WorldWideScience

Sample records for contextual knowledge reduces

  1. Knowledge Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    Kréta : WSEAS Press, 2007, s. 326-330. ISBN 978-960-8457-90-4. [CSCC 2007. Agios Nikolaos (GR), 23.07.2007-28.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * uncertainty * knowledge management * contextual modelling * temporal modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  2. Integration of Funds of Knowledge as Contextual Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norawi Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed the importance of funds of knowledge as contextual knowledge to generate the impact of ‘resonance’ in sustaining students’ interest and motivation towards science, especially Physics. The funds of knowledge that comprises of cultural and language knowledge, which are richly embedded within the students due to daily interaction with family members, friends and community activities should be addressed, explored and utilized by science educators to generate the relationship between the science curriculum in school and students’ experience in community. The teaching and learning processes should be based on students’ cultural experiences and be contextually related to their rich community knowledge, so that an intersection occurs between the science curriculum and their community experiences. Example of a lesson plan integrating funds of knowledge in teaching Archimedes Principle was produced. The awareness and creativity of educators in adapting the repertoire of their own cultural experiences as well as students’ funds of knowledge would eliminate negative perceptions and difficulties in the understanding of Physics concepts.

  3. Cloud-Savvy Contextual Spaces as Agile Personal Learning Environments or Informal Knowledge Management Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gillet D.; Bogdanov E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents how advanced social media platforms can be exploited to construct and share contextual spaces enabling the instantiation of agile personal learning environments or informal knowledge management solutions. The usefulness of open plugins to collect resources from the cloud in such dedicated contextual spaces is discussed. The mechanisms for the personalization of spaces from an interaction point of view once populated with resources and their sharing across platforms are als...

  4. Using Regular, Lowstakes Tests to Secure Pupils' Contextual Knowledge in Year 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Lee Donaghy was concerned that his GCSE students' weak contextual knowledge was letting them down. Inspired by a mixture of cognitive science and the arguments of other teachers expressed in various blogs, he decided to tackle the problem by teaching and testing knowledge more intensively. The result was a rapid improvement in secure factual…

  5. Demographic and Contextual Factors Related to Knowledge About Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Zoller, Sarah M.; BALSIS, STEVE; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Gatz, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about Alzheimer's disease (AD) is essential to address the public health impact of dementia. This study examined AD knowledge in 794 people who completed the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale and questions about their background and experience with AD. Whereas overall knowledge was fair, there was significant variability across groups. Knowledge was highest among professionals working in the dementia field, lower for dementia caregivers and older adults, and lowest for se...

  6. Increase Motivation and Knowledge the Environment through Contextual Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yustina Yustina; Elya Febrita

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to determine the development of curriculum Environmental Sciences which applies scientific lecture materials that are integrated in the environment, application of environmental knowledge, and character development curriculum on motivation. This study involved 45 students who were selected randomly. Data from samples were obtained by using a questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the survey instrument was conducted by performing a pilot study invol...

  7. A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2011-01-01

    Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics and literacies embedded, and supported by ICT. Here, we present an evaluation of new technology that might bridge generations and preserve key elements of local IK in Namibia. We describe how we applied insights, generated by ethnographic, dialogical and participatory action research, in designing a structure in which users can store, organize and retrieve user-generated videos in ways that are compatible with their knowledge system. The structure embeds videos in a scenario-based 3D visualization of a rural village. It accounts for some of the ways this rural community manages information, socially, spatially and temporally and provides users with a recognizable 3D simulated environment in which to re-contextualize de-contextualized video clips. Our formative in situ evaluation of a prototype suggests the visualization is legible to community members, provokes participation in design discussions, offers opportunities for local appropriation and may facilitate knowledge sharing between IK holders and more youthful IK assimilators. Simultaneously differing interpretations of scenarios and modeled objects reveal the limitations of our modeling decisions and raises various questions regarding graphic design details and regional transferability.

  8. Discrete Logic Modelling Optimization to Contextualize Prior Knowledge Networks Using PRUNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androsova, Ganna; del Sol, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput technologies have led to the generation of an increasing amount of data in different areas of biology. Datasets capturing the cell’s response to its intra- and extra-cellular microenvironment allows such data to be incorporated as signed and directed graphs or influence networks. These prior knowledge networks (PKNs) represent our current knowledge of the causality of cellular signal transduction. New signalling data is often examined and interpreted in conjunction with PKNs. However, different biological contexts, such as cell type or disease states, may have distinct variants of signalling pathways, resulting in the misinterpretation of new data. The identification of inconsistencies between measured data and signalling topologies, as well as the training of PKNs using context specific datasets (PKN contextualization), are necessary conditions to construct reliable, predictive models, which are current challenges in the systems biology of cell signalling. Here we present PRUNET, a user-friendly software tool designed to address the contextualization of a PKNs to specific experimental conditions. As the input, the algorithm takes a PKN and the expression profile of two given stable steady states or cellular phenotypes. The PKN is iteratively pruned using an evolutionary algorithm to perform an optimization process. This optimization rests in a match between predicted attractors in a discrete logic model (Boolean) and a Booleanized representation of the phenotypes, within a population of alternative subnetworks that evolves iteratively. We validated the algorithm applying PRUNET to four biological examples and using the resulting contextualized networks to predict missing expression values and to simulate well-characterized perturbations. PRUNET constitutes a tool for the automatic curation of a PKN to make it suitable for describing biological processes under particular experimental conditions. The general applicability of the implemented algorithm makes PRUNET suitable for a variety of biological processes, for instance cellular reprogramming or transitions between healthy and disease states. PMID:26058016

  9. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension of the foot, the radio an extension of the ear, the television an extension of the eye. From this perspective, exploring the internet as an extension of identity produces fruitful questions about the role of on...

  10. Experimental Activities in Astronomy for the Construction of Knowledge through an Interdisciplinary and Contextualized Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Pellenz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses experimental activities developed in astronomy for Scientific Presentation as a didactic resource for teaching science and math in elementary education in state schools. One of the key strategic elements used during the execution of this proposal was to initiate approaches for the identification of students' prior knowledge, resuming astronomical concepts covered during the elementary school. For development of the proposed activities was the interaction between different disciplines, seeking to promote the active and meaningful learning. Through contextualized astronomical activities, students develop different skills and competencies. These activities are a contribution to the teaching of science and mathematics, as we feel the need to demonstrate the importance of an educational approach that gives meaning to student learning.

  11. Contextual Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Porzel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the latest in knowledge representation and human-computer interaction to address the problem of contextual computing in artificial intelligence. It uses high-level context to solve some challenging problems in natural language understanding.

  12. How writing records reduces clinical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Through the practices of recording, psychiatric nurses produce clinical knowledge about the patients in their care. The objective of this study was to examine the conventionalized practices of recording among psychiatric nurses and the typical linguistic organization of their records. The study drew on data from an extended fieldwork on two Danish "special observation" wards. The results indicated that the nurses' recording produced "stereotyping" representations of the patients and reduced the ...

  13. Teaching contextual knowledge in engineering education – Theory of Engineering Science and the Core Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Brodersen, Søsser

    2011-01-01

    Despite contextual knowledge is considered very important for engineers in performing their profession, experiences from decades in Europe and the USA have shown that teaching such topics in engineering education is challenging and often unsuccessful. One of the dilemmas is that social science based reflections related to the use and uptake of technology in society often conflicts with engineering students’ self-understanding and identity. Another dilemma is related to the specificity and mod...

  14. Contextual Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be intelligible to the intellect, but is incomprehensible to the imagination, creativity and emotional intelligence, all of which are important to the full development of personality. A study of Economics without the human and social dimensions, industrialization detached from ecology, or science devoid of moral accountability results in problems. Education of each part must be in the context of the whole. Knowing the whole context helps one get the right perspective to address the issue effectively. In the education of the future, the gap between abstract concept and social relevance must be bridged. The following article explores the need for contextual education and the ways in which it can be implemented.

  15. Reducing the saliency of intentional stimuli results in greater contextual-dependent performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, S K; Wright, D L; Shea, C H

    2001-03-01

    Wright and Shea (1991) described intentional stimuli as explicitly identified information necessary to successfully perform a task, whereas incidental stimuli are not explicitly identified as crucial to task performance but have the potential to become associated with particular responses because of their selective presence in the training environment. Shea and Wright (1995), using a speeded-choice RT task, indicated that manipulating the strength of association between incidental information and the responses, by changing the discriminability of incidental stimuli while fixing the strength of the association between the intentional stimuli and each response, had a significant impact on task performance. The present experiment further examined the role played by incidental stimuli when the strength of association between the intentional stimuli and the associated responses was reduced, by minimising stimulus-response compatibility. It was assumed that this latter manipulation would have a similar impact as increasing the strength of incidental stimuli-response relationships. That is, the relative contribution of the incidental stimuli would increase, resulting in an increase in context-dependent behaviour during tests in which the intentional and incidental stimuli activated different responses. The results were in agreement with this prediction and consistent with a model for contextual-dependent performance proposed by Shea and Wright (1995) as well as with the outshining hypothesis forwarded by Smith (1988, 1994). PMID:11338938

  16. Transient and Robust Knowledge: Contextual Support and the Dynamics of Children's Reasoning about Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Koepke, Margy F.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2007-01-01

    Contextual support for performance and understanding plays an important role in learning and teaching. This study investigated the temporal course of the effects of support--how it affects complexity and correctness of judgments about density in kindergarten (n = 35) and second-grade (n = 29) children. In the experimental group, a teacher provided…

  17. The Development of a Contextual Information Framework Model as a Potential IAEA Strategy to Maintain Radioactive Waste Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A contextual framework comprises 'entities' that exhibit one or more definable relationships with a particular 'event'. People, organisations, concepts, ideas, places, natural phenomena, events themselves, cultural artefacts including records, books, works of art can all be conceptualised as entities. If these entities are registered in an information management system where the relationships between them can be defined and systematically managed then it is possible to create a contextual information framework that represents a particular view of what occurs in real life. The careful identifying and mapping of the relationships between these entities and the selected event can lead rapidly to the creation of an information network that closely reflects the human approach to knowledge acquisition and application. The 'event' referred to in this paper is the safe management of radioactive waste. It is widely accepted that society will expect that knowledge about the waste will be maintained for many decades, if not centuries. Delivering on this expectation will demand the application of management approaches that are both innovative and sustainable. Effective inter-generational transfer of information using many 'conventional' techniques will be highly dependent on societal stability - something that cannot be guaranteed over such long periods of time. Consequently, alternative approaches should be explored and, where appropriate, implemented to give reasonable assurance that future generations of waste custodians will not be unduly burdened by the need to recreate information about the waste long after its disposal. In actual fact, the contextual information framework model is not 'new technology' but simply a means for rationalising and representing the way humans naturally tend to use information in the pursuit of knowledge enhancement. By making use of multiple information entities and their relationships, it is often possible to convert otherwise impossibly complex socio-technical environments into information architectures or networks with remarkable and useful properties. The International Atomic Energy Agency, in its ongoing work to encourage the application of systems to manage radioactive waste information over the long term, has embraced the contextual information framework as a potentially viable approach to this particular challenge. To this end, it invited Member States to contribute to the production of a Safety Report that used the contextual information framework model, building on the wealth of existing IAEA guidance. The report focuses, not on the important area of records management, but on the benefits that can arise from the development of an information management approach that increases the likelihood that future generations will recognise the significance and value of the information contained in these records. Our understanding of 'inter-generational transfer' should extend beyond the simple physical transfer of records into an archival repository towards the establishment of a working culture that places sufficient contemporary information into a form that ensures it remains accessible, and ultimately enhances, the knowledge of future generations. Making information accessible is therefore the key and whilst the use of stable records media, storage environments and quality assurance are important elements, they cannot be considered solutions in themselves. This paper articulates some of the lessons that have been learned about using the contextual information framework model when applied to the long term management of radioactive waste. The draft IAEA Safety Report entitled 'Preservation and Transfer to Future Generations of Information Important to the Safety of Waste Disposal Facilities', on which this paper is based, is expected to be published in 2007. (authors)

  18. Post-training gamma irradiation-enhanced contextual fear memory associated with reduced neuronal activation of the infralimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Tara; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects. Brain immunoreactivity patterns of the immediately early gene c-Fos, a marker of cellular activity was used to determine which brain areas might be altered in post-training irradiation memory retention tasks. In this study, we show that post-training gamma irradiation exposure (1Gy) enhanced contextual fear memory 24h later and is associated with reduced cellular activation in the infralimbic cortex. Reduced GABA-ergic neurotransmission in parvalbumin-positive cells in the infralimbic cortex might play a role in this post-training radiation-enhanced contextual fear memory. PMID:26522840

  19. Vpliv razvoja kontekstualnega znanja na razlikovalne kompetence = The Influence of the Development of Contextual Knowledge on Differentiating Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Podreka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is based on the definition of competence asthe individual’s ability to activate, utilize and merge the knowledge andskills acquired when faced with complex, diverse and unpredictablework situations. The purpose of this study is to determine whether thedevelopment of specific contextual knowledge and skills within an organizationleads to the adoption of specific differentiating competenciesby individuals. The survey included marketers employed by threemedium-sized Slovenian enterprises, who function in three differentwork contexts, according to our findings. The results of the researchshow that the differentiating competencies that distinguish the superiorjob performance marketing employee from an average one interms of work success are subject to the development of specific contextualknowledge and skills.

  20. Reduced Contextual Discrimination following Alcohol Consumption or MDMA Administration in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emily M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Moscoso-Castro, María; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The recreational drugs, alcohol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have both been shown to cause immune activation in vivo, and they are linked to cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The neuronal effects of these drugs in the hippocampal area, an area that has been a focus of studies aiming to explain the mechanisms underlying anxiety related-disorders, remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the specific inflammatory impact of alcohol and MDMA on this area of the brain and on a hippocampal-related behavioral task. We centered our study on two inflammatory factors linked to anxiety-related disorders, namely Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We subjected drug-consuming mice to a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, anxiety-like and depressive-live behaviors. We then introduced them to a contextual fear discrimination task and immune-related effects were examined by immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of immune activated pathways by voluntary alcohol consumption and a high-dose MDMA. Furthermore, the ability of mice to perform a contextual fear discrimination task was impaired by drug consumption and we report long term inflammatory alterations in the hippocampus even several weeks after drug intake. This information will be helpful for discovering new selective drug targets, and to develop treatments and preventive approaches for patients with anxiety-related disorders. PMID:26566284

  1. NPY Y2 receptors in the central amygdala reduce cued but not contextual fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D; Wood, J; Lach, G; Mietzsch, M; Weger, S; Heilbronn, R; Herzog, H; Bonaventure, P; Sperk, G; Tasan, R O

    2015-12-01

    The amygdala is fundamental for associative fear and extinction learning. Recently, also the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) has emerged as a site of plasticity actively controlling efferent connections to downstream effector brain areas. Although synaptic transmission is primarily mediated by glutamate and GABA, neuropeptides critically influence the overall response. While neuropeptide Y (NPY) acting via postsynaptic Y1 receptors exerts an important anxiolytic and fear-reducing action, the role of the predominantly presynaptic Y2 receptors is less defined. To investigate the role of Y2 receptors in the CEA we employed viral-vector mediated over-expression of the Y2 selective agonist NPY3-36 in fear conditioning and extinction experiments. NPY3-36 over-expression in the CEA resulted in reduced fear expression during fear acquisition and recall. Interestingly, this effect was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of a brain-penetrant Y2 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, over-expression of NPY3-36 in the CEA also reduced fear expression during fear extinction of CS-induced but not context-related fear. Again, fear extinction appeared delayed by peripheral injection of a Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028. Importantly, mice with over-expression of NPY3-36 in the CEA also displayed reduced spontaneous recovery and reinstatement, suggesting that Y2 receptor activation supports a permanent suppression of fear. Local deletion of Y2 receptors in the CEA, on the other hand, increased the expression of CS-induced freezing during fear recall and fear extinction. Thus, NPY inhibits fear learning and promotes cued extinction by reducing fear expression also via activation of presynaptic Y2 receptors on CEA neurons. PMID:26314208

  2. Context aware decision system in a smart home : knowledge representation and decision making using uncertain contextual information

    OpenAIRE

    Chahuara, Pedro; Portet, François; Vacher, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This research addresses the issue of building home automation systems reactive to voice for improved comfort and autonomy at home. The paper presents a complete framework that acquires data from sensors and interprets them, by means of IA techniques, to provide contextual information for decision making. The system uses a two-level ontology to represent the different concepts handled during the processing which also contains SWRL instances to automatise some of the reasoning. The focus of thi...

  3. Mice lacking the PSD-95-interacting E3 ligase, Dorfin/Rnf19a, display reduced adult neurogenesis, enhanced long-term potentiation, and impaired contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwool; Yang, Jinhee; Kim, Ryunhee; Li, Yan; Lee, Yeunkum; Lee, Chungwoo; Park, Jongil; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination has a significant influence on diverse aspects of neuronal development and function. Dorfin, also known as Rnf19a, is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, but its in vivo functions have not been explored. We report here that Dorfin is a novel binding partner of the excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95. Dorfin-mutant (Dorfin(-/-)) mice show reduced adult neurogenesis and enhanced long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, but normal long-term potentiation in the CA1 region. Behaviorally, Dorfin(-/-) mice show impaired contextual fear conditioning, but normal levels of cued fear conditioning, fear extinction, spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory, spatial working memory, and pattern separation. Using a proteomic approach, we also identify a number of proteins whose ubiquitination levels are decreased in the Dorfin(-/-) brain. These results suggest that Dorfin may regulate adult neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and contextual fear memory. PMID:26553645

  4. Reducing Language Knowledge Asymmetries in a Temporary Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim

    The ERASMUS program was introduced (under a different name) in 1987 with the aim, among others, of furthering multilingualism (Coleman 1998). Given that this phenomenon was expected to be realized at an individual level, the aim of the program was clearly not merely multilingualism but, in fact, plurilingualism (Spolsky 2004) and, by implication, a program intended to strengthen the building at an individual level of the specialized knowledge that the learning of any second or foreign language requires. Recent research has shown, however, that the motivation of students whose disciplinary fields are not language or philology and who go to Denmark or Sweden on exchange does not necessarily lie in an interest in learning the official language of the host country (Caudery et al., 2008). On the basis of semi-structured individual interviews, picture description and basic vocabulary tests, this paper reports on a longitudinal study of 240 incoming non-language exchange students in Scandinavia. It analyses a few exceptional cases of students whose level of performance in the Scandinavian language of their host country was higher than the average performance of the cohort. The paper investigates the characteristics of these cases and, drawing on Hornberger's continua of biliteracy model, it relates them to factors arguably influencing the relative achievement of the aim of plurilingualism. In so doing, it seeks to contribute to our understanding of individuals' motives for reducing language knowledge asymmetries.

  5. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  6. Mice lacking the PSD-95–interacting E3 ligase, Dorfin/Rnf19a, display reduced adult neurogenesis, enhanced long-term potentiation, and impaired contextual fear conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwool; Yang, Jinhee; Kim, Ryunhee; Li, Yan; Lee, Yeunkum; Lee, Chungwoo; Park, Jongil; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination has a significant influence on diverse aspects of neuronal development and function. Dorfin, also known as Rnf19a, is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, but its in vivo functions have not been explored. We report here that Dorfin is a novel binding partner of the excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95. Dorfin-mutant (Dorfin?/?) mice show reduced adult neurogenesis and enhanced long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, but normal long-term potentiation in the CA1 region. Behaviorally, Dorfin?/? mice show impaired contextual fear conditioning, but normal levels of cued fear conditioning, fear extinction, spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory, spatial working memory, and pattern separation. Using a proteomic approach, we also identify a number of proteins whose ubiquitination levels are decreased in the Dorfin?/? brain. These results suggest that Dorfin may regulate adult neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and contextual fear memory. PMID:26553645

  7. Study on Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 1, ?. 1 (2007), s. 12-15. ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * contextual modelling * temporal modelling * uncertainty * knowledge management Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  8. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

  9. Reducing Language Knowledge Asymmetries in a Temporary Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim; Shaw, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The ERASMUS program was introduced (under a different name) in 1987 with the aim, among others, of furthering multilingualism (Coleman 1998). Given that this phenomenon was expected to be realized at an individual level, the aim of the program was clearly not merely multilingualism but, in fact, plurilingualism (Spolsky 2004) and, by implication, a program intended to strengthen the building at an individual level of the specialized knowledge that the learning of any second or foreign language r...

  10. Epistemic contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazovi? Živan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the main topic of this issue of Theoria. First, the author presents the key thesis of epistemic contextualism, outlines its development in contemporary epistemology and briefly characterizes its two versions, namely conversational and inferential contextualism. Second, the author focuses on some contextualist solutions to three major epistemological problems: the problem of scepticism, lottery, and Gettier's problem. The author agrees with Stewart Cohen that Gettier’s problem does not belong to this group and explains why both its formulation and a solution require a traditional, invariantist approach. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinami?ki sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

  11. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about the spectre: ”It is something that one does not know, precisely, and one does not know if precisely it is, if it exists, if it responds to a name and corresponds to an essence.” (Derrida 1994:5). The ghost is h...

  12. Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kyobe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’, and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities.Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged since it allows individuals to achieve personal goals and may lead to effective management of oneself, other people and tasks. In addition, students do not appear to recognise the role of mobile phones in enhancing knowledge transfer. More awareness of this role needs to be created in institutions of learning in order to improve group learning and student performance.

  13. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

  14. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance :  Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension of the foot, the radio an extension of the ear, the television an extension of the eye. From this perspective, exploring the internet as an extension of identity produces fruitful questions about the role of on-line writing in Web presences. The Web changes writing as a knowledge-making practice by offering writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream perceptions. This paper theorizes about ways in which the Internet can change the act of producing knowledge through the characteristics of speed and reach, allowing minorities to access a widespread audience much more easily than before the Internet. Access to a widespread audience, in turn, offers the opportunity for engaging mainstream ideologies in order to reduce the rhetorical distance between minority and majority cultures.

  15. Negative Probabilities and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, J Acacio; Oas, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest, both in physics and psychology, in understanding contextuality in experimentally observed quantities. Different approaches have been proposed to deal with contextual systems, and a promising one is contextuality-by-default, put forth by Dzhafarov and Kujala. The goal of this paper is to present a tutorial on a different approach: negative probabilities. We do so by presenting the overall theory of negative probabilities in a way that is consistent with contextuality-by-default and by examining with this theory some simple examples where contextuality appears, both in physics and psychology.

  16. Reducing Unwarranted Disparities: The Challenge of Managing Knowledge Sharing between Judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Taal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In their role as decision-makers, judges face the challenge of the law failing to provide clear answers to concrete cases. This may result in dissimilar decisions and outcomes in similar cases. In order to reduce unwarranted disparities, judges should participate in knowledge exchanges on a regular basis. That way, they can benefit from each other's expertise, insights and experiences and make better informed decisions. In order to manage this process in the court more effectively, a better understanding of the knowledge sharing behavior of judges is required. In this article, we will discuss how four dimensions (the technological, managerial, social and motivational dimension can influence the knowledge sharing behavior of judges. Based on this discussion, a research model is proposed.

  17. Neural correlates of contextual cueing are modulated by explicit learning

    OpenAIRE

    Westerberg, Carmen E.; Miller, Brennan B.; Reber, Paul J; Cohen, Neal J.; Ken A. Paller

    2011-01-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer’s knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be impaired following damage to the medial temporal lobe. Here we investigated neural correlates of contextual cueing and explicit scene memory in two pa...

  18. Testing quantum contextuality. The problem of compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szangolies, Jochen

    2015-05-01

    Jochen Szangolies contributes a novel way of dealing with the problem of the experimental testability of the Kochen-Specker theorem posed by realistic, that is, noisy, measurements. Such noise spoils perfect compatibility between successive measurements, which however is a necessary requirement to test the notion of contextuality in usual approaches. To overcome this difficulty, a new, extended notion of contextuality that reduces to Kochen-Specker contextuality in the limit of perfect measurement implementations is proposed by the author, together with a scheme to test this notion experimentally. Furthermore, the behaviour of these tests under realistic noise conditions is investigated.

  19. Contextual Hyperedge Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Drewes, Frank; Hoffmann, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Contextual hyperedge-replacement grammars (contextual grammars, for short) are an extension of hyperedge replacement grammars. They have recently been proposed as a grammatical method for capturing the structure of object-oriented programs, thus serving as an alternative to the use of meta-models like UML class diagrams in model-driven software design.In this paper, we study the properties of contextual grammars. Even though these grammars are not context-free, one can show that they inherit ...

  20. Neural Correlates of Contextual Cueing Are Modulated by Explicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Carmen E.; Miller, Brennan B.; Reber, Paul J.; Cohen, Neal J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2011-01-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer's knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be…

  1. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Behaviour: Have Information Campaigns Reduced HIV Infection? The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalia Vazquez-Alvarez; Markus Froelich

    2008-01-01

    AIDS continues to have a devastating effect on developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of a proven effective vaccine to stop HIV transmission has lead to much of public policy putting an emphasis on information campaigns in order to reduce HIV-prevalence. In this paper we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS-knowledge from two sides. First, we examine to what extent the campaigns have been successful at inducing the expected behavioural change with regards to HIV-related ...

  2. Comprehending Spatial and Contextual Information in Picture-Text Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieger, George R.; Glock, Marvin D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the location, in picture or text, of spatial, contextual, and operational information on comprehension was evaluated. Results showed that textual presentation of spatial information produced fewer errors, pictorial presentation reduced performance times, and pictorial presentation of contextual information reduced assembly times and…

  3. Definition-based Versus Contextualized Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ability to infer the meaning of unknown words encountered while reading plays an important role in learners’ foreign language word knowledge development. The current study was an attempt to investigate the efficiency of two vocabulary learning procedures, i.e. definition-based (decontextualized versus contextualized. In the contextualized group there were 53 students of grade one in high school and pre-university who were taught meaning inferencing strategies in which they read their textbooks, identified unknown words in the texts, and inferred the meanings of the unknown words. There were also another 54 students in the decontextualized group who learnt the new words' translations out of context before a new lesson was taught. The findings of the study revealed that the students in decontextualized group slightly outperformed the contextualized group on the vocabulary post-test. It is concluded that definition-based learning was more effective in improving learner’s vocabulary knowledge.

  4. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what constitutes the boundaries of the communities. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle was preferred because it focused attention on the most frequently used spaces and it controlled potential aggregation problems. There is a need to further examine the validity of different methods proposed here. Given that no method is likely to capture the full complexity of human-environment interactions, we would need baseline data describing people's daily activity patterns along with expert knowledge of the area to evaluate our neighborhood units.

  5. Incorporating Prior Knowledge for Quantifying and Reducing Model-Form Uncertainty in RANS Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Xiao, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Simulations based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) models have been used to support high-consequence decisions related to turbulent flows. Apart from the deterministic model predictions, the decision makers are often equally concerned about the predictions confidence. Among the uncertainties in RANS simulations, the model-form uncertainty is an important or even a dominant source. Therefore, quantifying and reducing the model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations are of critical importance to make risk-informed decisions. Researchers in statistics communities have made efforts on this issue by considering numerical models as black boxes. However, this physics-neutral approach is not a most efficient use of data, and is not practical for most engineering problems. Recently, we proposed an open-box, Bayesian framework for quantifying and reducing model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations by incorporating observation data and physics-prior knowledge. It can incorporate the information from the vast...

  6. Reducing a Knowledge-Base Search Space When Data Are Missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This software addresses the problem of how to efficiently execute a knowledge base in the presence of missing data. Computationally, this is an exponentially expensive operation that without heuristics generates a search space of 1 + 2n possible scenarios, where n is the number of rules in the knowledge base. Even for a knowledge base of the most modest size, say 16 rules, it would produce 65,537 possible scenarios. The purpose of this software is to reduce the complexity of this operation to a more manageable size. The problem that this system solves is to develop an automated approach that can reason in the presence of missing data. This is a meta-reasoning capability that repeatedly calls a diagnostic engine/model to provide prognoses and prognosis tracking. In the big picture, the scenario generator takes as its input the current state of a system, including probabilistic information from Data Forecasting. Using model-based reasoning techniques, it returns an ordered list of fault scenarios that could be generated from the current state, i.e., the plausible future failure modes of the system as it presently stands. The scenario generator models a Potential Fault Scenario (PFS) as a black box, the input of which is a set of states tagged with priorities and the output of which is one or more potential fault scenarios tagged by a confidence factor. The results from the system are used by a model-based diagnostician to predict the future health of the monitored system.

  7. HIV/AIDS Education and Behaviour Change:Contextual factors that affect translation of knowledge into action among in-school adolescents in rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Komunda,Rodney Noel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect translation of HIV/AIDS knowledge into action. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data was obtained from students, teachers, parents, school administrators and the HIV/AIDS coordination department from the Ministry of Education and Sports. The Health Belief Model and Social Learning Theory that formed the basis of this study were used through discussion and analysis of research findings. The ...

  8. Quantum contextuality in classical information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Zapatrin, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Document ranking based on probabilistic evaluations of relevance is known to exhibit non-classical correlations, which may be explained by admitting a complex structure of the event space, namely, by assuming the events to emerge from multiple sample spaces. The structure of event space formed by overlapping sample spaces is known in quantum mechanics, they may exhibit some counter-intuitive features, called quantum contextuality. In this Note I observe that from the structural point of view quantum contextuality looks similar to personalization of information retrieval scenarios. Along these lines, Knowledge Revision is treated as operationalistic measurement and a way to quantify the rate of personalization of Information Retrieval scenarios is suggested.

  9. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  10. Contextual Multiple Sequence Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Gambin Anna; Otto Rafa?

    2005-01-01

    In a recently proposed contextual alignment model, efficient algorithms exist for global and local pairwise alignment of protein sequences. Preliminary results obtained for biological data are very promising. Our main motivation was to adopt the idea of context dependency to the multiple-alignment setting. To this aim the relaxation of the model was developed (we call this new model averaged contextual alignment ) and a new family of amino acids substitution matrices are constructed. In this ...

  11. Contextual Social Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Groh, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The thesis centers around the multi-faceted research question of how contexts may be detected and derived that can be used for new context aware Social Networking services and for improving the usefulness of existing Social Networking services, giving rise to the notion of Contextual Social Networking. In a first foundational part, we characterize the closely related fields of Contextual-, Mobile-, and Decentralized Social Networking using different methods and focusing on diff...

  12. Tools of Contextualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Hansen, Frank Allan; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Nørregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Project based education is growing in importance in elementary schools though it is still quite poorly technologically supported, particularly with respect to actively taking advantage of contextual information. Based on an empirical study of teaching and in particular project based education in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. ...

  13. ??????????????? Using Contextualized Assessment to Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??? Kuan-Li Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2,066???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Energy literacy is multidimensional, comprising broad content knowledge as well as affect and behavior. In this study, an assessment was designed using six contextualized test units to examine student energy literacy. A total of 2,066 secondary students participated in the survey. The results indicated that student energy literacy is low, particularly with respect to the dimension of “reasoning on energy controversies”. Qualitative analyses of student written responses to various question items revealed that students have misconceptions of biomass energy and misconstrue the sources of greenhouse gas. Inter-correlation among the dimensions of energy literacy indicated that energy knowledge and behavior are more closely correlated with each other than are affect and behavior. The students in southern Taiwan scored higher on energy literacy assessments than did the students in northern, central, as well as eastern Taiwan. These findings are a reference for developing energy-related curricula and educational materials to improve student energy literacy.

  14. Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Kyobe; Mzwandile M. Shongwe

    2011-01-01

    Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.

    Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologie...

  15. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinc...

  16. Reducing Disaster Vulnerability through Local Knowledge and Capacity. The Cace of Earthquake Prone Rural Communities in India and Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Jigyasu, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the past and present status of local knowledge, skills and capacity of rural communities in India and Nepal for reducing their vulnerability to earthquakes. Disaster vulnerability is investigated not only as pre disaster condition but also as a continuous process, which is influenced by underdevelopment, process and various response decisions in post disaster situation. To get an integrated and dynamic picture of how local knowledge and capacity and disaster vul...

  17. Contextual Learning Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented at a symposium on contextual learning issues moderated by John Henschke at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Self-Directed Learning in Organizations: An Analysis of Policies and Practices of Seven Resource Companies in Western Canada" (H. K. Morris Baskett)…

  18. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

  19. Knowledge Uncertainty and Composed Classifier.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 1, ?. 2 (2007), s. 101-105. ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Boosting architecture * contextual modelling * composed classifier * knowledge management , * knowledge * uncertainty Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  20. A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eicke Godehardt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues. This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition state context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization. To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees may benefit from such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

  1. De/Contextualizing Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Mariategui, Jose-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive diffusion of digital media has introduced profound changes to social practices, challenging established notions of embeddedness and context. Based on our case study on the BBC's Digital Media Initiative, we further explore these changes in the domain of video craft editing for television broadcast brought about by the digitization of the video production process. As craft editing is mediated by digital images, its contextual embeddedness is transformed by context-independent standa...

  2. Contextual Analysis in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bednar, Peter; Green, Gillian; Bain, Andy; Eglin, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The framework for Strategic Systemic Thinking (SST) provides a method for investigating an organisations perceptions, goals and identifying missing resources and posing possible solutions using the groups own understanding of the problem area, using both individual and group participation. Users may be assisted in the contextually relevant application of techniques such as brainstorming and rich pictures as useful ‘methods’ for organisational analysis. It supports adaptation of methods to foc...

  3. Contextual Dueling Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Dudík, Miroslav; Hofmann, Katja; Schapire, Robert E.; Slivkins, Aleksandrs; Zoghi, Masrour

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning to choose actions using contextual information when provided with limited feedback in the form of relative pairwise comparisons. We study this problem in the dueling-bandits framework of Yue et al. (2009), which we extend to incorporate context. Roughly, the learner's goal is to find the best policy, or way of behaving, in some space of policies, although "best" is not always so clearly defined. Here, we propose a new and natural solution ...

  4. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational Linguistics) help facilitate a new methodological perspective on the study of problems in interpersonal communication and could such a research contribute to develop a methodology that studied ”howabled...

  5. Features and Feedback: Enhancing Metamnemonic Knowledge at Retrieval Reduces Source-Monitoring Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sean M.; Roussel, Cristine C.; Villa, Diane; Morita, Shelby K.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments explored the issue of whether enhanced metamnemonic knowledge at retrieval can improve participants' ability to make difficult source discriminations in the context of the eyewitness suggestibility paradigm. The 1st experiment documented differences in phenomenal experience between veridical and false memories. Experiment 2…

  6. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-01-01

    As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainabl...

  7. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  8. Investigating Means to Reduce Cognitive Load from Animations: Applying Differentiated Measures of Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, Sissel Guttormsen; Zimmermann, Philippe G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers an experiment designed to investigate the relationship between the didactical setting and learning effects with animations. We investigated whether the cognitive load imposed by animations could be reduced when the students could control the flow of the animation. We did not find an effect due to the fact that the students did…

  9. Humanizing Chemistry Education: From Simple Contextualization to Multifaceted Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry teaching has traditionally been weakly connected to everyday life, technology, society, and history and philosophy of science. This article highlights knowledge areas and perspectives needed by the humanistic (and critical-reflexive) chemistry teacher. Different humanistic approaches in chemistry teaching, from simple contextualization

  10. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational Linguistics) help facilitate a new methodological perspective on the study of problems in interpersonal communication and could such a research contribute to develop a methodology that studied ”howabledness” (a term borrowed from Pirkko Raudaskoski) rather than disabledness? A study on ”inclusion” at a centre for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data.

  11. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  12. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ritin; Rolley, John X.; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet. PMID:26051008

  13. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M van der Elst

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM, limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org, combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods: We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results: Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96% completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001; this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions: Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Contextual Query Perfection by Affective Features Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback in Multimedia Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Tripathi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia Information may have multiple semantics depending on context, a temporal interest and user preferences. Hence we are exploiting the plausibility of context associated with semantic concept in retrieving relevance information. We are proposing an Affective Feature Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback (AICSRF to investigate whether audio and speech along with visual could determine the current context in which user wants to retrieve the information and to further investigate whether we could employ Affective Feedback as an implicit source of evidence in CSRF cycle to increase the systems contextual semantic understanding. We introduce an Emotion Recognition Unit (ERU that comprises of spatiotemporal Gabor filter to capture spontaneous facial expression and emotional word recognition system that uses phonemes to recognize the spoken emotional words. We propose Contextual Query Perfection Scheme (CQPS to learn, refine the current context that could be used in query perfection in RF cycle to understand the semantic of query on the basis of relevance judgment taken by ERU. Observations suggest that CQPS in AICSRF incorporating such affective features reduce the search space hence retrieval time and increase the systems contextual semantic understanding.

  15. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrs, Erik; Lander, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide consumption is increasing in Bolivia as well as pest resistance, pesticide poisonings and pollution of the environment. This survey evaluates the training of small holder farmers on pesticide handling and ecological alternatives to reduce the negative pesticide effects. METHOD: A baseline survey was performed in 2002 and follow-up surveys in 2004 and 2009. Farmers were selected and trained on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) from 2002 to 2004 in Farmer Field Schools (FFS). After exclusions and drop outs, 23 FFS trained farmers could be compared to 47 neighbor farmers for changes in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using ?2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS farmers. At baseline no difference were seen between the two groups apart from a more frequent use of personal protection among the FFS farmers. After the training was finished significant differences were seen between FFS farmers and neighbor farmers on all KAP variables, a difference reduced to six of the KAP variables in 2009. No difference was seen in self-reported poisonings after pesticide handling. FFS farmers improved their KAP scores markedly during training and there after retained their knowledge, while neighbor farmers improved during the entire period. Ecological farming without the use of pesticides increased most among the FFS farmers. CONCLUSION: The study showed a sustained improvement among Farmers Field School trained farmers on personal protection and hygiene when handling pesticides, knowledge and use of IPM and ecological alternatives and a reduction in self-reported symptoms after pesticide handling. Similar though less pronounced improvements was seen among neighbor farmers having had less training and information on pesticide handling and alternatives than the FFS trained farmers. Training of farmers on IPM and good agricultural practices has positive effects, but is scarce in Bolivia as in most low-income countries and must be encouraged to support an improved and sustainable food production and to protect the health of farmers and consumers as well as the environment.

  16. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; JØrgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well.

  17. Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information

    CERN Document Server

    Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

  18. A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%

  19. A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, James J.; Brunken, Richard C.; Bybel, Bohdan; Di Filippo, Frank P.; Faul, David D.

    2006-06-01

    Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%.

  20. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  1. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  2. Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Uys, Leana R; Newhouse, Robin P.; Arwa Oweis; Xiaokun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enablethe conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After developme...

  3. R-CoRe: A Rule-based Contextual Reasoning Platform for AmI

    OpenAIRE

    Moawad, Assaad; Bikakis, Antonis; Caire, Patrice; Nain, Grégory; Le Traon, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present R-CoRe; a rule-based contextual reasoning platform for Ambient Intelligence environments. R-CoRe integrates Contextual Defeasible Logic (CDL) and Kevoree, a component-based software platform for Dynamically Adaptive Systems. Previously, we explained how this integration enables to overcome several reasoning and technical issues that arise from the imperfect nature of context knowledge, the open and dynamic nature of Ambient Intelligence environments, and the restricti...

  4. Computing Presuppositions by Contextual Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Monz, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes how automated deduction methods for natural language processing can be applied more efficiently by encoding context in a more elaborate way. Our work is based on formal approaches to context, and we provide a tableau calculus for contextual reasoning. This is explained by considering an example from the problem area of presupposition projection.

  5. Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.

  6. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowle...

  7. Architecture knowledge management: challenges, approaches, and tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Gorton, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Capturing the technical knowledge, contextual information, and rationale surrounding the design decisions underpinning system architectures can greatly improve the software development process. If not managed, this critical knowledge is implicitly embedded in the architecture, becoming tacit knowledge which erodes as personnel on the project change. Moreover, the unavailability of architecture knowledge precludes organizations from growing their architectural capabilities. In this tutorial...

  8. Mobile and contextual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

  9. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  10. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that context...

  11. Mechanisms underlying contextual fear learning

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a central role in learning and memory. Although synaptic delivery of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) contributes to experience-dependent synaptic strengthening, its role in hippocampus-dependent learning remains elusive. In a recent study,we found that the inhibitory avoidance (IA) task, a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear learning paradigm, drives GluR1-containing AMPARs into CA3-CA1 synapses of the dorsal hippocampus.We expressed mutated membrane-proxymal re...

  12. Contextualizing Data Warehouses with Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Berlanga, Rafael; Aramburu, Maria Jose; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    Current data warehouse and OLAP technologies are applied to analyze the structured data that companies store in databases. The context that helps to understand data over time is usually described separately in text-rich documents. This paper proposes to integrate the traditional corporate data warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, the user first selects an analysis context by supplying some keywords. Then, the analysis is performed on a novel type of...

  13. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.

  14. Ontological models, preparation contextuality and nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2013-01-01

    The ontological model framework for an operational theory has generated much interest in recent years. The debate concerning reality of quantum states has been made more precise in this framework. With the introduction of generalized notion of contextuality in this framework, it has been shown that completely mixed state of a qubit is \\emph{preparation contextual}. Interestingly, this new idea of preparation contextuality has been used to demonstrate nonlocality of some $\\ps...

  15. Contextual Restriction in Business English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Gao

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the contextual restriction in business English translation from the perspectives of linguistic context, situational context and cultural context respectively. To avoid mistranslation resulting from translators' neglecting the contextual restriction, this paper also comes up with relevant suggestions for business English translation. The research aims at reminding translators of the contextual restriction in translating so as to produce correct, exact and proper trans...

  16. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    CERN Document Server

    Privitera, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  17. Contextual Recommendation of Social Updates, a Tag-based Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Adrien; Maret, Pierre; Daigremont, Johann

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to improve the rele- vance of awareness information about people and subjects, by adapting recommendation techniques to real-time web data, in order to reduce information overload. The novelty of our approach relies on the use of contextual information about people's current activities to rank social updates which they are following on Social Networking Services and other collaborative software. The two hypothesis that we are supporting in this paper are:...

  18. CONTEXTUAL TRAINING MODEL IN THE PRACTICAL COURSE OF GENERAL TECHNICAL DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ja N. Jel’jash

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is a verification of new model necessity of vocational training within the graduates of technical branches of study in high schools. Expert’s activity unlike educational activity is not structured-indetail. Knowledge from the diversified areas and based on it skills to find out appropriate, uncommon decisions of current problems and arising problems are required for effective work on present-day production with constantly improved and becoming complicated technologies. The traditional reproductive training focused on presentation of a set of information and given algorithms for completing different activities presented by the teacher does not allow forming properly creative research way of thinking, abilities to master professional innovations and readiness for regular self-education of trainees. The author notes that it is necessary to work out and introduce essentially alternate methods of preparation that would provide systematic integrity of the systematised theoretical knowledge with acquirable practical skills and its application. The author considers the contextual model of training as one of the most appropriate and reasoned. Methods. The core theory of contextual training is the statute of sensemaking influence of professional work context on educational activity of the student. Theoretically training is to be carried out in the closest field and in forms to real activity; as a peculiar kind of immersion to the future professional sphere. The proposed model of contextual training is installed on the basis of activity approach. The activity approach in contrast to traditional system preparation isn’t broken up to two stages (firstly, overlearning, then its practical application, but is posed to be indivisible: mastery to theoretical readiness and required practical skills acquisition refer a concurrent process under the performance of any tutorial activity or task at the training subject. Results. The principles of contextual training model are pointed out. The performance technique of the practical tasks which logic is close to logic of real professional work is considered. Scientific novelty. The novelty of contextual training model in relation to designing of academic and didactic materials consists in updating of practical training, corresponding coherence of theory and practice as the essential formation of professional skill and competency. The solution algorithms under the reduced or formerly known formula and functional connections are organized in such a way as to motivate the student for regular appeal to educational sources of information (such as textbooks, study guides, reference books. The author states that the uselessness and unreliability perception of theory mastering is avoided due to the proposed training; problem solving is not confined to simple mathematical calculations. Physical sense of conception and phenomenon essence occurs while performing the task. Practical significance. The research outcomes can be used while academic teaching packages designing and its implementation into educational process of high school. The research findings can help to form sustained professional competencies, students’ interest upgrading to studied disciplines, establishment of intersubject communication between the training courses provided by educational program. 

  19. Contextual integration of causal coherence in people with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Fen

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated causal coherence in people with Williams syndrome (WS). To advance our understanding of this clinical group, we examined their ability to make causal inferences, using their understanding of homonyms (words with the same spelling but distinct meanings) embedded in contexts. A minor goal was to use verbal stimuli to clarify Santos and Deruelle's (2009) findings on the knowledge of causality among people with WS. Participants were presented with two types of scenarios requiring different inference directions: backward inferences (from consequence to cause) and forward inferences (from cause to consequence). Following each scenario, they were asked a comprehension question and given three possible answers that corresponded to a figurative, literal, and unrelated meaning of the homonym embedded in the scenario. The correct answer required the participants to make a successful causal inference. People with WS aged from 13 to 29 (n=17, mental age=6-14) were able to make backward and forward inferences by selecting the context-appropriate meanings of homonyms, thus demonstrating the existence of contextual integration ability in the causal coherence of people with WS. However, as their accuracy in the figurative meaning responses was lower than that of healthy age-matched controls, suggesting the participants with WS, were delayed in the contextual integration of causal coherence. The participants with WS chose a significantly higher percentage of answers with unrelated meanings than the two control groups, indicating a certain degree of weakness in the contextual integration of homonyms in context. PMID:23911543

  20. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  1. Foveal vision loss interferes with visual search guidance by learned spatial contexts in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, Stefan; Geringswald, Franziska

    2015-09-01

    Visual search is guided by past experience of regularities in our visual environment. In the contextual cueing paradigm, incidental learning of repeated distractor configurations improves search times and eye movement parameters. Both in patients with age-related macular degeneration who suffer from foveal vision loss and in young normal-sighted observers with gaze-contingent central scotoma simulation contextual cueing was severely reduced (Geringswald et al., Front Hum Neurosci 2012, J Vis 2014). Previous work has shown that not the learning of spatial contexts but rather the utilization of previously learned context for efficient search guidance depends on visuospatial working-memory (Manginelli et al., Att Percept Psychophys 2013; Vickery et al., J Exp Psychol Hum Perc Perform 2010). Therefore, increased working memory demands due to top-down controlled visual search in the presence of foveal vision loss could lead to reduced contextual cueing. To test this hypothesis, we let normal-sighted observers search with simulated foveal scotoma during a learning phase but without scotoma in a subsequent transfer phase. Contextual cueing was absent during learning, but reinstated in the transfer phase. This indicated that context learning occured in the presence of foveal vision loss, but learning could not be utilized for more efficient search while the scotoma was present. However, in a further experiment, after few hours of search training with central scotoma simulation, contextual cueing was reinstated during scotomatous search, indicating that contextual cueing can be regained when the exploration of the environment becomes more automatic. Thus, foveal vision loss leads to inefficient use of implicitly learned contextual cues for the guidance of visual search. Automatization of search with a simulated scotoma leads to reinstatement of contextual cueing in normal-sighted observers. This may show a promising way for training programs in patients with foveal vision loss. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326797

  2. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Gulis, Gabriel; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide consumption is increasing in Bolivia as well as pest resistance, pesticide poisonings and pollution of the environment. This survey evaluates the training of small holder farmers on pesticide handling and ecological alternatives to reduce the negative pesticide effects. METHOD: A baseline survey was performed in 2002 and follow-up surveys in 2004 and 2009. Farmers were selected and trained on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) from 2002 to 2004 in Farmer Field Schools (FFS). ...

  3. Contextual Modelling of Collaboration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa DACHRY

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Faced with new environmental constraints, firms decide to collaborate in collective entities and adopt new patterns of behavior. So, this firms’ collaboration becomes an unavoidable approach. Indeed, our aim interest in our study is to propose a collaborative information system for supply chain. Our proposed platform ensures cooperation and information sharing between partners in real time. In fact, several questions have to be asked: What is the information nature may be shared between partners? What processes are implemented between actors? What functional services are supported by the platform? In order to answer these questions, we present, in this article, our methodological approach of modelling, called CMCS (Contextual Modelling of Collaborative System

  4. PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY AND CONTEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT / CONSTANCIA PERCEPTUAL Y MEJORAMIENTO CONTEXTUAL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HERIBERTO, AVELINO.

    Full Text Available La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y ac [...] umulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos lingüísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que procesos cognitivos de nivel alto pueden restringir los mecanismos auditivos básicos involucrados en la identificación del tono para garantizar una percepción constante. Los resultados que muestran una mejor identificación de tonos en contextos que son inversamente proporcionales a su frecuencia apoyan la hipótesis de que el procesamiento auditivo periférico mejora la identificación de los tonos a través de una función de contraste contextual. Abstract in english The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded [...] in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communication. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.

  5. PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY AND CONTEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT CONSTANCIA PERCEPTUAL Y MEJORAMIENTO CONTEXTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERIBERTO AVELINO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communication. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y acumulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos lingüísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que procesos cognitivos de nivel alto pueden restringir los mecanismos auditivos básicos involucrados en la identificación del tono para garantizar una percepción constante. Los resultados que muestran una mejor identificación de tonos en contextos que son inversamente proporcionales a su frecuencia apoyan la hipótesis de que el procesamiento auditivo periférico mejora la identificación de los tonos a través de una función de contraste contextual.

  6. Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations

  7. Templates and Queries in Contextual Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kenneth Mark; Hansen, Frank Allan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new definition of context for context-aware computing based on a model that relies on dynamic queries over structured objects. This new model enables developers to flexibly specify the relationship between context and context data for their context-aware applications. We discuss a framework, HyConSC, that implements this model and describe how it can be used to build new contextual hypermedia systems. Our framework aids the developer in the iterative development of contextual queries (via a dynamic query browser) and offers support for con-text matching, a key feature of contextual hypermedia. We have tested the framework with data and sensors taken from the HyCon contextual hypermedia system and are now migrating HyCon to this new framework.

  8. An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Durham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

  9. Comment on "Contextuality in Bosonic Bunching"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Kraglund Andersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Bosonic bunching occurs within quantum physics and can be mimicked classically by noncontextual hidden-variable models, which excludes this phenomenon as a means to prove stronger-than-quantum contextuality.

  10. Knowledge Integration in Virtual Teams: The Potential Role of KMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Maryam; Tiwana, Amrit

    2002-01-01

    Discusses knowledge management and identifies four challenges to knowledge integration in virtual team environments: constraints in transactive memory, insufficient mutual understanding, failure in sharing and retaining contextual knowledge, and inflexibility of organizational ties. Proposes a knowledge management systems approach to meet these…

  11. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were est...

  12. Contextual Dependencies in Information Systems Security

    OpenAIRE

    Bednar, Peter; Moufida SADOK; Katos, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the contextual dependencies related to the use of information systems security and criticizes the predominance of technical and formalized paradigm in the development and implementation of IS security policies and procedures. The underlying epistemology of our research lies in the interpretative paradigm. It explores the patterns of how the contextual use of information systems security is involved according to a business/organizational practice perspective. It elicits th...

  13. The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule, and cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The...

  14. Implicit Spatial Contextual Learning in Healthy Aging

    OpenAIRE

    HOWARD, JAMES H.; Dennis, Nancy A.; HOWARD, DARLENE V.; Yankovich, Helen; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the aging of implicit spatial and spatiotemporal context learning in 2 tasks. In contextual cuing, people learn to use repeated spatial configurations to facilitate search for a target, whereas in higher order serial learning, they learn to use subtle sequence regularities to respond more quickly and accurately to a series of events. Results reveal a dissociation; overall contextual cuing is spared in healthy aging, whereas higher order sequence learning is impa...

  15. Templates and Queries in Contextual Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kenneth Mark; Hansen, Frank Allan; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new definition of context for context-aware computing based on a model that relies on dynamic queries over structured objects. This new model enables developers to flexibly specify the relationship between context and context data for their context-aware applications. We discuss a framework, HyConSC, that implements this model and describe how it can be used to build new contextual hypermedia systems. Our framework aids the developer in the iterative development of contextu...

  16. ESL Distance Learners’ Participation in an Online Forum: The Interplay of Contextual Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Nair-Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the findings of a study examining the contextual factors that mediated distance learners’ participation in an online forum (OLF. Contextual factors are elements that emerge as a result of distance learners’ interaction with their social environment. The study drew on a sociocultural perspective that encompassed the concepts of communities of practice, mediation and dialogic interaction. These concepts advocate that both learning for knowledge and language learning are processes of social interaction. The participants of the study were adult ESL learners enrolled in a distance learning institution that employs a blended learning pedagogy. Multiple sources of information comprising semi-structured interview, text-based interview and informal chats were used for data collection purposes. Data was analysed using the constant comparative method. Through this approach, contextual factors mediating distance learners’ participation in the OLF were uncovered. 

  17. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus ...

  18. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research, a worldwide consensus about the content of NOS teaching is said to be reached. This consensus content is listed as a general statement of science, which students are supposed to understand during their education. Unfortunately, decades of research has demonstrated that teachers and students alike do not possess an appropriate understanding of NOS, at least as far as it is defined at the general level. One reason for such failure might be that formal statements about the NOS and scientific knowledge can really be understood after having been contextualized in the actual cases. Typically NOS is studied as contextualized in the reconstructed historical case stories. When the objective is to educate scientifically and technologically literate citizens, as well as scientists of the near future, studying NOS in the contexts of contemporary science is encouraged. Such contextualizations call for revision of the characterization of NOS and the goals of teaching about NOS. As a consequence, this article gives two examples for studying NOS in the contexts of scientific practices with practicing scientists: an interview study with nanomodellers considering NOS in the context of their actual practices and a course on nature of scientific modelling for science teachers employing the same interview method as a studying method. Such scrutinization opens rarely discussed areas and viewpoints to NOS as well as aspects that practising scientists consider as important.

  19. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous event-related potential (ERP studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces.

  20. Context Awareness Framework Based on Contextual Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays computing becomes increasingly mobile and pervasive. One of the important steps in pervasive computing is context-awareness. Context-aware pervasive systems rely on information about the context and user preferences to adapt their behavior. However, context-aware applications do not always behave as user's desire, and can cause users to feel dissatisfied with unexpected actions. To solve these problems, context-aware systems must provide mechanisms to adapt automatically when the context changes significantly. The interesting characteristic of context is its own behaviors which depend on various aspects of the surrounding contexts. This paper uses contextual graphs to solve the problem "the mutual relationships among the contexts". We describe the most relevant work in this area, as well as ongoing research on developing context-aware system for ubiquitous computing based on contextual graph. The usage of contextual graph in context-awareness is expected to make it effective for developers to develop...

  1. Improving Acquisition Outcomes with Contextual Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The results of research on mergers and acquisitions often point to a need to improve acquisition outcomes and lessen the organizational turmoil that can often follow integration efforts. We assert that viewing acquisition integration through the lens of contextual ambidexterity may improve acquisition outcomes in two ways: by providing an integrated solution to the economic and social tensions in acquisitions, and by enabling managers to effectively confront the competing needs of task and human integration. We also posit that by building on contextual ambidexterity, we can extend the possibilities for both research and practice regarding task and human integration in acquisitions. We also emphasize the role of an integration manager and integration mechanisms in enabling contextual ambidexterity for successful acquisition integration. Finally, we identify implications for research and practice.

  2. Is there contextuality in behavioral and social systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Most behavioral and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type, and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as Contextuality-by-Default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such system, even if there are context-depe...

  3. Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Moch. Lutfianto; Zulkardi; Yusuf Hartono

    2013-01-01

    Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be usedto enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving contextual mathematics problem. The results showed that 75% students can not solve contextual mathematics problems precisely (unfinished). Students stop and f...

  4. How (not to be a fallibilist: Lottery paradox and two types of epistemic contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is one common thing among lotteries from all over the world: there is small number of winning tickets and considerably bigger number of losing tickets. Therefore, the probability that a ticket wins a lottery is quite low, usually so low that we think that it is almost sure the ticket loses. But, we would never say that we know that a ticket will lose, until we see results of the lottery in, for example, some newspapers. And the probability of newspapers making a mistake does not seem to affect our knowledge claims. But why is that, since newspapers could make a mistake more often than a ticket wins? This question presents trouble for fallibilism, which claim that S could know that p, even when the probability that p is less than 1. Contextualist theories give their typical brand of solution: we have a change of context between the two cases, and in one case standard for knowledge claims are higher than the standard in the other case. Because of that, one can know that S lost the lottery when she reads it in newspapers. In this paper, I will present analysis of the lottery paradox, and two types of epistemic contexutalism: simple conversational contextualism and inferential contextualism. I will also present two of the most popular solution based on simple conversational contextualism, made by Lewis and Cohen. Finally, I will introduce some problems for such solutions, and show that the problems could solved if we apply strategy and explanation of inferential contextualism, type of contextualism proposed by Michael Williams. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinami?ki sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

  5. Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlow, Michelle C.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

  6. Influence diagrams for contextual information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Tamine-Lechani, Lynda; Boughanem, Mohand

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of contextual information retrieval is to make some exploration towards designing user specific search engines that are able to adapt the retrieval model to the variety of differences on user's contexts. In this paper we propose an influence diagram based retrieval model which is able to incorporate contexts, viewed as user's long-term interests into the retrieval process.

  7. Sleep-dependent consolidation of contextual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca M C; Sunm, Michelle; Ivry, Richard B

    2006-05-23

    Memory consolidation is facilitated by sleep. Specifying the functional domain of sleep-dependent consolidation (SDC) is important for identifying the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Previous work indicates that SDC may be limited to conditions in which learning is explicit. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that SDC may also occur with implicit learning when learning benefits from the formation of contextual associations, a function associated with the hippocampus. Three versions of the serial-reaction-time task (SRTT) were examined, and SDC was assessed by comparing performance after 12 hr breaks that included or did not include sleep. SDC was observed in the Explicit condition. Two implicit conditions were compared. In the Implicit Noncontextual condition, participants performed a concurrent tone-counting task with the pitch of each tone selected at random, precluding cross-dimensional associations. In the Implicit Contextual condition, participants responded to the color of the cues while the spatial location of the cues followed a correlated sequence. Whereas learning was observed in both implicit conditions, SDC was restricted to the contextual condition. Given that the formation of contextual associations is dependent on the hippocampus, we suggest that SDC is a hippocampus-mediated process. PMID:16713957

  8. Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

  9. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  10. Teaching poetry: introducing a contextual and textual approach to undergraduate students

    OpenAIRE

    Mattisson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students of English find poetry particularly challenging as it requires a knowledge of rhyming patterns, metre and diction. T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land (1922) is one of the most famous poems in the English language. It is also one of the most difficult to analyse. As a foundation text of Modernism, it presents special challenges for students due to the complexity of its language, allusions and images. I introduce two contrasting methods of analysis: contextual, in...

  11. The effects of discrete contextual variables on «bullying» in the schoolyard

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández de Frutos, Teodoro

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the abundance of scientific literature that exists on bullying in schools, few studies have focused on the effects, both separate and combined, caused by contextual structural variables, such as geographical space, the municipal district, family, school, gender, male hegemonic culture, and exposure to the mass media. This article reviews to the present state of knowledge on the effects of these factors and provides empirical evidence of their influence on students aged between 12 ...

  12. Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shannon Stokes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.

  13. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØnderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter FrØlund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among political parties on us-them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical outgroup members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner sentiment when intergroup relations are politicized. These findings demonstrate the need for widening the scope of the intergroup contact theory in order to cover macro-political conditions.

  14. Contextual influences on the development of obesity in children: A case study of UK South Asian communities?

    OpenAIRE

    Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Adab, Peymane

    2012-01-01

    ? We examined contextual influences on childhood obesity in South Asian communities. ? We held focus groups with stakeholders from UK South Asian communities. ? Knowledge of context is critical for childhood obesity intervention development. ? Cultural influences on childhood obesity need to be understood in detail.

  15. Individual differences in predicting aversive events and modulating contextual anxiety in a context and cue conditioning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Johanna M P

    2013-01-01

    Deficient fear conditioning leads to maladaptive contextual anxiety as predicting danger is a key factor in regulating anxiety. A virtual reality conditioning task was used to evaluate cue learning and contextual anxiety with fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear in two experiments. In Experiment 1, failure to condition to a cue resulted in a constant state of context anxiety (subjective fearfulness and startle). Trait anxiety was unrelated to learning cue contingencies but the participants who failed to learn scored lower on a self-report measure of attentional control. Part of the group that learned the cue contingency failed to deduce safety of the context and hence did not reduce their contextual anxiety. Experiment 2 specifically focused on isolating this process and demonstrated an inverse association between trait anxiety and adaptive modulation of contextual anxiety. In conclusion, predicting threat aids in but not automatically implies successful regulation of contextual anxiety. High trait anxiety may increase risk of deficient modulation of contextual anxiety. PMID:22342768

  16. Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

    2012-01-01

    All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

  17. Data, Information and Knowledge Transformation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana

    Vol. 1. Praha : WSEAS PRESS, 2009, s. 255-263. ISBN 978-960-474-064-2. [Recent Advances in Automation & Information. Praha (CZ), 23.03.2009-25.03.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : information structures * contextual space * information management Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/klimesova-data, information and knowledge transformation.pdf

  18. Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Alexandra

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

  19. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  20. Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images.

  1. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  2. Implicit Contextual Integrity in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, Natalia; Such, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Many real incidents demonstrate that users of Online Social Networks need mechanisms that help them manage their interactions by increasing the awareness of the different contexts that coexist in Online Social Networks and preventing them from exchanging inappropriate information in those contexts or disseminating sensitive information from some contexts to others. Contextual integrity is a privacy theory that conceptualises the appropriateness of information sharing based o...

  3. Contextualized attention metadata in learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpers, M (Martin)

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the notion of contextualized attention metadata (CAM) in learning environments. CAM describes observations about the handling of digital information in relation to the context in which the respective activities took place. The usage of CAM is exemplified in three scenarios: (1) using CAM to support the learning process of employees in agile business process execution, (2) enriching learning resource description with CAM and (3) identifying usage patterns of architectural l...

  4. Intelligent Contextual Algorithm For Harmonics Classification

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. ELANGO; Dr.A.Nirmal Kumar; Dr.S.Purushothaman

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents methods for classification of harmonics present in the electrical signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Contextual Clustering (CC) and Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA). Power quality meter has been used to collect the electrical signal data from a 40W Fluorescent Lamp (FL). In the captured data, variouselectrical disturbances are introduced through Matlab code. FFT has been used for extraction of features from the acquired electrical signal. The FFT, CC, BPA and BPACC...

  5. Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals

    OpenAIRE

    Moed, Henk F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further de...

  6. Design Analysis - Contextual Architecture with Landscape Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho da Silva, Isabel; Portela Marques, Theresa; Andrade, Gonçalo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the contextual analysis of architecture with landscape methods as both design and teaching methodology. The methodology applies our understanding of research as design and design as research, and involves the evaluation of landscape architecture-based approaches to built examples in a region famous for its constructed landscapes – The Netherlands. In a series of design courses the authors have been teaching in Delft and Rotterdam from 2009 to 2012 analytical methods were ...

  7. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Boespflug; Brigitte Pientka

    2011-01-01

    Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce...

  8. Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leana R. Uys

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enablethe conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on aliterature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used.Results: Nurse researchers (N = 100 from 22 countries were invited to participate. Theresponse rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97. The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100. The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22. This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research.Conclusion: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used tostrategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

  9. Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leana R., Uys; Robin P., Newhouse; Arwa, Oweis; Xiaokun, Liang.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. OBJECTIVES: The current study [...] aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. METHOD: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. RESULTS: Nurse researchers (N = 100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. CONCLUSION: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

  10. Contextual control over task-set retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D

    2010-11-01

    Contextual cues signaling task likelihood or the likelihood of task repetition are known to modulate the size of switch costs. We follow up on the finding by Leboe, Wong, Crump, and Stobbe (2008) that location cues predictive of the proportion of switch or repeat trials modulate switch costs. Their design employed one cue per task, whereas our experiment employed two cues per task, which allowed separate assessment of modulations to the cue-repetition benefit, a measure of lower level cue-encoding processes, and to the task-alternation cost, a measure of higher level processes representing task-set information. We demonstrate that location information predictive of switch proportion modulates performance at the level of task-set representations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that contextual control occurs even when subjects are unaware of the associations between context and switch likelihood. We discuss the notion that contextual information provides rapid, unconscious control over the extent to which prior task-set representations are retrieved in the service of guiding online performance. PMID:21097849

  11. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SatoshiShioiri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  12. Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

  13. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Rick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  14. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  15. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different types of contextual information, thus providing an additional, namely the geo-spatial perspective on the future development of smart cities. PMID:26184221

  16. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities. PMID:26332933

  17. Negatively-Marked MCQ Assessments That Reward Partial Knowledge Do Not Introduce Gender Bias Yet Increase Student Performance and Satisfaction and Reduce Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, A. Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O.F.; Jones, D. Hugh; Restall, Colin J.; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The ‘Single Answer’ (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are una...

  18. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE SAMPLE OF CALL CENTERS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN KOÇAK; ERSIN KAVI

    2011-01-01

    The emerging of knowledge societies brought about a lot of transformations in societies in the last decades. At first, these effects have been appeared in the developed and then in the developing world not only urban area also rural. The diffusion of the technologies that is invented on the mentality of knowledge society, have been effecting all life and promising to have major changes by providing access the opportunities for training and education, media and social networks and remodeling t...

  19. Transfer of contextual stimulus function via equivalence class development

    OpenAIRE

    Gatch, Michael B.; Osborne, J. Grayson

    1989-01-01

    In a conditional discrimination, 6 college students arranged six Cyrillic letters into groups of three based upon which of two additional Cyrillic letters (contextual stimuli) was present. All subjects demonstrated symmetry and transitivity within each class of equivalent stimuli. In a second conditional discrimination, two more Cyrillic letters were related to each contextual stimulus. Testing of symmetrical and transitive relations between the original contextual stimulus and the two new on...

  20. A Contextual Item-Based Collaborative Filtering Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Pan; Xueqing Tan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a contextual item-based collaborative filtering technology, which is based on the traditional item-based collaborative filtering technology. In the process of the recommendation, user's important mobile contextual information are taken into account, and the technology combines with those ratings on the items in the users' historical contextual information who are familiar with user's current context information in order to predict that which items will be preferred by user...

  1. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual informa...

  2. Multiculturalism and contextualism: How is context relevant for political theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as “contextualist.” But it is unclear what “contextualism” means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about “moderate secularism,” as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual...

  3. Linear Contextual Bandits with Global Constraints and Objective

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Shipra; Devanur, Nikhil R.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the linear contextual bandit problem with global convex constraints and a concave objective function. In each round, the outcome of pulling an arm is a vector, that depends linearly on the context of that arm. The global constraints require the average of these vectors to lie in a certain convex set. The objective is a concave function of this average vector. This problem turns out to be a common generalization of classic linear contextual bandits (linContextual)...

  4. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge. PMID:23437081

  5. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. PMID:25892218

  6. Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Lutfianto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be usedto enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving contextual mathematics problem. The results showed that 75% students can not solve contextual mathematics problems precisely (unfinished. Students stop and feel that it was completed when they are able to solve problems mathematically, but mathematical solution has not answered the requested context.

  7. Multiculturalism and contextualism: How is context relevant for political theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as ‘‘contextualist.’’ But it is unclear what ‘‘contextualism’’ means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about ‘‘moderate secularism,’’ as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual in each sense is novel and interesting, and whether contextualism is a distinct feature of political theory of multiculturalism. I argue that the forms of contextualism which concern the scope and methodology of political theory are sensible, but not novel or distinctive of multiculturalism. I then discuss the more controversial forms of contextualism, which I call political and theoretical contextualism. Finally, I apply the distinctions to Modood’s argument. I argue that it is not a form of theoretical contextualism and that theoretical contextualism would in fact undermine arguments for multiculturalist policies of accommodation.

  8. Abnormal Contextual Modulation of Visual Contour Detection in Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Scott R. Sponheim; Olman, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients demonstrate perceptual deficits consistent with broad dysfunction in visual context processing. These include poor integration of segments forming visual contours, and reduced visual contrast effects (e.g. weaker orientation-dependent surround suppression, ODSS). Background image context can influence contour perception, as stimuli near the contour affect detection accuracy. Because of ODSS, this contextual modulation depends on the relative orientation between the cont...

  9. Controle de injúrias sob a ótica da pediatria contextual Injury control from the perspective of contextual pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Blank

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever relações entre controle de injúrias e pediatria contextual. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão quase-sistemática dos bancos MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, usando combinações das seguintes palavras: contextual, comunidade, injúria, acidente e violência; revisão não-sistemática de capítulos de livros e artigos clássicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A segurança depende de uma interação entre hábitos familiares, normas culturais e entorno. A pediatria contextual vê a criança, a família e a comunidad...

  10. Contextual design defining customer-centered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Hugh

    1997-01-01

    This book introduces a customer-centered approach to business by showing how data gathered from people while they work can drive the definition of a product or process while supporting the needs of teams and their organizations. This is a practical, hands-on guide for anyone trying to design systems that reflect the way customers want to do their work. The authors developed Contextual Design, the method discussed here, through their work with teams struggling to design products and internal systems. In this book, you'll find the underlying principles of the method and how to apply them to diff

  11. Physical-virtual linkage with contextual bookmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, Niels; Rukzio, Enrico; Lorenz, Andreas; Righetti, Xavier; Boll, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    In our everyday life we often see objects or persons and are aware that there are related digital services such as an online ticket service when seeing a poster advertising a concert. Currently it is a rather time consuming activity to find the related information. Using our Contextual Bookmark system a user can define a snapshot with her mobile phone consisting of a picture, time stamp and location. Such a bookmark can then be stored on the mobile phone, exchanged with friends and in particu...

  12. Intelligent Contextual Algorithm For Harmonics Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. ELANGO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents methods for classification of harmonics present in the electrical signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Contextual Clustering (CC and Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA. Power quality meter has been used to collect the electrical signal data from a 40W Fluorescent Lamp (FL. In the captured data, variouselectrical disturbances are introduced through Matlab code. FFT has been used for extraction of features from the acquired electrical signal. The FFT, CC, BPA and BPACC algorithms have been implemented by Matlab. Comparison of performance classification of harmonics by CC, BPA and BPACC are presented.

  13. Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

  14. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  15. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development. PMID:21569250

  16. "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For": Parental Privacy Invasion Predicts Reduced Parental Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Skyler T.; Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Hale, William W., III; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This 3-year, multi-informant study examined whether youths' perceptions of parental privacy invasion predicted lower parental knowledge over time, as a function of increased adolescent secrecy. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (Time 1 M = 13 years, SD = 0.5; 57% boys) and both parents. Higher youth-reported invasion predicted lower…

  17. Contextuality and state-space geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    We shall explore the connection between state-space geometry and the Abramsky-Brandenburger sheaf-theoretic framework for classifying no-go theorems. The classic example of such a no-go theorem is the Kochen-Specker theorem. No-go results prohibit any theory from the specified class, e.g. non-contextual theories, from replicating the empirical predictions of quantum theory. The sheaf-theoretic framework allows such no-go results to be generalised according to a certain kind of topology relating to the compatibility of the measurements used. We show that there is a correspondence between a class of no-go results and a class of polygonal state-spaces. The latter is a family of models whose geometric realisation lies in the equatorial plane of the Bloch sphere. This shows that the geometry of the state space used to define a physical theory related in a crucial way to the type of contextuality the theory exhibits. In particular, it also yields an understanding of the quantitative violation that quantum theory yields for the chained Bell inequality.

  18. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Boespflug

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

  19. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Boespflug, Mathieu; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.3

    2011-01-01

    Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable ...

  20. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  1. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  2. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  3. Is there contextuality in behavioural and social systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, E N; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne

    2016-01-13

    Most behavioural and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as contextuality-by-default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such systems, even if there are context-dependent errors in measurements, or if something in the contexts directly interacts with the measurements. This makes the theory especially suitable for behavioural and social systems, where direct interactions of 'everything with everything' are ubiquitous. For cyclic systems with binary outcomes, the theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for non-contextuality, and these conditions are known to be breached in certain quantum systems. We review several behavioural and social datasets (from polls of public opinion to visual illusions to conjoint choices to word combinations to psychophysical matching), and none of these data provides any evidence for contextuality. Our working hypothesis is that this may be a broadly applicable rule: behavioural and social systems are non-contextual, i.e. all 'contextual effects' in them result from the ubiquitous dependence of response distributions on the elements of contexts other than the ones to which the response is presumably or normatively directed. PMID:26621988

  4. From knowledge to action: participant stories of a population health intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV in three southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Mary; Cockcroft, Anne; Waichigo, Grace Wanjiru; Marokoane, Nobantu; Laetsang, Ditiro; Andersson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes implementation research of an intervention in a complex HIV prevention randomised trial in southern Africa. Researchers collected stories of change attributed by 106 community members to an audio-drama edutainment intervention in 41 sites in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland. The team analysed themes in the stories following a behaviour change model of conscious knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, intention to change, agency, discussion and action (CASCADA). Storyteller...

  5. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE SAMPLE OF CALL CENTERS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN KOÇAK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerging of knowledge societies brought about a lot of transformations in societies in the last decades. At first, these effects have been appeared in the developed and then in the developing world not only urban area also rural. The diffusion of the technologies that is invented on the mentality of knowledge society, have been effecting all life and promising to have major changes by providing access the opportunities for training and education, media and social networks and remodeling the way we do business, the nature of work and economy. In this concept, the internet, as a tool of the knowledge society, has also been regarded an important instrument in developing the rural regions around the globe. By connecting different parts of the world, the internet and other tools of information technologies create new job opportunities for individuals and companies. There are many people who cannot have and reach to the good education as well as the job opportunities in the rural areas as much as there is in urban areas. Many state institutions and companies have easily been investing to the rural area because of information technologies’ low level entry costs. Especially, many of them open new call centers in the poor areas of countries. the purpose of this paper is that the role of information technologies in the rural area is going to be evaluated on the call centers sample in Turkey. First part of the study, the literature is reviewed about knowledge society and information technologies. In the second part, the benefits of information technologies for individuals who live in the rural areas and some model applications are explained. In the final part, call centers that established by state and private companies are investigated according to their employment and training effects for the poor in the rural areas.

  6. Translating Contextualized Arabic Euphemisms into English: Socio-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrema Shehab

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role context plays in determining the translation strategies pursued by translators of Arabic euphemisms into English. Due to different cultural backgrounds, adherence to the employment of euphemism in a social context may differ in both Arabic and English. While some situations call for the use of euphemism in one culture, the other culture finds no point in using such euphemisms for such situations; preserving the original Arabic euphemisms when rendered into English in this case could lead to misunderstanding and may deprive the Source Language (SL from a cultural trait. The study derives evidence from 11 Arabic euphemistic expressions taken from five literary masterpieces written by the Egyptian novelist and Noble Prize winner Najib Mahfouz, and it looks into the English translation of these euphemisms. The present study attempts to advance the proposition that Arabic euphemisms in their context  exhibit fluctuating, unstable meaning, which emanates from various contextual factors such as speakers, addressees, shared knowledge and background information, and hence these factors combined dictate on translators the chosen translation strategy.  

  7. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Barrett, H. Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C.; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  8. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Barrett, H Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H; Gervais, Matthew M; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-08-22

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  9. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors. PMID:24805920

  10. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MatthiasJWieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion“ approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

  11. Does content knowledge matter for new teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Todd D.

    There is considerable evidence that new teachers are ill prepared for classroom practice, including self-reported evidence collected from teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), and statistical evidence for differences in the achievement of students with new versus more experienced teachers (Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005). In light of the challenges encountered by new teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), this study examined the value of different forms of teacher knowledge for teachers with different levels of experience. In particular, this study investigated the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teacher content knowledge, and student achievement in mathematics and science. In New York City, Boyd et al. (2009) linked practice-focused teacher preparation to student mathematics achievement in the first year of teaching and teacher content preparation to achievement in the second. However, other studies demonstrated interactions between teaching experience and content knowledge with different interpretations (e.g., Kukla-Acevedo, 2009; Monk, 1994). At the same time, this study examined the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, and student achievement. Extant models of teacher career development (Huberman, 1989; National Research Council, 2010) and how teacher education affects student achievement (e.g., Desimone, 2009) offered theoretical grounding for the study. With nationally representative samples of fourth and eighth grade U.S. students--participants in the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study--this study employed hierarchical linear modeling to address its research questions among an array of student achievement outcomes in the domains of mathematics and science. This study attempted to account for salient student, teacher, and contextual factors, and the probabilities of teachers' receipt of various teacher education "treatments" (i.e., propensity score analysis) to reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

  12. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, theexplicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held byindividuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, andthe ...

  13. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households? energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Omar; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir

    2015-12-01

    We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG). The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015) [2]. PMID:26568974

  14. Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...

  15. Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals

    CERN Document Server

    Moed, Henk F

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further develops Eugene Garfield's notions of a field's 'citation potential' defined as the average length of references lists in a field and determining the probability of being cited, and the need in fair performance assessments to correct for differences between subject fields. A journal's subject field is defined as the set of papers citing that journal. SNIP is defined as the ratio of the journal's citation count per paper and the citation potential in its subject field. It aims to allow direct comparison of sources in different subject fields....

  16. Contextual cuing for targets in the rear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] Spatial layouts can be obtained implicitly as has been shown by contextual cuing effect (CCE). We investigated contextual cuing effect for spatial layout around us including the layouts in the rear. That is, we examined whether a learned spatial layout in a front display cues the target in a rare display, using the visual search in the stimulus presented on the displays surrounding the participant (360° visual field). [Experiment] We investigate implicit learning of spatial layouts using a CCE experiment. The CCE is a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays. Visual search performance increases by repeating visual search in the same layouts, without noticing the repetitions. We investigated the CCE for layouts presented in a 360° display and examined whether spatial layouts in front influence the detection of targets in the rear (CCE for target outside the visual field). Analyzing the reaction time for target detection separately for the time required to reach the display with the target and the time required to detect the target within the display, the CCE for the location of the target display would be isolated from the CCE for the target location within the display. [Results] We found CCEs for the location of target displays in the rear in addition for the target location within the display. Target detection of repeated layouts were shorter than that of new layouts independently of the location of target display and a part of the shortening was for reaction time to reach the target display. This suggests that the visual system can learn implicitly association between the layout in front and the target location in the rear. [Discussion] Our results suggest that the visual system learns spatial layout implicitly around oneself including the information in the rear. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325752

  17. Effects of Contextual Factors on Information Seeking Behavior on the Web by Postgraduate Students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the influence of contextual factors on information seeking behavior. This survey investigates search tactics used and users’ perceptions of the search results on the Web by postgraduate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted through a mixed method. Thirty postgraduate students voluntarily participated. The study was carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2012-2013. The data was gathered using two questionnaires and log files recorded with Camtasia Studio software. The findings indicated more than half of the participants (53.3 percent used Google, short queries were more used than long queries, advanced search options were used rarely (23 percent, and the participants view few search result pages. According to the results, the contextual factors significantly influenced the search time, search tactics (including querying and navigating and users’ perceptions of the search results (including ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction and relevance judgment. Navigating tactic was primarily used by the participants. Among different aspects of users’ perceptions of the search results, ease of use and relevance judgments were significantly different based on the contextual factors, whereas scanning, extracting, and confidence were less affected by the contextual factors. The findings suggest practical implications for information retrieval systems designers that can design of systems with better user interface in order to meet the needs of users with different knowledge and skills, in this way it leads in promotion of search process and improvement of search results quality.

  18. The Costs of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusak, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology, almost infinite amounts of information are instantly available, it still takes the same amount of time and work to learn French as it did in the year 1800-or to master physics or philosophy.

  19. La preocupación crónica como miedo contextual: Evidencia psicofisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Delgado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación crónica se ha considerado un estado de ansiedad anticipatoria o miedo contextual distinto del miedo específico o miedo fóbico. El presente estudio intenta confirmar esta distinción examinando la preocupación crónica mediante dos paradigmas experimentales basados en la modulación de reflejos defensivos: uno de miedo contextual (la respuesta cardiaca de defensa y otro de miedo específico (el reflejo de sobresalto. Los resultados apoyan la interpretación de la preocupación crónica como un estado de miedo contextual acompañado de pobre regulación del sistema nervioso autónomo.

  20. Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. We present our approach in this paper and highlight a number of future extensions with additional contextual information.

  1. Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Chalon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker’s profile. We further discuss the proposed system structure, supportive process and context-driven engine. Finally, we describe a scenario using our contextual mobile learning system.

  2. Knowledge crash and knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

  3. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued, fear following post-training whole body irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Raber

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.. To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear-conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation 24 hours later. Animals were given two weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22 days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  4. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued fear following post-training whole-body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Reid H J; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24?h later. Animals were given 2?weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2?weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2?weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

  5. From knowledge to action: participant stories of a population health intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV in three southern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Mary; Cockcroft, Anne; Waichigo, Grace Wanjiru; Marokoane, Nobantu; Laetsang, Ditiro; Andersson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes implementation research of an intervention in a complex HIV prevention randomised trial in southern Africa. Researchers collected stories of change attributed by 106 community members to an audio-drama edutainment intervention in 41 sites in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland. The team analysed themes in the stories following a behaviour change model of conscious knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, intention to change, agency, discussion and action (CASCADA). Storytellers attributed positive changes to the intervention in the areas of gender violence, multiple sexual partners, transactional and intergenerational sex and condom use. Their stories illustrate each of the steps in the CASCADA behaviour change model. As well as supporting an enabling environment for other interventions in the trial, the audio-drama also helped some participants to make personal changes. Collecting and discussing the stories were encouraging for the trial fieldworkers. Documenting the experiences of participants and framing the analysis of stories in an explicit behaviour change model allowed us to reflect on potential mechanisms and pathways through which the intervention impacts on individuals and communities. It helped in the design of the quantitative instruments to measure intermediate outcomes of the trial. PMID:24991886

  6. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  7. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups managing shared image collections or other types of information.

  8. Mechanisms of the contextual interference effect in individuals poststroke

    OpenAIRE

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Lee, Jeong-Yoon; Goh, Hui-Ting; Choi, Youggeun; Kim, Sung Shin; Stewart, Jill Campbell; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Winstein, Carolee J.

    2011-01-01

    Although intermixing different motor learning tasks via random schedules enhances long-term retention compared with “blocked” schedules, the mechanism underlying this contextual interference effect has been unclear. Furthermore, previous studies have reported inconclusive results in individuals poststroke. We instructed participants to learn to produce three grip force patterns in either random or blocked schedules and measured the contextual interference effect by long-term forgetting: the c...

  9. Teoria reprezentacji dyskursu a kontekstualizm [Discourse Representation Theory and contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Odrowaz-Sypniewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I informally present Discourse Representation Theory (DRT and assess its usefulness for contextualism. First I sketch DRT’s analysis of nominal and temporal anafora, definite descriptions,proper names, universal statements, conditionals and negated statements. Next I discuss some philosophical consequences of DRT and consider whether analysis offered by this theory can be used in the debate between semantic minimalism and contextualism.

  10. Algorithms with Logarithmic or Sublinear Regret for Constrained Contextual Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Huasen; Srikant, R.; Liu, Xin; Jiang, Chong

    2015-01-01

    We study contextual bandits with budget and time constraints, referred to as constrained contextual bandits.The time and budget constraints significantly complicate the exploration and exploitation tradeoff because they introduce complex coupling among contexts over time.Such coupling effects make it difficult to obtain oracle solutions that assume known statistics of bandits. To gain insight, we first study unit-cost systems with known context distribution. When the expecte...

  11. Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Bogers, Toine

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph...

  12. Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. W...

  13. Employment-related stress and preterm delivery: a contextual examination.

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, C A; Cliver, S P; Mulvihill, F X; McNeal, S F; Hoffman, H. J.; Goldenberg, R L

    1995-01-01

    Studies of employment-related stress as a risk factor for preterm delivery suggest that contextual factors unrelated to occupation, as well as work-related characteristics, must be examined in assessing this relationship. In this study, the relationship of work and contextual characteristics--assessed at midpregnancy and including scores on an occupational fatigue index--to preterm delivery was examined among 943 black and 425 white low-income multiparous women who were at risk for a poor pre...

  14. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    White, Rebecca. M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. However, the theory has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570 two-parent Mexican American families. Results support the negative impact of economic stress on parenting through parental depressive symptoms. Neighborhood ...

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU; Viorel CORNESCU

    2011-01-01

    For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which manag...

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

  17. CONTEXTUAL INTERFERENCE AND INTROVERSION/EXTRAVERSION IN MOTOR LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Cassio M; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Perez, Carlos R

    2015-10-01

    -The Introversion/Extraversion dimension may interact with contextual interference, as random and blocked practice schedules imply distinct levels of variation. This study investigated the effect of different practice schedules in the acquisition of a motor skill in extraverts and introverts. Forty male undergraduate students (M = 24.3 yr., SD = 5.6) were classified as extraverts (n = 20) and introverts (n = 20) by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and allocated in one of two practice schedules with different levels of contextual interference: blocked (low contextual interference) and random (high contextual interference). Half of each group was assigned to a blocked practice schedule, and the other half was assigned to a random practice schedule. The design had two phases: acquisition and transfer (5 min. and 24 hr.). The participants learned variations of a sequential timing keypressing task. Each variation required the same sequence but different timing; three variations were used in acquisition, and one variation of intermediate length was used in transfer. Results for absolute error and overall timing error (root mean square error) indicated that the contextual interference effect was more pronounced for introverts. In addition, introverts who practiced according to the blocked schedule committed more errors during the 24-hr. transfer, suggesting that introverts did not appear to be challenged by a low contextual interference practice schedule. PMID:26447746

  18. Function of knowledge culture in the effectiveness of knowledge management procedures: A case study of a knowledge-based organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Dilmaghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective aspects and factors on knowledge culture are identified. A model for explaining the relationship between knowledge culture and effectiveness of knowledge management procedures in a knowledge-based organization is presented. The study used a mixture of library and documentary studies, and exploratory mixed methods. First, the literature was reviewed to extract the effective aspects and factors on knowledge culture and the conceptual model was developed. Then, a questionnaire which was validated through eliciting the comments of experts and examining the status of knowledge management in the organization was distributed to the researchers who were randomly selected to be included in the sample. The collected data were examined through AMOS and SPSS software. The possible relationship between the components of the model was investigated through posing five hypotheses and correlation coefficient test. The results of structural equation modeling demonstrated a significant positive relationship between contextual factors and aspects of knowledge culture and between knowledge culture and the knowledge management effectiveness. Evaluating the variables of the conceptual model revealed that staff members’ characteristics, information technology and job characteristics would make a significant positive impact on knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. However, these factors had no significant influence on knowledge cooperation and knowledge learning.

  19. Contextualized Language and Transferential Aspects of Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words-words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences. PMID:26263926

  20. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  1. Essays on Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    For many firms, particularly those operating in high technology and competitive markets, knowledge is cited as the most important strategic asset to the firm, which significantly drives its survival and success (Grant 1996, Webber 1993). Knowledge management (KM) impacts the firm's ability to develop process features that reduce manufacturing…

  2. Modelling Reflective and Contextual Learning at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Annikki; Poikela, Esa

    2001-01-01

    Models of experiential learning, organizational learning, and knowledge creation can assist in analyzing learning at work. Workplace learning can be conceptualized as intertwined processes of individual, group, and organizational learning. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  3. Efeito de estratégias de codificação sobre a memória contextual em idosos / Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosane Papaleo, Freire; Joana Bisol, Balardin; Fábio, Caldana; Cristiane Moro dos, Santos; Luciana Cunha, Krebs; Valdemarina Bidone de Azevedo e, Souza; Nadja, Schröder; Elke, Bromberg.

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes mostram que a memória contextual parece ser especialmente suscetível aos efeitos negativos do envelhecimento sobre a cognição. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do uso de estratégias de codificação no desempenho de idosos em uma tarefa de memória contextual. Vinte e qu [...] atro idosos e vinte e um jovens foram divididos em dois subgrupos para a realização da tarefa: um que recebeu orientação específica para estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto e outro que não recebeu essa orientação na fase de codificação. Na fase de teste, os participantes foram submetidos às tarefas de reconhecimento do objeto e do contexto. Os resultados indicam que a estratégia de estabelecimento do vínculo item-contexto foi capaz de reverter os déficits de memória contextual dos idosos. Abstract in english Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memo [...] ry task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.

  4. Cognitive Skill Acquisition through a Meta-Knowledge Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Elspeth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reopen the discourse on cognitive skill acquisition to focus on the interactive effect of differences in cognitive construct and instructional format. Reports an examination of the contextual issues involved in understanding the interactivity of instructional conditions and cognitive style as a meta-knowledge

  5. "Knowing Their World": Urban Choral Music Educators' Knowledge of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study was to explore how successful urban choral educators use contextual knowledge to inform pedagogical practice. With choirs in nine of a large midwestern city's demographically varied residential neighborhoods, a children's choir organization provided a research setting that offered a unique view of urban…

  6. A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eveline de Castro Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples ideia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro.Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

  7. A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança / The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eveline de Castro, Pereira; Pedro César Teixeira, Silva; Marco Antonio Ferreira da, Costa; Claudia, Jurberg; Cintia de Moraes, Borba.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples i [...] deia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro. Abstract in english Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of [...] teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

  8. Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  9. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Breedt, Marlize; Janse van Rensburg, Antonie C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of the Information Age necessitates the need to manage the organisation’s knowledge asset. The competitive advantage of the organisation depends on the quality of the organisation’s knowledge asset and the successful exploitation of it. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this explicit and tacit knowledge asset to the collective benefit of the organisation by developing an infrastructure to facilitate knowledge processes. Elements such as company know-how, employee competenc...

  10. Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Escalante Beltrán

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende, desde una perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente la categoría de género. En los seis apartados que lo componen, se realiza una crítica profunda de la ciencia social pero desde una óptica menos rígida en el planteamiento de categorías dicotómicas excluyentes como masculino-femenino, racional-afectivo, privado-público, o liberal - comunitario, por mencionar algunos tópicos centrales en los que se han suscitado varios de los debates sobre género. La metodología utilizada es la comparativa, a partir de la cual se analizan autores como Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre otros. Una de las principales conclusiones a la que se arriba en este artículo es que los tradicionales esquematismos, aun existentes en la actualidad, hacen muy difícil la posibilidad de alcanzar consensos amplios y postergan riesgosamente el tratamiento de problemas prácticos como los que, en el caso peruano, suponen la traducción del discurso de equidad en acciones y prácticas cotidianas concretas que permitan a los ciudadanos un real acceso a la justicia.Este artigo pretende, desde uma perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente a categoria gênero. Nas seis seções que o compõem procura realizar uma crítica profunda da ciência social, a partir, porém, de uma ótica menos rígida no tratamento de categorias dicotômicas excludentes tais como masculino-feminino, racional-afetivo, privado-público, liberal-comunitário, para mencionar alguns dos tópicos centrais suscitados pelos vários debates sobre gênero. A metodologia utilizada é a comparativa, a partir da qual se analisam autores como Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre outros. Uma das principais conclusões alcançadas neste trabalho é a de que os esquemas teóricos tradicionais, ainda existentes, dificultam a possibilidade de se alcançar amplos consensos e atrasam o equacionamento de problemas práticos, tais quais, no caso peruano, aqueles oriundos da tradução do discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça.This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

  11. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pamela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  12. The Cohomology of Non-Locality and Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Abramsky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper with Adam Brandenburger, we used sheaf theory to analyze the structure of non-locality and contextuality. Moreover, on the basis of this formulation, we showed that the phenomena of non-locality and contextuality can be characterized precisely in terms of obstructions to the existence of global sections. Our aim in the present work is to build on these results, and to use the powerful tools of sheaf cohomology to study the structure of non-locality and contextuality. We use the Cech cohomology on an abelian presheaf derived from the support of a probabilistic model, viewed as a compatible family of distributions, in order to define a cohomological obstruction for the family as a certain cohomology class. This class vanishes if the family has a global section. Thus the non-vanishing of the obstruction provides a sufficient (but not necessary condition for the model to be contextual. We show that for a number of salient examples, including PR boxes, GHZ states, the Peres-Mermin magic square, and the 18-vector configuration due to Cabello et al. giving a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem in four dimensions, the obstruction does not vanish, thus yielding cohomological witnesses for contextuality.

  13. Knowledge Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

  14. Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p225

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Chiviacowsky

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33% of knowledge of results (KR on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS. Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups. While the 100% group received KR after each trials, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acquisition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed after 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

  15. Teología bíblica contextual en América Latina / Contextual Biblical Theology in Latin America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René, Krüger.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo destaca que la investigación de los textos bíblicos, tal como la realizan exégetas de las iglesias y facultades de teología del protestantismo histórico en América Latina, tiene referencias socioeconómicas y toma en cuenta el doble marco de la situación social, económica y política en la [...] que se formaron aquellos textos como también la situación actual del continente, pudiendo hablarse de una verdadera contextualización de la exégesis por la pobreza, las diferencias sociales y la historia de la explotación del continente. Una vez constatado ello, el artículo diseña algunas líneas bíblicas fundamentales relacionadas con la ética socioeconómica en un contexto de marginación, opresión y horizontes cerrados. Para ello hace dos recorridos, uno diacrónico, que repasa las grandes etapas de la historia abarcada por los textos bíblicos, y otro sincrónico, repasando los ítems socioeconómicos fundamentales. Abstract in english The article notes that the investigation of biblical texts, as is carried out by exegetes of the Churches and Schools of Theology of historical Protestantism in Latin America, includes socio-economic references and takes into consideration the double framework of the social, economic and political s [...] ituation in which these texts were created as well as the current situation of the continent. One could speak of a true contextualization of the exegesis by poverty, social differences, and the history of the exploitation of the continent. Once this contextualization is presented, the article designs some fundamental biblical lines related to a socio-economic ethic in the context of marginalization, oppression and closed horizons. To do this, the article takes two angles, one is diachronic and reviews the great stages of the history that is covered by the biblical texts, and the other is synchronic and reviews fundamental socio-economic questions.

  16. Combining ethnography and object-orientation for mobile interaction design : contextual richness and abstract models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Stage, Jan

    2012-01-01

    There has been a lot of interest in ethnography within human–computer interaction over the last two decades, and its relevance within systems development is today beyond question. However, one of the challenges reported is that ethnography generates findings and knowledge with such contextual richness that it can be hard to transfer into system design. In the light of recent years' push for the use of ethnography within the area of mobile human–computer interaction, this challenge has resurfaced and is of renewed importance to the research field. In this article we describe an interdisciplinary combination of ethnography with a structured software engineering method supporting the transition from collected data to design and implementation. We explore this combination through two case studies of mobile system development for supporting distributed work activities within industrial process control. We show that when developing mobile systems ethnographic data is a highly valuable source of input for developing object-oriented models by providing contextual richness, and that in turn, objected-oriented analysis is a highly valuable method for working with ethnographic field data in systems development by supporting the creation of abstract models. Combining the two, we have a method where ethnographic field studies inform core system design.

  17. Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred

    2005-04-01

    In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  18. A Contextual-Bandit Approach to Personalized News Article Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lihong; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Personalized web services strive to adapt their services (advertisements, news articles, etc) to individual users by making use of both content and user information. Despite a few recent advances, this problem remains challenging for at least two reasons. First, web service is featured with dynamically changing pools of content, rendering traditional collaborative filtering methods inapplicable. Second, the scale of most web services of practical interest calls for solutions that are both fast in learning and computation. In this work, we model personalized recommendation of news articles as a contextual bandit problem, a principled approach in which a learning algorithm sequentially selects articles to serve users based on contextual information about the users and articles, while simultaneously adapting its article-selection strategy based on user-click feedback to maximize total user clicks. The contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we propose a new, general contextual bandit algorithm that is ...

  19. Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

  20. A Contextual Risk Model for the Ellsberg Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    The Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes show that the expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions. The popular explanation in terms of 'ambiguity aversion' is not completely accepted. On the other hand, we have recently introduced a notion of 'contextual risk' to mathematically capture what is known as 'ambiguity' in the economics literature. Situations in which contextual risk occurs cannot be modeled by Kolmogorovian classical probabilistic structures, but a non-Kolmogorovian framework with a quantum-like structure is needed. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a 'sphere model' within our 'hidden measurement formalism' which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a 'quantum conceptual layer'...

  1. Contextual Values Approach to the Generalized Measurement of Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Dressel, J

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed motivation for and definition of the contextual values of an observable, which were introduced in Dressel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040402 (2010). The theory extends the well-established theory of generalized state measurements by bridging the gap between partial state collapse and the observables that represent physically relevant information about the system. To emphasize the general utility of the concept, we first construct the full theory of contextual values within an operational formulation of classical probability theory, paying special attention to observable construction, detector coupling, generalized measurement, and measurement disturbance. We then extend the results to quantum probability theory built as a superstructure on the classical theory, pointing out both the classical correspondences to and the full quantum generalizations of both Lueder's rule and the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz rule in the process. In both cases the contextual values of a system observable for...

  2. Contextual Normalization Applied to Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Halasz, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Diagnosing faults in aircraft gas turbine engines is a complex problem. It involves several tasks, including rapid and accurate interpretation of patterns in engine sensor data. We have investigated contextual normalization for the development of a software tool to help engine repair technicians with interpretation of sensor data. Contextual normalization is a new strategy for employing machine learning. It handles variation in data that is due to contextual factors, rather than the health of the engine. It does this by normalizing the data in a context-sensitive manner. This learning strategy was developed and tested using 242 observations of an aircraft gas turbine engine in a test cell, where each observation consists of roughly 12,000 numbers, gathered over a 12 second interval. There were eight classes of observations: seven deliberately implanted classes of faults and a healthy class. We compared two approaches to implementing our learning strategy: linear regression and instance-based learning. We have...

  3. Critical knowledge map as a decision tool for knowledge transfer actions

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis; Boughzala, Imed; Tounkara, Thierno

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge transfer is no longer reducible to classical solutions such as face-to-face training, technical education or tutoring. Knowledge to be transferred is professional knowledge (Business Knowledge). It involves the whole Knowledge Capital within an organization. Identifying the knowledge components that are worthwhile transferring is not an easy task. This is the problem addressed in this paper.

  4. Tools of Contextualization : Extending the Classroom to the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina

    2005-01-01

    Project based education is growing in importance in elementary schools though it is still quite poorly technologically supported, particularly with respect to actively taking advantage of contextual information. Based on an empirical study of teaching and in particular project based education in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. More specifically, the HyCon-Explorer provides means for: browsing with your feet, annotating the world, and overview at a glance.

  5. Generalized Quantum Theory, Contextual Emergence and Non-Hierarchic Alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    The concept of emergence is critically analyzed in particular with respect to the assumed emergence of mental properties from a neuronal basis. We argue that so-called contextual emergence is needed to avoid an eliminatory reductionism. Quantum-like features of the emergent qualities are to be expected. As a consequence, non-causal relations like entanglement correlations have to be considered as full fledged elements of reality. "Observable extension" is proposed as a contextual alternative to emergence avoiding the asymmetry between purportedly basic and emergent properties.

  6. Analysis of the Contextual Behaviour of Mobile Subscribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkasalo, Hannu; Salmeron, Borja Jimenez

    In this paper, contextual behavior of mobile subscribers is studied with data collected straight from smartphones. The paper develops an approach to study how people use mobile devices in different contexts, by proposing an algorithm that works with device-based sensor data. This approach consists of context detection and data analysis. The context detection algorithm analyses cellular network radio logs in modeling the location of people. This paper then analyses usage patterns over different contexts. Demonstration of the contextual modeling with a sample of Finnish smartphone users proves that the applications of the approach are numerous.

  7. Multipartite macroscopic locality and macroscopic non-contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Navascues, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of generalizing the idea of bipartite macroscopic locality to multipartite scenarios. After pointing out that the original definition of macroscopic locality leaves out relevant experimental settings, we derive the maximal set of correlations closed under classical maps and whose members give rise to local intensities at the macroscopic scale. We also formulate a new axiom, macroscopic non-contextuality, whose falsifiability just involves single-site experiments and seems to be very robust against external noise. Finally, we characterize the sets of macroscopically local and non-contextual correlations, and comment on the differences and similarities with respect to the quantum set.

  8. Contextual advertising in the process of the web-community positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Sloboda, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of contextual advertising in the process of web-communities’ positioning is described, the main web-communities’ sites quality characteristics are distinguished, the approaches to the improvement of contextual advertising are given.

  9. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  10. Contextual Abductive Reasoning with Side-Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luís Moniz; Dietz, Emmanuelle-Anna; Hölldobler, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    The belief bias effect is a phenomenon which occurs when we think that we judge an argument based on our reasoning, but are actually influenced by our beliefs and prior knowledge. Evans, Barston and Pollard carried out a psychological syllogistic reasoning task to prove this effect. Participants were asked whether they would accept or reject a given syllogism. We discuss one specific case which is commonly assumed to be believable but which is actually not logically valid. B...

  11. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge– including research-based knowledge – do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners found their primary support in context-dependent knowledge, whereas context-independent knowledge was criticised as being too prescriptive. Further, they tended to ask for assistance from the researcher in person rather than reading research publications. The findings challenge research in two ways – first to produce context-dependent knowledge to structure the first steps of the design process, second to develop new ways to ensure a knowledge flow between research and practice.

  12. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  13. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  14. A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica / The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Guida, Navarro.

    Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vi [...] nculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas. Abstract in english This article deals with the historiographic and archeological contextualization of the Mayan civilization. Its purpose is to trace the profile of the first explorations into archeological sites, the construction of the knowledge created around the first information obtained by Archeology, as well as [...] the diverse research links undertaken in relation to the historical contexts of its time, and the theories used at present by the Mayanists.

  15. [The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria Eveline de Castro; Silva, Pedro César Teixeira; da Costa, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Jurberg, Claudia; Borba, Cintia de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future. PMID:22699654

  16. A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guida Navarro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vinculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas.This article deals with the historiographic and archeological contextualization of the Mayan civilization. Its purpose is to trace the profile of the first explorations into archeological sites, the construction of the knowledge created around the first information obtained by Archeology, as well as the diverse research links undertaken in relation to the historical contexts of its time, and the theories used at present by the Mayanists.

  17. Representing Contextualized Information in the NSDL

    CERN Document Server

    Lagoze, C; Cornwell, T; Eckstrom, D; Jesuroga, S; Wilper, C; Lagoze, Carl; Krafft, Dean; Cornwell, Tim; Eckstrom, Dean; Jesuroga, Susan; Wilper, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The NSDL (National Science Digital Library) is funded by the National Science Foundation to advance science and match education. The inital product was a metadata-based digital library providing search and access to distributed resources. Our recent work recognizes the importance of context - relations, metadata, annotations - for the pedagogical value of a digital library. This new architecture uses Fedora, a tool for representing complex content, data, metadata, web-based services, and semantic relationships, as the basis of an information network overlay (INO). The INO provides an extensible knowl-edge base for an expanding suite of digital library services.

  18. Hearing Tamar's voice: Contextual readings of 2 Samuel 13:1-22

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charlene, van der Walt.

    Full Text Available The story of Tamar in 2 Sam 13:1-22 formed the basis of a qualitative research inquiry that investigated the intricate functioning of the intercultural Bible reading process. It is a process theoretically based on the combined hermeneutical frameworks of Feminism and African hermeneutics. Although t [...] he research showed that the inter-cultural Bible reading process cannot avoid the complexities of an inherent power dynamic, it proved to be a space that promotes human dignity and has the inherent capacity to facilitate social transformation. The intercultural Bible reading space can thus be described as a dynamic meeting place: a space that facilitates the meeting of individuals from various cultural backgrounds and reading positions, but also the meeting between modern readers and the culturally removed biblical text. In this paper I will look at the reception history of 2 Sam 13:1-22, describing the rape of Tamar in traditional scholarship as well as feminist and African scholarship. Special attention will be given to the feminist scholar, Denise Ackermann's interpretation of hope. I will then discuss the interpretations that were given by the intercultural Bible reading groups that were constructed for the qualitative research inquiry. In doing so, I will show that the intercultural Bible reading space is a dynamic creative space that allows individual readers to draw on a wealth of personal contextual knowledge as a key to interpret the Bible text. In the intercultural Bible reading process, a diversity of readers are thus brought together that find creative new ways to journey through old biblical landscapes by drawing on contextual knowledge and sharing interpretative gifts.

  19. Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

  20. Towards Computational Fronesis: Verifying Contextual Appropriateness of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…

  1. On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Kurzy?ski, Pawe? [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Ramanathan, Ravishankar [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Grudka, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Thompson, Jayne [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kaszlikowski, Dagomir, E-mail: phykd@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-11-29

    We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

  2. Contextual Control by Function and Form of Transfer of Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David R.; Dougher, Michael J.; Greenway, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated conditions leading to contextual control by stimulus topography over transfer of functions. Three 4-member stimulus equivalence classes, each consisting of four (A, B, C, D) topographically distinct visual stimuli, were established for 5 college students. Across classes, designated A stimuli were open-ended linear figures,…

  3. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  4. The Cohomology of Non-Locality and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Abramsky, Samson; Barbosa, Rui Soares

    2011-01-01

    In a previous paper with Adam Brandenburger, we used sheaf theory to analyze the structure of non-locality and contextuality. Moreover, on the basis of this formulation, we showed that the phenomena of non-locality and contextuality can be characterized precisely in terms of obstructions to the existence of global sections. Our aim in the present work is to build on these results, and to use the powerful tools of sheaf cohomology to study the structure of non-locality and contextuality. We use the Cech cohomology on an abelian presheaf derived from the support of a probabilistic model, viewed as a compatible family of distributions, in order to define a cohomological obstruction for the family as a certain cohomology class. This class vanishes if the family has a global section. Thus the non-vanishing of the obstruction provides a sufficient (but not necessary) condition for the model to be contextual. We show that for a number of salient examples, including PR boxes, GHZ states, and the 18-vector configurati...

  5. Hierarchical segmentation of malignant gliomas via integrated contextual filter response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shishir; Corso, Jason J.; Yuille, Alan; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; El-Saden, Suzie; Sinha, Usha

    2008-03-01

    We present a novel methodology for the automated segmentation of Glioblastoma Multiforme tumors given only a high-resolution T1 post-contrast enhanced channel, which is routinely done in clinical MR acquisitions. The main contribution of the paper is the integration of contextual filter responses, to obtain a better class separation of abnormal and normal brain tissues, into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation (SWA) algorithm. The SWA algorithm uses neighboring voxel intensities to form an affinity between the respective voxels. The affinities are then recursively computed for all the voxel pairs in the given image and a series of cuts are made to produce segments that contain voxels with similar intensity properties. SWA provides a fast method of partitioning the image, but does not produce segments with meaning. Thus, a contextual filter response component was integrated to label the aggregates as tumor or non-tumor. The contextual filter responses were computed via texture filter responses based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method. The GLCM results in texture features that are used to quantify the visual appearance of the tumor versus normal tissue. Our results indicate the benefit of incorporating contextual features and applying non-linear classification methods to segment and classify the complex case of grade 4 tumors.

  6. Academic Dishonesty in the Middle East: Individual and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Donald L.; Feghali, Tony; Abdallah, Hanin

    2008-01-01

    Little work has been done on academic dishonesty in the Middle East. This research investigates the nature of the relationship between contextual factors and academic dishonesty using a sample from three private universities in Lebanon, and compares the results to a sample from seven large universities in the US. Using the basic model of McCabe et…

  7. Survival of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect after Contextual Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughner, Robert L.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of contextual shifts on the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) were studied in autoshaping with rats. Experiment 1 established that the two contexts used subsequently were easily discriminable and equally salient. In Experiment 2, independent groups of rats received acquisition training under partial reinforcement (PRF) or…

  8. Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Promising Approach for Basic Skills Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elaine DeLott; Hope, Laura; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Contextualized teaching and learning (CTL), or the concept of relating subject matter content to meaningful situations that are relevant to students' lives, offers one promising approach to helping students learn more effectively. This brief offers instructors, college leaders, policy makers and funders a high-level summary of the CTL…

  9. Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

  10. Contextual Antecedents of Informal Feedback in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Rijt, Janine; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together findings from different research angles on informal feedback in the workplace. We explore the individual and joint influences of three contextual antecedents of seeking feedback: support for learning, psychological safety, and work pressure. Based on our survey of 138 employees from various organizations, hierarchical…

  11. O efeito da interferência contextual em idosos / The contextual interference effect in elderly people

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wesley R., Gonçalves; Guilherme M., Lage; Alexandro B. da, Silva; Herbert, Ugrinowitsch; Rodolfo N., Benda.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da interferência contextual (EIC) na aquisição de habilidades motoras em idosos. Foi utilizada uma tarefa de posicionamento manual, caracterizada pelo transporte de três bolas de tênis em uma seqüência e tempo alvo pré-determinados. O experimen [...] to constou de 4 fases: 1) aquisição, 2) transferência 1 (T1), 3) transferência 2 (T2) e 4) retenção da aquisição. Os sujeitos foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=12): grupo de prática aleatória-aleatória (A-A), que realizou a tarefa de forma aleatória na aquisição e na retenção; grupo de prática aleatória-blocos (A-B), que realizou a aquisição de forma aleatória e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-blocos (B-B), que realizou a aquisição e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-aleatória (B-A), que realizou a aquisição em blocos e a retenção de forma aleatória. Os resultados mostraram que um dos grupos que praticou em regime aleatório apresentou-se mais variável durante a fase de aquisição que os grupos que praticaram em blocos. Entretanto, este mesmo grupo aleatório, no primeiro bloco do teste de retenção da aquisição, mostrou-se mais preciso que um dos grupos em blocos. Esses resultados confirmaram parcialmente o EIC em idosos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference effect (CIE) in the acquisition of motor skills in elderly people. A manual positioning task was used, it was characterized by the transport of three tennis ball in a movement sequence and predetermined target times. The experi [...] ment consisted of 4 phases: 1) acquisition, 2) transfer 1 (T1), 3) transfer 2 (T2) and 4) retention of the acquisition. The subjects were randomly distributed into four groups: random-random group (R-R), which performed the tasks in a random order in the acquisition and retention; random-blocked group (R-B), which performed the acquisition in a random order and the retention in a blocked order; blocked-blocked group (B-B), which performed the tasks in a blocked order in the acquisition and retention; blocked-random group (B-R), which performed the acquisition in a blocked order and the retention in a random order. The results showed that one of the random groups was more variable during the acquisition compared to the both blocked groups. However, this random group, in the first block of the retention was more precise than one of the blocked groups. These results partially confirm the CIE in elderly people.

  12. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of co...

  13. Contextual Modulation of the Motion Aftereffect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Helle K.; Bex, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined center-surround effects for motion perception in human observers. The magnitude of the motion aftereffect (MAE) elicited by a drifting grating was measured with a nulling task and with a threshold elevation procedure. A surround grating of the same spatial frequency, temporal frequency, and orientation significantly reduced

  14. Learning from the World? : Horizontal Knowledge Flows and Geopolitics in International Consulting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussebaa, Mehdi; Sturdy, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the contemporary multinational corporation (MNC) through a study of the use of knowledge management systems (KMS) in four major international consulting firms. In particular, we explore whether and how such systems facilitate horizontal (inter-subsidiary) flows of knowledge, as described in the network view of the MNC. Our analysis reveals the presence of horizontal flows within the four firms, but flows that are contextually constrained and partly shaped by geopolitical power relations. Thus, our study gives some support to the image of the MNC as a network whilst highlighting the contextual limits of horizontal knowledge transfer and, importantly, the geopolitical conditions under which such knowledge transfer takes place. At the same time, it challenges the claim that consulting firms are model organizations in the area of knowledge management as well as the more negative view that questions the ability of KMS to facilitate knowledge transfer.

  15. Contextualizing racial disparities in preterm delivery: a rhetorical analysis of U.S. epidemiological research at the turn of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussing, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD), defined as delivery prior to 37 weeks gestation, is a key contributor to persistent racial disparities in infant mortality in the United States. Five major funding initiatives were devoted to advancing PTD epidemiology during the 1990s and 2000s. By examining content and rhetorical features of 94 studies conducted under these initiatives, and published between 1993 and 2011, this paper considers how calls for more "contextual" approaches (focusing on social and environmental contexts) interacted with more "conventional" approaches (focusing on individual-level risk factors) to PTD epidemiology during this period. Contextual advocates initially emphasized complex biosocial reasoning to better connect social adversity with embodied outcomes. Yet responses by researchers invested in conventional approaches, as well as in studies published under new initiatives that explicitly claimed to incorporate contextual insights, often reframed this complex reasoning in biologically reductionist terms. Subsequent contextual advocates then focused on developing statistical methods to support research about social and environmental causes of PTD, and this strategy appears to have gained some traction with conventional researchers. These findings call for closer attention to language and power in both social scientific studies of epidemiological knowledge production, as well as among epidemiologists themselves. PMID:24955873

  16. Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Handzic

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

  17. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…

  18. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers...

  19. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been referred to as ‘silent knowledge’.

  20. Pay knowledge as a motivator of performance - Case: Neste Oil Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkonen, Juho

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how much and what employees know about pay determination and pay-related processes can help organizations to improve pay satisfaction and its effectiveness as a motivator. Elevated pay knowledge has been found more effective than pay raises in motivating performance and promoting organizational commitment. Unlike previous survey-based pay knowledge studies covering multiple organizations with low contextualization, this single case study researches pay knowledge in the organizat...

  1. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowl...

  2. Mathematical knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Leng, Mary; Potter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. - ;What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. Written by some of the world''s leading philosophers of mathematics, psychologists, and mathematicians, Mathematical Knowledge gives a lively sense of the. current state of debate in this fascinating field. -

  3. Dinámica contextual de la educción de requisitos software / Contextual dynamic of the software requirements elicitation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dante, Carrizo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La educción de requisitos software desde los stakeholders ha sido declarada como una actividad clave que influye poderosamente sobre la calidad de los requisitos especificados y, por lo tanto, del producto final del desarrollo. Por esta razón, es incuestionable la necesidad de contar con guías clara [...] s para conducir la interacción con los propietarios de la información del dominio y de las necesidades a las que se pretende dar solución. Este trabajo se centra en la modelación de la educción considerando la influencia de los agentes contextuales del proceso tales como: eductor, quien conduce la actividad; informante, quien posee la información relevante; dominio del problema, características de la problemática a atacar; y proceso, características y restricciones de la actividad misma. El artículo analiza la dinámica que relaciona y condiciona estos factores para seleccionar la técnica a aplicar en cada sesión de educción. Finalmente, el trabajo contribuye con un modelo temporal del proceso y con la representación de la casuística principal del proceso de educción. Abstract in english The software requirements elicitation from stakeholders has been stated as a key activity influencing strongly on quality of specified requirements and, therefore, of the final development product. For this raison, is undoubtly the necessity to dispose clear guidelines to drive the interrelationship [...] with the owners of the domain information and the needs that require solutions.This work focuses on the model of the elicitation considering the influence of the contextual agents of the process, such as: elicitor, who drive the activity; informant, who possess the relevant information; problem domain, characteristics of the problematic to tackle; and process, characteristics and restrictions of the activity itself. The article analyses the dynamic that relates these factors to select the technique to use in each elicitation session. Finally, the work contributes with a time model of the process and with the representation of the main casuistic of elicitation process.

  4. The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Hasan Tariq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has become identical as “Bengal Style” among the other styles practiced in Indian sub-continent and outside of India in other Muslim countriesduring 12th-15th century. This paper is an outcome of the search on contextual issues of Bengal mosques practiced from 12th -15th century and put light on the existing practice of mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

  5. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Chalon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  6. Investigating implicit statistical learning mechanisms through contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, André; Thorpe, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception, the contextual cueing (CC) paradigm has generated considerable interest in various fields of cognitive sciences because it constitutes an elegant approach to understanding how statistical learning (SL) mechanisms can detect contextual regularities during a visual search. In this article we review and discuss five aspects of CC: (i) the implicit nature of learning, (ii) the mechanisms involved in CC, (iii) the mediating factors affecting CC, (iv) the generalization of CC phenomena, and (v) the dissociation between implicit and explicit CC phenomena. The findings suggest that implicit SL is an inherent component of ongoing processing which operates through clustering, associative, and reinforcement processes at various levels of sensory-motor processing, and might result from simple spike-timing-dependent plasticity. PMID:26255970

  7. Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Erke Shang; Xiangjing An; Jian Li; Lei Ye; Hangen He

    2013-01-01

    Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV) system for road following. However, current vision?based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour), variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured road...

  8. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurðardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice matching-to-sample tasks. Tests confirmed that six equivalence classes had formed. Without further training, plural forms of the stimuli were presented ...

  9. Contextual control of equivalence-based transformation of functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Dougher, Michael; Perkins, David R; Greenway, David; Koons, Ashton; Chiasson, Carmenne

    2002-01-01

    The transformation of functions refers to the untrained acquisition of stimulus functions among members of stimulus equivalence classes or relational frames. Although it is widely assumed that contextual control over the transformation of fuctions must exist, this has not yet been conclusively demonstrated in laboratory studies. Four experiments are reported in which (a) stimulus equivalence classes were established, (b) a conditional stimulus function was trained for one member of each of th...

  10. The Contextually Controlled, Feature-Mediated Classification of Symbols

    OpenAIRE

    DeRosse, Pamela; Fields, Lanny

    2010-01-01

    The classification of names of people or objects based on the features acquired by the names and the sorting instructions provided is a commonplace occurrence. For example, given the names Renoir, Pollock, James and Voltaire the average adult would be able to classify them differentially based on the instruction to classify them based on vocation or nationality. In general, such a repertoire reflects the reclassification of symbols (i.e, the names of individuals) in terms of contextual cues (...

  11. The contextual nature of launching industrial new products

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to understand the contextual nature of launching industrial new products. Therefore, the launch drivers, challenges, and launch processes are examined here in two remarkably different industrial contexts. The importance of the launch for new product success has been acknowledged and the formulation of a successful launch strategy is broadly addressed in the previous launch research. However, the launch activities and the variety of industrial launch c...

  12. Contextualizing Risk in the Assessment of Intellectually Disabled Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Douglas P.; Keith R. McVilly; Frank Lambrick

    2007-01-01

    In this article we examine the idea of expanding structured clinical judgement from primarily offender variables to a broader framework in which environmental (including staff) variables are given equal consideration in a comprehensive risk appraisal conducted for risk management purposes of intellectually disabled individuals. It is posited that only by contextualizing the individual’s risk within environmental variables can an accurate portrayal of current dynamic risk (and hence the manage...

  13. “Inter-Communicating”: Phenomenological Perspectives on Embodied Communication and Contextuality

    OpenAIRE

    Wendelin M. Küpers

    2012-01-01

    Based on phenomenological perspectives on embodied communication and con-textuality, this paper contributes to a more integral understanding of the constitutive role of communicating in organising and organisations. Relating to the recent turn towards interpreting emergent communication as constitutive for organisation, the paper shows the supplementing role of advanced phenomenology of the body, embodiment and inter-corporeity as well as creative expression for transcending the materialist-i...

  14. AUTOMATIC CONTEXTUAL TEXT CORRECTION USING THE LINGUISTIC HABITS GRAPH LHG

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Gadamer; Adrian Horzyk

    2009-01-01

    Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG) also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were comp...

  15. Testing contextuality on quantum ensembles with one clean qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa, O.; Ryan, C. A.; Cory, D. G.; Laflamme, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a protocol to evaluate the expectation value of the correlations of measurement outcomes for ensembles of quantum systems, and use it to experimentally demonstrate--under an assumption of fair sampling--the violation of an inequality that is satisfied by any non-contextual hidden-variables (NCHV) theory. The experiment is performed on an ensemble of molecular nuclear spins in the solid state, using established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques for quantu...

  16. Contextualizing an EFL teacher's beliefs about grammar teaching

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria, Gil; Marcia Regina Pawlas, Carazzai.

    Full Text Available Este artigo reporta um estudo qualitativo que enfocou as crenças e práticas de uma professora de inglês-LE relacionadas ao ensino da gramática. O estudo objetivou investigar como as crenças da professora poderiam ser contextualizadas com dados da sala de aula. No primeiro estágio de análise e coleta [...] de dados, um questionário foi aplicado à professora. Posteriormente, para contextualizar as crenças encontradas na análise do questionário, o segundo estágio de análise e coleta de dados enfocou episódios das aulas da professora. A análise dos dados mostrou que, de acordo com essa professora, o ensino da gramática deveria ser usado como um recurso facilitador para ajudar os alunos em seus processos de aprendizagem. Os resultados também indicaram que as crenças da professora são influenciadas por três fatores interativos: cognitivo, contextual e experiencial. Abstract in english This article reports on a qualitative study that focused on an EFL teacher's beliefs and her practices concerning grammar teaching. The study aimed at investigating how the teacher's beliefs could be contextualized with classroom data. In the first stage of data collection and analysis, an open ques [...] tionnaire was given to the teacher. Then, as a means of contextualizing the beliefs found in the analysis of the questionnaire data, the second stage of data collection and analysis focused on episodes from the teacher's classes. The analysis of the data shows that, according to this teacher, grammar teaching should be used as a facilitative device in order to help students in their learning process. The results of this study also indicate that the teacher's beliefs are influenced by three interactive sources: cognitive, contextual and experiential.

  17. Gender and Emotion Expression: A Developmental Contextual Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplin, Tara M.

    2015-01-01

    Small but significant gender differences in emotion expressions have been reported for adults, with women showing greater emotional expressivity, especially for positive emotions and internalizing negative emotions such as sadness. But when, developmentally, do these gender differences emerge? And what developmental and contextual factors influence their emergence? This article describes a developmental bio-psycho-social model of gender differences in emotion expression in childhood. Prior em...

  18. Compositional and contextual predictors for emotional problems among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line; Due, Pernille; Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2013-01-01

    Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health B...

  19. Towards contextual goal-oriented perception for pedestrian simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgois, Laure; Saunier, Julien; Auberlet, Jean Michel

    2012-01-01

    Perception is often seen in multiagent systems and in robotics from a passive point of view. The sensors of the agent collect information on its environment ; however the potentially important number of percepts is not realistic and may decrease the agents efficiency. In this article, we introduce a contextual goal-oriented perception filtering. Besides the lack of plausibility of omniscient agents, it addresses the problem of transmitting too much information to the agents. This goal-oriente...

  20. It from Qubit: How to Draw Quantum Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheeler’s observer-participancy and the related it from bit credo refer to quantum non-locality and contextuality. The mystery of these concepts slightly starts unveiling if one encodes the (incompatibilities between qubit observables in the relevant finite geometries. The main objective of this treatise is to outline another conceptual step forward by employing Grothendieck’s dessins d’enfants to reveal the topological and (nonalgebraic machinery underlying the measurement acts and their information content.

  1. The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Hasan Tariq; Mahbuba Afroz Jinia

    2013-01-01

    The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has beco...

  2. Contextual-value approach to the generalized measurement of observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, J.; Jordan, A. N.

    2012-02-01

    We present a detailed motivation for and definition of the contextual values of an observable, which were introduced by Dressel [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.240401 104, 240401 (2010)]. The theory of contextual values is a principled approach to the generalized measurement of observables. It extends the well-established theory of generalized state measurements by bridging the gap between partial state collapse and the observables that represent physically relevant information about the system. To emphasize the general utility of the concept, we first construct the full theory of contextual values within an operational formulation of classical probability theory, paying special attention to observable construction, detector coupling, generalized measurement, and measurement disturbance. We then extend the results to quantum probability theory built as a superstructure on the classical theory, pointing out both the classical correspondences to and the full quantum generalizations of both Lüder's rule and the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz rule in the process. As such, our treatment doubles as a self-contained pedagogical introduction to the essential components of the operational formulations for both classical and quantum probability theory. We find in both cases that the contextual values of a system observable form a generalized spectrum that is associated with the independent outcomes of a partially correlated and generally ambiguous detector; the eigenvalues are a special case when the detector is perfectly correlated and unambiguous. To illustrate the approach, we apply the technique to both a classical example of marble color detection and a quantum example of polarization detection. For the quantum example we detail two devices: Fresnel reflection from a glass coverslip, and continuous beam displacement from a calcite crystal. We also analyze the three-box paradox to demonstrate that no negative probabilities are necessary in its analysis. Finally, we provide a derivation of the quantum weak value as a limit point of a pre- and postselected conditioned average and provide sufficient conditions for the derivation to hold.

  3. Lexicographic Slips: Gathering and Organising Contextual Data for Dictionary Entries

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Bruce L

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the process of incorporating contextual information in bilingual dictionaries, with especial focus on the task of organising the textual source-material for a Greek-English dictionary. A description is given of the two functions of textual material: as citations in dictionaries to illustrate meanings, and also as the source-material for identifying meanings and writing the definitions. As almost all extant ancient Greek texts have been archived in digital libraries, t...

  4. Contextualizing Concepts using a Mathematical Generalization of the Quantum Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Gabora, Liane; Aerts, Diederik

    2002-01-01

    We outline the rationale and preliminary results of using the State Context Property (SCOP) formalism, originally developed as a generalization of quantum mechanics, to describe the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning. The quantum formalism was developed to cope with problems arising in the description of (1) the measurement process, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when particles become entangled. Si...

  5. Mining Contextual Information for Ephemeral Digital Video Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Chirag

    2009-01-01

    For centuries the archival community has understood and practiced the art of adding contextual information while preserving an artifact. The question now is how these practices can be transferred to the digital domain. With the growing expansion of production and consumption of digital objects (documents, audio, video, etc.) it has become essential to identify and study issues related to their representation. A cura­tor in the digital realm may be said to have the same responsibilities as one...

  6. Services surround you: Physical-virtual linkage with contextual bookmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, Niels; Reiners, René; Righetti, Xavier; Rukzio, Enrico; Boll, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Our daily life is pervaded by digital information and devices, not least the common mobile phone. However, a seamless connection between our physical world, such as a movie trailer on a screen in the main rail station and its digital counterparts, such as an online ticket service, remains difficult. In this paper, we present contextual bookmarks that enable users to capture information of interest with a mobile camera phone. Depending on the user’s context, the snapshot is mapped to a digital...

  7. Contextual interactions in a generalized energy model of complex cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dellen, Babette; Clark, John W; Wessel, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalized energy model of complex cells to describe modulatory contextual influences on the responses of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1). Many orientationselective cells in V1 respond to contrast of orientation and motion of stimuli exciting the classical receptive field (CRF) and the non-CRF, or surround. In the proposed model, a central spatiotemporal filter, defining the CRF, is nonlinearly combined with a spatiotemporal filter extending into the non- ...

  8. Ageing and implicit learning: explorations in contextual cuing

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, A.

    2010-01-01

    Research in cognitive ageing has found that while older adults show reductions in performance on standard explicit memory tasks, implicit memory performance remains relatively stable. Such findings are often used to support the popular dual-systems account of human learning and memory, which organizes these types of cognition into distinct implicit and explicit systems. In contrast to previous studies, we found that healthy older adults show learning impairments on an implicit contextual cuin...

  9. Contextual Control by Function and form of Transfer of Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, David R; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.; Greenway, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated conditions leading to contextual control by stimulus topography over transfer of functions. Three 4-member stimulus equivalence classes, each consisting of four (A, B, C, D) topographically distinct visual stimuli, were established for 5 college students. Across classes, designated A stimuli were open-ended linear figures, B stimuli were circular, C stimuli three-sided, and D stimuli four-sided. Three different computer tasks then were trained with the B stimuli. Diffe...

  10. Seeing the Big Picture: Deep Embedding with Contextual Evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; He, Fei; Tian, Qi

    2014-01-01

    In the Bag-of-Words (BoW) model based image retrieval task, the precision of visual matching plays a critical role in improving retrieval performance. Conventionally, local cues of a keypoint are employed. However, such strategy does not consider the contextual evidences of a keypoint, a problem which would lead to the prevalence of false matches. To address this problem, this paper defines "true match" as a pair of keypoints which are similar on three levels, i.e., local, r...

  11. Contextualized Recommendations for the Socio-Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Schirru, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, recommender systems have been widely used for a variety of different kinds of items such as books, movies, and music. However, current recommendation approaches have often been criticized to suffer from overspecialization thus not enough considering a user’s diverse topics of interest. In this thesis we present a novel approach to extracting contextualized user profiles which enable recommendations taking into account a user’s full range of interests. The method applies algor...

  12. Accurate image search using the contextual dissimilarity measure

    OpenAIRE

    Jégou, Hervé; Schmid, Cordelia; Harzallah, Hedi; Verbeek, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the contextual dissimilarity measure which significantly improves the accuracy of bag-of-features based image search. Our measure takes into account the local distribution of the vectors and iteratively estimates distance update terms in the spirit of Sinkhorn's scaling algorithm, thereby modifying the neighborhood structure. Experimental results show that our approach gives significantly better results than a standard distance and outperforms the state-of-the-art in ter...

  13. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight

  14. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  15. "Knowledge Must Be Contextual": Some Possible Implications of Complexity and Dynamic Systems Theories for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggis, Tamsin

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that qualitative and quantitative research traditions, rather than being seen as opposed to or in competition with each other (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995; Furlong, 2004 ) should be used, where appropriate, in some kind of combination (Bryman & Cramer, 1999; Moore et al., 2003 ). How this combining is to be understood…

  16. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically of...

  17. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    2014-01-01

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by thi...

  18. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  19. Scalable mobile image retrieval by exploring contextual saliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiyu; Qian, Xueming; Xue, Yao

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, it is very convenient to capture photos by a smart phone. As using, the smart phone is a convenient way to share what users experienced anytime and anywhere through social networks, it is very possible that we capture multiple photos to make sure the content is well photographed. In this paper, an effective scalable mobile image retrieval approach is proposed by exploring contextual salient information for the input query image. Our goal is to explore the high-level semantic information of an image by finding the contextual saliency from multiple relevant photos rather than solely using the input image. Thus, the proposed mobile image retrieval approach first determines the relevant photos according to visual similarity, then mines salient features by exploring contextual saliency from multiple relevant images, and finally determines contributions of salient features for scalable retrieval. Compared with the existing mobile-based image retrieval approaches, our approach requires less bandwidth and has better retrieval performance. We can carry out retrieval with <200-B data, which is <5% of existing approaches. Most importantly, when the bandwidth is limited, we can rank the transmitted features according to their contributions to retrieval. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25775488

  20. Lack of contextual-word predictability during reading in patients with mild Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Manes, Facundo; Rotstein, Nora P; Colombo, Oscar; Mandolesi, Pablo; Politi, Luis E; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we analyzed the effect of contextual word predictability on the eye movement behavior of patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to age-matched controls, by using the eyetracking technique and lineal mixed models. Twenty AD patients and 40 age-matched controls participated in the study. We first evaluated gaze duration during reading low and highly predictable sentences. AD patients showed an increase in gaze duration, compared to controls, both in sentences of low or high predictability. In controls, highly predictable sentences led to shorter gaze durations; by contrary, AD patients showed similar gaze durations in both types of sentences. Similarly, gaze duration in controls was affected by the cloze predictability of word N and N+1, whereas it was the same in AD patients. In contrast, the effects of word frequency and word length were similar in controls and AD patients. Our results imply that contextual-word predictability, whose processing is proposed to require memory retrieval, facilitated reading behavior in healthy subjects, but this facilitation was lost in early AD patients. This loss might reveal impairments in brain areas such as those corresponding to working memory, memory retrieval, and semantic memory functions that are already present at early stages of AD. In contrast, word frequency and length processing might require less complex mechanisms, which were still retained by AD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study measuring how patients with early AD process well-defined words embedded in sentences of high and low predictability. Evaluation of the resulting changes in eye movement behavior might provide a useful tool for a more precise early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25080188

  1. Aprendizagem motora e síndrome de Down: efeitos da frequência relativa reduzida de conhecimento de resultados / Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzete, Chiviacowsky; Camila, Machado; Alexandre Carriconde, Marques; José Francisco Gomes, Schild; Ricardo, Drews.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos de duas frequências (100 e 33%) de conhecimento de resultados (CR) na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora em indivíduos com síndrome de Down (SD). Vinte participantes com SD foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em dois grupos. O grupo 100% recebeu [...] CR após cada tentativa, enquanto o grupo 33% recebeu CR em um terço das tentativas, ou seja, uma tentativa com CR em cada bloco de três tentativas. A tarefa consistiu em arremessar um implemento em um alvo, com a mão dominante, sem visualizar o alvo. A fase de aquisição constou de 60 tentativas de prática, enquanto a fase de retenção, realizada 48 horas após, de 10 tentativas, sem CR. Os resultados indicaram a inexistência de diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclui-se que frequências relativas reduzidas de CR podem ser tão efetivas quanto altas frequências para a aprendizagem de habilidades motoras em adultos com SD. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33%) of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups.While the 100% group received KR aft [...] er each trial, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acquisition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

  2. Knowledge of sexual abuse amongst female students in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dzimadzi; H. Klopper

    2007-01-01

    Sexual abuse is an increasing problem in Malawi amongst female students, and is associated with physical and mental health problems. This study aimed to determine existing knowledge of sexual abuse amongst female students in tertiary education institutions in Malawi. A descriptive, comparative, quantitative and contextual research design was used. Participants (n=219) were selected through systematic random sampling from a population of female students aged 18 to 21, at fifteen (n= 15) tertia...

  3. Measuring organizational readiness for knowledge translation in chronic care

    OpenAIRE

    Ouimet Mathieu; Légaré France; Labarthe Jenni; Gagnon Marie-Pierre; Estabrooks Carole A; Roch Geneviève; Ghandour El Kebir; Grimshaw Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT) is an imperative in order to implement research-based and contextualized practices that can answer the numerous challenges of complex health problems. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) provides a conceptual framework to guide the implementation process in chronic care. Yet, organizations aiming to improve chronic care require an adequate level of organizational readiness (OR) for KT. Available instruments on organizational readiness for change (ORC) h...

  4. How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TennØy, Aud; Lissandrello, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Changing urban development in more sustainable directions poses numerous challenges for planning practitioners. Expert knowledge could be helpful for planners aiming at facing up to these challenges by developing innovative ways of meeting seemingly contradictive objectives and solving planning problems. This paper examines how planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge affect the content and goal achievement of plans, and discusses how changes in planning practice and research practice can contribute to improve goal achievement potentials. Goal achievement potential refers to whether the plans (if implemented) contribute to achieve defined objectives, which in this paper concern transition toward more sustainable mobility patterns and reduction of traffic volumes. The expert knowledge in question concerns how land use and transport systems developments influence traffic volumes in urban regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning this issue have emerged, but few empirical studies have been presented. The research in this paper involves case studies of strategic plan-making processes in three Scandinavian cities. A main finding is that whether the expert knowledge in question is used or not, and how it is used, indeed affect the goal achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call for traffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge in question for explaining that these measures reduce the goal achievement potential of plans, for several reasons. It may seem as if the knowledge sometimes is ousted when it challenges the contextual agenda. Further, planners do not turn to written or research- based sources of knowledge for help in solving their planning problems. Instead, they rely on their embedded professional knowledge, which is sometimes outdated or misleading. It is found that changing towards land use and transport systems developments contributing to more sustainable mobility patterns requires considerable efforts from planning practitioners, as well as from planning researchers.

  5. Teaching Intercultural Communication in China and Australia: Intellectual and Contextual Constraints and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying HUANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As the world turns more towards China through trade, tourism and knowledge exchange, Chinese professionals will increasingly need to communicate directly with foreigners inside China. This face-to-face communication will require not only linguistic and communicative competence, but also a deep cultural knowledge of China as well as of other cultures, to help strangers adapt effectively to Chinese cultural contexts and to improve mutual understanding. In this paper we suggest that it might be useful for Chinese teachers of intercultural communication to examine their assumptions and practices by comparing them with those in other countries. We illustrate this argument through a comparison of the teaching of intercultural communication in Yunnan with an equivalent program in professional education in Melbourne. We argue that there are many similarities in the two programs, reflecting their common disciplinary basis. There are also differences between the programs reflecting different assumptions about teaching and learning, and different contexts of intercultural communication. This comparison helps identify the cultural and contextual influences on what is currently identified as appropriate in Yunnan, and the possible constraints on how much the program could be altered without clashing with acceptable aims, strategies and outcomes.
    Key words: Intercultural Communication; Communicative Competence; Professional Education; Globalization

  6. Contextual control of stimulus generalization and stimulus equivalence in hierarchical categorization.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffee, Karen; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether hierarchical categorization would result from a combination of contextually controlled conditional discrimination training, stimulus generalization, and stimulus equivalence. First, differential selection responses to a specific stimulus feature were brought under contextual control. This contextual control was hierarchical in that stimuli at the top of the hierarchy all evoked one response, whereas those at the bottom each evoked different r...

  7. The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character

    OpenAIRE

    Kokom Komalasari

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1) the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2) the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3) the effect of the living...

  8. Contextual cost: When a visual-search target is not where it should be

    OpenAIRE

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    Visual search is often facilitated when the search display occasionally repeats, revealing a contextual-cueing effect. According to the associative-learning account, contextual-cueing arises from associating the display configuration with the target location. However, recent findings emphasizing the importance of local context near the target have given rise to the possibility that low-level repetition priming may account for the contextual-cueing effect. This study distinguishes associative-...

  9. A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Raji?, Andrijana

    2014-12-01

    The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews in decision-making in this sector. Future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these summary formats for a variety of end-users in different contexts. PMID:25383916

  10. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  11. Dynamic Capitalization and Visualization Strategy in Collaborative Knowledge Management System for EI Process

    CERN Document Server

    Oladejo, Bolanle; David, Amos

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge is attributed to human whose problem-solving behavior is subjective and complex. In today's knowledge economy, the need to manage knowledge produced by a community of actors cannot be overemphasized. This is due to the fact that actors possess some level of tacit knowledge which is generally difficult to articulate. Problem-solving requires searching and sharing of knowledge among a group of actors in a particular context. Knowledge expressed within the context of a problem resolution must be capitalized for future reuse. In this paper, an approach that permits dynamic capitalization of relevant and reliable actors' knowledge in solving decision problem following Economic Intelligence process is proposed. Knowledge annotation method and temporal attributes are used for handling the complexity in the communication among actors and in contextualizing expressed knowledge. A prototype is built to demonstrate the functionalities of a collaborative Knowledge Management system based on this approach. It is...

  12. Exploring Caregiver Behavior and Knowledge about Unsafe Sleep Surfaces in Infant Injury Death Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tracy; Hackett, Martine; Kaur, Navpreet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In the United States, infant deaths due to sleep-related injuries have quadrupled over the past two decades. One of the major risk factors is the placement of an infant to sleep on a surface other than a crib or bassinet. This study examines contextual circumstances and knowledge and behaviors that may contribute to the placement of…

  13. Context-Inappropriate Anger, Emotion Knowledge Deficits, and Negative Social Experiences in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI…

  14. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  15. Neuroleptic Drugs Revert the Contextual Fear Conditioning Deficit Presented by Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Potential Animal Model of Emotional Context Processing in Schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Regina Helena; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of the present study was to characterize the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Adult male normotensive Wistar rats and SHR were submitted to the CFC task. Sensitivity of the animals to the shock and the ...

  16. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    OpenAIRE

    Marincola Francesco M; Littman Bruce H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propo...

  17. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Nagaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3?,5?-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  18. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2015-11-15

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS-. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations. PMID:26220745

  19. Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022115

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting "hybrid" entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion, by employing a $q$-plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also non-local, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

  20. Knowledge management as an element in realizing nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A company is not defined by its competences but it lives in realizing these competences in products. The technical knowledge within the field, i.e. here in nuclear technology, is taken as granted at a first glance. For analyzing the role of knowledge management (KM) in the application this knowledge for our products, one can follow two different dimensions, thereby elucidating the needs and development requirements for KM methods: When first considering the 'operational' dimension, one can start from the scope of the manufacturer's knowledge which covers the construction of plants, then accompanying its life cycle, and pursues the development of the technology for the future. A board spectrum of KM activities has been established yet for these different phases, comprising tools with close product orientation or KM elements applied in 'support processes'. In cases of close KM integration in the business process, diversity over the different sectors of the company has emerged: 'locally' optimized solutions are favoured due to specific requirements of the technical field, to continuity or to ease of daily application. On the other hand, 'global' KM tools are often preferred for integration in 'global' support processes (as human resource (HR) management). This can be illustrated by some examples deployed yet, and their benefit: 1. Feedback procedures for new plant projects: capturing the experience during construction (e.g. by standardised reports), thereby strengthening quality criteria for the project and integrating evaluation into the project management (PM) process of the current project; thus reducing erection time - and related capital cost - for future plants. 2. Follow up event information on nuclear plants globally: by collecting and assessing events systematically for proactive technical action and as input for quality management (QM); thus identifying market needs in advance also. 3. IT based KM tool used in nuclear maintenance service: supporting PM as a planning tool, making available technical data, checklists and 'lessons learned' by a systematic data base solution; thus resulting in plant service optimized in respect to technical reliability and duration. 4. Expert networks: leading the technological progress in our own core competences, while keeping high quality by 'distributed' evaluation of the new developments; thus optimizing R and D budget allocation and follow-up development success. 5. Developing human resources (HR): defining consistent knowledge profiles for the employees for future projects; thus ensuring a well adjusted workforce - a main cost factor within the company. 6. Mentoring: for transfer of project skills and experience, fostering new ways and solutions; thus maintaining knowledge and facilitating the start-up phase for young employees. 7. External co-operations in R and D: an approach for complementing own knowledge by identifying alternative approaches; thus resulting in mutual benefit for the external institution and the company, keeping it on the edge of progress in a competitive environment. For the second step, the analysis of KM in the other - 'contextual' - dimension, it becomes apparent from examples that knowledge is applied usually in the context of project management and quality management. Both PM and QM are well established and organized under standards and guidelines, using 'best practices' and tools often applicable in other industries as well - a goal for KM as well. Obviously successful projects require close, complementary interaction of the three management aspects, and none of them can replace one of the others. KM is not a stand-alone basis for the product; in contrary, PM and QM are focused more tightly to the business process, relying on KM support in the 'back office' - and in many cases they are 'driving forces' for KM deployment. In this way, most of the aspects discussed usually for KM - as identification of knowledge gaps, acquisition of knowledge, its development, sharing, use, preservation and evaluation - derive the criteria from the busi ness

  1. Controle de injúrias sob a ótica da pediatria contextual / Injury control from the perspective of contextual pediatrics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danilo, Blank.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever relações entre controle de injúrias e pediatria contextual. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão quase-sistemática dos bancos MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, usando combinações das seguintes palavras: contextual, comunidade, injúria, acidente e violência; revisão não-sistemática de capítulos de l [...] ivros e artigos clássicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A segurança depende de uma interação entre hábitos familiares, normas culturais e entorno. A pediatria contextual vê a criança, a família e a comunidade como um conjunto contínuo. Um de seus pontos-chave é o diagnóstico de saúde (observação seqüencial dos problemas e trunfos). Alterar fatores intrapessoais de injúrias requer a aplicação de estratégias passivas e ativas. Fatores familiares e culturais de risco de injúria: superpopulação do domicílio, mudanças de endereço, pobreza, pais jovens, analfabetos e desempregados. Principais fatores da vizinhança: privação material e trânsito. Fatores culturais: analfabetismo, produtos inseguros, transporte de massa insuficiente, armas de mão, ambientes de trabalho sem normas de segurança, organização comunitária precária, falta de comunicação entre setores sociais, legislação inadequada, baixa prioridade da segurança entre as ações do governo, escassez de recursos econômicos e baixo comprometimento acadêmico com o campo da segurança. CONCLUSÕES: Os papéis do pediatra são reforçar o relacionamento longitudinal com as famílias, trabalho interdisciplinar integrado, intervenção construtiva, parceria com a comunidade, orientação sobre os riscos de injúria inerentes a cada etapa do desenvolvimento, por meio de listas com processo e conteúdo explícitos e entrega de material escrito. Advogar ativamente pela promoção da segurança, em instâncias variadas, além do âmbito clínico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between injury control and contextual pediatrics. SOURCES OF DATA: Quasi-systematic review of MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, using combinations of the words contextual, community, injury, accident and violence; and non-systematic review of book chapters [...] and classic articles. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Safety depends on the interaction of family habits, cultural patterns and surroundings. Contextual pediatrics sees the child, the family, and the community as a continuum; health diagnosis (sequential observation of problems and assets) is one of its cornerstones. Changing intrapersonal factors for injuries requires the use of both passive and active strategies. Family and cultural risk factors for injury: home overcrowding, moving, poverty, and young, illiterate and unemployed parents. The main neighborhood factors: material deprivation and traffic. Cultural factors: illiteracy, unsafe products, lack of mass transportation, handguns, workplaces without safety rules, faulty community organization, lack of communication between social sectors, inadequate legislation, low priority for safety among government actions, lack of economic resources, and low academic commitment with the field of safety. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatrician's roles include strengthening of the longitudinal relationship with families, integrated interdisciplinary work, constructive intervention, partnership with community, counseling on injury risks pertaining to each developmental stage, by using lists with explicit processes and contents, and by handing out written materials. Active advocacy for safety promotion in different environments, besides the clinical setting.

  2. Controle de injúrias sob a ótica da pediatria contextual Injury control from the perspective of contextual pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Blank

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever relações entre controle de injúrias e pediatria contextual. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão quase-sistemática dos bancos MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, usando combinações das seguintes palavras: contextual, comunidade, injúria, acidente e violência; revisão não-sistemática de capítulos de livros e artigos clássicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A segurança depende de uma interação entre hábitos familiares, normas culturais e entorno. A pediatria contextual vê a criança, a família e a comunidade como um conjunto contínuo. Um de seus pontos-chave é o diagnóstico de saúde (observação seqüencial dos problemas e trunfos. Alterar fatores intrapessoais de injúrias requer a aplicação de estratégias passivas e ativas. Fatores familiares e culturais de risco de injúria: superpopulação do domicílio, mudanças de endereço, pobreza, pais jovens, analfabetos e desempregados. Principais fatores da vizinhança: privação material e trânsito. Fatores culturais: analfabetismo, produtos inseguros, transporte de massa insuficiente, armas de mão, ambientes de trabalho sem normas de segurança, organização comunitária precária, falta de comunicação entre setores sociais, legislação inadequada, baixa prioridade da segurança entre as ações do governo, escassez de recursos econômicos e baixo comprometimento acadêmico com o campo da segurança. CONCLUSÕES: Os papéis do pediatra são reforçar o relacionamento longitudinal com as famílias, trabalho interdisciplinar integrado, intervenção construtiva, parceria com a comunidade, orientação sobre os riscos de injúria inerentes a cada etapa do desenvolvimento, por meio de listas com processo e conteúdo explícitos e entrega de material escrito. Advogar ativamente pela promoção da segurança, em instâncias variadas, além do âmbito clínico.OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between injury control and contextual pediatrics. SOURCES OF DATA: Quasi-systematic review of MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, using combinations of the words contextual, community, injury, accident and violence; and non-systematic review of book chapters and classic articles. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Safety depends on the interaction of family habits, cultural patterns and surroundings. Contextual pediatrics sees the child, the family, and the community as a continuum; health diagnosis (sequential observation of problems and assets is one of its cornerstones. Changing intrapersonal factors for injuries requires the use of both passive and active strategies. Family and cultural risk factors for injury: home overcrowding, moving, poverty, and young, illiterate and unemployed parents. The main neighborhood factors: material deprivation and traffic. Cultural factors: illiteracy, unsafe products, lack of mass transportation, handguns, workplaces without safety rules, faulty community organization, lack of communication between social sectors, inadequate legislation, low priority for safety among government actions, lack of economic resources, and low academic commitment with the field of safety. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatrician's roles include strengthening of the longitudinal relationship with families, integrated interdisciplinary work, constructive intervention, partnership with community, counseling on injury risks pertaining to each developmental stage, by using lists with explicit processes and contents, and by handing out written materials. Active advocacy for safety promotion in different environments, besides the clinical setting.

  3. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new pro...

  4. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a...

  5. Cancer Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide population estimates for variables that represent knowledge about certain cancer risk factors, screening tests, and resources. The data are sourced from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). The HINTS data collection program was created to monitor changes in the rapidly evolving field of health communication. Survey researchers are using the data to understand how adults 18 years and older use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information for themselves and their loved ones.

  6. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also includes a perspective on the strength of the organizational relation. In this paper, an in-depth case study of a High-Tech-Small-Firm (HTSF) is presented. By combining the literature on inter-organizati...

  7. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowl...

  8. Pushing Personhood into Place : Situating Media in the Transfer of Rural Knowledge in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...

  9. Collaborative repositories : An organisational and technological response to current challenges in specialised knowledge communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Textual and communicative competence lies at the heart of the skills of a professional linguistic mediator in general. Such skills are particularly important in specialized writing, which requires deep conceptual and contextual knowledge. One of the main objectives of the activities undertaken at the Knowledge Communication Lab is to provide linguistic mediators, be they translators and writers of professional texts or subject matter experts entrusted with tasks of intra- or interdisciplinary...

  10. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries : The Tension between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed.

  11. User Adoption Tendency Modeling for Social Contextual Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies on the existing recommender system for Netflix-style sites (scenarios with explicit user feedback focus on rating prediction, but few have systematically analyzed users’ motivations to make decisions on which items to rate. In this paper, the authors study the difficult and challenging task Item Adoption Prediction (IAP for predicting the items users will rate or interact with. It is not only an important supplement to previous works, but also a more realistic requirement of recommendation in this scenario. To recommend the items with high Adoption Tendency, the authors develop a unified model UATM based on the findings of Marketing and Consumer Behavior. The novelty of the model in this paper includes: First, the authors propose a more creative and effective optimization method to tackle One-Class Problem where only the positive feedback is available; second, the authors systematically and conveniently integrate the user adoption information (both explicit and implicit feedbacks included and the social contextual information with quantitatively characterizing different users’ personal sensitivity to various social contextual influences.

  12. Social media: A contextual framework to guide research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Lynn A; Ployhart, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Social media are a broad collection of digital platforms that have radically changed the way people interact and communicate. However, we argue that social media are not simply a technology but actually represent a context that differs in important ways from traditional (e.g., face-to-face) and other digital (e.g., email) ways of interacting and communicating. As a result, social media is a relatively unexamined type of context that may affect the cognition, affect, and behavior of individuals within organizations. We propose a contextual framework that identifies the discrete and ambient stimuli that distinguish social media contexts from digital communication media (e.g., email) and physical (e.g., face-to-face) contexts. We then use this contextual framework to demonstrate how it changes more person-centered theories of organizational behavior (e.g., social exchange, social contagion, and social network theories). These theoretical insights are also used to identify a number of practical implications for individuals and organizations. This study's major contribution is creating a theoretical understanding of social media features so that future research may proceed in a theory-based, rather than platform-based, manner. Overall, we intend for this article to stimulate and broadly shape the direction of research on this ubiquitous, but poorly understood, phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26052712

  13. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

  14. An Ensemble Approach to Image Matching Using Contextual Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morago, Brittany; Bui, Giang; Duan, Ye

    2015-11-01

    We propose a contextual framework for 2D image matching and registration using an ensemble feature. Our system is beneficial for registering image pairs that have captured the same scene but have large visual discrepancies between them. It is common to encounter challenging visual variations in image sets with artistic rendering differences or in those collected over a period of time during which the lighting conditions and scene content may have changed. Differences between images may also be caused using a variety of cameras with different sensors, focal lengths, and exposure values. Local feature matching techniques cannot always handle these difficulties, so we have developed an approach that builds on traditional methods to consider linear and histogram of gradient information over a larger, more stable region. We also present a technique for using linear features to estimate corner keypoints, or pseudo corners, that can be used for matching. Our pipeline follows this unique matching stage with homography refinement methods using edge and gradient information. Our goal is to increase the size of accurate keypoint match sets and align photographs containing a combination of man-made and natural imagery. We show that incorporating contextual information can provide complimentary information for scale invariant feature transform and boost local keypoint matching performance, as well as be used to describe corner feature points. PMID:26186783

  15. Contextual Learning Theory: Concrete Form and a Software Prototype to Improve Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2007-01-01

    In "contextual learning theory" three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and systemic aspects). The resulting structure consists…

  16. The Contextual Effect of School Satisfaction on Health-Risk Behaviors in Japanese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Minoru; Wake, Norie; Kobayashi, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Background: The importance of school contextual effects on health and well-being among young people is currently recognized. This study examines the contextual effects of school satisfaction as well as the effects of individual-level school satisfaction on health-risk behaviors in Japanese high school students. Methods: Self-administered…

  17. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  18. Principals' Self-Efficacy: Relations with Job Autonomy, Job Satisfaction, and Contextual Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual

  19. A Pilot Study of a Functional Contextual Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Drew A.; Simmons, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the initial development of a treatment for bulimia nervosa using a functional contextual treatment approach. Seven women (6 with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and 1 with a diagnosis of eating disorder not otherwise specified) completed 12 sessions of functional contextual treatment. Participants were assessed with the Eating…

  20. Solving a Contextual Problem with the Spreadsheet as an Environment for Algebraic Thinking Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Sandra; Amado, Nelia; Carreira, Susana

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report and discuss a contextual problem solving task that was proposed to a class of 8th grade (13-14-year-old) students. These students had been developing a reasonable experience in the use of the spreadsheet to model relations within contextual problems and chose to use this tool to solve the mentioned problem, engaging in…

  1. Health, Quality of Life and Population Density: A Preliminary Study on "Contextualized" Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassio, Omar; Rollero, Chiara; De Piccoli, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life concerns individual (physical and psychological health), interpersonal (social relationships) and contextual (environment) aspects, which are both subjective and objective. In considering contextual characteristics, empirical findings have demonstrated that people's relation to their living environment is a key issue for their…

  2. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  3. Linear and nonlinear analogues of the Schroedinger equation in the contextual approach in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One derived the general evolutionary differential equation within the Hilbert space describing dynamics of the wave function. The derived contextual model is more comprehensive in contrast to a quantum one. The contextual equation may be a nonlinear one. Paper presents the conditions ensuring linearity of the evolution and derivation of the Schroedinger equation

  4. Post-Training Unilateral Amygdala Lesions Selectively Impair Contextual Fear Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) are both structures with key roles in contextual fear conditioning. During fear conditioning, it is postulated that contextual representations of the environment are formed in the hippocampus, which are then associated with foot shock in the amygdala. However, it is not known to what…

  5. Developmental Differences in the Impact of Contextual Factors on Susceptibility to Retroactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The influence of contextual similarity on children's recognition memory performance was examined using a retroactive interference paradigm. In the study, 9- and 12-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of two contextual conditions. In both conditions, target and interfering information were presented in distinctive contexts by using different…

  6. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel; Jahn, Karsten; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munk-Madsen, Andreas; Pedersen, Keld

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions for usage in KIWI system (Sections 3). This document is intended for technological partners to understand how for example the software development concepts can be applied to a semantic wiki framework.

  7. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas his critical attitude has become superseded. A critical discussion on the heritage from Bacon leads to a focus on the concepts of truth, utility, and goodness. Unification of skills and Bildung, it is st...

  8. Animacy-based predictions in language comprehension are robust: contextual cues modulate but do not nullify them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, R; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-05-22

    Couldn?t a humble coconut hurt a gardener? At least in the first instance, the brain seems to assume that it should not: we perceive inanimate entities such as coconuts as poor event instigators ("Actors"). Ideally, entities causing a change in another entity should be animate and this assumption not only influences event perception but also carries over to language comprehension. We present three auditory event-related brain potential (ERP) studies on the processing of inanimate and animate subjects and objects in simple transitive sentences in Tamil. ERP responses were measured at the second argument (event participant) in all three studies. Experiment 1 employed all possible animacy combinations of Actors and Undergoers (affected participants) in Actor- and Undergoer-initial verb-final orders. Experiments 2 and 3 employed a fairly novel context design that enabled us to compare ERPs evoked by identical auditory material to differing contextual expectations: Experiment 2 focussed on constructions in which an inanimate Actor acts upon an inanimate Undergoer, whereas Experiment 3 examined whether and how a preceding context modulates the prediction for an ideal Actor. Results showed an N400 effect when the prediction for an ideal (animate) Actor following an Undergoer was not met, thus further supporting the cross-linguistically robust nature of animacy preferences. In addition, though specific contextual cues that are indicative of a forthcoming non-ideal Actor may reduce this negativity in comparison to when such cues are not available, they nevertheless do not nullify it, suggesting that animacy-based predictions are stronger than contextual cues in online language comprehension. PMID:25619551

  9. SUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIMETRIC SAR IMAGERY USING TEMPORAL AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dargahi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the context as a source of ancillary information in classification process provides a powerful tool to obtain better class discrimination. Modelling context using Markov Random Fields (MRFs and combining with Bayesian approach, a context-based supervised classification method is proposed. In this framework, to have a full use of the statistical a priori knowledge of the data, the spatial relation of the neighbouring pixels was used. The proposed context-based algorithm combines a Gaussian-based wishart distribution of PolSAR images with temporal and contextual information. This combination was done through the Bayes decision theory: the class-conditional probability density function and the prior probability are modelled by the wishart distribution and the MRF model. Given the complexity and similarity of classes, in order to enhance the class separation, simultaneously two PolSAR images from two different seasons (leaf-on and leaf-off were used. According to the achieved results, the maximum improvement in the overall accuracy of classification using WMRF (Combining Wishart and MRF compared to the wishart classifier when the leaf-on image was used. The highest accuracy obtained was when using the combined datasets. In this case, the overall accuracy of the wishart and WMRF methods were 72.66% and 78.95% respectively.

  10. Competitive Trace Theory: A Role for the Hippocampus in Contextual Interference during Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Michael A; Reagh, Zachariah M

    2013-01-01

    Much controversy exists regarding the role of the hippocampus in retrieval. The two dominant and competing accounts have been the Standard Model of Systems Consolidation (SMSC) and Multiple Trace Theory (MTT), which specifically make opposing predictions as to the necessity of the hippocampus for retrieval of remote memories. Under SMSC, memories eventually become independent of the hippocampus as they become more reliant on cortical connectivity, and thus the hippocampus is not required for retrieval of remote memories, only recent ones. MTT on the other hand claims that the hippocampus is always required no matter the age of the memory. We argue that this dissociation may be too simplistic, and a continuum model may be better suited to address the role of the hippocampus in retrieval of remote memories. Such a model is presented here with the main function of the hippocampus during retrieval being "recontextualization," or the reconstruction of memory using overlapping traces. As memories get older, they are decontextualized due to competition among partially overlapping traces and become more semantic and reliant on neocortical storage. In this framework dubbed the Competitive Trace Theory (CTT), consolidation events that lead to the strengthening of memories enhance conceptual knowledge (semantic memory) at the expense of contextual details (episodic memory). As a result, remote memories are more likely to have a stronger semantic representation. At the same time, remote memories are also more likely to include illusory details. The CTT is a novel candidate model that may provide some resolution to the memory consolidation debate. PMID:23964216

  11. On pigs and packers: Radically contextualizing a practice of science with Mexican immigrant students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson Bruna, Katherine; Vann, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on instructional practices observed in a high school English Learner (EL) Science course serving newcomer Mexican immigrant youth. The school is located in a rural Midwestern meatpacking community in which labor at the hog plant is economically- and racially-segmented; it is the town's Mexican residents, many of them undocumented, who comprise most of the unskilled labor force. The general purpose of the paper is to document how the economic and racial context of this community influences science instruction in the EL Science course and to describe how this presents particular challenges in achieving equitable science instruction for Mexican immigrant youth in these rural, globalizing places. Entering the data via critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995) and then utilizing Barton's (2003) "practice of science" perspective, with an eye toward achieving "radical contextuality" (Grossberg, 1997), we describe the science events, identities, and structures of the pig dissection lesson and detail how what these students could do with science, as rendered by that lesson, was limited by the roles the teacher attributed to the students, her inability to draw on their funds of knowledge as resources for learning, and the voice and position she allowed them to take up. The data reinforce conventional understandings of schools as sites of cultural reproduction (Bowels & Gintis, 1976), as well as of resistance (Giroux, 1983), but afford us a glimpse of the particularity of those mechanisms within the demographically-transitioning American Heartland, iconic of the era of global capitalism.

  12. Atender o cuidar. Un problema contextual por discernir en la práctica profesional de enfermería / To assist or to care. A contextual problem to discern in the nursing professional practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Félix, Kindelán Delís.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de una ciencia comprende fenómenos tanto de la naturaleza como de la vida social; incluye las propiedades de la actividad mental de los hombres como resultado de la imaginación, y entraña operaciones del pensamiento abstracto, tales como: concepto, juicio y razonamiento. No constituye una [...] certidumbre dada para siempre, es transformable; preserva cierto grado de estabilidad y designa la esencia de la actuación científica direccional del actor cultural, pero si en la ciencia existe bilateralidad terminológica, entonces habrá disgregación de la esencia de su surgimiento y desarrollo. El modo lógico básico de formación del conocimiento será difuso, y distinguir la singularidad del saber al cual se apega creará dispersión del pensamiento. Por tales razones se realizó este trabajo para desentrañar el problema contextual existente entre los conceptos cuidar/atender que rectoran la práctica profesional de enfermería en Cuba. Abstract in english The object of a science comprises phenomena either from nature as from social life; it includes properties from mental activity of men as a result of the imagination, and it involves functions of the abstract thought, such as: concept, judgment and reasoning. It doesn't constitute a certainty given [...] forever, it is transformable; it preserves certain degree of stability and it designs the essence of the cultural actor's directional scientific performance, but if in science terminological bilaterality exists, then there will be disintegration of the essence of its emergence and development. The basic logical way of emergence of knowledge will be diffuse, and to distinguish the singularity of the knowledge to which it joints will create dispersion in thinking. For such reasons this work was carried out to decipher the existent contextual problem between the concepts to care/to assist which guide the nursing professional practice in Cuba.

  13. Compositional and contextual predictors for emotional problems among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; ErsbØll, Annette Kjær

    Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from a random sample of Danish schools. Students answered a questionnaire including mental health and the classroom environment. The outcome measure emotional problems was defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having difficulties falling asleep. Further, school-administrators answered a questionnaire on school environment and characteristics, e.g. policies against bullying. We applied multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at individual, classroom and school levels. Results Initially a large variation in emotional problems was observed from one school to another. The proportion of students with daily experience of emotional problems varied between 7% and 32% across schools. Individual level variables such as socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Students from low (OR=1.74 (CI:1.37;2.22)) and medium (OR=1.53 (CI:1.24;1.87)) social class, girls (OR=1.37 (CI:1.15;1.63)) and students exposed to bullying (OR=3.20 (CI:2.17;4.72)), had increased odds of experiencing emotional problems. At the classroom level, a high proportion of students who reported a negative classroom climate was significantly associated with emotional problems (OR=1.43 (CI:1.07;1.92)). Further, bullying seems to reach beyond the individual. In classes with a high prevalence of bullying, students have significantly higher odds (OR=1.33 (CI:1.05;1.70)) of experiencing emotional problems compared to classes where bullying didn´t appear. These findings suggest that contextual exposure affects emotional problems. Conclusions We expected compositional factors to explain much of the variation in prevalence of emotional problems between schools. This study suggests that contextual factors at the school and class level are important to take into account in studies of emotional problems among children and adolescents.

  14. QMR-KAT: An Interactive Knowledge Acquisition Toold for the QMR Medical Knowledge Base*

    OpenAIRE

    Giuse, Dario A; Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Miller, Randolph A.

    1990-01-01

    QMR-KAT is an interactive knowledge acquisition system for the QMR medical knowledge base. It supports knowledge acquisition by automating the more mechanical aspects of the task. This is achieved by relying on the existing knowledge base, thus reducing the time to completion and making the results more repeatable. As a physician enters or modifies information, QMR-KAT immediately checks that the information is compatible with the existing knowledge base. This guarantees consistency and elimi...

  15. Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2003-02-01

    Schools are expected to lay the foundation upon which knowledge can be built and equip students with the tools necessary to accomplish the construction. The role of the teacher in this building process is crucial to the type of structure the student can build. Whether you call it constructivism, discussion teaching, project-based learning, inquiry learning, or any of the other names given to the instructional strategies being suggested by education researchers, the key is getting students to become active participants in the process. While some students may be able to learn from eloquently delivered lectures and dynamic demonstrations, the majority of students cannot effectively retain and apply ideas communicated in this manner.

  16. Experimental demonstration of preparation contextuality and parity-oblivious multiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Spekkens, Robert W; Keehn, A J; Toner, Ben; Pryde, G J

    2008-01-01

    Using a recent generalization of the notion of noncontextuality to arbitrary procedures and to arbitrary operational theories, it is possible to derive noncontextuality inequalities -- constraints on experimental statistics that hold for theories that admit a noncontextual hidden variable model. We prove one such inequality based on an assumption of noncontextuality for preparation procedures and report an experimental violation of it with very high statistical confidence. We also demonstrate that a particular kind of two-party secure computation which we call "parity-oblivious multiplexing" is powered by contextuality in the sense that the degree of violation of our inequality quantifies the degree of success that can be achieved in the task. Consequently, our experimental results also demonstrate better-than-classical performance for this task. They also represent the first demonstration of 2-to-1 and 3-to-1 quantum random access codes.

  17. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A.

    2013-08-01

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in {{Z}}(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain "Heyting factors," are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  18. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourdas, A. [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  19. Experimental certification of random numbers via quantum contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mark; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Ye; Yangchao, Shen; Deng, D-L; Duan, Lu-Ming; Kim, Kihwan

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic unpredictability of measurements in quantum mechanics can be used to produce genuine randomness. Here, we demonstrate a random number generator where the randomness is certified by quantum contextuality in connection with the Kochen-Specker theorem. In particular, we generate random numbers from measurements on a single trapped ion with three internal levels, and certify the generated randomness by showing a bound on the minimum entropy through observation of violation of the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality. Concerning the test of the KCBS inequality, we close the detection efficiency loophole for the first time and make it relatively immune to the compatibility loophole. In our experiment, we generate 1 × 10(5) random numbers that are guaranteed to have 5.2 × 10(4) bits of minimum entropy with a 99% confidence level. PMID:23568082

  20. Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We continue the development of a so-called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric cos-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic cos-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability. We also discuss possibilities of experimental verification of hyperbolic quantum mechanics: in physics of elementary particles, string theory as well as in experiments with nonphysical systems, e.g., in psychology, cognitive sciences, and economy

  1. Quantum view on contextual logic of composite intelligent devices

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2013-01-01

    Based on the ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) we propose the consistent approach to study probabilistic many-valued propositional logic of intelligent devices that are composed from separate but interconnected logical units. In this preliminary communication we consider only the simplest example of such systems, namely, four- valued probabilistic logical device composed of two logical subsystems. We demonstrate that similar devices can generate two classes of probabilistic propositions:1) decomposable propositions, which in fact are equivalent to certain ordered pair of propositions in device subsystems and 2) indecomposable propositions which are connected with inherent logical interaction between device units. The indecomposable propositions are undoubtedly of greatest interest since they, as shown in the paper, provide powerful additional logical resource compared to standard parallel processing in composite intelligent systems. The contextual logic of composite devices proposed in this paper...

  2. Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2005-06-01

    We continue the development of a so-called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric cos-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic cos-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability. We also discuss possibilities of experimental verification of hyperbolic quantum mechanics: in physics of elementary particles, string theory as well as in experiments with nonphysical systems, e.g., in psychology, cognitive sciences, and economy.

  3. Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erke Shang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV system for road following. However, current vision?based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour, variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured roads. Two traditional algorithms, support vector machine (SVM and k?nearest neighbour (KNN, are carried out to verify the helpfulness of the proposed confidence map. Following this, a novel algorithm, which combines SVM, KNN and the confidence map under a Bayesian framework, is proposed to improve the overall performance of the unstructured road detections. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using different types of unstructured roads and the experimental results show its effectiveness.

  4. Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Martens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

  5. Stimuli with identical contextual functions taught independently become functionally equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Luis Antonio; Díaz, Elvira; Fernández-García, Silvia; Baizán, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    A novel learning process that does not require stimulus associations was explored in humans. The hypothesis was that two contextual stimuli taught in separate settings, with different stimuli, become equivalent if they accomplish identical functions with regard to the relations between the stimuli presented with them. The procedure consisted of : (a) first teaching an AB conditional discrimination (e.g., match A1 to B1 and A2 to B2) and then teaching a second-order XAB conditional discrimination in which X1 indicated performing the same selections as in AB and X2 indicated selecting the alternative comparison (e.g., match A1 to B2 and A2 to B1); (b) repeating the procedure with completely new stimuli, YHJ, in which the functions of the Y stimuli were identical to those of X; and (c) conducting a final probe under extinction to verify the equivalence between the X and the Y stimuli. Three experiments were conducted to explore the process and to rule out the influence of alternative variables. Out of these, 13 of the 14 participants matched the stimuli to the same contextual functions. Thus, the hypothesis was verified. These results demonstrate that humans are able to match stimuli according to their functions in relation to other stimuli. This process may be very much involved in language; for example, understanding that words or clauses that have been learned in separate contexts and with separate stimuli share the same meaning. Understanding this process may help to identify learning or developmental problems, such as those shown by persons with autism, and help to treat them. PMID:25673100

  6. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  7. Relações de equivalência após treino com pareamento consistente de estímulos sob controle contextual / Equivalence relations after stimulus matching consistent training under contextual control

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Grauben José Alves de, Assis; Marcelo Quintino Galvão, Baptista; Olívia Misae, Kato; Keila Regina, Alves.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Alguns estudos têm produzido relações condicionais que se mostraram também equivalentes, através do treino com pareamento consistente de estímulos. O presente estudo buscou verificar se essas relações podem ocorrer também sob controle contextual. Quatro universitários foram submetidos ao treino AB, [...] AC e AD, intercalado aos testes de simetria correspondentes BA, CA e DA. Em seguida, ao treino AD e ao teste de simetria DA sob controle contextual. Por último, foram testadas as relações de equivalência BC, CB, BD, DB, CD e DC, na ausência de estímulos contextuais, e DB e DC, com estímulos de contexto. Os participantes alcançaram o critério de acerto em todos os treinos. Três participantes apresentaram as relações simétricas, na ausência de estímulos contextuais, e a relação DA, em sua presença. Estes resultados replicam e expandem estudos anteriores, mostrando que mesmo sem conseqüências diferenciais, é possível obter um desempenho consistente sob controle condicional de segunda ordem. Abstract in english Some studies, using stimulus matching consistent training, had produced conditional relations that have also yielded equivalence relations. The objective of this experiment was to ascertain whether the same type of discriminations would occur under contextual control. Four university students were s [...] ubmitted to sequential relationships. AB, AC, and AD, interspersed with corresponding tests for symmetry: BA, CA, and DA. Subsequently, AD was tested with the DA test for symmetry. Finally, the equivalence relations BC, CB, BD, DB, CD, and DC were evaluated without the contextual stimuli, whereas the relations DB and DC were tested with contextual stimuli. The participants reached the criterion for accuracy in all training sessions. Three participants presented symmetrical relations without contextual stimuli, while the DA relationship was obtained in the presence of contextual cues. These results replicate and extend previous studies showing that even without differential consequences, it was possible to obtain consistent performance under second-order conditional control.

  8. Individual and contextual covariates of burnout: a cross-sectional nationwide study of French teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerrière Eléna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information on the covariates of burnout syndrome in French teachers is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of individual and contextual factors on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in 2005 among 20,099 education workers (in activity or retired selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. The response rate was 52.4%. Teachers in activity currently giving classes to students who participated in the survey (n = 3,940 were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 2,558 teachers provided complete data (64.9%. Variables associated with high emotional exhaustion (highest quartile of score, high depersonalization (highest quartile, and reduced personal accomplishment (lowest quartile were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, job dissatisfaction, experienced difficulties at work, and teaching motivations. Results Different variables were associated with each burnout dimension. Female teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment, whereas male teachers were more susceptible to high depersonalization. Elementary school teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion, but less susceptible to high depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment than their higher school level counterparts. Experienced difficulties with pupils were associated with all three dimensions. A socio-economically underprivileged school neighbourhood was also related to high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalization. Conclusion Programs to enhance teaching environment might be an interesting approach to try to prevent burnout. It would be useful to take the different dimensions into account in planning the intervention.

  9. The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokom Komalasari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3 the effect of the living values-based contextual learning model on students? character improvement. Approach: This study used Research and Development design. The technique of data collection used observation, documentation, Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative data used data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion stages. Meanwhile, quantitative data analysis used correlation and regression analysis. The subjects of study were 98 students of Civic Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education of academic year 2011/2012. Results: The finding showed that: (1 the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing was the integration of living values into material, method, media, learning source and lecturing evaluation conceptually; (2 the living values-based contextual learning model was implemented through value learning variation in contextual learning (problem-based learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, service learning and work-based learning; (3 the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model had an effect by 26% on the students? character development Conclusion: The living values-based contextual learning is an alternative of character education integration model in university learning process. This model can be applied in lecturing to develop the students? characters including religious, honest, tolerant, well-mannered, discipline, hard working, creative, independent, democratic, homeland love, respecting achievement, collaborating and responsible.

  10. MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottmann Renzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3. Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.

  11. Islamic Conceptualisation of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B.H. Yaakub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is an attempt to address "The Fundamental Theory of Knowledge Management" from Islamic point of views, to draw the notion of ?Islamic Worldview" of knowledge, especially in terms of understanding its nature in the reality of knowledge society as a step toward conceptualizing ?Islamic Knowledge Management" (IKM as an answer to the uncertainty situation of contemporary knowledge development, management and utilization especially for Muslim user and application. To obtain this, they have to explore new techniques and processing tools that helps them harness knowledge in according to their conceptual believe system, especially in term of knowledge investigation and sharing in which help them to improve their vicegerent (VG status and humanistic relationship. Approach: Indeed, knowledge should be realised comprehensively. Thus, with the assumption that once knowledge is realized and managed, then it is possible to look at its behaviors, functions and process of development in the form of scientific realm. Hypothetically, if there were no single theory formulated to identify the nature of knowledge, then how it can be managed and achieved its goals. Results: In this regard, IKM as an Islamic system is intended for particular areas of application and objectives based on "knowledge intensive processing action" (KIPA, in which it is depending on some human expert intervention in order to establish a comprehensive and integrated organizational culture, commitments and management, or to better perform the process in producing a production, marketing campaigns, systems analysis and design and strategy in reducing operational cost and business risk, in improving decision making for strategic future development and identifying new technical approaches in problem solving, or even for the purpose to harmonize inter-cultural and personalities gaps within an organizational community. Conclusion: Obviously, knowledge classification is very much influenced by the way a society conceptualizes and realizes knowledge. Any classification will lead to a way of utilization. Therefore, any success achieved by a person was absolutely an output of his knowledge understanding and knowledge growth within himself. In this status, as a human, he might be influenced by a certain situation, limitation and constrain internally or externally that lead him to persuade either body knowledge or the functional usage of knowledge in making his own individual success i.e. user-centric based values.

  12. Learning to Critique and Adapt Science Curriculum Materials: Examining the Development of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often engage in curricular planning by critiquing and adapting existing curriculum materials to contextualize lessons and compensate for their deficiencies. Designing instruction for students is shaped by teachers' ability to apply a variety of personal resources, including their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study…

  13. Linking Knowledge Producers and Knowledge Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    Three different approaches to the problem of linking educational knowledge producers and knowledge users are studied in this paper. First, data are reported describing the knowledge generation and knowledge communication behavior of twelve successful innovators. Second, characteristics of twelve programs, conceived to train persons as change…

  14. Maintaining knowledge of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: [Knowledge - 'awareness or familiarity gained by experience (of a person, fact or thing)... a person's range of information ... the sum of what is known ... true, justified belief; certain understanding, as opposed to opinion.' The Oxford Concise English Dictionary.] Organisations responsible for the safe and effective management of radioactive waste will be aware of the value of information characterising the waste and the need for its preservation. In the United Kingdom the principal legal instrument controlling nuclear site activities is the Nuclear Installations Act (1990), which requires certain licence conditions to be fulfilled. One of the 35 conditions of the nuclear site licence demands that operators ensure that adequate records are kept relating to, inter alia, 'the location of all radioactive material, including nuclear fuel and radioactive waste'. Through the application of this licence condition, the relevant nuclear regulator, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), requires licensees to make arrangements for recording and preserving all the information that may be required in the future to ensure the safe management of radioactive material and radioactive waste. The majority of operators responsible for the long-term management of radioactive waste will establish systems for preserving information. In order for the system to deliver real benefits, there must be absolute clarity concerning what information is to be preserved, the reasons why it must be preserved, how it is to be managed over the long-term and who is responsible for its management. However, the decisive characteristic of this information management system that could make the difference between preserved liability and valued asset is the ability to access and interpret the information now and in the future. On first inspection, this characteristic appears obvious but how often are these systems established with the primary objective of preserving information when it should be ensuring future access to knowledge? Radioactive waste data, recorded in isolation, may have restricted value especially if its provenance is unknown, its significance is unclear, the originators cannot be consulted and its authenticity and trustworthiness are not verifiable. It is therefore necessary to combine this raw data with contextual information that will enable future generations to determine the significance of the record, distinguish it as valuable asset and create their own, contemporary knowledge base. Only when equipped with comprehensive, reliable and accurate knowledge will future generations have the confidence to make informed judgments about the impact of our waste on their society and environment. The mismanagement of our knowledge today could have significant repercussions in terms of cost, radiation dose and damage to the environment in the future. This presentation defines terms such as 'data', 'information', 'knowledge' and 'wisdom' and provides a simple model illustrating their relationship. This model is then used as the basis for an examination of the inputs and the ways in which they may be optimised. The nuclear industry, and even society, has developed an 'implicit' understanding of radioactive waste, at a variety of levels, and it may seem inconceivable that future societies would not retain this understanding in sufficient detail that it could adequately protect itself and the environment. History shows, however, that as societies evolve and other priorities emerge previously implicit knowledge can decline. This leads us towards identifying present 'implicit' radioactive waste knowledge and developing means for capturing it. The presentation will conclude with an argument for the development of strategies that encourage the sharing of trustworthy radioactive waste-related knowledge. These strategies, supported national governments, whilst being both practical and cost-effective to implement must be cognisant of the need for local and regional security. (author)

  15. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal explanations, assumptions, models and evidence in engineering analysis need to include and interpret also non-numerical and contextual data

  16. Knowledge management, codification and tacit knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method. The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who have studied the transformation of knowledge into information through the process of codification and the knowledge transaction topography they...

  17. CardioKnowledge: A Knowledge Management Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, Álvaro; Rabelo, Lisia

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the comm...

  18. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international acclaims. Our analysis shows that there are strong disincentives in place for departments to share knowledge. We found that the nature of the businesses of the departments was very different and so were their...

  19. Effects of context on implicit and explicit lexical knowledge: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin

    2014-10-01

    Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. PMID:25218952

  20. What does an experimental test of quantum contextuality prove or disprove?

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to test experimentally the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem is investigated critically, following the demonstrations by Meyer, Kent and Clifton-Kent that the predictions of quantum mechanics are indistinguishable (up to arbitrary precision) from those of a non-contextual model, and the subsequent debate to which extent these models are actually classical or non-contextual. The present analysis starts from a careful consideration these "finite-precision" approximations. A stronger condition for non-contextual models, dubbed , is exhibited. It is shown that it allows to formulate approximately the constraints in Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems such as to render the usual proofs robust. As a consequence, one can experimentally test to finite precision ontologically faithful non-contextuality, and thus experimentally refute explanations from this smaller class. We include a discussion of the relation of ontological faithfulness to other proposals to overcome the finite precision objection.

  1. Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2011-01-01

    Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)

  2. The Glocalization of Responsible Investment : Contextualization Work in France and Québec

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gond, Jean-Pascal; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actor–network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work that sustains RI glocalization. Empirical data from two case studies highlight how entrepreneurial actors imported the notion of RI from the US to France and Québec. Our findings uncover three types of contextualization work—filtering, repurposing, and coupling—that sustain RI glocalization, and show how actors employed them in both settings to overcome the lack of technical, cultural, or political fit between the imported practice and their local context. Our results explain how divergent glocalized versions of RI are developed and adapted through contextualization work. Last, we discuss how our repertoire of contextualization work can account for local forms of a global concept and the uneven pattern of its diffusion.

  3. A teologia da missão integral como teologia evangélica contextual latino-americano

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Moraes Sanches

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo inicia com uma análise da reflexão teológica da Fraternidade Teológica Latino-Americana (FTL), numa perspectiva contextual e aborda questões históricas e metodológicas. A seguir, estuda os documentos finais dos Congressos Latino-americanos de Evangelização (CLADES).

  4. Distinct Roles for Lateral and Medial Anterior Prefrontal Cortex in Contextual Recollection

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jon S.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Owen, Adrian M; Fletcher, Paul C.; Burgess, Paul W

    2005-01-01

    A key feature of human recollection is the ability to remember details of the context in which events were experienced, as well as details of the events themselves. Previous studies have implicated a number of regions of prefrontal cortex in contextual recollection, but the role of anterior prefrontal cortex has so far resisted detailed characterization. We used event-related functional MRI (fMRI) to contrast recollection of two forms of contextual information: 1) decisions one had previously...

  5. Spatial clusters of autism births and diagnoses point to contextual drivers of increased prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Winter, Alix; Liu, Ka-Yuet; BEARMAN, PETER

    2012-01-01

    Autism prevalence has risen dramatically over the past two decades in California. Although often suggested to have been crucial to the rise of autism, environmental and social contextual drivers of diagnosis have not been extensively examined. Identifying the spatial patterning of autism cases at birth and at diagnosis can help clarify which contextual drivers are affecting autism’s rising prevalence. Children with autism not co-morbid with mental retardation served by the California Departme...

  6. Personal and contextual factors related to delayed HIV diagnosis among men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Kimberly M.; THIEDE, HANNE; Jenkins, Richard A.; Carey, James W.; Hutcheson, Rebecca; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Delayed HIV diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States continues to be a significant personal and public health issue. Using qualitative and quantitative data from 75 recently tested, HIV-seropositive MSM (38 delayed and 37 non-delayed testers) we sought to further elucidate potential personal and contextual factors that may contribute to delayed HIV diagnosis among MSM. Our findings indicate MSM who experience multiple life stressors, whether personal or contextual,...

  7. The roles of Eph receptors in contextual fear conditioning memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Monica; Grinberg, Svetlana; Vassiliev, Maria; Ram, Alon; Tamir, Tal; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-10-01

    Eph receptors regulate glutamate receptors functions, neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, cellular events believed to be involved in memory formation. In this study we aim to explore the roles of Eph receptors in learning and memory. Toward that end, we examined the roles of EphB2 and EphA4 receptors, key regulators of synaptic functions, in fear conditioning memory formation. We show that mice lacking EphB2 (EphB2(-/-)) are impaired in short- and long-term contextual fear conditioning memory. Mice that express a carboxy-terminally truncated form of EphB2 that lacks forward signaling, instead of the full EphB2, are impaired in long-term, but not short-term, contextual fear conditioning memory. Long-term contextual fear conditioning memory is attenuated in CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice where EphA4 is removed from all pyramidal neurons of the forebrain. Mutant mice with targeted kinase-dead EphA4 (EphA4(KD)) exhibit intact long-term contextual fear conditioning memory showing that EphA4 kinase-mediated forward signaling is not needed for contextual fear memory formation. The ability to form long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory is not impaired in the EphB2(-/-) and CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice. We conclude that EphB2 forward signaling is required for long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation. In contrast, EphB2 mediates short-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a forward signaling-independent manner. EphA4 mediates long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a kinase-independent manner. PMID:26165136

  8. Solving a contextual problem with the spreadsheet as an environment for algebraic thinking development

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Sandra; Amado, Nélia; Carreira, Susana Paula Graça

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report and discuss a contextual problem solving task that was proposed to a class of 8th grade (13–14-year-old) students. These students had been developing a reasonable experience in the use of the spreadsheet to model relations within contextual problems and chose to use this tool to solve the mentioned problem, engaging in the process of translating relations between variables and combining them in chained models, while working with fractions, multiples and expressions. ...

  9. Contextual conditioning enhances the psychostimulant and incentive properties of d-amphetamine in humans

    OpenAIRE

    CHILDS, EMMA; Wit, Harriet de

    2011-01-01

    Learned associations between drugs and the places they are used are critical to the development of drug addiction. Contextual conditioning has long been studied in animals as an indirect measure of drug reward, but little is known about the process in humans. Here, we investigated de novo contextual conditioning with d-amphetamine in healthy humans (n = 34). Volunteers underwent four conditioning sessions conducted in two testing rooms with double-blind, alternating d-amphetamine (20 mg) and ...

  10. The word is life : African theology as biblical and contextual theology

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Van Eck

    2006-01-01

    This article reflects on the development of African theology from its beginning up to the end of the twentieth century. A critical assessment of this development and the current state of African theology is given. The future and possible shortcomings of African theology are also discussed. It is argued that for African theology to make a difference in a multi-cultural and multi-contextual Africa, it should consider being contextual and Biblical. For Christians the Word mea...

  11. Hippocampal Regulation of Contextual Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Alison L.; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Associations between cocaine and cues facilitate development and maintenance of addiction. We hypothesized that the ventral hippocampus is important for acquisition of these associations. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, with or without pre-exposure to distinct sets of cocaine- and saline-paired contextual cues. Next, rats were conditioned for 3 days with the distinct sets of contextual cues paired with cocaine and saline along with distinct discrete cues. Vehicle or lidocaine wa...

  12. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Pamela; Davis A; Miller Ruby; Hill Karen; McCarthy Honey; Banerjee Ananya; Chow Clara; Mente Andrew; Anand Sonia S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, incl...

  13. Exposure to nicotine enhances its subsequent self-administration: Contribution of nicotine-associated contextual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Nichole M.; Cortright, James J.; Sampedro, Georgia R.; Vezina, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Contextual stimuli present during nicotine exposure can come to act as conditioned stimuli and have been shown to play an important role in ongoing nicotine self-administration. In the present study, we characterized the effects of contextual stimuli previously paired with non-contingent nicotine exposure injections on subsequent nicotine self-administration. Rats were exposed to five injections of either saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, IP) in either their home cage or a self-administration ch...

  14. Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students’ postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than 7,000 rural youth in 73 high schools across 34 states. Results indicated that some individual (e.g., African American race/ethnicity) and contextual (e....

  15. Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2012-01-01

    Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors. Most research focus on individual level factors and little research concern contextual level factors. The objective of this presentation is to identify individual level and school level factors associ...

  16. Study of career development in children from a developmental-contextual perspective Estudio del desarrollo de la orientación vocacional en la infancia desde la perspectiva evolutivo-contextual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Araújo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Career development is a longitudinal process, from childhood to adulthood, which is influenced by personal and contextual factors. Vocational literature has described childhood as a formative period for career development, as the bases of career exploration and vocational interests, values, attitudes and skills are established in the first years of life. This study starts with an overview of the major theoretical approaches and research trends in the study of children’s career development. A particular focus on the developmental-contextual approach to career development is adopted, as an integrative framework to capture the complexity of career developmental processes and results that occur in the first years of life. The application of such a perspective to the study of children’s career development leads to a discussion of the nature of change in the first years of life, of the child as a shaper of development and context, and of the impact of contexts on children’s development. Finally, we present implications of the adoption of a developmental-contextual approach to the study of children’s career development for future research.

    Keywords: Career development, vocational guidance, childhood, contextual theories.
    El desarrollo de la orientación vocacional debemos entenderlo como un proceso longitudinal, que se extiende desde la infancia hasta la edad adulta y que está influido por factores personales y contextuales. La literatura existente, ha descrito la infancia como un período clave para este proceso, pues las bases de la exploración profesional, los intereses, los valores, las actitudes y las habilidades vocacionales, se forman en los primeros años de vida. Este estudio, describe los principales enfoques teóricos y las tendencias de la investigación en la actualidad sobre este tema y su relación con la infancia, poniendo especial énfasis en el enfoque contextual, como marco integrador explicativo de la complejidad de los procesos que se ven implicados en el desarrollo vocacional y la importancia que tienen los primeros años de vida. El uso de esa perspectiva, en el estudio de la orientación profesional en la infancia, surge a raíz de las controversias existente en referencia a la naturaleza del cambio en los primeros años de vida, de la idea del niño como regulador del desarrollo y del contexto, así como también, del impacto contextual en los procesos evolutivos. Finalmente, el trabajo presenta las implicaciones -para futuras investigaciones- de la relevancia de la teoría contextual.

    Palabras clave: Desarrollo, orientación vocacional, infancia, teoría contextual.

  17. Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Solange Laurentino dos, Santos; Gabriel, Parra-Henao; Mírcia Betânia Costa e, Silva; Lia Giraldo da Silva, Augusto.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified [...] knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.

  18. Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Laurentino dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.

  19. Contextual effects in school-based violence prevention programs: a conceptual framework and empirical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J

    2006-05-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical and practical importance of studying contextual factors in school-based violence prevention programs and provides a framework for evaluating factors at the classroom, school, and community/district level. Sixty-two published papers describing 38 different programs were reviewed; of these 16 were identified that reported data on contextual effects or discussed possible contextual effects on the intervention. The small number of studies precludes definitive conclusions regarding contextual effects in school-based violence prevention programs, but suggests (a) some evidence for contextual effects on program outcomes, and (b) interdependence of context and implementation factors in influencing outcomes.Editors' Strategic Implications: This review suggests that contextual effects are important to school violence prevention, as context can influence outcomes directly and through interactions with implementation factors. Consequently, characteristics of the classroom, school, and community contexts should be considered by practitioners when implementing prevention programs and measured by researchers studying the processes and outcomes of these programs. PMID:16619107

  20. Contextual control of conditioning is not affected by extinction in a behavioral task with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James Byron; Lamoureux, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    The Attentional Theory of Context Processing (ATCP) states that extinction will arouse attention to contexts resulting in learning becoming contextually controlled. Participants learned to suppress responding to colored sensors in a video-game task where contexts were provided by different gameplay backgrounds. Four experiments assessed the contextual control of simple excitatory learning acquired to a test stimulus (T) after (Exp. 1) or during (Exp. 2-4) extinction of another stimulus (X). Experiment 1 produced no evidence of contextual control of T, though renewal to X was present both at the time T was trained and tested. In Experiment 2 no contextual control of T was evident when X underwent extensive conditioning and extinction. In Experiment 3 no contextual control of T was evident after extensive conditioning and extinction of X, and renewal to X was present. In Experiment 4 contextual control was evident to T, but it neither depended upon nor was enhanced by extinction of X. The results presented here appear to limit the generality of ATCP. PMID:25788176

  1. Contextualizing Smoking Behaviour over Time: A Smoking Journey from Pleasuring to Suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Aldiabat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a qualitative study describing the basic psychosocial process of contextualizing smoking behaviour in the life fabric of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. A classical grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze the data derived from a theoretical (purposeful sample of eight Jordanian psychiatric nurses in 2009-2010. The constant comparative method of data analysis was used; thus, data collection, coding and analysis occurred simultaneously. Strategies were used throughout the study to ensure trustworthiness; that is, fulfill the requirements for credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. “Contextualizing smoking behaviour over time” was the core concept that explained how JPNs integrate smoking behaviour into their life fabric. For these nurses, smoking is contextualized in four phases: becoming a novice smoker, becoming a formal smoker as a nursing student, becoming a heavy smoking psychiatric nurse, and becoming an exhausted smoker. Contextualizing smoking among JPNs demonstrates that those nurses frequently normalize smoking as part of the fabric of everyday life. Participants described their smoking as a journey in a manner that reflected how it started with pleasuring and ended with suffering. Although this study presents a deep understanding of smoking behaviour, further studies are required to develop the theory of contextualized smoking. A developed contextualized theory of smoking is required to guide culturally sensitive smoking cessation and prevention programmes capable of influencing smoking behaviours.

  2. Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type of management- knowledge based management and a new type of enterprise-knowledge based enterprise.Taking in consideration these predictable evolutions, this paper will try to present: • The main ideas of the researches the field of the knowledge based economy • The characteristics and principles of the knowledge based organizations and knowledge based management • The challenges and opportunities for knowledge based organizations.The first part of the paper will present the principles of the new economy- knowledge base economy, the essential and interrelated elements necessary to build and to implement a strategy in a knowledge economy and the opportunities and challenges to the countries as they seek to build regionally and globally competitive knowledge-based economies.The second part of the paper will present the characteristics of the knowledge based organizations, the principles and characteristics of their management. For many organizations, knowledge management is a relatively new concept, because they are discovering the knowledge value in their operations. Many firms have undertaken formal and informal knowledge management initiatives designed to improve process performance, increase customer responsiveness and spur innovation. But while some organizations have reaped significant benefits from their investment in knowledge efforts, others have run into noteworthy challenges.

  3. Contextual chemosensory urine signaling in an African cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P; Fernald, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory signaling is crucial for communication in many fish species, but little is known about how signalers modulate chemical output in response to sensory information and social context. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dominant male African cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) use urine signals during social interactions, and demonstrate that this signaling depends on social context (reproductive; territorial) and on available sensory information (visual cues; full interaction). We injected males with dye to visualize urine pulses and exposed them to full sensory information or visual cues alone of four types: (1) dominant male; (2) gravid (reproductively receptive) females; (3) mouth-brooding (non-receptive) females; or (4) control (no fish). We found that males released urine sooner and increased their urination frequency when visually exposed to gravid females as compared with mouth-brooding females and or no-fish controls. While males could distinguish female reproductive states using visual cues alone, courtship behavior rates were ?10-fold higher when they fully interacted with gravid females compared with receiving visual cues alone. Males also increased their urination and territorial behaviors when exposed to another male, suggesting that chemical signals may convey information on dominance status. These data support the hypothesis that dominant males use urine as a chemical signal and adjust the frequency of their urine output based on contextual information. PMID:22162854

  4. The clinical investigator-subject relationship: a contextual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnik David B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol. Results and conclusion In this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty to provide the patient/subject with clinical care can vary from one situation to the next, as a function of several factors, including: the research design, benefits and risks of the research; the subject's reasonable expectations, motivations, and vulnerabilities; the investigator's ability to benefit the subject; and the investigator's prior relationship with the subject. These and other factors need to be considered when determining the clinical investigator's obligations to provide clinical care to human research subjects. In some research contexts, the investigator has extensive clinical obligations to the patient/subject; in others, the investigator has minimal ones.

  5. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel H. Thesnaar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

  6. Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

  7. Generalization and transfer of contextual cues in motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwary, A M E; Stegeman, D F; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2015-09-01

    We continuously adapt our movements in daily life, forming new internal models whenever necessary and updating existing ones. Recent work has suggested that this flexibility is enabled via sensorimotor cues, serving to access the correct internal model whenever necessary and keeping new models apart from previous ones. While research to date has mainly focused on identifying the nature of such cue representations, here we investigated whether and how these cue representations generalize, interfere, and transfer within and across effector systems. Subjects were trained to make two-stage reaching movements: a premovement that served as a cue, followed by a targeted movement that was perturbed by one of two opposite curl force fields. The direction of the premovement was uniquely coupled to the direction of the ensuing force field, enabling simultaneous learning of the two respective internal models. After training, generalization of the two premovement cues' representations was tested at untrained premovement directions, within both the trained and untrained hand. We show that the individual premovement representations generalize in a Gaussian-like pattern around the trained premovement direction. When the force fields are of unequal strengths, the cue-dependent generalization skews toward the strongest field. Furthermore, generalization patterns transfer to the nontrained hand, in an extrinsic reference frame. We conclude that contextual cues do not serve as discrete switches between multiple internal models. Instead, their generalization suggests a weighted contribution of the associated internal models based on the angular separation from the trained cues to the net motor output. PMID:26156381

  8. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christoffel H., Thesnaar.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( [...] TRC) South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a postapartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

  9. Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Eriksson, I. [Maelardalen University (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

  10. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Seugnet, Blignaut; Christo, Els; Sarah, Howie.

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand th [...] e pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv) teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  11. Processing temporary syntactic ambiguity: the effect of contextual bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Taha; Clifton, Charles

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports two experiments using sentences with a temporary ambiguity between a direct object and a sentence complement analysis that is resolved toward the normally preferred direct object analysis. Postverbal noun phrases in these sentences could be ambiguously attached as either a direct object or the subject of a sentence complement, whereas in unambiguous versions of the sentences the subcategorization of the verb forced the direct object interpretation. Participants read these sentences in relatively long paragraph contexts, where the context supported the direct object analysis ("preferred"), supported the sentence complement analysis ("unpreferred"), or provided conflicting evidence about both analyses ("conflicting"). Self-paced reading times for ambiguous postverbal noun phrases were almost equivalent to the reading times of their unambiguous counterparts, even in unpreferred and conflicted context conditions. However, time to read a following region, which forced the direct object interpretation, was affected by the interaction of verb subcategorization ambiguity and contextual support. The full pattern of results do not fit well with either an unelaborated single-analysis ("garden path") model or a competitive constraint-satisfaction model, but are consistent with a race model in which multiple factors affect the speed of constructing a single initial analysis. PMID:21722057

  12. Contextual Influences on Men's Perceptions of Women's Sexual Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Teresa A; Viken, Richard J; Summers, Sharday

    2015-11-01

    The current study evaluated whether the sexual relevance of the social environment potentiated men's judgments of women's sexual interest, particularly among men reporting more frequent misperception of a potential partner's sexual interest. Twenty-eight scenes were constructed depicting social environments that were either lower or higher in sexual relevance (e.g., office vs. bar). A full-body photograph of one of 14 college-aged women was inserted into each scene; the women all expressed neutral-to-positive affect and varied in provocativeness of dress and attractiveness. A total of 237 undergraduate males viewed each scene and judged how sexually interested and friendly each woman felt. Sexually relevant social environments potentiated men's judgments of women's sexual interest far more than their friendliness. This effect was stronger among more conservatively dressed women and among men reporting more frequent experiences of misperceiving a woman's sexual interest. The findings highlight the contextualized nature of emotional perception, whereby perception of emotion is potentiated in congruent, relative to incongruent, contexts. PMID:25917412

  13. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savolainen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  14. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  15. Employing socially driven techniques for framing, contextualization, and collaboration in complex analytical threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollocko, Arthur; Danczyk, Jennifer; Farry, Michael; Jenkins, Michael; Voshell, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The proliferation of sensor technologies continues to impact Intelligence Analysis (IA) work domains. Historical procurement focus on sensor platform development and acquisition has resulted in increasingly advanced collection systems; however, such systems often demonstrate classic data overload conditions by placing increased burdens on already overtaxed human operators and analysts. Support technologies and improved interfaces have begun to emerge to ease that burden, but these often focus on single modalities or sensor platforms rather than underlying operator and analyst support needs, resulting in systems that do not adequately leverage their natural human attentional competencies, unique skills, and training. One particular reason why emerging support tools often fail is due to the gap between military applications and their functions, and the functions and capabilities afforded by cutting edge technology employed daily by modern knowledge workers who are increasingly "digitally native." With the entry of Generation Y into these workplaces, "net generation" analysts, who are familiar with socially driven platforms that excel at giving users insight into large data sets while keeping cognitive burdens at a minimum, are creating opportunities for enhanced workflows. By using these ubiquitous platforms, net generation analysts have trained skills in discovering new information socially, tracking trends among affinity groups, and disseminating information. However, these functions are currently under-supported by existing tools. In this paper, we describe how socially driven techniques can be contextualized to frame complex analytical threads throughout the IA process. This paper focuses specifically on collaborative support technology development efforts for a team of operators and analysts. Our work focuses on under-supported functions in current working environments, and identifies opportunities to improve a team's ability to discover new information and disseminate insightful analytic findings. We describe our Cognitive Systems Engineering approach to developing a novel collaborative enterprise IA system that combines modern collaboration tools with familiar contemporary social technologies. Our current findings detail specific cognitive and collaborative work support functions that defined the design requirements for a prototype analyst collaborative support environment.

  16. Contextual and individual indicators associated with the presence of teeth in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to analyze whether socioeconomic conditions and the period of availability of fluoridated water are associated with the number of teeth present. METHODS This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 1,720 adults between 20 and 59 years of age who resided in Florianópolis, SC, Southern Brazil, in 2009. The outcome investigated was the self-reported number of teeth present. The individual independent variables included gender, age range, skin color, number of years of schooling, and per capita household income. The duration of residence was used as a control variable. The contextual exposures included the period of availability of fluoridated water to the households and the socioeconomic variable for the census tracts, which was created from factor analysis of the tract’s mean income, education level, and percentage of households with treated water. Multilevel logistic regression was performed and inter-level interactions were tested. RESULTS Residents in intermediate and poorer areas and those with fluoridated water available for less time exhibited the presence of fewer teeth compared with those in better socioeconomic conditions and who had fluoridated water available for a longer period (OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.01;1.02. There was an association between the period of availability of fluoridated water, per capita household income and number of years of education. The proportion of individuals in the poorer and less-educated stratum, which had fewer teeth present, was higher in regions where fluoridated water had been available for less time. CONCLUSIONS Poor socioeconomic conditions and a shorter period of availability of fluoridated water were associated with the probability of having fewer teeth in adulthood. Public policies aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities and increasing access to health services such as fluoridation of the water supply may help to reduce tooth loss in the future.

  17. A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Eicke Godehardt

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching fo...

  18. Governing Knowledge for Development: Knowledge Clusters in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ariff, Syamimi; Hans-Dieter, Evers; Anthony Banyouko, Ngah; Farah, Purwaningrum

    2014-01-01

    With the dwindling of natural resources, like oil and gas, even resource-rich countries like Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia have to re-adjust their development strategies. Governing knowledge for development (K4D) is seen as a way out of the dilemma of reduced revenues from natural resources. This paper analyses the attempts to create knowledge clusters as a strategy to move Brunei and Malaysia towards knowledge-based economies. Our study shows that several knowledge clusters have already bee...

  19. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2006-01-01

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The a...

  20. Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type...

  1. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  2. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  3. Contextual control using a go/no-go procedure with compound abstract stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi, Rafael Diego; Debert, Paula

    2015-05-01

    Contextual control has been described as (1) a five-term contingency, in which the contextual stimulus exerts conditional control over conditional discriminations, and (2) allowing one stimulus to be a member of different equivalence classes without merging them into one. Matching-to-sample is the most commonly employed procedure to produce and study contextual control. The present study evaluated whether the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli produces equivalence classes that share stimuli. This procedure does not allow the identification of specific stimulus functions (e.g., contextual, conditional, or discriminative functions). If equivalence classes were established with this procedure, then only the latter part of the contextual control definition (2) would be met. Six undergraduate students participated in the present study. In the training phases, responses to AC, BD, and XY compounds with stimuli from the same classes were reinforced, and responses to AC, BD, and XY compounds with stimuli from different classes were not. In addition, responses to X1A1B1, X1A2B2, X2A1B2, and X2A2B1 compounds were reinforced and responses to the other combinations were not. During the tests, the participants had to respond to new combinations of stimuli compounds YCD to indicate the formation of four equivalence classes that share stimuli: X1A1B1Y1C1D1, X1A2B2Y1C2D2, X2A1B2Y2C1D2, and X2A2B1Y2C2D1. Four of the six participants showed the establishment of these classes. These results indicate that establishing contextual stimulus functions is unnecessary to produce equivalence classes that share stimuli. Therefore, these results are inconsistent with the first part of the definition of contextual control. PMID:25969336

  4. QMR-KAT: An Interactive Knowledge Acquisition Toold for the QMR Medical Knowledge Base*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuse, Dario A.; Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Miller, Randolph A.

    1990-01-01

    QMR-KAT is an interactive knowledge acquisition system for the QMR medical knowledge base. It supports knowledge acquisition by automating the more mechanical aspects of the task. This is achieved by relying on the existing knowledge base, thus reducing the time to completion and making the results more repeatable. As a physician enters or modifies information, QMR-KAT immediately checks that the information is compatible with the existing knowledge base. This guarantees consistency and eliminates the need for costly last-minute error checking. The program also provides extensive support for managing medical literature references, an important aid to knowledge base creation. In addition to being a useful tool for the continuing development of the QMR knowledge base, QMR-KAT is a research vehicle into issues of knowledge acquisition for large medical knowledge bases.

  5. Exploiting Semantic Web and Knowledge Management Technologies for E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Dehors, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    This work explores the potential applications of semantic web and knowledge management technologies for e-learning systems. The problem of reusing existing pedagogical resources is dealt with through a process called semantization. In this process, pedagogical content is semi-automatically annotated with ontological concepts, from several points of view (domain, pedagogy, structure, etc.). This process aims at contextualizing the material with regard to the teacher´s conceptualization and ped...

  6. Anchoring contextual analysis in health policy and systems research: A narrative review of contextual factors influencing health committees in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha; Scott, Kerry; Garimella, Surekha; Mondal, Shinjini; Ved, Rajani; Sheikh, Kabir

    2015-05-01

    Health committees, councils or boards (HCs) mediate between communities and health services in many health systems. Despite their widespread prevalence, HC functions vary due to their diversity and complexity, not least because of their context specific nature. We undertook a narrative review to better understand the contextual features relevant to HCs, drawing from Scopus and the internet. We found 390 English language articles from journals and grey literature since 1996 on health committees, councils and boards. After screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria, we focused on 44 articles. Through an iterative process of exploring previous attempts at understanding context in health policy and systems research (HPSR) and the HC literature, we developed a conceptual framework that delineates these contextual factors into four overlapping spheres (community, health facilities, health administration, society) with cross-cutting issues (awareness, trust, benefits, resources, legal mandates, capacity-building, the role of political parties, non-governmental organizations, markets, media, social movements and inequalities). While many attempts at describing context in HPSR result in empty arenas, generic lists or amorphous detail, we suggest anchoring an understanding of context to a conceptual framework specific to the phenomena of interest. By doing so, our review distinguishes between contextual elements that are relatively well understood and those that are not. In addition, our review found that contextual elements are dynamic and porous in nature, influencing HCs but also being influenced by them due to the permeability of HCs. While reforms focus on tangible HC inputs and outputs (training, guidelines, number of meetings held), our review of contextual factors highlights the dynamic relationships and broader structural elements that facilitate and/or hinder the role of health committees in health systems. Such an understanding of context points to its contingent and malleable nature, links it to theorizing in HPSR, and clarifies areas for investigation and action. PMID:25875322

  7. Contextual marketing--the real business of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D; Marshall, J F

    2000-01-01

    The painful truth is that the Internet has been a letdown for most companies--largely because the dominant model for Internet commerce, the destination Web site, doesn't suit the needs of those companies or their customers. Most consumer product companies don't provide enough value or dynamic information to induce customers to make the repeat visits--and disclose the detailed information--that make such sites profitable. In this article, David Kenny and John F. Marshall suggest that companies discard the notion that a Web site equals an Internet strategy. Instead of trying to create destinations that people will come to, companies need to use the power and reach of the Internet to deliver tailored messages and information to customers. Companies have to become what the authors call "contextual marketers." Delivering the most relevant information possible to consumers in the most timely manner possible will become feasible, the authors say, as access moves beyond the PC to shopping malls, retail stores, airports, bus stations, and even cars. The authors describe how the ubiquitous Internet will hasten the demise of the destination Web site--and open up scads of opportunities to reach customers through marketing "mobilemediaries," such as smart cards, e-wallets, and bar code scanners. The companies that master the complexity of the ubiquitous Internet will gain significant advantages: they'll gain greater intimacy with customers and target market segments more efficiently. The ones that don't will be dismissed as nuisances, the authors conclude. They suggest ways to become welcome additions--not unwelcome intrusions--to customers' lives. PMID:11184966

  8. Knowledge Management through Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamins, R.; Fensel, D.; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    1998-01-01

    Most enterprises agree that knowledge is an essential asset for success and survival on a increasingly competitive and global market. This awareness is one of the main reasons for the exponential growth of knowledge management in the past decade. Our approach to knowledge management is based on ontologies, and makes knowledge assets intelligently accessible to people in organizations. Most company-vital knowledge resides in the heads of people, and thus successful knowledge management does no...

  9. Regional Development and Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Börje; Karlsson, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the concept of knowledge and examines models depicting and explaining the role of knowledge in regional development and provides an assessment of empirical studies of how knowledge affects growth and development in functional regions. For this paper it is crucial to understand those factors that make knowledge spatially sticky and knowledge-production capacity trapped. It is equally important to explain the conditions for knowledge flows and diffusion. The presentation a...

  10. Knowledge on the Move

    OpenAIRE

    N.K. Farooqui; Abdullah Aljumah; Rustom Mamlook

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge propagation is the challenge. Better society requires best knowledge management practices and use of latest tools and technologies. Knowledge management is dealing with the problem of different languages in big countries. Also knowledge is present in different forms. It may be knowledge encoded in laws, decrees, standards, policies, rules and regulations and orders. All these forms of knowledge must be combined together so that it is readily available for general public in their own...

  11. Auto-caotización en la sociedad mundial: Lineamientos para una teoría de la diferenciación contextual / Self-chaotization in World Society: An Outline for a Theory of Contextual Differentiation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aldo, Mascareño.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La sociedad mundial moderna se caracteriza por su alta complejidad, es decir, por la continuamente cambiante interrelación de sus elementos. El resultado de ello es una constante diferenciación y especialización de espacios sociales orientada a manejar la incertidumbre que esa complejidad genera. Pa [...] radójicamente, la diferenciación y especialización es nuevamente una fuente de complejidad. Para enfrentar esta ambigüedad auto-producida, determinadas operaciones sociales se distinguen por generar interdependencias estructurales que logran una estabilidad operacional suficiente para distinguirlas de su entorno. A ello se le denomina en este artículo diferenciación contextual, esto es, la emergencia de contextos diferenciados de interacción, decisión y simbolización que posibilitan una concretización múltiple de funciones sociales en espacios supranacionales. Esto se observa especialmente a propósito de la diferenciación del derecho, la economía y el deporte, y se ilustra con cuatro estudios de caso: la Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, el Bank for International Settlements, la FIFA, el juego y sus públicos, y el arbitraje comercial internacional. Abstract in english A high level of complexity and a continuous and always changing relationship among its elements characterizes modern world society. As a result, a constant differentiation and specialization of diverging social fields aiming to reduce the uncertainty emerging from that complexity takes place. Parado [...] xically, as differentiation and specialization increase, they become a new source of uncertainty. In order to confront this self-producing ambiguity, some social operations develop structural interdependencies with a sufficient level of operational stability that distinguish them from their environment. In this paper this is called contextual differentiation, i.e. the emergence of differentiated contexts of interaction, decision and symbolization that make possible a mutilayered concretization of social functions in supranational contexts. With regard to the differentiation of law, economy and sports this process is analyzed and illustrated in four case studies: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Bank for International Settlements, FIFA, the game and its publics, and the international commercial arbitration.

  12. Overview of Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Andreea M.; Luan, Jing

    2002-01-01

    Defines knowledge management, its components, processes, and outcomes. Addresses the importance of knowledge management for higher education in general and for institutional research in particular. (EV)

  13. Reducing sedentarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Wendy; Andersen, Lars Bo; Sigmund, Anderssen

    2012-01-01

    Reducing Sedentarism Brown, WJ*1; Brown, WJ*1; Andersen, LB*2; Anderssen, SA*3 1The University of Queensland, Australia; 2University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; 3Norwegian School of Sports Medicine, Norway Western lifestyles have changed remarkably over the last century, with decreasing levels of physical activity and increased sitting in most populations. While the health impacts of low physical activity have been extensively researched in the last 50 years, the epidemiology of sitting has on...

  14. Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1987-01-01

    Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.

  15. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ? 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  16. The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011

  17. Reciprocal Relations between Perceived Parental Knowledge and Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency: The Moderating Role of Parent-Teen Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Wood, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined hypothesized short- and long-term reciprocal relations between perceived parental knowledge and adolescent heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and delinquency. Using the contextual model of parenting style (Darling & Steinberg, 1993), we examined the extent to which the bidirectional nature of…

  18. Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community/school partnerships. With new, multiyear NSF implementation funding, the PCEP is building upon these prototypes and the strategic education plan to transform climate education across the region. Examples include a program of climate education certification being developed among the region's community colleges; research-based professional development focused on improving teachers' pedagogical content knowledge that has demonstrated striking success with both teacher and student outcomes; regional curricula based on local ecosystems and in local languages as well as English; and local school/community partnerships that combine the climate education work with local community climate adaptation projects. PCEP's interactive web-based environment (http://pcep.dsp.wested.org) interlinks the region's locations, organizations and people with information about climate science and climate impacts. This system enables the region's diverse stakeholders to access and contribute to the same information pool. This web-based environment both supports the development of PCEP resources such as the CEF and their continuing evolution and dissemination.

  19. Assessing Multidimensional Energy Literacy of Secondary Students Using Contextualized Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Li; Liu, Shiang-Yao; Chen, Po-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    Energy literacy is multidimensional, comprising broad content knowledge as well as affect and behavior. Our previous study has defined four core dimensions for the assessment framework, including energy concepts, reasoning on energy issues, low-carbon lifestyle, and civic responsibility for a sustainable society. The present study compiled a…

  20. Values in Political Science Students' Contextualizations of Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstedt, Linda; Trostek, Jonas R.; Scheja, Max

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on conceptual change has argued that it is insufficient to assume that prior knowledge is the only aspect relevant in order to explain the conceptual change process. In addition, "warm constructs" such as emotions, epistemological beliefs, and values have been proposed to play a determinative role. In this study, we aim…

  1. Critiquing Human Judgment Using Knowledge-Acquisition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1990-01-01

    Automated knowledge-acquisition systems have focused on embedding a cognitive model of a key knowledge worker in their software that allows the system to acquire a knowledge base by interviewing domain experts just as the knowledge worker would. Two sets of research questions arise: (1) What theories, strategies, and approaches will let the modeling process be facilitated; accelerated; and, possibly, automated? If automated knowledge-acquisition systems reduce the bottleneck associated with a...

  2. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  3. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries and the Tension Between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection : Evidence from the Semiconductor Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries' trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we build a conceptual framework suggesting that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries' willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary's knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed

  4. Implicit Motives, Explicit Traits, and Task and Contextual Performance at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, J.W.B.; Zettler, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

  5. Gender differences and the effect of contextual features on game enjoyment and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fang

    2010-10-01

    This article explores the effect of gender and contextual features on emotional reactions, identification toward game characters, and game enjoyment. Two aspects of contextual features are specifically examined: the moral justification of game characters and violence. An experiment was conducted by allowing participants to play either a morally justified character of a non-violent game, a morally justified character of a violent game, or a morally unjustified character of a violent game. The results show that participants felt less guilty and identified with the characters more when playing the morally justified characters of the non-violent game. Furthermore, males and females demonstrate different patterns of enjoyment to different contextual features of video games. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20950177

  6. Using Puppet to contextualize computing resources for ATLAS analysis on Google Compute Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of commercial as well as institutional and national clouds, new opportunities for on-demand computing resources for the HEP community become available. The new cloud technologies also come with new challenges, and one such is the contextualization of computing resources with regard to requirements of the user and his experiment. In particular on Google's new cloud platform Google Compute Engine (GCE) upload of user's virtual machine images is not possible. This precludes application of ready to use technologies like CernVM and forces users to build and contextualize their own VM images from scratch. We investigate the use of Puppet to facilitate contextualization of cloud resources on GCE, with particular regard to ease of configuration and dynamic resource scaling.

  7. Correlates of parental differential treatment: parental and contextual factors during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred and seventy-two families with older (M= 7.4 years) and younger (M= 5.2 years) siblings were studied. Parents and children reported about the parent-child relationship, and parents reported about the children's characteristics, their own psychological resources, and contextual factors. Controlling for sibling dyad characteristics, FDT was predicted most consistently by household chaos. Furthermore, single mothers were not at risk per se for using more MDT but only when coupled with high maternal anger. PMID:18269519

  8. Demonstrating quantum contextuality of indistinguishable particles by a single family of noncontextuality inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory has the intriguing feature that is inconsistent with noncontextual hidden variable models, for which the outcome of a measurement does not depend on which other compatible measurements are being performed concurrently. While various proofs of such contextual behavior of quantum systems have been established, relatively little is known concerning the possibility to demonstrate this intriguing feature for indistinguishable particles. Here, we show in a simple and systematic manner that with projective measurements alone, it is possible to demonstrate quantum contextuality for such systems of arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions, including those corresponding to a qubit. Our demonstration is applicable to a single fermion as well as multiple fermions, and thus also a composite boson formed from an even number of fermions. In addition, our approach gives a clear demonstration of the intimate connection between complementarity and contextuality, two seemingly unrelated aspects of quantum theory. PMID:26109325

  9. The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust : A Multidimensional Cross-level Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao

    2012-01-01

    In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule, and cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The empirical results, based on a hierarchical linear model with a sample of 444 employees from 82 firms in China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of context–trust–behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences.

  10. Implicit motives, explicit traits, and task and contextual performance at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jonas W B; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, Christian; Hülsheger, Ute R

    2012-11-01

    Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. PMID:22867444

  11. Knowledge management for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Forrestal, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Libraries are creating dynamic knowledge bases to capture both tacit and explicit knowledge and subject expertise for use within and beyond their organizations. Knowledge Management for Libraries guides the reader through the process of planning, developing, and launching their own library knowledge base.

  12. Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

  13. Knowledge sharing in a multicultural environment: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyanda Dube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article underscores the process of knowledge sharing in a multicultural organisational environment. Generally,multiculturalism emanates from being influenced by different contexts that provide the potential for human diversity. Itresults in disparate behavioural patterns and bodies of knowledge which lead to variance in terms of racial, sexual, ageand cultural orientations. The process of sharing knowledge is complex and is susceptible to multicultural variances.Considering that knowledge sharing processes and probable multicultural influences are contextual, the purpose of thearticle is to establish the extent of knowledge flows in the Department of Information Science at the University of SouthAfrica. In particular the article seeks to give an overall view on how knowledge is shared across intergenerational, culturaland interracial lines in the Department. The qualitative approach was considered appropriate for this study because itfocuses on observing events from the perspectives of those who are involved and is aimed at understanding the attitude,behaviour and opinions of those individuals (Powell & Connaway 2004. A basic interpretive qualitative research designwas used for this study. Data was collected through interviews and document analysis. The data were inductively analysedand the findings are presented and discussed using references to the literature that informed the study.

  14. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  15. Personal knowledge techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Nicholas Ross

    2003-01-01

    Work towards the development of a new computer-assisted methodology for psychological study and intervention is described. This is referred to as the Personal Knowledge Methodology since it focuses on the elicitation and presentation of personal knowledge. Personal knowledge includes the knowledge individuals have of their life history, their behaviours, their moods, their relationships, their ambitions, and so on. Principles and techniques used in Knowledge Engineering form the basis of the ...

  16. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Effective knowledge transfer is a key to the success of inter- organizational alliances. Prior research has focused on the absorptive capacity of receiving organizations, ignoring the capacities of sending organizations to disseminate knowledge. We studied knowledge transfer from foreign parent firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to I...

  17. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility. By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowl...

  18. Agricultural Knowledge Grid Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Cuiping; Zheng Huaiguo; Zhang Junfeng; Sun Sufen; Li Guangda

    2013-01-01

    In order to eliminate the ambiguity in semantic understandings during the retrieval of the users, as well as mining the relationship between the concept of agricultural knowledge, the association of knowledge among heterogeneous databases needs to be set up, which enable users to discover useful knowledge clues, and gradually form solution for the ultimate question. Based on the characteristics of agricultural knowledge and the achievements of knowledge grid research, with a combination of tr...

  19. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes: sharing, retaining, and creating knowledge. We survey the papers in this volume of the special issue, and discuss the remaining research ...

  20. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment bet...

  1. Proposal of a two-qutrit contextuality test free of the finite precision and compatibility loopholes

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, Adan

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that any test of quantum contextuality is nullified by the fact that perfect orthogonality and perfect compatibility cannot be achieved in finite precision experiments. We introduce an experimentally testable two-qutrit violation of an inequality for noncontextual theories in which orthogonality and compatibility are guaranteed by the fact that measurements are performed on separated qutrits. The inequality is a direct translation of the basic building block of Kochen and Specker's proof of quantum contextuality for a qutrit, despite inequality's proof be completely independent of this diagram.

  2. The Word is life: African theology as biblical and contextual theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest van Eck

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the development of African theology from its beginning up to the end of the twentieth century. A critical assessment of this development and the current state of African theology is given. The future and possible shortcomings of African theology are also discussed. It is argued that for African theology to make a difference in a multi-cultural and multi-contextual Africa, it should consider being contextual and Biblical. For Christians the Word means life, is life, and promises life in its fullness. If African theology purports to be Christian, this should also be one of its premises.

  3. A Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for Simulated HJ-1B Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangsheng Kong; Sibo Duan; Guangjian Yan; Yonggang Qian

    2009-01-01

    The HJ-1B satellite, which was launched on September 6, 2008, is one of the small ones placed in the constellation for disaster prediction and monitoring. HJ-1B imagery was simulated in this paper, which contains fires of various sizes and temperatures in a wide range of terrestrial biomes and climates, including RED, NIR, MIR and TIR channels. Based on the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm and the characteristics of HJ-1B sensor, a contextual fire detection algorithm was proposed and test...

  4. Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine Administration Impairs Contextual Fear Conditioning in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jennifer A; James, John R.; Steven J. Siegel; Gould, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The effects of acute nicotine administration (0.09 mg/kg nicotine), chronic nicotine administration (6.3 mg/kg/d nicotine for 14 d), and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice were examined. Mice were trained using two coterminating conditioned stimulus (30 s; 85 dB white noise)– unconditioned stimulus (2 s; 0.57 mA foot shock) pairings and tested 24 h later for contextual and cued fear conditioning. Acute nicotine administration enhanced contextu...

  5. A general quantum information model for the contextual dependent systems breaking the classical probability law

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Masanari; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Yamato, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    There exist several phenomena (systems) breaking the classical probability laws. Such systems are contextual dependent adaptive systems. In this paper, we present a new mathematical formula to compute the probability in those systems by using the concepts of the adaptive dynamics and quantum information theory -- quantum channels and the lifting. The basic examples of the contextual dependent phenomena can be found in quantum physics. And recently similar examples were found in biological and psychological sciences. Our novel approach is motivated by traditional quantum probability, but it is general enough to describe aforementioned phenomena outside of quantum physics.

  6. Reducing sedentarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Wendy; Andersen, Lars Bo

    Reducing Sedentarism Brown, WJ*1; Brown, WJ*1; Andersen, LB*2; Anderssen, SA*3 1The University of Queensland, Australia; 2University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; 3Norwegian School of Sports Medicine, Norway Western lifestyles have changed remarkably over the last century, with decreasing levels of physical activity and increased sitting in most populations. While the health impacts of low physical activity have been extensively researched in the last 50 years, the epidemiology of sitting has only recently emerged as a scientific area of enquiry. Recent estimates suggest that working adults spend between 7 and 10 hours each day sitting, with about half this time spent sitting at work. This paper will examine the hypothesis that too much sitting is a risk factor for poor health, even in those who meet the current physical activity guidelines. First, the biological plausibility of too much sitting being a health risk will be briefly considered. Second, a review of the evidence on the health effects of sitting will be presented. This will include results from observational cohort studies on the relationships between sitting and diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, depression, obesity and all-cause mortality, as well as from experimental studies on the relationships between sitting and metabolic risk factors. Although some findings indicate clear dose-response relationships between sitting and health outcomes, it is difficult to define a deleterious 'dose' of sitting as few studies have considered sitting in all domains (eg work, leisure, transport). There is however increasing evidence to suggest that sitting for >8 hours a day is associated with increased risk of many health outcomes. Wendy J Brown Numerous epidemiological studies have found an association between amount of sitting, TV-viewing or other sedentary behaviours and different health outcomes. A meta-analysis recently showed that TV-viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. However, measures of sedentary behaviour may be surrogate measures for lack of physical activity, and interventions aiming to reduce sedentary activities may fail to increase physical activity and health. There are very few well designed studies where the amount of physical activity is controlled for when the detrimental effect of sedentary behaviour is analyzed, and only one randomized trial has manipulated sedentary behaviour with small breaks to improve health without changing physical activity substantially. Many studies have adjusted the analysis between sedentary behaviour and health for physical activity level, but is the information on physical activity level sufficiently good to avoid too much residual confounding? This presentation will look at problems related to showing that sedentary behaviour is decreasing health independent of physical activity level. The problem is important because future preventive strategies may change substantially if it turns out that reducing sedentary behaviour may be as effective as increasing physical activity. Some countries have already changed physical activity guidelines and included special recommendations related to sedentary time, but it is questionable if these changes are based on solid evidence. Lars B Andersen Sedentary behaviors include sitting during leisure time, at work, and during commuting. Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing, using a computer or driving a car typically demands low levels of energy expenditure. Youth and adults spend most of their waking time sitting or doing light activities, and most of them do little of moderate to vigorous intensity activity. This combination leads to an overall low energy expenditure which has a detrimental effect on many health outcomes. Dealing with this combination – giving low levels of energy expenditure - would reduce the risks of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, musculoskeletal diseases, and psychological disorders. Inaddition, low level of energy expenditure is one of the key determinants of th

  7. Iran’s Approach to Knowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Majdzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nKnowledge translation was created in response to the knowledge-do gap. With the growing number of research projects, utilization of research knowledge roused interest. One of its defects, which are seen more in developing countries, is the scarcity of recognized practical knowledge translation applications. The actions taken to strengthen knowledge translation can be classified into three categories of ‘push, pull and exchange'. In Iran, some of the interventions effective in knowl­edge translation, may not have primarily taken place with this aim, but can however be effective in it. Some of the meas­ures taken specifically in Iran's research system are: capacity building of human resources for knowledge translation, better utilization of research by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, creating necessary incentives among medical uni­versities, identification of barriers and proposing interventions. Pilots of knowledge translation interventions are concerned with ‘push' activities whose main focus is to support knowledge translation activities and promote active strategies (or in­crease interaction between researchers and decision makers during research and utilization of results. Long-plan programs such as ‘Iran's Health Innovation and Science Development plan have also been designed for the future. These include formation of centers for reducing the knowledge-do gap in the form of knowledge and health technology translation centers.

  8. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  9. The emergence of explicit knowledge from implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, André; Poulet, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    Substantial evidence has highlighted the ability of observers to incidentally extract statistical contingencies present in visual environments. This study examined whether the knowledge extracted regarding statistical contingencies is unconscious initially, even when it becomes fully accessible to conscious awareness after extensive training. Using a "typical" contextual cuing procedure adapted to real-world scenes, we first observed that, after extensive training in searching for a target within repeated scenes, knowledge about regularities was associated with conscious awareness (Experiment 1). However, both subjective and objective measures of consciousness revealed that in the early phase of training, learning of regular structures first takes place at an unconscious level (Experiments 2 and 3). These results are discussed in the light of the causal relationships between learning and consciousness. PMID:24052189

  10. International new ventures: Emergence, internationalization patterns, growth enablers and contextualization

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    About two decades ago researchers turned to the empirical phenomenon of firms starting internationalization right from or close to inception. These international new ventures (INVs) could only hardly be explained by conventional internationalization theories, such as process theories (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977), as INVs often start international encounters without a profound resource base and without having experiential knowledge about international markets. Yet, INVs were found to play an incr...

  11. Question Answering using Syntactic Patterns in a Contextual Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Sand,Kim Andre

    2006-01-01

    Question Answering (QA) systems promise to enhance both usability and accuracy when searching for knowledge. This thesis presents a prototype QA system built to leverage the extraction capabilities of a modern, context-aware search platform; Fast ESP. Questions in plain English are transformed to queries which target specific entities in the text that correspond with the identified answer types. A small set of unified patterns is demonstrated as adequate to classify a wide variety of syntacti...

  12. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication : Drawing on semiotics for making knowledge about virtual teams and collaboration visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective. To look at how knowledge about virtual work is established in a multinational context, we interviewed members of a team that connects Finland and India. Results reveal five objects shared between the team members with varying knowledge about them. By making these differences in knowledge visible through semiotics we are calling for a more nuanced understanding of cross-cultural collaboration that draws on and extendsthe existing body of knowledge on virtual teams and collaboration.

  13. Relação entre consciência morfológica e leitura contextual medida pelo teste de Cloze The relationship between morphological awareness and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta habilidade está associada à leitura e escrita e parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre a consciência morfológica e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda parte, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação. Os resultados mostram que a consciência morfológica está associada à leitura contextual no português e que, até certo ponto, essa contribuição é independente do processamento fonológico.Morphological awareness is the awareness of the morphemes of the words. This ability is related to spelling, reading and it seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading. In this kind of reading besides phonological information, syntactic-semantic information is required as well. This study intends to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension measured by the Cloze Test. In the first part of the study the relationship between the Cloze test scores and morphological awareness are explored by simple correlations. In the second part, the specificity of this relationship is further explored. The results showed that to some extent this relationship is independent of phonological awareness.

  14. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge represents various challenges to more `closed' social science disciplines, notably economics.

  15. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  16. On Granular Knowledge Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

  17. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear knowledge is characterized by high-complexity and variety of the component topics and long duration required by the build-up of individual competence. At organizational level, these characteristics made the power of an organization or institution to be determined by the capital accumulated of existing knowledge. Furthermore, the capacity of an organization to re-generate and raise the knowledge capital according to the specific processes it is running according to the existing demand decides its position/ranking in the economy of nuclear field. Knowledge management emphasizes re-utilization of existing practice and experience, upgrade, enrich and re-value of accumulated knowledge. The present paper identifies and classifies the nuclear knowledge steps, namely: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge, preserving, transfer, knowledge capture etc. On this basis there are identified the existing problems of nuclear knowledge management in Romania such as: difficulties to keep within the country the existing expertise, lack of interest in nuclear education, low level of organization of existing knowledge due to a small number of data bases, an insufficient integration of existing knowledge in IT systems, lack of ontology and taxonomy or an average structuralism. Nuclear knowledge in Romania is facing a major challenge which is generated by the future development of nuclear facilities. It is related to the rising demand of expertise and experts. This challenge is better solved by partnership between end users and institutions of Research and Development and university organization as well which could ensure the generation, transfer and preservation of nuclear knowledge. (authors)

  18. Extending E-Book with Contextual Knowledge Recommender for Reading Support on a Web-Based Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Wei, Fu-Hsiang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lee, Jih-Hsien

    2007-01-01

    Reading content of the Web is increasingly popular. When students read the same material, each student has a unique comprehension of the text and requires individual support from appropriate references. Most references in typical web learning systems are unorganized. Students are often required to disrupt their reading to locate references. This…

  19. The Order and Integration of Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2015-01-01

    William Oliver Martin published "The Order and Integration of Knowledge" in 1957 to address the problem of the nature and the order of various kinds of knowledge; in particular, the theoretical problem of how one kind of knowledge is related to another kind. Martin characterizes kinds of knowledge as being either autonomous or synthetic. The latter are reducible to two or more of the autonomous (or irreducible) kinds of knowledge, viz., history (H), metaphysics (Meta), theology (T), formal logic (FL), mathematics (Math), and generalizations of experimental science (G). Metaphysics and theology constitute the two domains of the ontological context while history and experimental science are the two domains of the phenomenological context. The relation of one kind of knowledge to another may be instrumental, constitutive, and/or regulative. For instance, historical propositions are constitutive of G, metaphysical propositions are regulative of G, and propositions in formal logic and mathematics are instrumental ...

  20. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs