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the analysis of a visual scene, top-down processing is constantly directing the subject's attention to the zones of interest in the scene. The contextual cueing paradigm developed by Chun and Jiang (1998) shows how contextual regularities can facilitate the search for a particular element via implicit learning mechanisms. The study presented here reports three experiments that used this paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that regularities in the specific elements of the context can act as c...

Goujon, A.; Didierjean, A.; Marmeche, E.

2007-01-01

289

Hippocampal and extrahippocampal systems compete for control of contextual fear: Role of ventral subiculum and amygdala  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two neural systems, a hippocampal system and an extrahippocampal system compete for control over contextual fear, and the hippocampal system normally dominates. Our experiments reveal that output provided by the ventral subiculum is critical for the hippocampal system to win this competition. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the ventral subiculum after conditioning, but not before conditioning, impaired contextual fear conditioning. Reversibly inactivating this region by bilateral injections...

Biedenkapp, Joseph C.; Rudy, Jerry W.

2009-01-01

290

Detecting real user tasks by training on laboratory contextual attention metadata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detecting the current task of a user is essential for providing her with contextualized and personalized support, and using Contextual Attention Metadata (CAM) can help doing so. Some recent approaches propose to perform automatic user task detection by means of task classifiers using such metadata. In this paper, we show that good results can be achieved by training such classifiers offline on CAM gathered in laboratory settings. We also isolate a combination of metadata features that presen...

2009-01-01

291

An explicit contextualized hidden variable model replicating an indivisible quantum system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent experiments and theory have further illuminated the concept of "quantum contextuality". In this paper we take an inequality - the Pentagram (or KCBS) inequality, which is violated by an unentangled spin-1 system - and given a relaxed assumption of non-contextuality show that a hidden variable model may be constructed that replicates exactly the quantum bound. This is in contrast to the case of an entangled pair of spin-1/2 particles where a similar relaxation of the a...

Plick, William N.; Lapkiewicz, Radek

2013-01-01

292

Solving a contextual problem with the spreadsheet as an environment for algebraic thinking development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article we report and discuss a contextual problem solving task that was proposed to a class of 8th grade (13–14-year-old) students. These students had been developing a reasonable experience in the use of the spreadsheet to model relations within contextual problems and chose to use this tool to solve the mentioned problem, engaging in the process of translating relations between variables and combining them in chained models, while working with fractions, multiples and expressions...

Nobre, Sandra; Amado, Ne?lia; Carreira, Susana Paula Grac?a

2012-01-01

293

Contextualizing Smoking Behaviour over Time: A Smoking Journey from Pleasuring to Suffering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports a qualitative study describing the basic psychosocial process of contextualizing smoking behaviour in the life fabric of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. A classical grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze the data derived from a theoretical (purposeful sample of eight Jordanian psychiatric nurses in 2009-2010. The constant comparative method of data analysis was used; thus, data collection, coding and analysis occurred simultaneously. Strategies were used throughout the study to ensure trustworthiness; that is, fulfill the requirements for credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. “Contextualizing smoking behaviour over time” was the core concept that explained how JPNs integrate smoking behaviour into their life fabric. For these nurses, smoking is contextualized in four phases: becoming a novice smoker, becoming a formal smoker as a nursing student, becoming a heavy smoking psychiatric nurse, and becoming an exhausted smoker. Contextualizing smoking among JPNs demonstrates that those nurses frequently normalize smoking as part of the fabric of everyday life. Participants described their smoking as a journey in a manner that reflected how it started with pleasuring and ended with suffering. Although this study presents a deep understanding of smoking behaviour, further studies are required to develop the theory of contextualized smoking. A developed contextualized theory of smoking is required to guide culturally sensitive smoking cessation and prevention programmes capable of influencing smoking behaviours.

Khaldoun Aldiabat

2012-01-01

294

Contextual effects in interval-duration judgements in vision, audition and touch.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effect of temporal context on discrimination of intervals marked by auditory, visual and tactile stimuli. Subjects were asked to compare the duration of the interval immediately preceded by an irrelevant "distractor" stimulus with an interval with no distractor. For short interval durations, the presence of the distractor affected greatly the apparent duration of the test stimulus: short distractors caused the test interval to appear shorter and vice versa. For very short reference durations (? 100 ms), the contextual effects were large, changing perceived duration by up to a factor of two. The effect of distractors reduced steadily for longer reference durations, to zero effect for durations greater than 500 ms. We found similar results for intervals defined by visual flashes, auditory tones and brief finger vibrations, all falling to zero effect at 500 ms. Under appropriate conditions, there were strong cross-modal interactions, particularly from audition to vision. We also measured the Weber fractions for duration discrimination and showed that under the conditions of this experiment, Weber fractions decreased steadily with duration, following a square-root law, similarly for all three modalities. The magnitude of the effect of the distractors on apparent duration correlated well with Weber fraction, showing that when duration discrimination was relatively more precise, the context dependency was less. The results were well fit by a simple Bayesian model combining noisy estimates of duration with the action of a resonance-like mechanism that tended to regularize the sound sequence intervals. PMID:23864044

Burr, David; Della Rocca, Eleonora; Rocca, Eleonora Della; Morrone, M Concetta

2013-09-01

295

Scene classification using combined spectral, textural, and contextual information  

Science.gov (United States)

A classification scheme incorporating spectral, textural, and contextual information is detailed in this paper. The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated to generate texture features. Those features are then subjected to a selection process for joining with spectral data in order to evaluate their discrimination capability in classification performance. The classification result is further enhanced with contexture in terms of a refined Markov random field (MRF) model. Multiscale edge features are derived to overcome the bias generally contributed by the presence of edge pixels during the MRF classification process. The smooth weighting parameter for the refined MRF model is chosen based on the probability histogram analysis of those edge pixels. The maximum a posterior margin (MPM) algorithm is used to search the solution. The joining of texture with spectral data produces a significant enhancement in classification accuracy. The refined MRF-model with a soft version line process, in comparison with the traditional MRF model, successfully restricted the commonly found over-smoothed result, and simultaneously improved the classification accuracy and visual interpretation.

Tso, Brandt; Olsen, Richard C.

2004-08-01

296

Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( [...] TRC) South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a postapartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

Christoffel H., Thesnaar.

297

Contextual community prevention theory: building interventions with community agency collaboration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Translation from research to practice faces numerous problems that include replicating effectiveness, fidelity to the protocol and processes, and adaptations to different types of target populations. Working collaboratively with existing service providers can speed up the time for development and can ease the implementation of empirical randomized trials. Contextual community prevention theory is an innovative approach that focuses on changing behaviors of community members by creating a visible institutional presence that draws and pulls the targeted population into the organization's activities and interventions. The result is an institution or organization within the community that provides a new active and dynamic context, engaging its community members into its activities, interventions, and functions. An HIV prevention program developed collaboratively from the ground up for Latino gay/bisexual men is presented. Results from the program evaluation efforts across the years suggest promise for testing its efficacy through a randomized trial. HIV prevention efforts need to develop dynamic support systems within communities where these men have ownership, have control, and feel safe; otherwise HIV infection rates in this population will increase. PMID:19899899

Morales, Eduardo S

2009-11-01

298

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand th [...] e pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv) teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Seugnet, Blignaut; Christo, Els; Sarah, Howie.

299

The clinical investigator-subject relationship: a contextual approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol. Results and conclusion In this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty to provide the patient/subject with clinical care can vary from one situation to the next, as a function of several factors, including: the research design, benefits and risks of the research; the subject's reasonable expectations, motivations, and vulnerabilities; the investigator's ability to benefit the subject; and the investigator's prior relationship with the subject. These and other factors need to be considered when determining the clinical investigator's obligations to provide clinical care to human research subjects. In some research contexts, the investigator has extensive clinical obligations to the patient/subject; in others, the investigator has minimal ones.

Resnik David B

2009-12-01

300

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Seugnet Blignaut

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Providing Adapted Contextual Information in an Overlay Vehicular Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current vehicular networks are developed upon commercial solutions based on cellular networks (CNs or vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs, both present in numerous research proposals. Current approximations are not enough to cover the communication necessities of several applications at the same time, and they are not suitable for future vehicular pervasive services. The vehicular network presented in this paper fills the existent gap between solutions lacking in flexibility, mainly supported by an infrastructure deployment, and those highly local and distributed, such as sole-VANET approximations. In this manner, an overlay communication platform which can work over the CN basis has been designed and developed. This architecture is complemented by an additional support of an information system located at the infrastructure side. Moreover, since most of the information received from current notification services is not relevant for the driver, an additional subsystem has been devised to provide adapted information to users. This has been carried out by means of an ontology model which represents users' preferences and contextual information. Finally, using a whole prototype of the telematic platform, the performance of this interring process has been evaluated to point out its impact on the system operation.

Andrés Muñoz

2010-01-01

302

Thermokinetic model of borosilicate glass dissolution: contextual affinity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short and long-term geochemical interactions of R7T7 nuclear glass with water at 100"0C were simulated with the DISSOL thermokinetic computer code. Both the dissolved glass quantity and the resulting water composition, saturation states and mineral quantities produced were calculated as a function of time. The rate equation used in the simulation was first proposed by Aagaard and Helgeson. It simulates a gradually diminishing dissolution rate as the reaction affinity diminishes. The best agreement with 1-year experimental data was obtained with a reaction affinity calculated from silica activity (Grambow's hypothesis) rather than taking into account the activity of all the glass components as proposed by Jantzen and Plodinec. The concept of residual affinity was introduced by Grambow to express the fact that the glass dissolution rate does not cease. We prefer to replace the term residual affinity by contextual affinity, which expresses the influence on the dissolution rate of three factors: the solution chemistry, the metastability of SiO_2(m), and the possible precipitation of certain aluminosilicates such as zeolites. 19 refs

1989-12-02

303

Maintaining knowledge of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: [Knowledge - 'awareness or familiarity gained by experience (of a person, fact or thing)... a person's range of information ... the sum of what is known ... true, justified belief; certain understanding, as opposed to opinion.' The Oxford Concise English Dictionary.] Organisations responsible for the safe and effective management of radioactive waste will be aware of the value of information characterising the waste and the need for its preservation. In the United Kingdom the principal legal instrument controlling nuclear site activities is the Nuclear Installations Act (1990), which requires certain licence conditions to be fulfilled. One of the 35 conditions of the nuclear site licence demands that operators ensure that adequate records are kept relating to, inter alia, 'the location of all radioactive material, including nuclear fuel and radioactive waste'. Through the application of this licence condition, the relevant nuclear regulator, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), requires licensees to make arrangements for recording and preserving all the information that may be required in the future to ensure the safe management of radioactive material and radioactive waste. The majority of operators responsible for the long-term management of radioactive waste will establish systems for preserving information. In order for the system to deliver real benefits, there must be absolute clarity concerning what information is to be preserved, the reasons why it must be preserved, how it is to be managed over the long-term and who is responsible for its management. However, the decisive characteristic of this information management system that could make the difference between preserved liability and valued asset is the ability to access and interpret the information now and in the future. On first inspection, this characteristic appears obvious but how often are these systems established with the primary objective of preserving information when it should be ensuring future access to knowledge? Radioactive waste data, recorded in isolation, may have restricted value especially if its provenance is unknown, its significance is unclear, the originators cannot be consulted and its authenticity and trustworthiness are not verifiable. It is therefore necessary to combine this raw data with contextual information that will enable future generations to determine the significance of the record, distinguish it as valuable asset and create their own, contemporary knowledge base. Only when equipped with comprehensive, reliable and accurate knowledge will future generations have the confidence to make informed judgments about the impact of our waste on their society and environment. The mismanagement of our knowledge today could have significant repercussions in terms of cost, radiation dose and damage to the environment in the future. This presentation defines terms such as 'data', 'information', 'knowledge' and 'wisdom' and provides a simple model illustrating their relationship. This model is then used as the basis for an examination of the inputs and the ways in which they may be optimised. The nuclear industry, and even society, has developed an 'implicit' understanding of radioactive waste, at a variety of levels, and it may seem inconceivable that future societies would not retain this understanding in sufficient detail that it could adequately protect itself and the environment. History shows, however, that as societies evolve and other priorities emerge previously implicit knowledge can decline. This leads us towards identifying present 'implicit' radioactive waste knowledge and developing means for capturing it. The presentation will conclude with an argument for the development of strategies that encourage the sharing of trustworthy radioactive waste-related knowledge. These strategies, supported national governments, whilst being both practical and cost-effective to implement must be cognisant of the need for local and regional security. (author)

2004-09-07

304

Social, Organizational, and Contextual Characteristics of Clinical Decision Support Systems for Intensive Insulin Therapy: A Literature Review and Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Evaluations of computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSS) typically focus on clinical performance changes and do not include social, organizational, and contextual characteristics explaining use and effectiveness. Studies of CDSS for intensive insulin therapy (IIT) are no exception, and the literature lacks an understanding of effective computer-based IIT implementation and operation. Results: This paper presents (1) a literature review of computer-based IIT evaluations through the lens of institutional theory, a discipline from sociology and organization studies, to demonstrate the inconsistent reporting of workflow and care process execution and (2) a single-site case study to illustrate how computer-based IIT requires substantial organizational change and creates additional complexity with unintended consequences including error. Discussion: Computer-based IIT requires organizational commitment and attention to site-specific technology, workflow, and care processes to achieve intensive insulin therapy goals. The complex interaction between clinicians, blood glucose testing devices, and CDSS may contribute to workflow inefficiency and error. Evaluations rarely focus on the perspective of nurses, the primary users of computer-based IIT whose knowledge can potentially lead to process and care improvements. Conclusion: This paper addresses a gap in the literature concerning the social, organizational, and contextual characteristics of CDSS in general and for intensive insulin therapy specifically. Additionally, this paper identifies areas for future research to define optimal computer-based IIT process execution: the frequency and effect of manual data entry error of blood glucose values, the frequency and effect of nurse overrides of CDSS insulin dosing recommendations, and comprehensive ethnographic study of CDSS for IIT.

Campion, Thomas R.; Waitman, Lemuel R.; May, Addison K.; Ozdas, Asli; Lorenzi, Nancy M.; Gadd, Cynthia S.

2009-01-01

305

Quantitative methods for knowledge-base design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of quantitative methods for knowledge base design are presented. The result of the research consists of methods that draw from three different areas of mathematics: a statistical process for integration, a set of matrix manipulations for verification and heuristic clustering algorithms for knowledge base partitioning. A key feature that cuts across all of the design activities is the use of topical areas to: model the domain, acquire the knowledge, integrate the knowledge preserving topical levels of expertise, reduce the size of the verification effort and reduce the size of the partitioning effort. The case study demonstrates the feasibility and validity of applying the methods to a real-world knowledge base.

Botten, N.A.

1989-01-01

306

Islamic Conceptualisation of Knowledge Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is an attempt to address "The Fundamental Theory of Knowledge Management" from Islamic point of views, to draw the notion of ?Islamic Worldview" of knowledge, especially in terms of understanding its nature in the reality of knowledge society as a step toward conceptualizing ?Islamic Knowledge Management" (IKM as an answer to the uncertainty situation of contemporary knowledge development, management and utilization especially for Muslim user and application. To obtain this, they have to explore new techniques and processing tools that helps them harness knowledge in according to their conceptual believe system, especially in term of knowledge investigation and sharing in which help them to improve their vicegerent (VG status and humanistic relationship. Approach: Indeed, knowledge should be realised comprehensively. Thus, with the assumption that once knowledge is realized and managed, then it is possible to look at its behaviors, functions and process of development in the form of scientific realm. Hypothetically, if there were no single theory formulated to identify the nature of knowledge, then how it can be managed and achieved its goals. Results: In this regard, IKM as an Islamic system is intended for particular areas of application and objectives based on "knowledge intensive processing action" (KIPA, in which it is depending on some human expert intervention in order to establish a comprehensive and integrated organizational culture, commitments and management, or to better perform the process in producing a production, marketing campaigns, systems analysis and design and strategy in reducing operational cost and business risk, in improving decision making for strategic future development and identifying new technical approaches in problem solving, or even for the purpose to harmonize inter-cultural and personalities gaps within an organizational community. Conclusion: Obviously, knowledge classification is very much influenced by the way a society conceptualizes and realizes knowledge. Any classification will lead to a way of utilization. Therefore, any success achieved by a person was absolutely an output of his knowledge understanding and knowledge growth within himself. In this status, as a human, he might be influenced by a certain situation, limitation and constrain internally or externally that lead him to persuade either body knowledge or the functional usage of knowledge in making his own individual success i.e. user-centric based values.

M. B.H. Yaakub

2011-01-01

307

Contextualized self: when the self runs into social dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the construction of self and of others has indicated that the way that individuals construe themselves and others exerts an important influence on their cognition, emotion, and even behavior. The present study extends this line of research to mixed-motive situations in which short-term individual and long-term collective interests are at odds. In addition, this study associates the importance of context interdependence, and specifically its interaction with independent self-construal, with an individual's cooperative behavior. We used a priming task to manipulate the level of self-construal and also manipulated the degree of interdependent context by giving participants a chance to assign rewards either to their group members or to themselves alone. The results showed that when participants received interdependent (as opposed to independent) self-construal priming, they consistently contributed highly, regardless of context manipulation. In contrast, those primed with an independent self-construal contributed less in the investment game, but only when placed in a context where group members were encouraged to think about their individual (versus mutual) fate. In this situation they contributed the least to the group in the game. These findings indicate that independent self-construal in a low interdependence context produces the most competitive behavior. The results also showed that how participants felt about their interaction with other group members mediated the effect of context interdependence on cooperative behavior, and possibly that was especially the case for independent self-construal. The results demonstrate that the self can be contextualized and embedded in the social contexts and symbolic systems within which people live. PMID:22029662

Liu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Shu

2009-12-01

308

Contextual marketing--the real business of the Internet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The painful truth is that the Internet has been a letdown for most companies--largely because the dominant model for Internet commerce, the destination Web site, doesn't suit the needs of those companies or their customers. Most consumer product companies don't provide enough value or dynamic information to induce customers to make the repeat visits--and disclose the detailed information--that make such sites profitable. In this article, David Kenny and John F. Marshall suggest that companies discard the notion that a Web site equals an Internet strategy. Instead of trying to create destinations that people will come to, companies need to use the power and reach of the Internet to deliver tailored messages and information to customers. Companies have to become what the authors call "contextual marketers." Delivering the most relevant information possible to consumers in the most timely manner possible will become feasible, the authors say, as access moves beyond the PC to shopping malls, retail stores, airports, bus stations, and even cars. The authors describe how the ubiquitous Internet will hasten the demise of the destination Web site--and open up scads of opportunities to reach customers through marketing "mobilemediaries," such as smart cards, e-wallets, and bar code scanners. The companies that master the complexity of the ubiquitous Internet will gain significant advantages: they'll gain greater intimacy with customers and target market segments more efficiently. The ones that don't will be dismissed as nuisances, the authors conclude. They suggest ways to become welcome additions--not unwelcome intrusions--to customers' lives. PMID:11184966

Kenny, D; Marshall, J F

2000-01-01

309

Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type of management- knowledge based management and a new type of enterprise-knowledge based enterprise.Taking in consideration these predictable evolutions, this paper will try to present: • The main ideas of the researches the field of the knowledge based economy • The characteristics and principles of the knowledge based organizations and knowledge based management • The challenges and opportunities for knowledge based organizations.The first part of the paper will present the principles of the new economy- knowledge base economy, the essential and interrelated elements necessary to build and to implement a strategy in a knowledge economy and the opportunities and challenges to the countries as they seek to build regionally and globally competitive knowledge-based economies.The second part of the paper will present the characteristics of the knowledge based organizations, the principles and characteristics of their management. For many organizations, knowledge management is a relatively new concept, because they are discovering the knowledge value in their operations. Many firms have undertaken formal and informal knowledge management initiatives designed to improve process performance, increase customer responsiveness and spur innovation. But while some organizations have reaped significant benefits from their investment in knowledge efforts, others have run into noteworthy challenges.

Madalina Cristina Tocan

2012-12-01

310

The transfer of contextual control over equivalence classes through equivalence classes: a possible model of social stereotyping.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Experiment 1, subjects acquired conditional equivalence classes controlled by three male and three female names as contextual stimuli. When equivalence relations were tested using new names not used in training (three male and three female), contextual control remained intact. Thus, generalized control of the composition of conditional equivalence classes by characteristically gender-identified names was shown. A basic analysis of this finding was tested in Experiment 2. Contextual equival...

Kohlenberg, B. S.; Hayes, S. C.; Hayes, L. J.

1991-01-01

311

The classification of knowledge and expertise in Finnish nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The difficulties in sharing tacit knowledge may compromise the safe performance of high-reliability organisations. This threat has been recognised in nuclear power plants worldwide, owing to the risk of simultaneous retirements. In this study, the nature of tacit knowledge in Finnish nuclear power plants was examined and the expertise of nuclear workers modelled. The results of this interview study showed that the tacit nuclear knowledge can be classified in two dimensions: technical and contextual. According to this classification, the employees in plants can be categorised in four categories: the experts; the novices; the technical specialists; the context sensitives. (author)

Kuronen, T. [Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)]. E-mail: tanja.kuronen@hut.fi; Rintala, N. [Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)]. E-mail: Niina.Rintala@hut.fi

2006-07-01

312

Neuronal ensembles in amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex track differential components of contextual fear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the circuit mediating contextual fear conditioning has been extensively described, the precise contribution that specific anatomical nodes make to behavior has not been fully elucidated. To clarify the roles of the dorsal hippocampus (DH), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in contextual fear conditioning, activity within these regions was mapped using cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) for Arc mRNA. Rats were delay-fear conditioned or immediately shocked (controls) and thereafter reexposed to the shocked context to test for fear memory recall. Subsequent catFISH analyses revealed that in the DH, cells were preferentially reactivated during the context test, regardless of whether animals had been fear conditioned or immediately shocked, suggesting that the DH encodes spatial information specifically, rather then the emotional valence of an environment. In direct contrast, neuronal ensembles in the BLA were only reactivated at test if animals had been fear conditioned, suggesting that the amygdala specifically tracks the emotional properties of a context. Interestingly, Arc expression in the mPFC was consistent with both amygdala- and hippocampus-like patterns, supporting a role for the mPFC in both fear and contextual processing. Collectively, these data provide crucial insight into the region-specific behavior of neuronal ensembles during contextual fear conditioning and demonstrate a dissociable role for the hippocampus and amygdala in processing the contextual and emotional properties of a fear memory. PMID:24948801

Zelikowsky, Moriel; Hersman, Sarah; Chawla, Monica K; Barnes, Carol A; Fanselow, Michael S

2014-06-18

313

Multi-class multi-scale series contextual model for image segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual information has been widely used as a rich source of information to segment multiple objects in an image. A contextual model uses the relationships between the objects in a scene to facilitate object detection and segmentation. Using contextual information from different objects in an effective way for object segmentation, however, remains a difficult problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework, called multiclass multiscale (MCMS) series contextual model, which uses contextual information from multiple objects and at different scales for learning discriminative models in a supervised setting. The MCMS model incorporates cross-object and inter-object information into one probabilistic framework and thus is able to capture geometrical relationships and dependencies among multiple objects in addition to local information from each single object present in an image. We demonstrate that our MCMS model improves object segmentation performance in electron microscopy images and provides a coherent segmentation of multiple objects. Through speeding up the segmentation process, the proposed method will allow neurobiologists to move beyond individual specimens and analyze populations paving the way for understanding neurodegenerative diseases at the microscopic level. PMID:23893724

Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga

2013-11-01

314

Auto-caotización en la sociedad mundial: Lineamientos para una teoría de la diferenciación contextual / Self-chaotization in World Society: An Outline for a Theory of Contextual Differentiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sociedad mundial moderna se caracteriza por su alta complejidad, es decir, por la continuamente cambiante interrelación de sus elementos. El resultado de ello es una constante diferenciación y especialización de espacios sociales orientada a manejar la incertidumbre que esa complejidad genera. Pa [...] radójicamente, la diferenciación y especialización es nuevamente una fuente de complejidad. Para enfrentar esta ambigüedad auto-producida, determinadas operaciones sociales se distinguen por generar interdependencias estructurales que logran una estabilidad operacional suficiente para distinguirlas de su entorno. A ello se le denomina en este artículo diferenciación contextual, esto es, la emergencia de contextos diferenciados de interacción, decisión y simbolización que posibilitan una concretización múltiple de funciones sociales en espacios supranacionales. Esto se observa especialmente a propósito de la diferenciación del derecho, la economía y el deporte, y se ilustra con cuatro estudios de caso: la Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, el Bank for International Settlements, la FIFA, el juego y sus públicos, y el arbitraje comercial internacional. Abstract in english A high level of complexity and a continuous and always changing relationship among its elements characterizes modern world society. As a result, a constant differentiation and specialization of diverging social fields aiming to reduce the uncertainty emerging from that complexity takes place. Parado [...] xically, as differentiation and specialization increase, they become a new source of uncertainty. In order to confront this self-producing ambiguity, some social operations develop structural interdependencies with a sufficient level of operational stability that distinguish them from their environment. In this paper this is called contextual differentiation, i.e. the emergence of differentiated contexts of interaction, decision and symbolization that make possible a mutilayered concretization of social functions in supranational contexts. With regard to the differentiation of law, economy and sports this process is analyzed and illustrated in four case studies: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Bank for International Settlements, FIFA, the game and its publics, and the international commercial arbitration.

Mascareño, Aldo.

315

Contextual Multi-armed Bandits for the Prevention of Spam in VoIP Networks  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we argue that contextual multi-armed bandit algorithms could open avenues for designing self-learning security modules for computer networks and related tasks. The paper has two contributions: a conceptual and an algorithmical one. The conceptual contribution is to formulate the real-world problem of preventing SPIT (Spam in VoIP networks), which is currently not satisfyingly addressed by standard techniques, as a sequential learning problem, namely as a contextual multi-armed bandit. Our second contribution is to present CMABFAS, a new algorithm for general contextual multi-armed bandit learning that specifically targets domains with finite actions. We illustrate how CMABFAS could be used to design a fully self-learning SPIT filter that does not rely on feedback from the end-user (i.e., does not require labeled data) and report convincing simulation results.

Jung, Tobias; Ernst, Damien; Leduc, Guy

2012-01-01

316

Using Puppet to contextualize computing resources for ATLAS analysis on Google Compute Engine  

CERN Document Server

With the advent of commercial as well as institutional and national clouds, new opportunities for on-demand computing resources for the HEP community become available. With the new cloud technologies come also new challenges, and one such is the contextualization of cloud resources with regard to requirements of the user and his experiment. In particular on Google's new cloud platform Google Compute Engine (GCE) upload of user's virtual machine images is not possible, which precludes application of ready to use technologies like CernVM and forces users to build and contextualize their own VM images from scratch. We investigate the use of Puppet to facilitate contextualization of cloud resources on GCE, with particular regard to ease of configuration, dynamic resource scaling, and high degree of scalability.

Öhman, H; The ATLAS collaboration; Hendrix, V

2013-01-01

317

Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study  

CERN Document Server

M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment). We are studying various mobile learning contexts related to professional activities, in order to master appliances (Installation, Use, Breakdown diagnostic and Repairing). Contextualization, traceability and checking of execution of prescribed operations are based mainly on the use of RFID labels. Investigation of the appropriate training methods for this kind of learning situation, applying mainly a constructivist approach known as "Just-in-time learning", "learning by doing", "learning and doing", constitutes an important topic of this project. From an organizational point of view we are in perfect...

David, Bertrand; Chalon, René

2010-01-01

318

The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust : A Multidimensional Cross-level Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule, and cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The empirical results, based on a hierarchical linear model with a sample of 444 employees from 82 firms in China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of contextâ??trustâ??behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences.

Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao

2012-01-01

319

Gender differences and the effect of contextual features on game enjoyment and responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the effect of gender and contextual features on emotional reactions, identification toward game characters, and game enjoyment. Two aspects of contextual features are specifically examined: the moral justification of game characters and violence. An experiment was conducted by allowing participants to play either a morally justified character of a non-violent game, a morally justified character of a violent game, or a morally unjustified character of a violent game. The results show that participants felt less guilty and identified with the characters more when playing the morally justified characters of the non-violent game. Furthermore, males and females demonstrate different patterns of enjoyment to different contextual features of video games. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20950177

Lin, Shu-Fang

2010-10-01

320

Implicit motives, explicit traits, and task and contextual performance at work.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. PMID:22867444

Lang, Jonas W B; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, Christian; Hülsheger, Ute R

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Paradigm shifts: from pre-web information systems to recent web-based contextual information retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the types of user accessible data and information escalates, so does the variety of Information Retrieval (IR practices which can match to achieve the challenges instigated. By expanding its applicability which can broaden the use, integrating technologies and methods and as long as the quest for the perfectly accurate system continues to exist it is quite possible and likely that Information Retrieval can become one of the key technology areas for current and future research and practice. This paper expounds the recent research advances in the area of Contextual Information Retrieval. It tracks and investigates the evolution of retrieval models from the pre-web (traditional Information Retrieval paradigm and Web information retrieval to the most prominent interactive Web information retrieval field of contextual information retrieval focusing on developing models and strategies of contextual IR.

MPS Bhatia

2010-06-01

322

Using Puppet to contextualize computing resources for ATLAS analysis on Google Compute Engine  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of commercial as well as institutional and national clouds, new opportunities for on-demand computing resources for the HEP community become available. The new cloud technologies also come with new challenges, and one such is the contextualization of computing resources with regard to requirements of the user and his experiment. In particular on Google's new cloud platform Google Compute Engine (GCE) upload of user's virtual machine images is not possible. This precludes application of ready to use technologies like CernVM and forces users to build and contextualize their own VM images from scratch. We investigate the use of Puppet to facilitate contextualization of cloud resources on GCE, with particular regard to ease of configuration and dynamic resource scaling.

Öhman, Henrik; Panitkin, Sergey; Hendrix, Valerie; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

323

Knowledge Management and Employees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge management requires analysis of what is necessary knowledge, who possesses it, who profits from it, and what is the role of mistakes. Successful knowledge management must acknowledge that people are the most important factor. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

Van Buskirk, Mary Ellen; Lee, Doris

2001-01-01

324

?-Amyloid pathology alters neural network activation during retrieval of contextual fear memories in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although episodic memory deficits are the most conspicuous cognitive change in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients also display alterations in emotional expression, including anxiety and impaired conditioned fear behaviours. The neural circuitry underlying emotional learning is known to involve the amygdala and hippocampus, although the precise impact of amyloid pathology on the interaction between these brain regions remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that Tg2576 mice, which express a human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation associated with early-onset AD, demonstrate normal acquisition of conditioned freezing to auditory and contextual stimuli paired with footshock. However, examination of the expression of c-Fos revealed altered neural network activity in transgenic mice. In the present study we examined the effects of the APP mutation on the expression of c-Fos following the retrieval of emotional memories. To this end, stimulus-induced cellular activity was measured by analysing expression of the immediate-early gene c-Fos after the retrieval of auditory or contextual fear memories. To characterize regional interdependencies of c-Fos expression, structural equation modelling was used to compare patterns of neural network activity. Consistent with previous findings, Tg2576 mice displayed reduced freezing elicited by the auditory stimulus but not by the conditioning context. Interestingly, the analysis of c-Fos expression revealed that the APPswe mutation disrupted dentate gyrus and amygdala function, as well as altering the influence of these regions on the neural network dynamics activated during context memory retrieval. These results provide novel insight into the influence of excess amyloid production on neural network activity during memory retrieval. PMID:24628842

Lelos, Mariah J; Good, Mark A

2014-05-01

325

Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)  

Science.gov (United States)

The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community/school partnerships. With new, multiyear NSF implementation funding, the PCEP is building upon these prototypes and the strategic education plan to transform climate education across the region. Examples include a program of climate education certification being developed among the region's community colleges; research-based professional development focused on improving teachers' pedagogical content knowledge that has demonstrated striking success with both teacher and student outcomes; regional curricula based on local ecosystems and in local languages as well as English; and local school/community partnerships that combine the climate education work with local community climate adaptation projects. PCEP's interactive web-based environment (http://pcep.dsp.wested.org) interlinks the region's locations, organizations and people with information about climate science and climate impacts. This system enables the region's diverse stakeholders to access and contribute to the same information pool. This web-based environment both supports the development of PCEP resources such as the CEF and their continuing evolution and dissemination.

Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

2012-12-01

326

Overview of Knowledge Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defines knowledge management, its components, processes, and outcomes. Addresses the importance of knowledge management for higher education in general and for institutional research in particular. (EV)

Serban, Andreea M.; Luan, Jing

2002-01-01

327

A Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for Simulated HJ-1B Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HJ-1B satellite, which was launched on September 6, 2008, is one of the small ones placed in the constellation for disaster prediction and monitoring. HJ-1B imagery was simulated in this paper, which contains fires of various sizes and temperatures in a wide range of terrestrial biomes and climates, including RED, NIR, MIR and TIR channels. Based on the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm and the characteristics of HJ-1B sensor, a contextual fire detection algorithm was proposed and test...

Yonggang Qian; Guangjian Yan; Sibo Duan; Xiangsheng Kong

2009-01-01

328

Effects of age on contextually mediated associations in paired associate learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Older and younger participants learned single-function lists of paired associates with no contextual overlap (e.g., J-K, L-M) and double-function lists of paired associates consisting of chains of pairs (e.g., A-B, B-C). Although younger adults out-performed older adults on both pair types, there was a robust pair-type by age interaction. Evidence from intrusion analyses argues that older adults performed better than would be expected on the contextually overlapping double-function pairs beca...

Provyn, Jennifer P.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Howard, Marc W.

2007-01-01

329

Proposal of a two-qutrit contextuality test free of the finite precision and compatibility loopholes  

CERN Document Server

It has been argued that any test of quantum contextuality is nullified by the fact that perfect orthogonality and perfect compatibility cannot be achieved in finite precision experiments. We introduce an experimentally testable two-qutrit violation of an inequality for noncontextual theories in which orthogonality and compatibility are guaranteed by the fact that measurements are performed on separated qutrits. The inequality is a direct translation of the basic building block of Kochen and Specker's proof of quantum contextuality for a qutrit, despite inequality's proof be completely independent of this diagram.

Cabello, Adan

2010-01-01

330

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

331

Youth Education Attainment and Participation in Europe: The Role of Contextual Factors and the Scope of Education Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…

Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard

2014-01-01

332

Study of career development in children from a developmental-contextual perspective Estudio del desarrollo de la orientación vocacional en la infancia desde la perspectiva evolutivo-contextual  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Career development is a longitudinal process, from childhood to adulthood, which is influenced by personal and contextual factors. Vocational literature has described childhood as a formative period for career development, as the bases of career exploration and vocational interests, values, attitudes and skills are established in the first years of life. This study starts with an overview of the major theoretical approaches and research trends in the study of children’s career development. ...

Arau?jo, Alexandra M.; Maria do Céu Taveira

2009-01-01

333

International new ventures: Emergence, internationalization patterns, growth enablers and contextualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

About two decades ago researchers turned to the empirical phenomenon of firms starting internationalization right from or close to inception. These international new ventures (INVs) could only hardly be explained by conventional internationalization theories, such as process theories (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977), as INVs often start international encounters without a profound resource base and without having experiential knowledge about international markets. Yet, INVs were found to play an incr...

Baum, Matthias

2011-01-01

334

Question Answering using Syntactic Patterns in a Contextual Search Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Question Answering (QA) systems promise to enhance both usability and accuracy when searching for knowledge. This thesis presents a prototype QA system built to leverage the extraction capabilities of a modern, context-aware search platform; Fast ESP. Questions in plain English are transformed to queries which target specific entities in the text that correspond with the identified answer types. A small set of unified patterns is demonstrated as adequate to classify a wide variety of syntacti...

Sand, Kim Andre

2006-01-01

335

Test Your Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

... Citation Site Map Test Your Knowledge Test Your Knowledge You are here Home / Test Your Knowledge Print See if you’re up for the challenge. Exercise your brain and test your knowledge of drugs and how they affect the brain ...

336

MANAGEMENT. THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issues surrounding the management of tacit knowledge are entirely different and the creation of value from such knowledge may require fundamentally new approaches to organizational structures and management systems. Knowledge also differs according to its importance. Despite the widespread interest in organizational capabilities and competency modeling, most firms have a poor understanding of which types of knowledge are critical to their future success.What are the purposes and characteristics of the knowledge management processes? There has been a profusion of glib talk about the need to learn, to transfer knowledge, to absorb knowledge from competitors and partners, and the like. The danger is that we use knowledge management processes that are not suited to the task at hand. Consider the example of managing relationships with strategic alliance partners. The type of knowledge management that is appropriate depends on the knowledge goals of the alliance.

Leonard Sergiu B?lan

2013-05-01

337

What influences Knowledge Sharing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the competitive environment, organizational knowledge became one of the most valuable strategic resources for a company. Indeed, it is said to be the only resource that cannot be imitated, and thus, that provides a reliable competitive advantage. Hence, knowledge management has become a highly investigated field of study. In fact, knowledge sharing, one of the facets of knowledge management is considered as a helpful leverage within a company’s strategy. Knowledge sharing has been studie...

Gru?nfelder, Manon; Hartner, Angelika

2013-01-01

338

Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook  

CERN Document Server

Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

Kantola, Jussi

2012-01-01

339

Agricultural Knowledge Grid Construction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to eliminate the ambiguity in semantic understandings during the retrieval of the users, as well as mining the relationship between the concept of agricultural knowledge, the association of knowledge among heterogeneous databases needs to be set up, which enable users to discover useful knowledge clues, and gradually form solution for the ultimate question. Based on the characteristics of agricultural knowledge and the achievements of knowledge grid research, with a combination of tr...

Tan Cuiping; Zheng Huaiguo; Zhang Junfeng; Sun Sufen; Li Guangda

2013-01-01

340

On Granular Knowledge Structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledg...

Zeng, Yi; Zhong, Ning

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR  

Science.gov (United States)

The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD? ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

342

A teologia da missão integral como teologia evangélica contextual latino-americano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo inicia com uma análise da reflexão teológica da Fraternidade Teológica Latino-Americana (FTL, numa perspectiva contextual e aborda questões históricas e metodológicas. A seguir, estuda os documentos finais dos Congressos Latino-americanos de Evangelização (CLADES.

Sidney de Moraes Sanches

2010-05-01

343

Contextualized Assessment with Battered Women: Strategic Safety Planning to Cope with Multiple Harms  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the prevalence of domestic violence and the likelihood that many victims will not receive services from specialized domestic violence providers, this article provides a framework for contextualized assessment that can be used by generalist practitioners. Drawing from stress and coping theory, the authors discuss the relevance of assessing…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Nurius, Paula; Macy, Rebecca J.

2005-01-01

344

Developmental and Contextual Risks of Social Physique Anxiety among Female Athletes  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined developmental and contextual factors that may increase the odds of reporting higher social physique anxiety (SPA) among 404 adolescent athletes 11 to 16 years old. Findings showed older, later maturing athletes past peak height velocity and with greater body mass index (BMI) reported higher SPA. Individual…

Gay, Jennifer L.; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni M.

2011-01-01

345

Cognitive, Social, and Contextual Determinants of Strategy Production: Comments on Bray et al. (1994).  

Science.gov (United States)

This response to Norman Bray (EC 609 160) analyzes the methodology and findings of the original study and concludes that studies of strategy production must look at not only the mentally retarded child's cognitive capacities in problem solving but also the social and contextual conditions that affect the child's representation and use of…

Ferretti, Ralph P.

1994-01-01

346

The Impact of Contextual Factors on the Use of Students' Conceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the impacts of contextual factors on the use of students' conceptions. A total of 106 students received a questionnaire involving open-ended questions on acid-base and equilibrium concepts. Of these students, 16 students who provided complete and accurate responses to the questions participated in an interview. In…

Saglam, Yilmaz; Karaaslan, Emre Harun; Ayas, Alipasa

2011-01-01

347

Differential Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist on Social Discrimination and Contextual Fear in Amygdala and Hippocampus  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 5 [mu]g/side) microinjected into the hippocampus or the amygdala would differentially affect memory processes in a neutral vs. an aversive task. In the aversive contextual fear task, WIN into the basolateral amygdala impaired fear acquisition/consolidation, but not retrieval.…

Segev, Amir; Akirav, Irit

2011-01-01

348

Contextualized Emotional Images in Children's Dreams: Psychological Adjustment in Conditions of Military Trauma  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the impact of military trauma on contextualized emotional images in children's dreams, and the function of the intensity and valence of the emotional images in protecting mental health from negative trauma impact. Participants were 345 Palestinian children and adolescents (aged 5-16 years) belonging to high trauma (Gaza) and…

Helminen, Elisa; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

2008-01-01

349

Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

2008-01-01

350

Establishing Contextual Control over Symmetry and Asymmetry Performances in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments 1, 2, and 3 investigated generalized contextually controlled symmetry and asymmetry in typically developing children and children with autism. In Experiment 1, eight typically developing children demonstrated the target performances without intervention. In Experiment 2, multiple-exemplar training and the use of familiar stimuli…

O'Connor, Jennifer; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

2011-01-01

351

Taken out of Context: Differential Processing in Contextual and Isolated Word Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments are reported that investigate the cognitive processes underlying contextual and isolated word reading. In Phase 1, undergraduate participants were exposed to 75 target words under three conditions. The participants generated 25 words from definitions, read 25 words in context and read 25 in isolation. In Phase 2, volunteers…

Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2013-01-01

352

Unpaired Shocks during Extinction Weaken the Contextual Renewal of a Conditioned Discrimination  

Science.gov (United States)

Extinction is generally more fragile than conditioning, as illustrated by the contextual renewal effect. The traditional extinction procedure entails isolated presentations of the conditioned stimulus. Extinction may be boosted by adding isolated presentations of the unconditioned stimulus, as this should augment breaking the contingency between…

Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Deb; Hermans, Dirk

2010-01-01

353

A Discrete Population of Neurons in the Lateral Amygdala Is Specifically Activated by Contextual Fear Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no clear identification of the neurons involved in fear conditioning in the amygdala. To search for these neurons, we have used a genetic approach, the "fos-tau-lacZ" (FTL) mouse, to map functionally activated expression in neurons following contextual fear conditioning. We have identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral…

Wilson, Yvette M.; Murphy, Mark

2009-01-01

354

More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

2009-01-01

355

Implicit Sequence Learning and Contextual Cueing Do Not Compete for Central Cognitive Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Sequence learning and contextual cueing explore different forms of implicit learning, arising from practice with a structured serial task, or with a search task with informative contexts. We assess whether these two learning effects arise simultaneously when both remain implicit. Experiments 1 and 2 confirm that a cueing effect can be observed…

Jimenez, Luis; Vazquez, Gustavo A.

2011-01-01

356

A Developmental-Contextual Model of Couples Coping with Chronic Illness across the Adult Life Span  

Science.gov (United States)

A developmental-contextual model of couples coping with chronic illness is presented that views chronic illness as affecting the adjustment of both the patient and the spouse such that coping strategies enacted by the patient are examined in relation to those enacted by the spouse, and vice versa. The developmental model emphasizes that dyadic…

Berg, Cynthia A.; Upchurch, Renn

2007-01-01

357

State-independent violation of correlation inequalities for non-contextual theories  

CERN Document Server

We show that for any physical system of dimension $d \\ge 3$, any non-contextual theory satisfies some inequalities for the correlations of compatible measurements which are violated by quantum mechanics for any quantum state. These inequalities are obtained from the observables used in the proofs of the Kochen-Specker theorem.

Badziag, Piotr; Cabello, Adan; Pitowsky, Itamar

2008-01-01

358

Examining the Differences of the 8th-Graders' Estimation Performance between Contextual and Numerical Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Two 12-question estimation instruments were designed to compare the differences of estimating strategies used by the 8th-graders when solving contextual and numerical problems. Both instruments are parallel, meaning that the numbers used in both instruments are the same; however, they were presented differently. One hundred and ninety-eight…

Yang, Der-Ching; Wu, Shin-Shin

2012-01-01

359

A Contextual Information Acquisition Approach Based on Semantics and Mashup Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Pay per use is an essential feature of cloud computing. Users can make use of some parts of a large scale service to satisfy their requirements, merely at the cost of a little payment. A good understanding of the users' requirement is a prerequisite for choosing the service in need precisely. Context implies users' potential requirements, which can be a complement to the requirements delivered explicitly. However, traditional context-aware computing research always demands some specific kinds of sensors to acquire contextual information, which renders a threshold too high for an application to become context-aware. This paper comes up with an approach which combines contextual information obtained directly and indirectly from the cloud services. Semantic relationship between different kinds of contexts lays foundation for the searching of the cloud services. And mashup technology is adopted to compose the heterogonous services. Abundant contextual information may lend strong support to a comprehensive understanding of users' context and a bettered abstraction of contextual requirements.

He, Yangfan; Li, Lu; He, Keqing; Chen, Xiuhong

360

Constructing a Pragmatic Science of Learning and Instruction with Functional Contextualism  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivism has been embraced by many in the field of instructional design and technology (IDT), but its advocates have struggled to move beyond theory to practice or to empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach. As an alternative to constructivism, a new perspective emerging in psychology, known as functional contextualism,…

Fox, Eric J.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Knowledge sharing in a multicultural environment: challenges and opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article underscores the process of knowledge sharing in a multicultural organisational environment. Generally,multiculturalism emanates from being influenced by different contexts that provide the potential for human diversity. Itresults in disparate behavioural patterns and bodies of knowledge which lead to variance in terms of racial, sexual, ageand cultural orientations. The process of sharing knowledge is complex and is susceptible to multicultural variances.Considering that knowledge sharing processes and probable multicultural influences are contextual, the purpose of thearticle is to establish the extent of knowledge flows in the Department of Information Science at the University of SouthAfrica. In particular the article seeks to give an overall view on how knowledge is shared across intergenerational, culturaland interracial lines in the Department. The qualitative approach was considered appropriate for this study because itfocuses on observing events from the perspectives of those who are involved and is aimed at understanding the attitude,behaviour and opinions of those individuals (Powell & Connaway 2004. A basic interpretive qualitative research designwas used for this study. Data was collected through interviews and document analysis. The data were inductively analysedand the findings are presented and discussed using references to the literature that informed the study.

Luyanda Dube

2012-12-01

362

Knowledge Management Basics for Emerging Economies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this fast moving world of Globalisation, the World economy is getting much more service driven and knowledge oriented one. Compared to the previous era of imperialistic and localised economic growth orientation, the current trend in Global economic growth is a Trans - national one. The national barriers are reduced, supported by liberal economic policies of developing nations in South America, Asia – Pacific and the like. Especially in an IT driven economic development, Knowledge management is the need of the hour to safeguard the organisations to give themselves the Competitive edge. The paper discusses on the fundamentals of Knowledge management (KM, KM models, KM strategies, the Knowledge management life cycle, Knowledge capture techniques, Knowledge transfer, Motivation and Knowledge sharing and KM ethical issues.

Kalpana

2008-12-01

363

Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.

Yeager, Dorian P.

1987-01-01

364

On Granular Knowledge Structures  

CERN Document Server

Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

Zeng, Yi

2008-01-01

365

Nuclear knowledge management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear knowledge is characterized by high-complexity and variety of the component topics and long duration required by the build-up of individual competence. At organizational level, these characteristics made the power of an organization or institution to be determined by the capital accumulated of existing knowledge. Furthermore, the capacity of an organization to re-generate and raise the knowledge capital according to the specific processes it is running according to the existing demand decides its position/ranking in the economy of nuclear field. Knowledge management emphasizes re-utilization of existing practice and experience, upgrade, enrich and re-value of accumulated knowledge. The present paper identifies and classifies the nuclear knowledge steps, namely: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge, preserving, transfer, knowledge capture etc. On this basis there are identified the existing problems of nuclear knowledge management in Romania such as: difficulties to keep within the country the existing expertise, lack of interest in nuclear education, low level of organization of existing knowledge due to a small number of data bases, an insufficient integration of existing knowledge in IT systems, lack of ontology and taxonomy or an average structuralism. Nuclear knowledge in Romania is facing a major challenge which is generated by the future development of nuclear facilities. It is related to the rising demand of expertise and experts. This challenge is better solved by partnership between end users and institutions of Research and Development and university organization as well which could ensure the generation, transfer and preservation of nuclear knowledge. (authors)

2007-01-01

366

Reliable knowledge discovery  

CERN Document Server

Reliable Knowledge Discovery focuses on theory, methods, and techniques for RKDD, a new sub-field of KDD. It studies the theory and methods to assure the reliability and trustworthiness of discovered knowledge and to maintain the stability and consistency of knowledge discovery processes. RKDD has a broad spectrum of applications, especially in critical domains like medicine, finance, and military. Reliable Knowledge Discovery also presents methods and techniques for designing robust knowledge-discovery processes. Approaches to assessing the reliability of the discovered knowledge are introduc

Dai, Honghua; Smirnov, Evgueni

2012-01-01

367

Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations  

CERN Document Server

To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goal...

Magliocca, N R; Oates, T; Schmill, M

2013-01-01

368

A Pilot Whole-School Intervention to Improve School Ethos and Reduce Substance Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Evidence from the USA/Australia suggests whole-school interventions designed to increase social inclusion/engagement can reduce substance use. Completeness of implementation varies but contextual determinants have not been fully explored. Informed by previous interventions, the paper aims to examine these topics in an English pilot of the…

Bonell, Chris; Sorhaindo, Annik; Strange, Vicki; Wiggins, Meg; Allen, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Adam; Oakley, Ann; Bond, Lyndal; Flay, Brian; Patton, George; Rhodes, Tim

2010-01-01

369

Knowledge on the Move  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge propagation is the challenge. Better society requires best knowledge management practices and use of latest tools and technologies. Knowledge management is dealing with the problem of different languages in big countries. Also knowledge is present in different forms. It may be knowledge encoded in laws, decrees, standards, policies, rules and regulations and orders. All these forms of knowledge must be combined together so that it is readily available for general public in their own language. In addition there should be a proper knowledge propagation mechanism. Knowledge propagation becomes difficult in multiple languages. Recently mobile phones and in car computers have become widely used in third world country. These moving devices have amazing features like continuous connectivity, location detection, facility of voice and data processing. This attracts Knowledge Management researchers to consider Mobile computing devices and mobile computers as the medium of knowledge propagation. This study proposes a framework for knowledge propagation through voiceXML in different languages using Mobile phone or in car pc as the delivery medium. Voice interface requires minimum resources and works well in the moving car. The study will enhance the knowledge of mobile computing community knowledge communication. In near future this area of study and its related studies will be greater part of applied mobile computing.

N.K. Farooqui

2011-01-01

370

Interferência contextual e nível de habilidade na aprendizagem do serviço do voleibol / Contextual interference and level of skill in the learning of volleyball serve / Interferencia contextual y nivel de habilidad en el aprendizaje del servicio de voleibol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investigou o efeito da interferência contextual (IC) na aquisição do serviço do voleibol em adolescentes com diferentes níveis de habilidade, considerando os testes de transferência imediato e retardado. A amostra foi composta por 56 meninas com idade entre 14 e 16 anos, distribuídas em [...] quatro grupos de prática: aleatório com nível superior de habilidade (GAS), blocos com nível superior de habilidade (GBS), aleatório com nível inferior de habilidade (GAI) e blocos com nível inferior de habilidade (GBI). A tarefa motora consistiu dos serviços por baixo e por cima direcionados a alvos na quadra. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito da IC não foi observado nos grupos GAI e GBI, por outro lado, os grupos GAS e GBS apresentaram melhor desempenho no teste de transferência imediato. A ausência de diferenças significativas no teste de transferência retardado sugere que o efeito da IC pode ser temporário. Abstract in spanish Este estudio investigó el efecto de la interferencia contextual (IC) en la adquisición del servicio de voleibol en adolescentes con diferentes niveles de habilidad, teniendo en cuenta las pruebas de transferencia inmediata y retardada. La muestra estuvo conformada por 56 niñas de edades comprendidas [...] entre 14 y 16 años, divididas en cuatro grupos de práctica: al azar con mayor nivel de habilidad (GAS), por bloques con mayor nivel de habilidad (GBS), al azar con menor nivel de habilidad (GAI ) y por bloques con menor nivel de habilidad (GBI). La tarea motora consistió de servicios por abajo y por encima dirigidos a objetivos en la cancha. Los resultados mostraron que no se observó el efecto de la IC en los grupos GAI y GBI, por otra parte, los grupos GAS y GBS presentaron mejor rendimiento en la prueba de transferencia inmediata. La ausencia de diferencias significativas en la prueba de transferencia de retraso sugiere que el efecto de la IC puede ser temporario. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of contextual interference on acquiring the volleyball serve in adolescents with different skill levels, considering then immediate and delayed transfer tests. Participants were 56 schoolgirls separated in four practice groups: random practice [...] with higher level skill subjects (GAS), blocked practice with higher level skill subjects (GBS), random practice with lower level skill subjects (GAI) and blocked practice with lower level skill subjects (GBI). The acquisition task consisted in performing underhand and overhead services directed at two targets affixed to the ground. The results showed no effect of contextual interference on the lower level skill subjects. However when comparing the types of practice between the higher level skill subjects, the effect was observed in the immediate transfer test. The absence of significant differences between groups in the delayed transfer test suggest that the contextual interference effect may be temporary.

Nhamussua, Domingos Manuel; Prista, António; Basso, Luciano; Tani, Go.

371

Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampus-dependent memory, contextual fear extinction and remote contextual memory: new insights from ERK5 MAP kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult neurogenesis occurs in two discrete regions of the adult mammalian brain, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles. Signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SGZ are currently an active area of investigation. Adult-born neurons in the DG functionally integrate into the hippocampal circuitry and form functional synapses, suggesting a role for these neurons in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Although results from earlier behavioral studies addressing this issue were inconsistent, recent advances in conditional gene targeting technology, viral injection and optogenetic approaches have provided convincing evidence supporting a role for adult-born neurons in the more challenging forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Here, we briefly summarize these recent studies with a focus on extra signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 5, a MAP kinase whose expression in the adult brain is restricted to the neurogenic regions including the SGZ and SVZ. We review evidence identifying ERK5 as a novel endogenous signaling pathway that regulates the pro-neural transcription factor Neurogenin 2, is activated by neurotrophins and is critical for adult neurogenesis. We discuss studies demonstrating that specific deletion of ERK5 in the adult neurogenic regions impairs several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation in mice. These include contextual fear memory extinction, the establishment and maintenance of remote contextual fear memory, and several other challenging forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation including 48h memory for novel object recognition, contextual fear memory established by a weak foot shock, pattern separation, and reversal of spatial learning and memory. We also briefly discuss current evidence that increasing adult neurogenesis, by small molecules or genetic manipulation, improves memory formation and long-term memory. PMID:23871742

Pan, Yung-Wei; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

2013-10-01

372

Iran’s Approach to Knowledge Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nKnowledge translation was created in response to the knowledge-do gap. With the growing number of research projects, utilization of research knowledge roused interest. One of its defects, which are seen more in developing countries, is the scarcity of recognized practical knowledge translation applications. The actions taken to strengthen knowledge translation can be classified into three categories of ‘push, pull and exchange'. In Iran, some of the interventions effective in knowl­edge translation, may not have primarily taken place with this aim, but can however be effective in it. Some of the meas­ures taken specifically in Iran's research system are: capacity building of human resources for knowledge translation, better utilization of research by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, creating necessary incentives among medical uni­versities, identification of barriers and proposing interventions. Pilots of knowledge translation interventions are concerned with ‘push' activities whose main focus is to support knowledge translation activities and promote active strategies (or in­crease interaction between researchers and decision makers during research and utilization of results. Long-plan programs such as ‘Iran's Health Innovation and Science Development plan have also been designed for the future. These include formation of centers for reducing the knowledge-do gap in the form of knowledge and health technology translation centers.

R Majdzadeh

2009-03-01

373

Knowledge Management Assessment Trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge flow is essential in an operational environment where we must learn faster, understand better, and adapt more rapidly. The baseline flow requires an integrated knowledge environment where information moves freely between people, between systems,...

L. McGurn

2011-01-01

374

Taxonomies of Organizational Knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper systematizes organizational knowledge, starting from the classical dichotomy of tacit and explicit, and outlining the importance of these taxonomies, which may seem reductive, in properly understanding the nature of organizational knowledge and operating with it in business.

2008-01-01

375

MANAGEMENT. THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issues surrounding the management of tacit knowledge are entirely different and the creation of value from such knowledge may require fundamentally new approaches to organizational structures and management systems. Knowledge also differs according to its importance. Despite the widespread interest in organizational capabilities and competency modeling, most firms have a poor understanding of which types of knowledge are critical to their future success.What are the purposes and ...

Leonard Sergiu B?lan

2013-01-01

376

The Governance of Knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge has been defined as a major resource for development. Especially countries without natural resources have found this idea attractive and have embarked on development strategies to develop a knowledge-based economy. In doing so they may fall into a “knowledge trap”. The paper postulates an “epistemic backlash”, because an increase of knowledge leads to an even greater increase of ignorance, which is accompanied by an increase of risk and an increase of necessary research fund...

2013-01-01

377

Indicators for Knowledge Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

2007-01-01

378

Indicators for Knowledge Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

Batagan, Lorena

2007-01-01

379

Perceiving speech in context: Compensation for contextual variability during acoustic cue encoding and categorization  

Science.gov (United States)

Several fundamental questions about speech perception concern how listeners understand spoken language despite considerable variability in speech sounds across different contexts (the problem of lack of invariance in speech). This contextual variability is caused by several factors, including differences between individual talkers' voices, variation in speaking rate, and effects of coarticulatory context. A number of models have been proposed to describe how the speech system handles differences across contexts. Critically, these models make different predictions about (1) whether contextual variability is handled at the level of acoustic cue encoding or categorization, (2) whether it is driven by feedback from category-level processes or interactions between cues, and (3) whether listeners discard fine-grained acoustic information to compensate for contextual variability. Separating the effects of cue- and category-level processing has been difficult because behavioral measures tap processes that occur well after initial cue encoding and are influenced by task demands and linguistic information. Recently, we have used the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to examine cue encoding and online categorization. Specifically, we have looked at differences in the auditory N1 as a measure of acoustic cue encoding and the P3 as a measure of categorization. This allows us to examine multiple levels of processing during speech perception and can provide a useful tool for studying effects of contextual variability. Here, I apply this approach to determine the point in processing at which context has an effect on speech perception and to examine whether acoustic cues are encoded continuously. Several types of contextual variability (talker gender, speaking rate, and coarticulation), as well as several acoustic cues (voice onset time, formant frequencies, and bandwidths), are examined in a series of experiments. The results suggest that (1) at early stages of speech processing, listeners encode continuous differences in acoustic cues, independent of phonological categories; (2) at post-perceptual stages, fine-grained acoustic information is preserved; and (3) there is preliminary evidence that listeners encode cues relative to context via feedback from categories. These results are discussed in relation to proposed models of speech perception and sources of contextual variability.

Toscano, Joseph Christopher

380

Contextual and individual influences on diabetes and heart disease in Havana primary care catchment areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: A population health profile is a cumulative product of socioenvironmental and political factors that create the contexts in which health problems arise, as well as opportunities and barriers to addressing them. Research on context has focused on demonstrating its effects, direct or ind [...] irect, on health indicators, but has made few incursions into assessing its role as a mediator of other factors. While individual risk factors for chronic diseases are well known, the same cannot be said for the complex of contextual factors operating at various levels and over the lifespan. OBJECTIVE: stimate relative influences by contextual versus individual factors as determinants of diabetes type 2 and heart disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in populations served by 12 family doctor-and-nurse practices in Havana, in 840 families selected by simple random sampling, 70 per practice. Principal components analysis was used, as well as contextual logistic regression models with a nested model strategy, whose fit was meant to estimate the relative contributions of contextual compared to individual risk factors for diabetes and heart disease. Context was described and analyzed at two levels: that of the family or household and that of the catchment area served by a family doctor-and-nurse practice (geographically defined as a neighborhood). RESULTS: For diabetes, the contextual effect of neighborhood was modified when household effect was removed; that is, the effect of neighborhood was indirect and mediated by household. Individual coefficients were practically invariant; the principal effect of household changed noticeably on removal of individual effects, while age maintained its effect without variation. For heart disease, the effect of neighborhood was slightly modified when household effect was controlled for. Individual coefficients showed little change. There was an important direct effect of household on risk of heart disease. Age and high blood pressure coefficients hardly varied. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed interactions between individual and contextual (neighborhood and household) factors, whose effects on individual health are not entirely mediated by individual factors. Research needs to pay more attention to context beyond its direct effect on individual risk factors.

Georgia, Díaz-Perera; Jorge, Bacallao; Eduardo, Alemañy.

 
 
 
 
381

Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educa...

2004-01-01

382

Knowledge, People, and Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's mandate is to take risks to got into space while applying its best knowledge. NASA's knowledge is the result of scientific insights from research, engineering wisdom from experience, project management skills, safety and team consciousness and institutional support and collaboration. This presentation highlights NASA's organizational knowledge, communication and growth efforts.

Rogers, Edward W.

2008-01-01

383

Knowledge based problem solving  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A collection of papers and articles covering a variety of Artificial Intelligence (AI) issues. It presents the state of the art, as well as the future prospects of knowledge-based systems. Introduces several key advanced concepts, such as, classification problem solving, knowledge acquisition, analogy, and deep expert systems. Ten chapters introduce readers to knowledge-based problem solving methods and applied AI technology.

Kowalik, J.

1986-01-01

384

Contextuality and the transmission of trauma: Nightfather by Carl Friedman  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english "Context" plays an important role in any discourse about trauma. Not only does it serve as a precondition for the manifestation of trauma in the first place, but also determines the way in which trauma is received, interpreted and represented. The sensitivity of the reception context towards the rep [...] resented traumatic events also determines whether only knowledge about the events are mediated or whether the uncanny nature of trauma is transmitted. If the latter occurs, a secondary trauma manifests itself as result. In the Dutch novel Tralievader (translated as Nightfather) by Carl Friedman the transmission of the Holocaust trauma within a particular family is represented. This transmission can be seen as the result of the impact of one context on another-that of the parent on that of the child. With the complex issue of the transmission of trauma kept in mind, specific dangers in the interpretation and transmission of trauma in a collective sense are identified. Suggestions are also made on how to deal with trauma in a productive way.

J. P. C., van den Berg; H. P., van Coller.

385

The librarian's role in linking patients to their personal health data and contextual information.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to make an institution's patients aware of a new patient portal with contextual links to MedlinePlus. Through partnerships with information technology personnel and LSU Health Shreveport clinics, the Health Sciences Library created and distributed promotional and educational materials and instructed patients on how to use MyChart and access reliable consumer health information via MedlinePlus Connect. Although most patients were not interested in coming to the library for demonstrations, many of them expressed interest in using MyChart. The contextual information in MedlinePlus Connect worked well for most topics. The institutional team leader for MyChart expressed gratitude for librarian involvement. PMID:24180654

Tarver, Talicia; Jones, Dixie A; Adams, Mararia; Garcia, Alejandro

2013-01-01

386

People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external. PMID:19093614

Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

2008-10-01

387

A Possible Role For Astrocytes In Contextual Memory Retrieval: An Analysis Obtained Using A Quantitative Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hippocampus is central to our understanding of memory formation and retrieval. Its CA1 region is known for encoding contextual memory. Here, using a computational approach, which embeds existing physiological data, we propose a particular role of astrocytes in contextual memory retrieval. We provide a quantitative framework under which the astrocyte modulates firing of the context-associated CA1 pyramidal neurons, resulting in a prominent tuning of neurons to the delta rhythm. Using the very framework, we further studied astrocyte function in modulation of neuronal firing under pathological conditions, i.e. during astrocytic induction of epileptiform discharge in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Thus, we provide a quantitative framework that would aide understanding of the Schaffer collateral-CA1 tripartite synapse in heath and disease.

VladimirParpura

2013-11-01

388

Knowledge loss: Managing local knowledge in rural Uzbekistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge loss is not a remote phenomenon, unique to one knowledge system. Rather we argue that the loss of knowledge is an issue for other knowledge systems as well. Knowledge loss is certainly a concern for anthropologists working on indigenous knowledge, fearful of ‘losing’ indigenous knowledge entirely as a result of modernisation (cf. Cox, 2000). Equally, staff movements within the corporate world probably lead to a large amount of knowledge displacement, yet staff (and thus knowledg...

Wall, Caleb; Evers, Hans-dieter

2006-01-01

389

Digging for knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

The "smile of a mother" is always recognized, whenever and wherever. But why is my PC always dumb and unable to recognize me or my needs, whoever or whatever? This paper postulates that such a 6 W's query and search system needs matching storage. Such a lament will soon be mended with a smarter PC, or a smarter Google engine, a network computer, working in the field of data retrieval, feature extraction, reduction, and knowledge precipitation. Specifically, the strategy of modern information storage and retrieval shall work like our brains, which are constantly overwhelmed by 5 pairs of identical tapes taken by eyes, ears, etc. 5 high fidelity sensors generate 5 pairs of high definition tapes which produce the seeing and hearing etc. in our perception. This amounts to 10 tapes recorded in a non-abridged fashion. How can we store and retrieve them when we need to? We must reduce the redundancy, enhancing the signal noise ratio, and fusing invariant features using a simple set of mathematical operations to write according to the union and read by the intersection in the higher dimensional vector space. For example, (see paper for equation) where the query must be phrased in terms of the union of imprecise or partial set of 6w's denoted by the union of lower case w's. The upper case W's are the archival storage of a primer tree. A simplified humanistic representation may be called the 6W space (who, what, where, when, why, how), also referred to as the Newspaper geometry. It seems like mapping the 6W to the 3W (World Wide Web) is becoming relatively easier. It may thus become efficient and robust by rapidly digging for knowledge through the set operations of union, writing, and intersection, reading, upon the design of 6 W query searching engine matched efficiently by the 6W vector index databases. In fact, Newspaper 6D geometry may be reduced furthermore by PCA (Principal Component Analysis) eigenvector mathematics and mapped into the 2D causality space comprised of the causes (What, How, Why) and the effects (Where, When and Who). If this hypothesis of brain strategy were true, one must then develop a 6W query language to support a 6Wordered set storage of linkage pointers in high D space. In other words, one can easily map the basic 1st Gen. Google Web, 1-D statistical PageRanking databases, to a nested 6W tree where each branch of sub-6-W is stemming from the prime 6 W tree, using a system of automated text mining assisted by syntactic semantics to discern the properties of the 6W for that query. Goehl et al. has demonstrated previously that such is doable, but one may need more tools to support the knowledge extraction and automated feature reduction. In this paper, we have set out to demonstrate lossless down sampling using the 2nd Gen wavelet transform, the so-called "1-D Cartesian lifting processing of Swelden" adopted by JPEG 2000. "The loss of statistics, if any (including PageRanking and 1-D lifting), is the loss of geometry insights," such as 2-D vector time series, video, whose 1-D lifting Cartesian product will loss the diagonal changes insights.

Szu, Harold; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Hsu, Charles; Goehl, Steve; Miao, Liden; Cader, Masud; Benachenhou, Dalila

2009-04-01

390

Salivary Gonadal and Adrenal Hormone Differences in Boys and Girls With and Without Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Contextual Variants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hormone differences by psychopathology group and gender may have implications for understanding disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and complexities of treatment outcomes. Current theoretical models emphasize contextual differences as moderators of hormone-behavior relations. This report examined: a) hormone differences in youth with and without DBD, and b) contextual factors as moderators of behavior problems and hormones. 180 children and adolescents were enrolled (141 boys, mean 9.0 ± 1.7...

Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Huang, Bin; Stein, Howard; Music, Edvin; Bukstein, Oscar G.

2009-01-01

391

The Use of Dictionary and Contextual Guessing Strategies for Vocabulary Learning by Advanced English-Language Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study provides insight into the use of dictionaries and contextual guessing by advanced English-language learners. This report identifies dictionary use and contextual guessing strategies used by these learners most often and least often. Participants were 100 international graduate students at a large southwestern U.S. university who completed a vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire. The results indicated that these learners consulted a dictionary most often to find out t...

Shufen Huang; Zohreh Eslami

2013-01-01

392

Preserved local but disrupted contextual figure-ground influences in an individual with abnormal function of intermediate visual areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermedi...

2012-01-01

393

Contextual influences on health worker motivation in district hospitals in Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Organizational factors are considered to be an important influence on health workers' uptake of interventions that improve their practices. These are additionally influenced by factors operating at individual and broader health system levels. We sought to explore contextual influences on worker motivation, a factor that may modify the effect of an intervention aimed at changing clinical practices in Kenyan hospitals. Methods Franco LM, et al'...

2009-01-01

394

A Rule-based Contextual Reasoning Platform for Ambient Intelligence environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The special characteristics and requirements of intelligent environments impose several challenges to the reasoning processes of Ambient Intelligence systems. Such systems must enable heterogeneous entities operating in open and dynamic environments to collectively rea- son with imperfect context information. Previously we introduced Con- textual Defeasible Logic (CDL) as a contextual reasoning model that addresses most of these challenges using the concepts of context, map- pings and context...

Moawad, Assaad; Bikakis, Antonis; Caire, Patrice; Nain, Gre?gory; Le Traon, Yves

2013-01-01

395

ReputationPro: The Efficient Approaches to Contextual Transaction Trust Computation in E-Commerce Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In e-commerce environments, the trustworthiness of a seller is utterly important to potential buyers, especially when the seller is unknown to them. Most existing trust evaluation models compute a single value to reflect the general trust level of a seller without taking any transaction context information into account. In this paper, we first present a trust vector consisting of three values for Contextual Transaction Trust (CTT). In the computation of three CTT values, the...

Zhang, Haibin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Lim, Ee-peng

2013-01-01

396

CA3 NMDA Receptors are Required for the Rapid Formation of a Salient Contextual Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The acquisition of Pavlovian fear learning engages the hippocampus when the conditioned stimuli are multimodal or temporally isolated from the unconditioned stimuli. By subjecting CA3-NR1 KO mice to conditioning protocols that incorporate time-dependent components we found that the loss of plasticity at recurrent CA3 synapses resulted in a deficits in contextual conditioning specifically when the exposure to the context was brief or when the US was signaled with a competing, predictive unimod...

Mchugh, Thomas J.; Tonegawa, Susumu

2009-01-01

397

CA3 NMDA Receptors are Required for the Rapid Formation of a Salient Contextual Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The acquisition of Pavlovian fear learning engages the hippocampus when the conditioned stimuli are multimodal or temporally isolated from the unconditioned stimuli. By subjecting CA3-NR1 KO mice to conditioning protocols that incorporate time-dependent components, we found that the loss of plasticity at recurrent CA3 synapses resulted in a deficits in contextual conditioning specifically when the exposure to the context was brief or when the unconditioned stimulus was signaled with a competi...

Tonegawa, Susumu; Mchugh, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

398

Contextual visual localization: cascaded submap classification, optimized saliency detection, and fast view matching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a novel coarse-to-fine visual localization approach: contextual visual localization. This approach relies on three elements: (i) a minimal-complexity classifier for performing fast coarse localization (submap classification); (ii) an optimized saliency detector which exploits the visual statistics of the submap; and (iii) a fast view-matching algorithm which filters initial matchings with a structural criterion. The latter algorithm yields fine localization. Our expe...

2007-01-01

399

The Hotkey Palette: Flexible Contextual Retrieval of Chosen Documents and Windows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the Hotkey Palette, a quasi-modal interface enabling quick retrieval of chosen documents and windows by defining and triggering keyboard shortcuts either on the physical keyboard or with an on-screen keyboard. The Hotkey Palette improves on previous work by providing flexible contextualization of shortcuts that leverages document hierarchies, and by merging document and window retrieval in a single interface. The report describes the design and implementation of the interface and p...

2013-01-01

400

INTERPLAY OF DIFFERENT CONTEXTUAL MOTIVATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR EXERCISE MOTIVATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between different contextual motivations and exercise motivation. The sample consisted of 449 exercisers aged between 16 and 53 years. Questionnaires were used to measure the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and the autotelic experience during exercise. The level of self-determined motivation regarding health, leisure and interpersonal relationships was also measured. The results of the structural equati...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Mindfulness at Work and Its Relationship to Contextual Performance and Well-Being  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence of mindfulness trainings in profit organisations is on the increase. However, mindfulness as a quality of consciousness has rarely been investigated in work settings or with work-related concepts. Thus, the present thesis examines mindfulness in relation to contextual performance and work-related well-being. Based on literature analyses I propose three hypotheses: Firstly, mindfulness is positively associated with helping and cooperating with others, mediated by empathy. Second...

Rauch, Tina

2011-01-01

402

Contextual cuing contributes to the independent modification of multiple internal models for vocal control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on the control of visually guided limb movements indicates that the brain learns and continuously updates an internal model that maps the relationship between motor commands and sensory feedback. A growing body of work suggests that an internal model that relates motor commands to sensory feedback also supports vocal control. There is evidence from arm-reaching studies that shows that when provided with a contextual cue, the motor system can acquire multiple internal models, which al...

Keough, Dwayne; Jones, Jeffery A.

2011-01-01

403

Is Attention Based on Spatial Contextual Memory Preferentially Guided by Low Spatial Frequency Signals?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A popular model of visual perception states that coarse information (carried by low spatial frequencies) along the dorsal stream is rapidly transmitted to prefrontal and medial temporal areas, activating contextual information from memory, which can in turn constrain detailed input carried by high spatial frequencies arriving at a slower rate along the ventral visual stream, thus facilitating the processing of ambiguous visual stimuli. We were interested in testing whether this model contribu...

Patai, E. Z.; Buckley, A.; Nobre, A. C.

2013-01-01

404

Towards Contextualized Information Delivery: A Rule-based Architecture for the Domain of Mobile Police Work:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An increasing number of mobile users demand adaptive services tailored to their specific requirements in a particular situation. Typically, when carrying out the task at hand, police officers need to have up-to-date information contextualized to their current situation in order to support their decision making. In contrast to the traditional work environments in which workers are involved in standard office work, the situations in which mobile workers perform their tasks are characterized by ...

2011-01-01

405

Characterizing cognitive aging of spatial and contextual memory in animal models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Episodic memory, especially memory for contextual or spatial information, is particularly vulnerable to age-related decline in humans and animal models of aging. The continuing improvement of virtual environment technology for testing humans signifies that widely used procedures employed in the animal literature for examining spatial memory could be developed for examining age-related cognitive decline in humans. The current review examines cross species considerations for implementing these ...

Foster, Thomas C.; Defazio, R. A.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

406

Geographic Inequalities in All-Cause Mortality in Japan: Compositional or Contextual?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: A recent study from Japan suggested that geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality have increased since 1995 in both sexes even after adjusting for individual age and occupation in 47 prefectures. Such variations can arise from compositional effects as well as contextual effects. In this study, we sought to further examine the emerging geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality, by exploring the relative contribution of composition and context in each pref...

Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V. Venkata

2012-01-01

407

Priming of control: implicit contextual cuing of top-down attentional set  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive models have long distinguished between “automatic” associative processes that can be triggered in a bottom-up fashion, and “controlled” processes, where internal goals guide information processing in a deliberate, top-down manner. However, recent behavioral studies have cast doubt on the validity of this dichotomy, showing that implicit contextual cues can modulate performance in a way suggestive of an associative triggering of specific top-down control states. Here, we harn...

King, Joseph A.; Korb, Franziska M.; Egner, Tobias

2012-01-01

408

Plagiarism detection in documents: high performance monolingual external analysis system based on contextual n-grams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a new approach is shown for a monolingual extrinsic plagiarism detection system based on a modification of the "n-gram" concept (named “contextual n-gram”), a new high performance Information Retrieval engine based on this new concept, and a new strategy (“referential monotonity”) for plagiarism detection and its limits. The assessment results can be compared with those results carried out by the winner team in PAN'09, but these are achieved with very low computa...

2010-01-01

409

Contextual approach to quantum mechanics and the theory of the fundamental prespace  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We constructed a Hilbert space representation of a contextual Kolmogorov model. This representation is based on two fundamental observables -- in the standard quantum model these are position and momentum observables. This representation has all distinguishing features of the quantum model. Thus in spite all ``No-Go'' theorems (e.g., von Neumann, Kochen and Specker,..., Bell) we found the realist basis for quantum mechanics. Our representation is not standard model with hidd...

Khrennikov, Andrei

2003-01-01

410

Influences of Individual and Contextual Factors on Improving the Professional Development of TVET Teachers in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Dissertation tried to provide insights into the influences of individual and contextual factors on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) teachers’ learning and professional development in Ethiopia. Specifically, this research focused on identifying and determining the influences of teachers’ self perception as learners and professionals, and investigates the impact of the context, process and content of their learning and experiences on their professional development...

Abebe, Ayele

2009-01-01

411

A behavioral analysis of the impact of voluntary physical activity on hippocampus-dependent contextual conditioning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Voluntary physical activity induces molecular changes in the hippocampus consistent with improved hippocampal function, but few studies have explored the effects of wheel running on specific hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. The current studies investigated the impact of voluntary wheel running on learning and memory for context and extinction using contextual fear conditioning which is known to be dependent on the hippocampus. When conditioning occurred prior to the start ...

Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Strong, Paul V.; Foley, Teresa E.; Fleshner, Monika

2009-01-01

412

Quantum contextuality as security check in quantum cryptography using intraparticle entanglement  

CERN Document Server

In this work, we present a quantum key distribution scheme which exploits quantum mechanical violation of non-contextuality for checking the security of the protocol. In this scheme the sender encodes the key using path-spin intraparticle entanglement of a single particle. The receiver decodes the information using a combination of beam splitters and phase shifters in conjunction with Stern-Gerlach measuring devices. Distinctive features of this protocol as compared to the BB84 and E91 protocols are discussed.

Adhikari, S; Majumdar, A S; Pan, A K

2011-01-01

413

Memory under pressure: secondary-task effects on contextual cueing of visual search.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repeated display configurations improve visual search. Recently, the question has arisen whether this contextual cueing effect (Chun & Jiang, 1998) is itself mediated by attention, both in terms of selectivity and processing resources deployed. While it is accepted that selective attention modulates contextual cueing (Jiang & Leung, 2005), there is an ongoing debate whether the cueing effect is affected by a secondary working memory (WM) task, specifically at which stage WM influences the cueing effect: the acquisition of configural associations (e.g., Travis, Mattingley, & Dux, 2013) versus the expression of learned associations (e.g., Manginelli, Langer, Klose, & Pollmann, 2013). The present study re-investigated this issue. Observers performed a visual search in combination with a spatial WM task. The latter was applied on either early or late search trials--so as to examine whether WM load hampers the acquisition of or retrieval from contextual memory. Additionally, the WM and search tasks were performed either temporally in parallel or in succession--so as to permit the effects of spatial WM load to be dissociated from those of executive load. The secondary WM task was found to affect cueing in late, but not early, experimental trials--though only when the search and WM tasks were performed in parallel. This pattern suggests that contextual cueing involves a spatial WM resource, with spatial WM providing a workspace linking the current search array with configural long-term memory; as a result, occupying this workspace by a secondary WM task hampers the expression of learned configural associations. PMID:24190911

Annac, Efsun; Manginelli, Angela A; Pollmann, Stefan; Shi, Zhuanghua; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

2013-01-01

414

The effects of IL2R? knockout on depression and contextual memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interleukin (IL)-2R? shows robust upregulation in neuroinflammatory states associated with clinical depression. We tested the hypothesis that mice lacking IL2R? would have decreased depressive-like behavior. Contrary to this expectation, these knockout mice showed increased immobility in both the Porsolt forced swimming and Nomura water wheel tests. By comparison, the auditory fear conditioning test showed increased retention of contextual freezing. Thus, intact IL2R? combats depressive-li...

2010-01-01

415

The contextual name generator : a good tool for the study of sociability and socialization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss here some specificities and advantages of a new kind of integrated name generator, the “contextual” name generator, which was developed in a longitudinal qualitative panel study that started in France in 1995 and was also conducted in 2005 in three different projects in Quebec. This name generator gives access to a great diversity of information that allows to combine sociability and socialization questions.

Bidart, Claire; Charbonneau, Johanne

2007-01-01

416

Not on the face alone: perception of contextualized face expressions in Huntington's disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerous studies have demonstrated that Huntington's disease mutation-carriers have deficient explicit recognition of isolated facial expressions. There are no studies, however, which have investigated the recognition of facial expressions embedded within an emotional body and scene context. Real life facial expressions are typically embedded in contexts which may dramatically change the emotion recognized in the face. Moreover, a recent study showed that the magnitude of the contextual bias ...

Aviezer, Hillel; Bentin, Shlomo; Hassin, Ran R.; Meschino, Wendy S.; Kennedy, Jeanne; Grewal, Sonya; Esmail, Sherali; Cohen, Sharon; Moscovitch, Morris

2009-01-01

417

Time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextual dependency of negative and neutral memories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context may be an important vulnerability factor for developing anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such altered memory contextualization may develop through the effects of the well-known stress hormone cortisol on underlying memory neurocircuitry, rich in corticosteroid receptors. By binding to these receptors, cortisol induces rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effect...

2012-01-01

418

Probing the Depths of Informant Discrepancies: Contextual Influences on Divergence and Convergence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research examined how a contextual approach to child assessment can clarify the meaning of informant discrepancies by focusing on children’s social experiences and their if…then reactions to them. In a sample of 123 children (Mage=13.30) referred to a summer program for children with behavior problems, parent-teacher agreement for syndromal measures of aggression and withdrawal was modest. Agreement remained low when informants assessed children’s reactions to specific peer and adu...

Hartley, Anselma G.; Zakriski, Audrey L.; Wright, Jack C.

2011-01-01