WorldWideScience
 
 
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Contextualism, subject-sensitive invariantism, and knowledge of knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

§I schematizes the evidence for an understanding of 'know' and of other terms of epistemic appraisal that embodies contextualism or subject-sensitive invariantism, and distinguishes between those two approaches. §II argues that although the case for contextualism and sensitive invariantism rely on a...

Williamson, Timothy

2

Socio-contextual Network Mining for User Assistance in Web-based Knowledge Gathering Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

Web-based Knowledge Gathering (WKG) is a specialized and complex information seeking task carried out by many users on the web, for their various learning, and decision-making requirements. We construct a contextual semantic structure by observing the actions of the users involved in WKG task, in order to gain an understanding of their task and requirement. We also build a knowledge warehouse in the form of a master Semantic Link Network (SLX) that accommodates and assimilates all the contextual semantic structures. This master SLX, which is a socio-contextual network, is then mined to provide contextual inputs to the current users through their agents. We validated our approach through experiments and analyzed the benefits to the users in terms of resource explorations and the time saved. The results are positive enough to motivate us to implement in a larger scale.

Rajendran, Balaji; Kombiah, Iyakutti

3

Contextual and Conceptual Intersubjectivity and Opportunities for Emergent Science Knowledge about Sound  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present article was to gain knowledge about what aspects of, and in what way, contextual and conceptual intersubjectivity contribute to emergent science knowledge about sound. Starting from a Vygotskian theoretical base, the article rests on the work of Fleer (early learning and development. Cultural-historical concepts in play,…

Larsson, Jonna

2013-01-01

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'Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer: A multiple case study on disparate contexts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can ...

Søberg, Peder Veng

5

A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics and literacies embedded, and supported by ICT. Here, we present an evaluation of new technology that might bridge generations and preserve key elements of local IK in Namibia. We describe how we applied insights, generated by ethnographic, dialogical and participatory action research, in designing a structure in which users can store, organize and retrieve user-generated videos in ways that are compatible with their knowledge system. The structure embeds videos in a scenario-based 3D visualization of a rural village. It accounts for some of the ways this rural community manages information, socially, spatially and temporally and provides users with a recognizable 3D simulated environment in which to re-contextualize de-contextualized video clips. Our formative in situ evaluation of a prototype suggests the visualization is legible to community members, provokes participation in design discussions, offers opportunities for local appropriation and may facilitate knowledge sharing between IK holders and more youthful IK assimilators. Simultaneously differing interpretations of scenarios and modeled objects reveal the limitations of our modeling decisions and raises various questions regarding graphic design details and regional transferability.

Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2011-01-01

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Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or scenes) prior to a contextual cueing task. In a typical contextual cueing experiment, RTs are reduced if displays are repeated across the experiment compared with novel displays that are not repeated. The results showed that a smaller contextual cueing effect was obtained after participants viewed negative stimuli than when they viewed neutral stimuli. However, in contrast to previous work, overall search RTs were not faster after viewing negative stimuli (Experiments 2 to 4). The findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional content on visual processing and the ability to use scene context to help facilitate search.

Kunar MA; Watson DG; Cole L; Cox A

2013-07-01

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Using Wikipedia as an External Knowledge Source for Supporting Contextual Disambiguation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every term has a meaning but there are terms which have multiple meanings. Identifying the correct meaning of a term in a specific context is the goal of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) applications. Identifying the correct sense of a term given a limited context is even harder. This research aims at solving the problem of identifying the correct sense of a term given only one term as its context. The main focus of this research is on using Wikipedia as the external knowledge source to decipher the true meaning of each term using a single term as the context. We experimented with the semantically rich Wikipedia senses and hyperlinks for context disambiguation. We also analyzed the effect of sense filtering on context extraction and found it quite effective for contextual disambiguation. Results have shown that disambiguation with filtering works quite well on manually disambiguated dataset with the performance accuracy of 86%.

2013-01-01

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Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance. PMID:20211530

Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

2010-03-07

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Knowledge engineering for adverse drug event prevention: on the design and development of a uniform, contextualized and sustainable knowledge-based framework.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary aim of this work was the development of a uniform, contextualized and sustainable knowledge-based framework to support adverse drug event (ADE) prevention via Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs). In this regard, the employed methodology involved first the systematic analysis and formalization of the knowledge sources elaborated in the scope of this work, through which an application-specific knowledge model has been defined. The entire framework architecture has been then specified and implemented by adopting Computer Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) as the knowledge engineering formalism for its construction. The framework integrates diverse and dynamic knowledge sources in the form of rule-based ADE signals, all under a uniform Knowledge Base (KB) structure, according to the defined knowledge model. Equally important, it employs the means to contextualize the encapsulated knowledge, in order to provide appropriate support considering the specific local environment (hospital, medical department, language, etc.), as well as the mechanisms for knowledge querying, inference, sharing, and management. In this paper, we present thoroughly the establishment of the proposed knowledge framework by presenting the employed methodology and the results obtained as regards implementation, performance and validation aspects that highlight its applicability and virtue in medication safety.

Koutkias V; Kilintzis V; Stalidis G; Lazou K; Niès J; Durand-Texte L; McNair P; Beuscart R; Maglaveras N

2012-06-01

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Vpliv razvoja kontekstualnega znanja na razlikovalne kompetence = The Influence of the Development of Contextual Knowledge on Differentiating Competencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject of this paper is based on the definition of competence asthe individual’s ability to activate, utilize and merge the knowledge andskills acquired when faced with complex, diverse and unpredictablework situations. The purpose of this study is to determine whether thedevelopment of specific contextual knowledge and skills within an organizationleads to the adoption of specific differentiating competenciesby individuals. The survey included marketers employed by threemedium-sized Slovenian enterprises, who function in three differentwork contexts, according to our findings. The results of the researchshow that the differentiating competencies that distinguish the superiorjob performance marketing employee from an average one interms of work success are subject to the development of specific contextualknowledge and skills.

Ramon Podreka; Roberto Biloslavo

2010-01-01

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Evaluation of Contextual and Demographic Factors on Licorice Effects on Reducing Hot Flashes in Postmenopause Women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Menopause is an important stage in the life of every woman. Hot flashes are the most common climacteric symptom and a major cause of suffering in postmenopausal women. Licorice is one of the plants that is used to relieve menopausal symptoms. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of licorice on hot flash symptoms in menopausal women. The participants of this randomized, double blind, clinical trial study were 60 menopausal women randomly allocated to licorice or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) groups. The participants in this trial received licorice (1140 mg/day) or HRT (a conjugated estrogen 0.312 mg/day and Medroxyprogesterone 2.5 mg/day) for 90 days. In this study we observed that licorice is not very different from hormones in terms of reducing the number and duration of hot flashes, but that HRT can reduce the severity of hot flashes significantly better than licorice can. In addition, there was no significant difference between age, education level, marital status, occupation, income, number of pregnancies, time from cessation of menstruation, and severity of hot flashes in the two groups. We observed that licorice seems more effective than HRT in improving hot flash duration, but that HRT can reduce the duration and severity of hot flashes more than licorice.

Menati L; Khaleghinezhad K; Tadayon M; Siahpoosh A

2013-02-01

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Evaluation of Contextual and Demographic Factors on Licorice Effects on Reducing Hot Flashes in Postmenopause Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Menopause is an important stage in the life of every woman. Hot flashes are the most common climacteric symptom and a major cause of suffering in postmenopausal women. Licorice is one of the plants that is used to relieve menopausal symptoms. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of licorice on hot flash symptoms in menopausal women. The participants of this randomized, double blind, clinical trial study were 60 menopausal women randomly allocated to licorice or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) groups. The participants in this trial received licorice (1140 mg/day) or HRT (a conjugated estrogen 0.312 mg/day and Medroxyprogesterone 2.5 mg/day) for 90 days. In this study we observed that licorice is not very different from hormones in terms of reducing the number and duration of hot flashes, but that HRT can reduce the severity of hot flashes significantly better than licorice can. In addition, there was no significant difference between age, education level, marital status, occupation, income, number of pregnancies, time from cessation of menstruation, and severity of hot flashes in the two groups. We observed that licorice seems more effective than HRT in improving hot flash duration, but that HRT can reduce the duration and severity of hot flashes more than licorice. PMID:23663094

Menati, Lida; Khaleghinezhad, Khosheh; Tadayon, Mitra; Siahpoosh, Amir

2013-02-19

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The Effect of Contextualizing and Decontextualizing Techniques on Lexical-oriented Knowledge of Persian EFL Language Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking a pretest posttest control group design, the present study served as an attempt to compare the effects of two vocabulary teaching techniques (contextualization and decontextualization techniques) on the elementary Iranian EFL learners. To achieve such a purpose, 190 male and female language learners were randomly selected and assigned into two groups, a control group and an experimental group. In the control group, the new English words were presented in word lists associated with their Persian meanings and students were supposed to memorize them (a decontextualizing technique). In the other group, the new English words were presented in model sentences (a contextualizing technique). The data were collected using two reliable and valid tests as pretest and posttest: Each of them consisted of 15 equivalent multiple-choice items of vocabulary. The result of the study revealed significant differences between the two groups of the study. The experimental group outperformed those in the control group quite significantly on vocabulary memorization test. The experimental group also had a better performance on a sentence-making test than the control group though the differences were not significant.

Kamal Heidari Soureshjani

2011-01-01

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Contextual Epistemic Logic  

CERN Document Server

One of the highlights of recent informal epistemology is its growing theoretical emphasis upon various notions of context. The present paper addresses the connections between knowledge and context within a formal approach. To this end, a "contextual epistemic logic", CEL, is proposed, which consists of an extension of standard S5 epistemic modal logic with appropriate reduction axioms to deal with an extra contextual operator. We describe the axiomatics and supply both a Kripkean and a dialogical semantics for CEL. An illustration of how it may fruitfully be applied to informal epistemological matters is provided.

Rebuschi, Manuel

2009-01-01

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The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.

Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

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Real-time, contextual intervention using mobile technology to reduce marijuana use among youth: A pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of MOMENT, an intervention to reduce youth marijuana use that combines brief motivational enhancement therapy with mobile self-monitoring and responsive messaging. At baseline, primary care patients ages 15-24 who used marijuana frequently (at least 3 times per week) completed a recall assessment, then 1week of mobile momentary and daily reports on use-related factors. For the intervention, youth participated in two motivational enhancement therapy sessions, during which they identified their top-3 social and emotional triggers for use and discussed healthy ways to manage them. They then completed two weeks of mobile reports. Upon reporting a top-3 trigger for use, desire to use, or recent use, they received a message supporting self-efficacy and prompting consideration of coping strategies. Generalized estimating equations examined changes in momentary-, daily-, and individual-level measures on 3-month recall and mobile assessments. Twenty-seven youth (M=19.2years, 70% female) enrolled; there were 377-677 momentary and 50-106 daily reports per study phase. Participants reported reading the messages and finding them motivating, being comfortable with participation, and not experiencing the study as burdensome. Although proportion of momentary reports of being in a top-3 trigger context did not change (36%-43%), marijuana desire in a top-3 trigger context and marijuana use after top-3 trigger exposure decreased over the study (p<.0001 and p=.03, respectively). Daily- and individual-level measures showed similar, non-significant, improvements. The MOMENT intervention appears feasible, well-accepted, and potentially efficacious for youth who use marijuana frequently.

Shrier LA; Rhoads A; Burke P; Walls C; Blood EA

2013-10-01

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Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies) to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit) knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’), and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities.Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged since it allows individuals to achieve personal goals and may lead to effective management of oneself, other people and tasks. In addition, students do not appear to recognise the role of mobile phones in enhancing knowledge transfer. More awareness of this role needs to be created in institutions of learning in order to improve group learning and student performance.

Michael E. Kyobe; Mzwandile M. Shongwe

2011-01-01

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Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies) to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit) knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’), and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities.Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged since it allows individuals to achieve personal goals and may lead to effective management of oneself, other people and tasks. In addition, students do not appear to recognise the role of mobile phones in enhancing knowledge transfer. More awareness of this role needs to be created in institutions of learning in order to improve group learning and student performance.How to cite this article: Kyobe, M.E. & Shongwe, M.M., 2011, ‘Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams’, SA Journal of Information Management 13(1), Art. # 424, 10 pages. doi:10.4102/sajim.v13i1.424

Michael E. Kyobe; Mzwandile M. Shongwe

2011-01-01

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Competing definitions of contextual environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1) and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2) defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3) generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables). Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what constitutes the boundaries of the communities. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle was preferred because it focused attention on the most frequently used spaces and it controlled potential aggregation problems. There is a need to further examine the validity of different methods proposed here. Given that no method is likely to capture the full complexity of human-environment interactions, we would need baseline data describing people's daily activity patterns along with expert knowledge of the area to evaluate our neighborhood units.

Tatalovich Zaria; Wilson John P; Milam Joel E; Jerrett Michael; McConnell Rob

2006-01-01

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Informação e competitividade: a contextualização da gestão do conhecimento nos processos organizacionais/ Information and competitiveness: the contextualization of knowledge management in organizational processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No âmbito das organizações empresariais, este artigo se propõe a discutir a visualização da gestão do conhecimento na organização em três níveis diferentes, mas fortemente inter-relacionados: o estratégico, o tático e o operacional. O primeiro nível trata da ligação entre competitividade da empresa e o trabalho com os conhecimentos para a criação de competências organizacionais. O segundo nível destaca a importância de se considerar a gestão de conhe (more) cimentos na organização como sendo parte relevante de seus processos de negócio e não somente de suas áreas departamentais. E finalmente, em um terceiro nível, está o lado operacional da gestão do conhecimento ligado à aprendizagem, aos formatos que o conhecimento assume e ao papel desempenhado pela tecnologia da informação. Este artigo, baseado principalmente em um estudo diversificado de várias referências bibliográficas, procura trazer algumas contribuições iniciais para esta discussão. Abstract in english In the context of the entrepreneurial organizations, this article aims to discuss the visualization of knowledge management on three different but greatly interrelated levels: the strategic, the tactical and the operational. The first level deals with the link between competitiveness of enterprises and work with knowledge for creation of organizational competencies. The second level highlights the importance of considering knowledge management in the organization as being (more) a relevant part of its business processes and not only of its departmental areas. And, finaly, the third treats of the operational aspect of knowledge management linked to learning, to the formats by which knowledge is presented and the role performed by information technology. Based mainly on a diversified study of several bibliographic references, this article seeks to bring some initial contributions to this discussion.

Silva, Sergio Luis da

2002-08-01

 
 
 
 
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Contextualism, skepticism, and invariantism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Michael Williams and Keith DeRose defend their different versions of contextualism on the grounds that contextualism gives a better account of the ordinary use of epistemic terms than invariantist competitors. One aim of this paper is to explain why their arguments do not succeed. A further aim is to show that the dispute between contextualists and invariantists portrayed by Williams and DeRose is a narrow interpretation of the dispute: there are important contextualist and invariantist positions which fall outside the scope of their arguments and which a full defense of contextualism should consider.

Stephen Jacobson

2010-01-01

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The contextualization of theology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The answer to the question concerning the possibility, necessity and legitimation of a contextualization o f theology, depends on the answer to the question regarding theology itself.

Henk van der Laan

1980-01-01

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Quantum contextuality in classical information retrieval  

CERN Document Server

Document ranking based on probabilistic evaluations of relevance is known to exhibit non-classical correlations, which may be explained by admitting a complex structure of the event space, namely, by assuming the events to emerge from multiple sample spaces. The structure of event space formed by overlapping sample spaces is known in quantum mechanics, they may exhibit some counter-intuitive features, called quantum contextuality. In this Note I observe that from the structural point of view quantum contextuality looks similar to personalization of information retrieval scenarios. Along these lines, Knowledge Revision is treated as operationalistic measurement and a way to quantify the rate of personalization of Information Retrieval scenarios is suggested.

Zapatrin, Roman

2012-01-01

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How can we use our knowledge of alcohol-tobacco interactions to reduce alcohol use?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently, 8.5% of the US population meets criteria for alcohol use disorders, with a total cost to the US economy estimated at $234 billion per year. Alcohol and tobacco use share a high degree of comorbidity and interact across many levels of analysis. This review begins by highlighting alcohol and tobacco comorbidity and presenting evidence that tobacco increases the risk for alcohol misuse and likely has a causal role in this relationship. We then discuss how knowledge of alcohol and tobacco interactions can be used to reduce alcohol use, focusing on whether (a) smoking status can be used as a clinical indicator for alcohol misuse, (b) tobacco policies reduce alcohol use, and (c) nicotinic-based medications can be used to treat alcohol use disorders.

McKee SA; Weinberger AH

2013-01-01

25

Personal health records: retrieving contextual information with Google Custom Search.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ubiquitous personal health records, which can accompany a person everywhere, are a necessary requirement for ubiquitous healthcare. Contextual information related to health events is important for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and for the maintenance of good health, yet it is seldom recorded in a health record. We describe a dual cellphone-and-Web-based personal health record system which can include 'external' contextual information. Much contextual information is available on the Internet and we can use ontologies to help identify relevant sites and information. But a search engine is required to retrieve information from the Web and developing a customized search engine is beyond our scope, so we can use Google Custom Search API Web service to get contextual data. In this paper we describe a framework which combines a health-and-environment 'knowledge base' or ontology with the Google Custom Search API to retrieve relevant contextual information related to entries in a ubiquitous personal health record.

Ahsan M; Seldon HL; Sayeed S

2012-01-01

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Contextual Anomaly Detection in Text Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose using side information to further inform anomaly detection algorithms of the semantic context of the text data they are analyzing, thereby considering both divergence from the statistical pattern seen in particular datasets and divergence seen from more general semantic expectations. Computational experiments show that our algorithm performs as expected on data that reflect real-world events with contextual ambiguity, while replicating conventional clustering on data that are either too specialized or generic to result in contextual information being actionable. These results suggest that our algorithm could potentially reduce false positive rates in existing anomaly detection systems.

Amogh Mahapatra; Nisheeth Srivastava; Jaideep Srivastava

2012-01-01

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Designing Contextualized Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Specht, M. (2008). Designing Contextualized Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training (2th ed., pp. 101-111). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 2008: International Handbook on Information Systems Series. , Con...

Specht, Marcus

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Evaluation of a fotonovela to increase depression knowledge and reduce stigma among Hispanic adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fotonovelas-small booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions-represent a powerful health education tool for low-literacy and ethnic minority audiences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a depression fotonovela in increasing depression knowledge, decreasing stigma, increasing self-efficacy to recognize depression, and increasing intentions to seek treatment, relative to a text pamphlet. Hispanic adults attending a community adult school (N = 157, 47.5 % female, mean age = 35.8 years, 84 % immigrants, 63 % with less than high school education) were randomly assigned to read the fotonovela or a low-literacy text pamphlet about depression. They completed surveys before reading the material, immediately after reading the material, and 1 month later. The fotonovela and text pamphlet both produced significant improvements in depression knowledge and self-efficacy to identify depression, but the fotonovela produced significantly larger reductions in antidepressant stigma and mental health care stigma. The fotonovela also was more likely to be passed on to family or friends after the study, potentially increasing its reach throughout the community. Results indicate that fotonovelas can be useful for improving health literacy among underserved populations, which could reduce health disparities.

Unger JB; Cabassa LJ; Molina GB; Contreras S; Baron M

2013-04-01

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Evaluation of a fotonovela to increase depression knowledge and reduce stigma among Hispanic adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fotonovelas-small booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions-represent a powerful health education tool for low-literacy and ethnic minority audiences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a depression fotonovela in increasing depression knowledge, decreasing stigma, increasing self-efficacy to recognize depression, and increasing intentions to seek treatment, relative to a text pamphlet. Hispanic adults attending a community adult school (N = 157, 47.5 % female, mean age = 35.8 years, 84 % immigrants, 63 % with less than high school education) were randomly assigned to read the fotonovela or a low-literacy text pamphlet about depression. They completed surveys before reading the material, immediately after reading the material, and 1 month later. The fotonovela and text pamphlet both produced significant improvements in depression knowledge and self-efficacy to identify depression, but the fotonovela produced significantly larger reductions in antidepressant stigma and mental health care stigma. The fotonovela also was more likely to be passed on to family or friends after the study, potentially increasing its reach throughout the community. Results indicate that fotonovelas can be useful for improving health literacy among underserved populations, which could reduce health disparities. PMID:22485012

Unger, Jennifer B; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Molina, Gregory B; Contreras, Sandra; Baron, Melvin

2013-04-01

30

Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33%) of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups. While the 100% group received KR after each trials, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acquisition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed after 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

Suzete Chiviacowsky; Camila Machado; Alexandre Marques; José Francisco Schild; Ricardo Drews

2013-01-01

31

Knowledges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

Berling, Trine Villumsen

2012-01-01

32

Brogaard's Moral Contextualism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims. The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally non-objectivist, but less revisionist, since it takes the semantics of moral discourse at face value, and can also explain all of Brogaard's other linguistic evidence. Udgivelsesdato: July 2008

Binderup, Lars Grassme

2008-01-01

33

Monogamy of contextuality  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we demonstrate that the property of monogamy seen for quantum correlations in composite systems also carries over to single quantum systems. In particular, we construct monogamy relations for contextual inequalities using the principle of no-disturbance in an analogous manner to the construction of Bell monogamy relations using the principle of no-signaling. We interpret violation of these relations in terms of a violation of causality.

Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Kurzynski, Pawel; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2012-01-01

34

A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues. This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition state context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization. To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees may benefit from such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

Eicke Godehardt

2009-01-01

35

Using contextual and lexical features to restructure and validate the classification of biomedical concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical ontologies are critical for integration of data from diverse sources and for use by knowledge-based biomedical applications, especially natural language processing as well as associated mining and reasoning systems. The effectiveness of these systems is heavily dependent on the quality of the ontological terms and their classifications. To assist in developing and maintaining the ontologies objectively, we propose automatic approaches to classify and/or validate their semantic categories. In previous work, we developed an approach using contextual syntactic features obtained from a large domain corpus to reclassify and validate concepts of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive resource of biomedical terminology. In this paper, we introduce another classification approach based on words of the concept strings and compare it to the contextual syntactic approach. Results The string-based approach achieved an error rate of 0.143, with a mean reciprocal rank of 0.907. The context-based and string-based approaches were found to be complementary, and the error rate was reduced further by applying a linear combination of the two classifiers. The advantage of combining the two approaches was especially manifested on test data with sufficient contextual features, achieving the lowest error rate of 0.055 and a mean reciprocal rank of 0.969. Conclusion The lexical features provide another semantic dimension in addition to syntactic contextual features that support the classification of ontological concepts. The classification errors of each dimension can be further reduced through appropriate combination of the complementary classifiers.

Fan Jung-Wei; Xu Hua; Friedman Carol

2007-01-01

36

Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system-centered perspective. The main focus has been on developing content-based algorithms similar to document search. These algorithms identify matching experts primarily on the basis of the textual content of documents with which experts are associated. Other factors, such as the ones identified by expertise-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling the identified factors and integrate them with content- based retrieval models. Our experiments show that models combining content-based and contextual factors can significantly outperform existing content-based models.

Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian

2010-01-01

37

Comparing, Contextualizing, and Conceptualizing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic research mainly focuses on objective variables found in census and survey data. As demographers' interests expand to socially constructed phenomena, the discipline needs to incorporate new tools appropriate for understanding more subjective phenomena. The integration of quantitative and qualitative methods provides the opportunity to analyze data both rich in local meaning and generalizable beyond a small "N." This type of triangulation is particularly necessary in the study of women's situation, an area where quantitative results have generally confounded demographers. Using survey and ethnographic data, this paper demonstrates ways in which qualitative data complements quantitative data on women's situation. I argue that such an iterative methodological process can enrich future investigations in this area by comparing findings, contextualizing quantitative results, and improving the conceptualization of future quantitative measures.

Schatz Enid

2003-01-01

38

Contextual Query Perfection by Affective Features Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback in Multimedia Information Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia Information may have multiple semantics depending on context, a temporal interest and user preferences. Hence we are exploiting the plausibility of context associated with semantic concept in retrieving relevance information. We are proposing an Affective Feature Based Implicit Contextual Semantic Relevance Feedback (AICSRF) to investigate whether audio and speech along with visual could determine the current context in which user wants to retrieve the information and to further investigate whether we could employ Affective Feedback as an implicit source of evidence in CSRF cycle to increase the systems contextual semantic understanding. We introduce an Emotion Recognition Unit (ERU) that comprises of spatiotemporal Gabor filter to capture spontaneous facial expression and emotional word recognition system that uses phonemes to recognize the spoken emotional words. We propose Contextual Query Perfection Scheme (CQPS) to learn, refine the current context that could be used in query perfection in RF cycle to understand the semantic of query on the basis of relevance judgment taken by ERU. Observations suggest that CQPS in AICSRF incorporating such affective features reduce the search space hence retrieval time and increase the systems contextual semantic understanding.

Karm Veer Singh; Anil K. Tripathi

2012-01-01

39

Entropic test of quantum contextuality  

CERN Document Server

In this letter, we construct an entropic inequality, analogous to the entropic Bell inequalities derived by Braunstein and Caves in [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 61}, 662 (1988)], that must be satisfied by all non-contextual theories and argue that this is the simplest contextual inequality of this kind. We also construct measurements for its optimal violation by a single three-level quantum system.

Kurzynski, Pawel; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2012-01-01

40

Mindfulness reduces habitual responding based on implicit knowledge: Evidence from artificial grammar learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participants were unknowingly exposed to complex regularities in a working memory task. The existence of implicit knowledge was subsequently inferred from a preference for stimuli with similar grammatical regularities. Several affective traits have been shown to influence AGL performance positively, many of which are related to a tendency for automatic responding. We therefore tested whether the mindfulness trait predicted a reduction of grammatically congruent preferences, and used emotional primes to explore the influence of affect. Mindfulness was shown to correlate negatively with grammatically congruent responses. Negative primes were shown to result in faster and more negative evaluations. We conclude that grammatically congruent preference ratings rely on habitual responses, and that our findings provide empirical evidence for the non-reactive disposition of the mindfulness trait.

Whitmarsh S; Uddén J; Barendregt H; Petersson KM

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Empathy and contextual social cognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM.

Melloni M; Lopez V; Ibanez A

2013-08-01

42

Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information  

CERN Multimedia

In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

Slivkins, Aleksandrs

2009-01-01

43

Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well.

JØrgensen, Klaus Frovin; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

2013-01-01

44

Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

2003-01-01

45

Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

Ron Wilburn

2006-01-01

46

Contextual Rules for Text Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we describe a rule-based formalism for the analysis and labelling of texts segments. The rules are contextual rewriting rules with a restricted form of negation. They allow to underspecify text segments not considered relevant to a given task and to base decisions upon context. A parse...

Wonsever, Dina; Minel, Jean-Luc

47

Contextual Constraints on Adolescents' Leisure.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Interlinks crucial cultural themes emerging from preceding chapters, highlighting the contextual constraints in adolescents' use of free time. Draws parallels across the nations discussed on issues related to how school molds leisure time, the balance of passive versus active leisure, timing of leisure pursuits, and the cumulative effect of…

Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2003-01-01

48

Contextual Advertising through Entity Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contextual Advertising is a type of Web advertising Content match has greater potential for content providers, publishers and advertisers, because users spend most of their time on the Web on content pages. In past researches, Contextual targeting technology works by searching the website and looks up relevant keywords But Nowadays, In contextual advertising, matching is determined automatically by the page content, which complicates the task considerably. We Proposed a System which can target the large group of consumer on internet. In Our system we make contextual targeting more relevant with Extraction of relevant entities from the web page. We extract the entities from web page, which is of interest to the consumer. We target the interest of internet user and put up the ads according to their interest. The system is designed in such a way that it can extract entities (Name, Place, Title, Location, date etc) from web page and ad publisher put up a advertise on that page which include those entities which are extracted from page. This Process will extract different types of entities, which will identify by different patterns prepared by the rules based approach. The described system able to find out the entities in many context using pattern identification. Once pattern will match entities are extracted and used by ad publisher for publishing the ads according to the context of entities. The above described method is more relevant and effective and it will target more consumers and generate revenue by advertising.

Asmita Joshi; Dr. J.S.Sodhi; Roopali Goel

2013-01-01

49

Contextuality: Wheeler's universal regulating principle  

CERN Document Server

In this essay I develop quantum contextuality as a potential candidate for Wheeler's universal regulating principle, arguing -- \\textit{contrary} to Wheeler -- that this ultimately implies that `bit' comes from `it.' In the process I develop a formal definition of physical determinism in the languages of domain theory and category theory.

Durham, Ian T

2013-01-01

50

PARSEC: PAtteRn SEarch and Contextualization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: We present PARSEC (PAtteRn Search and Contextualization), a new open source platform for guided discovery, allowing localization and biological characterization of short genomic sites in entire eukaryotic genomes. PARSEC can search for a sequence or a degenerated pattern. The retrieved set of genomic sites can be characterized in terms of (i) conservation in model organisms, (ii) genomic context (proximity to genes) and (iii) function of neighboring genes. These modules allow the user to explore, visualize, filter and extract biological knowledge from a set of short genomic regions such as transcription factor binding sites. AVAILABILITY: Web site implemented in Java, JavaScript and C++, with all major browsers supported. Freely available at lbgi.fr/parsec. Source code is freely available at sourceforge.net/projects/genomicparsec. CONTACT: odile.lecompte@unistra.fr SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Allot A; Anno YN; Poidevin L; Ripp R; Poch O; Lecompte O

2013-10-01

51

Contextual Reasoning is NP-complete  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The logic of context with the ist (c; p) modality hasbeen proposed by McCarthy as a foundation for contextualreasoning. This paper shows that propositionallogic of context is NP-complete and thereforemore tractable than multimodal logics or Multi Languagehierarchical logics which are PSPACE-complete.This result is given in a proof-theoretical way by providinga tableau calculus, which can be used as a decisionprocedure for automated reasoning. The computationalgap between logic of context and modal logicsis analyzed and some indications for the use of eitherformalisms are drawn on the basis of the tradeoff betweencompactness of representation and tractabilityof reasoning.IntroductionIn the last few years there has been a renewed interestin the use of contexts for natural language understandingand knowledge representation form. Indeed,the discussion about contextual reasoning in AIcan be traced back to McCarthy's Turing Award Lecturein 1971, and has been recently tac...

Fabio Massacci

52

Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

Lilia M. O. Carioni

2008-01-01

53

Mobile and contextual learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice) to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

Agnes Kukulska-Hulme; Mike Sharples

2009-01-01

54

Contextualized Communication of Privacy Practices  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Consumer surveys demonstrated that privacy statements on theweb are ineffective in alleviating users' privacy concerns. We propose a newuser interface design approach in which the privacy practices of a websiteare explicated in a contextualized manner, and users' benefits in providingpersonal data clearly explained. To test the merits of this approach, weconducted a user experiment that compared two versions of a personalizedweb store: one with a traditional global disclosure and one that additionallyprovides contextualized explanations of privacy practices and personalizationbenefits. We found that subjects in the second condition were significantlymore willing to share personal data with the website, rated its privacypractices and the perceived benefit resulting from data disclosure significantlyhigher, and also made considerably more purchases. We discuss theimplications of these results and point out open research questions.

Alfred Kobsa; Maximilian Teltzrow

55

Spatial structure of contextual modulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contextual effects are ubiquitous in vision and provide a means for detectors with localized receptive fields to encode global properties of a stimulus. Although the nature of the neural connections is complex, the majority of evidence supports the Gestalt idea of collinearity; interactions are greatest when the target and surround orientations are spatially aligned to form a contour. Here we create a novel stimulus that simultaneously probes all areas around a detector to determine which spatial positions influence perception in human observers. We find that the surrounding spatial areas that contribute most to contextual effects for our perception of orientation and motion are not confined to a specific location. Rather our results reveal that human perception displays some interobserver variability in the weighting of detector interactions that is largely independent of collinear structure. We propose that these more extensive surround stimuli reveal how complex visual structure may modulate performance in a manner that is not easily predictable using more conventional stimuli.

Mareschal I; Clifford CW

2013-01-01

56

Contextualizing Floyd Allports's Social Psychology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper looks at the program for social psychology presented by Floyd Allport in his Social Psychology of 1924. It contextualizes Allport's program in terms of intellectual currents of the time and the views of his teachers at Harvard University, specifically the philosopher Ralph Barton Perry and the psychologists Edwin B. Holt and Hugo Münsterberg. Finally, the paper analyzes responses to Allport's program at the time and later, retrospective responses. PMID:11054735

Parkovnick, S

2000-01-01

57

A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%.

Hamill, James J [Siemens Medical Solutions, Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN (United States); Brunken, Richard C [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Bybel, Bohdan [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFilippo, Frank P [Department of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Faul, David D [Siemens Medical Solutions, Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Dr., Knoxville, TN (United States)

2006-06-07

58

A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two physicians' inspection of images generated in 30 patients with and without MAR. Noticeable image differences are judged in 14 of 28 (50%) observations with AICD leads, and significant clinical impact is judged in 2 of 28 (7%) of those observations. A polar map analysis shows significant differences in 10 of 14 (71%) studies with AICD leads, and 0 of 16 (0%) studies without AICD leads. These results show that the MAR method is successful in reducing the magnitude of the metal artefact without incorrectly altering cases without metal artefact. In spite of profound changes to the CT image from the moving metal, the PET ACF in that study was changed by no more than 20%

2006-06-07

59

Contextual Social Cognition Impairments in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. Methodology/Principal Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients’ depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Conclusions/Significance Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed.

Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthaus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin M.

2013-01-01

60

Individual differences in predicting aversive events and modulating contextual anxiety in a context and cue conditioning paradigm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deficient fear conditioning leads to maladaptive contextual anxiety as predicting danger is a key factor in regulating anxiety. A virtual reality conditioning task was used to evaluate cue learning and contextual anxiety with fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear in two experiments. In Experiment 1, failure to condition to a cue resulted in a constant state of context anxiety (subjective fearfulness and startle). Trait anxiety was unrelated to learning cue contingencies but the participants who failed to learn scored lower on a self-report measure of attentional control. Part of the group that learned the cue contingency failed to deduce safety of the context and hence did not reduce their contextual anxiety. Experiment 2 specifically focused on isolating this process and demonstrated an inverse association between trait anxiety and adaptive modulation of contextual anxiety. In conclusion, predicting threat aids in but not automatically implies successful regulation of contextual anxiety. High trait anxiety may increase risk of deficient modulation of contextual anxiety.

Baas JM

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Knowledge translation of research findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

Grimshaw Jeremy M; Eccles Martin P; Lavis John N; Hill Sophie J; Squires Janet E

2012-01-01

62

Knowledge translation of research findings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? DISCUSSION: We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. SUMMARY: There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

Grimshaw JM; Eccles MP; Lavis JN; Hill SJ; Squires JE

2012-01-01

63

Contextual Restriction in Business English Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper mainly studies the contextual restriction in business English translation from the perspectives of linguistic context, situational context and cultural context respectively. To avoid mistranslation resulting from translators' neglecting the contextual restriction, this paper also comes up with relevant suggestions for business English translation. The research aims at reminding translators of the contextual restriction in translating so as to produce correct, exact and proper translation.

Yuanyuan Gao

2011-01-01

64

Proposal for Revealing Quantum Nonlocality via Local Contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

Two distant systems can exhibit quantum nonlocality even though the correlations between them admit a local model. This nonlocality can be revealed by testing extra correlations between successive measurements on one of the systems which do not admit a noncontextual model whatever the reduced state of this system is. This shows that quantum contextuality plays a fundamental role in quantum nonlocality, and allows an experimental test of the Kochen-Specker with locality theorem.

Cabello, Adán

2010-06-01

65

Proposal for revealing quantum nonlocality via local contextuality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two distant systems can exhibit quantum nonlocality even though the correlations between them admit a local model. This nonlocality can be revealed by testing extra correlations between successive measurements on one of the systems which do not admit a noncontextual model whatever the reduced state of this system is. This shows that quantum contextuality plays a fundamental role in quantum nonlocality, and allows an experimental test of the Kochen-Specker with locality theorem.

Cabello A

2010-06-01

66

Contextual Factors and Effective School Improvement  

Science.gov (United States)

This research provides policy-makers, researchers, and educators at all levels with a glimpse of the contextual influence on effective school improvement (ESI) in 8 European countries. What are the factors at the contextual level, particularly at the national level, which influence ESI? Are there any similarities or differences between the…

Sun, Hechuan; Creemers, Bert P. M.; de Jong, Rob

2007-01-01

67

Superficial Tableaux for Contextual Reasoning  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a tableaux calculus for the PropositionalLogic of Contexts with the ist(c; OE) modality.This approach has a twofold advantage: from theuser viewpoint it presents rules which intuitively reflectepistemic properties (lifting, use of assumptionsetc.); from a computational perspective it allows localand incremental computation, satisfies strong confluenceand can therefore be adapted efficiently to differentsearch heuristics. The modelling of contextsas partial objects is obtained by using superficial assignments.We can define meaningful and meaninglesssentences and reason about formulae containing bothkind of sentences. Superficial valuations provide uswith a sound and incremental approximation of classicallogic and make it possible to present a simplifiedsemantics based on layered models.IntroductionThe relevance of contextual reasoning for ArtificialIntelligence and Computer Science has been firstlyproposed by McCarthy in his Turing Award Lecture(...

Fabio Massacci

68

Altered Contextual Modulation Of Primary Visual Cortex Responses in Schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schizophrenia is typically associated with higher-level cognitive symptoms, such as disorganized thoughts, delusions and hallucinations. However, deficits in visual processing have been consistently reported with the illness. Here we provide strong neurophysiological evidence for a marked perturbation at the earliest level of cortical visual processing in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Using fMRI and adapting a well-established approach from electrophysiology, we found that orientation-specific contextual modulation of cortical responses in human primary visual cortex (V1)-a hallmark of early neural encoding of visual stimuli-is dramatically reduced in patients with schizophrenia. This indicates that contextual processing in schizophrenia is altered at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing and supports current theories that emphasize the role of abnormalities in perceptual synthesis (eg, false inference) in schizophrenia.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 11 July 2013. doi:10.1038/npp.2013.168.

Seymour K; Stein T; Sanders LL; Guggenmos M; Theophil I; Sterzer P

2013-07-01

69

Análise contextual de reinternações frequentes de portador de transtorno mental/ Contextual analysis of frequent hospital readmissions of the individual with mental disorder/ Análisis contextual de reingresos frecuentes del portador de trastorno mental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo analisou o contexto de reinternações frequentes de indivíduos com sofrimento psíquico em suas dimensões: imediata, específica, geral e metacontextual. Seguindo a perspectiva contextual proposta pelo referencial teórico de Hinds, Chaves e Cypress (1992), categorizaram-se os resultados encontrados na revisão narrativa da literatura científica em quatro subtemas referentes às dimensões contextuais: 1) a porta giratória da psiquiatria (nível contextua (more) l imediato); 2) desarticulação da rede de atenção em saúde mental (nível contextual específico); 3) o louco e a loucura no imaginário social: o hospital como o lugar da "cura" (nível contextual geral); 4) paradigmas da saúde mental: a dimensão epistemológica do saber/fazer psiquiátrico (metacontexto). Analisar e compreender os contextos nos quais estão inseridas as reinternações psiquiátricas torna-se, na atualidade, aspecto significativo para a efetivação dos avanços conquistados pela Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileira e pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Abstract in spanish Este estudio examina el contexto de los frecuentes reingresos de pacientes con trastornos psicológicos en las dimensiones: inmediatas, específicas, generales y meta-contextuales. Siguiendo la perspectiva contextual propuesta por el marco teórico de Hindes, Chaves y Cypress (1992), los resultados encontrados en la revisión narrativa de la literatura científica se clasifican en cuatro sub-temas relativos a las dimensiones contextuales: 1) la puerta giratoria de la psiq (more) uiatría (contexto inmediato); 2) desarticulación de la red de salud mental (contexto específico); 3) el loco y la locura en lo imaginario social; el hospital como un lugar de "curación" (contexto general); 4) paradigmas de salud mental: la dimensión epistemológica del saber/hacer psiquiátricos (metacontexto). Analizar y comprender los contextos donde se insertan los reingresos psiquiátricos se convierte, actualmente, en un aspecto significativo para confirmar los avances conquistados por la Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileña y el Sistema Único de Salud. Abstract in english This study analyzed the context of frequent hospital readmissions of individuals with psychic suffering in the following dimensions: immediate, specific, general and metacontextual. Following the contextual perspective proposed by the theoretical framework of Hinds, Chaves and Cypress (1992), the results of the narrative review of the scientific literature were categorized in four subthemes corresponding to the contextual dimensions: 1) the revolving door of psychiatry (i (more) mmediate contextual level); 2) disarticulation of the mental health care network (specific contextual level); 3) the mad person and madness in the social mental imagery: the hospital as the "healing" place (general contextual level); 4) mental health paradigms: the epistemological dimension of psychiatric knowledge and action (metacontext). The analysis and comprehension of the contexts in which psychiatric hospital readmissions are included are significant so that the advances achieved by the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and by the National Health System become effective.

Ramos, Déborah Karollyne Ribeiro; Guimarães, Jacileide; Enders, Bertha Cruz

2011-06-01

70

PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY AND CONTEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT/ CONSTANCIA PERCEPTUAL Y MEJORAMIENTO CONTEXTUAL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La percepción del mundo acústico que nos rodea es a menudo diferente de sus propiedades físicas. Nuestra representación mental de los sonidos a los que estamos expuestos no están en una correspondencia unívoca con los sonidos que sentimos. Los objetos auditivos y sus contextos son categorizados y acumulados en la memoria de forma tal que el reconocimiento de escenas dinámicas complejas son percibidas óptimamente. La identificación precisa de voces y objetos ling? (more) ?ísticos son cruciales para la comunicación efectiva. Sin embargo, el contexto normal de la escucha contiene fuentes múltiples, con ruido y en competencia. En estas condiciones de desventaja la identidad de los perceptos es más eficiente si son almacenados en la memoria. Los resultados del presente estudio ofrecen evidencia experimental de que procesos cognitivos de nivel alto pueden restringir los mecanismos auditivos básicos involucrados en la identificación del tono para garantizar una percepción constante. Los resultados que muestran una mejor identificación de tonos en contextos que son inversamente proporcionales a su frecuencia apoyan la hipótesis de que el procesamiento auditivo periférico mejora la identificación de los tonos a través de una función de contraste contextual. Abstract in english The perception of the acoustic world surrounding us very often is different from its physical properties. Our mental representation of the sounds that we are exposed to are not in a one to one correspondence with the sounds we sense. Auditory objects and their environments are categorized and loaded in memory so that recognition of complex dynamic scenes are perceived optimally. Precise identification of voices and linguistic objects are crucial for effective communicatio (more) n. However, the normal context of hearing contains multiple, competing and noisy sources. In such disadvantageous conditions the identity of the percepts is more efficient if they are stored in memory. The results of the present study offer experimental evidence that high-level cognitive processes might constrain basic auditory mechanisms involved in identifying phonemic tone to guarantee perceptual constancy. The results showing a better identification of tones in contexts that are inveresely proportional to their frequency support the idea that peripheral auditory processing enhances the identification of the tones by a general function of contextual contrast.

AVELINO, HERIBERTO

2010-01-01

71

Knowledge brokering between researchers and policymakers in Fiji to develop policies to reduce obesity: a process evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The importance of using research evidence in decisionmaking at the policy level has been increasingly recognized. However, knowledge brokering to engage researchers and policymakers in government and non-government organizations is challenging. This paper describes and evaluates the knowledge exchange processes employed by the Translational Research on Obesity Prevention in Communities (TROPIC) project that was conducted from July 2009 to April 2012 in Fiji. TROPIC aimed to enhance: the evidence-informed decisionmaking skills of policy developers; and awareness and utilization of local and other obesity-related evidence to develop policies that could potentially improve the nation's food and physical activity environments. The specific research question was: Can a knowledge brokering approach advance evidence-informed policy development to improve eating and physical activity environments in Fiji. METHODS: The intervention comprised: recruiting organizations and individuals; mapping policy environments; analyzing organizational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking (EIPM); developing EIPM skills; and facilitating development of evidence-informed policy briefs. Flexible timetabling of activities was essential to accommodate multiple competing priorities at both individual and organizational levels. Process diaries captured the duration, frequency and type of each interaction and/or activity between the knowledge brokering team and participants or their organizations. RESULTS: Partnerships were formalized with high-level officers in each of the six participating organization. Participants (n?=?49) developed EIPM skills (acquire, assess, adapt and apply evidence) through a series of four workshops and applied this knowledge to formulate briefs with ongoing one-to-one support from TROPIC team members. A total of 55% of participants completed the 12 to18 month intervention, and 63% produced one or more briefs (total?=?20) that were presented to higher-level officers within their organizations. The knowledge brokering team spent an average of 30 hours per participant during the entire TROPIC process. CONCLUSIONS: Active engagement of participating organizations from the outset resulted in strong individual and organizational commitment to the project. The TROPIC initiative provided a win-win situation, with participants expanding skills in EIPM and policy development, organizations increasing EIPM capacity, and researchers providing data to inform policy.

Waqa G; Mavoa H; Snowdon W; Moodie M; Schultz J; McCabe M; Kremer P; Swinburn B

2013-01-01

72

Proposed experiments of qutrit state-independent contextuality and two-qutrit contextuality-based nonlocality  

CERN Document Server

Recent experiments have demonstrated ququart state-independent quantum contextuality and qutrit state-dependent quantum contextuality. So far, the most basic form of quantum contextuality pointed out by Kochen and Specker, and Bell, has eluded experimental confirmation. Here we present an experimentally feasible test to observe qutrit state-independent quantum contextuality using single photons in a three-path setup. In addition, we show that if the same measurements are performed on two entangled qutrits, rather than sequentially on the same qutrit, then the noncontextual inequality becomes a Bell inequality. We show that this connection also applies to other recently introduced noncontextual inequalities.

Cabello, Adan; Blanchfield, Kate; Bourennane, Mohamed; Bengtsson, Ingemar; 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.032108

2012-01-01

73

Templates and Queries in Contextual Hypermedia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new definition of context for context-aware computing based on a model that relies on dynamic queries over structured objects. This new model enables developers to flexibly specify the relationship between context and context data for their context-aware applications. We discuss a framework, HyConSC, that implements this model and describe how it can be used to build new contextual hypermedia systems. Our framework aids the developer in the iterative development of contextual queries (via a dynamic query browser) and offers support for con-text matching, a key feature of contextual hypermedia. We have tested the framework with data and sensors taken from the HyCon contextual hypermedia system and are now migrating HyCon to this new framework.

Anderson, Kenneth Mark; Hansen, Frank Allan

2006-01-01

74

A 3-D Contextual Classifier  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we will consider an extension of the Bayesian 2-D contextual class ification routine developed by Owen, Hjort \\$\\backslash\\$& Mohn to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further information can be obtained by tak ing into account the spatial structure of image data, i.e.\\$\\backslash\\$ neighbouring pixels tend to be of the same class. The algorithm developed by Owen, Hjort \\$\\backslash\\$& Mohn consists of basing the classifi cation of a pixel on the simultaneous distribution of the values of a pixel and its four nearest n eighbours. This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset.

Larsen, Rasmus

1997-01-01

75

3-D contextual Bayesian classifiers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we will consider extensions of a series of Bayesian 2-D contextual classification pocedures proposed by Owen (1984) Hjort & Mohn (1984) and Welch & Salter (1971) and Haslett (1985) to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further information can be obtained by taking into account the spatial structure of image data. The 2-D algorithms mentioned above consist of basing the classification of a pixel on the simultaneous distribution of the values of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is made of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend these algorithms to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distributions within the 3-D cross given in 2-D algorithms. The new 3-D algorithms are tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset.

Larsen, Rasmus

1997-01-01

76

Applying contextual interference to the Pawlata roll.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contextual interference is manipulated by changing the practice order of a number of similar motor tasks, so that the learning context of each interferes with that of the other. The effect has been found to generalize to baseball batting, badminton serving and volleyball skills. The present study examined whether this practice technique could be applied to a Pawlata roll in a kayak. The study was further motivated by the fact that many instructors in Britain currently advocate learning the Pawlata roll in one direction only to a criterion of accuracy, thereafter transferring to the opposite direction. Contextual interference literature predicts that skill retention would be better served by practising on alternate sides. Accordingly, 16 undergraduate students with no kayaking experience were randomly allocated to either a low contextual interference group, which followed U'ren's (1993) recommendations, or a high contextual interference group, which practised the skill on alternate sides. The high contextual interference group took less time to acquire the skill, and were also quicker to achieve successful performance in retention (full roll) and transfer (half roll) tests, regardless of the direction of the roll, 1 week later. The time savings in practice were not expected, as acquisition under high contextual interference was improved rather than impaired. This finding suggests that bilateral transfer was increased by randomizing practice. These results are worthy of further investigation, in that they suggest that the recommended training methods may not be optimal.

Smith PJ; Davies M

1995-12-01

77

Knowledge Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations

2011-01-01

78

The effect of contextual cues on the encoding of motor memories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several studies have shown that sensory contextual cues can reduce the interference observed during learning of opposing force fields. However, because each study examined a small set of cues, often in a unique paradigm, the relative efficacy of different sensory contextual cues is unclear. In the present study we quantify how seven contextual cues, some investigated previously and some novel, affect the formation and recall of motor memories. Subjects made movements in a velocity-dependent curl field, with direction varying randomly from trial to trial but always associated with a unique contextual cue. Linking field direction to the cursor or background color, or to peripheral visual motion cues, did not reduce interference. In contrast, the orientation of a visual object attached to the hand cursor significantly reduced interference, albeit by a small amount. When the fields were associated with movement in different locations in the workspace, a substantial reduction in interference was observed. We tested whether this reduction in interference was due to the different locations of the visual feedback (targets and cursor) or the movements (proprioceptive). When the fields were associated only with changes in visual display location (movements always made centrally) or only with changes in the movement location (visual feedback always displayed centrally), a substantial reduction in interference was observed. These results show that although some visual cues can lead to the formation and recall of distinct representations in motor memory, changes in spatial visual and proprioceptive states of the movement are far more effective than changes in simple visual contextual cues.

Howard IS; Wolpert DM; Franklin DW

2013-05-01

79

Corticohippocampal contributions to spatial and contextual learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spatial and contextual learning are considered to be dependent on the hippocampus, but the extent to which other structures in the medial temporal lobe memory system support these functions is not well understood. This study examined the effects of individual and combined lesions of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices on spatial and contextual learning. Lesioned subjects were consistently impaired on measures of contextual fear learning and consistently unimpaired on spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Neurotoxic lesions of perirhinal or postrhinal cortex that were previously shown to impair contextual fear conditioning (Bucci et al., 2000) or contextual discrimination (Bucci et al., 2002) caused little or no impairment in place learning and incidental learning in the water maze. Combined lesions of perirhinal plus lateral entorhinal or postrhinal plus medial entorhinal cortices resulted in deficits in acquisition of contextual discrimination but had no effect on place learning in the water maze. Finally, a parahippocampal lesion comprising combined neurotoxic damage to perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices resulted in profound impairment in acquisition of a standard passive avoidance task but failed to impair place learning. In the same experiment, rats with hippocampal lesions were impaired in spatial navigation. These results indicate that tasks requiring the association between context and an aversive stimulus depend on corticohippocampal circuitry, whereas place learning in the water maze can be accomplished without the full complement of highly processed information from the cortical regions surrounding the hippocampus. The evidence that different brain systems underlie spatial navigation and contextual learning has implications for research on memory when parahippocampal regions are involved.

Burwell RD; Saddoris MP; Bucci DJ; Wiig KA

2004-04-01

80

Does the Transition to an Active-Learning Environment for the Introductory Course Reduce Students’ Overall Knowledge of the Various Disciplines in Biology?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As biology education is being redesigned toward an interdisciplinary focus and as pedagogical trends move toward active-learning strategies and investigative experiences, a restructuring of the course content for the Introductory Biology course is necessary. The introductory course in biology has typically been a survey of all the biosciences. If the total number of topics covered is reduced, is the students’ overall knowledge of biology also reduced? Our introductory course has been substantially modified away from surveying the biological sciences and toward providing a deep understanding of a particular biological topic, as well as focusing on developing students’ analytical and communication skills. Because of this shift to a topic-driven approach for the introductory course, we were interested in assessing our graduating students’ overall knowledge of the various biological disciplines. Using the Major Field Test - Biology (Educational Testing Service (ETS), Princeton, NJ), we compared the test performance of graduating students who had a traditional lecture-based introductory course to those who had a topic-driven active-learning introductory course. Our results suggest that eliminating the traditional survey of biology and, instead, focusing on quantitative and writing skills at the introductory level do not affect our graduating students’ overall breadth of knowledge of the various biosciences.

Maryanne C. Simurda

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Improving the knowledge of epilepsy and reducing epilepsy-related stigma among children using educational video and educational drama--a comparison of the effectiveness of both interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study was intended to compare the effectiveness of educational animated video and educational drama in improving the knowledge of epilepsy and reducing epilepsy-related stigma among children aged 9-11 years. METHOD: The first group of children involved in the study (n(1)=762) watched a video and then completed a questionnaire on epilepsy. The second group (n(2)=400) completed the questionnaire after participating in a drama. Both groups were retested 6 months later by the same questionnaire, which was also completed by a control group (n(3)=180) not subjected to intervention. RESULTS: Both groups subjected to intervention achieved significantly higher scores (P<0.001) than the control group on knowledge of epilepsy and on attitudes towards children with the disease. Educational video was more effective than drama in improving knowledge of epilepsy. On the other hand, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the two kinds of intervention regarding attitudes towards children with this disease. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that both interventions could be used to reduce epilepsy-related stigma in this age group.

Brabcova D; Lovasova V; Kohout J; Zarubova J; Komarek V

2013-04-01

82

Contextual cueing effects across the lifespan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life span. Three groups (6, 20, and 70 years old) were compared. Participants located a designated target stimulus embedded in a context of distractor stimuli. During exposure, the location of the target could be predicted from the location of the distracters in each display. During test, these predictable displays were intermixed with new displays that did not predict the target location. Response times to locating predictable relative to unpredictable targets were compared. All groups exhibited facilitation effects greater than 0 (95% CIs [.02, .11], d = .4; [.01, .12], d = .4; and [.01, .10], d = .4, for the children, young adults, and older adults, respectively) indicating that contextual cueing is robust across a wide age range. The relative magnitude of contextual cueing effects was essentially identical across the age range tested, F(2, 103) = 1.71, eta rho2 = .02. The authors argue that a mechanism that uses environmental covariation is available to all age ranges, but the expression of the contextual cueing may depend on the way it is measured.

Merrill EC; Conners FA; Roskos B; Klinger MR; Klinger LG

2013-07-01

83

Operational and contextual drivers of hospital costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically how operational performance and contextual factors contribute to differences in overall patient care costs across different hospitals. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Administrative data are employed from a sample of hospitals in New York State to construct measures of contextual factors, operational performance, and cost per patient. Operational performance and cost variables are adjusted to account for case mix differences across hospitals. Hierarchical regression is used to analyze the effects of contextual and operational variables on cost performance. FINDINGS: Increased length of stay, increased patient volume, and educational mission were associated with higher cost per patient. Mortality performance was associated with lower cost per patient. However, it was not found that location, size, or ownership status had a significant relationship with cost performance. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This paper identifies several significant relationships between contextual and operational variables and hospital costs. From a managerial perspective, these findings highlight the fact that some drivers of cost in hospitals are under the control of managers. One of the primary cost drivers in the study is length of stay, which implies that there is significant room for improvement in healthcare performance through a focus on operational excellence. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: For researchers, the present study highlights the relative importance of operational versus contextual factors, with respect to cost performance in hospitals. The results of this study also provide direction for additional research into the role operational performance might play in determining the overall organizational performance in a hospital.

Stock GN; McDermott C

2011-01-01

84

Contextuality for preparations, transformations, and unsharp measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem establishes the impossibility of a noncontextual hidden variable model of quantum theory, or equivalently, that quantum theory is contextual. In this paper, an operational definition of contextuality is introduced which generalizes the standard notion in three ways: (i) it applies to arbitrary operational theories rather than just quantum theory (ii) it applies to arbitrary experimental procedures rather than just sharp measurements, and (iii) it applies to a broad class of ontological models of quantum theory rather than just deterministic hidden variable models. We derive three no-go theorems for ontological models, each based on an assumption of noncontextuality for a different sort of experimental procedure; one for preparation procedures, another for unsharp measurement procedures (that is, measurement procedures associated with positive-operator valued measures), and a third for transformation procedures. All three proofs apply to two-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and are therefore stronger than traditional proofs of contextuality.

2005-01-01

85

Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia: A Participative Workshop to Reduce Volcanic Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Galeras has been in nearly constant activity during modern historic times (roughly the past 500 years). Approximately 10,000 people live within an area designated as the highest-hazard and nearly 400,000 people are within areas of potential harmful effects. A wide variety of stakeholders are affected by the hazards, including: farmers, indigenous villagers, and people in urban environments. Hazards assessment and volcano monitoring are the responsibility of the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS), whereas decisions regarding mitigation and response procedures are the responsibility of various governmental offices and the national emergency system (SNPAD). According to the current plan, when the risk level rises to a high level the people in the highest risk zone are required to evacuate. The volcano currently is in a very active, but fluctuating, condition and a future large eruption in a medium time frame (years to decades) is possible. There is a growing level of discomfort among many of the affected groups, including indigenous communities, farmers, and urban dwellers, related to the risk assessment. The general opinion prior to July 2009 was quite polarized as the decision makers saw the people of the region as poorly prepared to understand this hazard, whereas the population felt that their views were not being heard. The result was that the people in the hazardous areas decided not to evacuate, even during the current period of explosive activity. To resolve this situation the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop named "Knowledge, Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia" that was held in Pasto (Colombia), between 6 and 11 July, 2009. The general objective of this workshop was to analyze the existing hazard maps and safety plans for Galeras and form a bridge connecting scientists, decision makers, and other stake holders to promote a better understanding of the hazards presented by Galeras and the measures needed for mutual understanding and protection of people and property in the potentially threatened areas. Progress towards developing trust was achieved by requiring all the parties, including technicians, scientists, administrators and even farmers and indigenous people to listen to each others’ perceptions thought the entire week of the workshop. On the final day of the meeting a roundtable dialogue between the conflicting parts was moderated by social scientists. This intercourse identified, in a consensual manner, points of agreement to serve as starting positions for finding solutions to the areas of conflict. Irresolvable points were also identified during this roundtable discussion. The workshop showed that by sharing information within the framework of a full and frank communication, accepting (or at least listening to) each others’ arguments and trying to understand different points of view and served as a framework for an ongoing process of dialogue focused on resolving conflicts between the various stakeholder groups, even though they had previously reached the point of radicalized positions and statements.

Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.

2009-12-01

86

Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multiboson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.

Benatti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Genovese, Marco [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Olivares, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)

2011-09-15

87

Contextual Influences on Superintendents' Time Usage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data from a survey of superintendents in four states, this study explored how contextual factors and the real and perceived stringency...

Kim Jones; Aimee Howley

88

Contextual Constraint Modeling in Grid Application Workflows  

CERN Multimedia

This paper introduces a new mechanism for specifying constraints in distributed workflows. By introducing constraints in a contextual form, it is shown how different people and groups within collaborative communities can cooperatively constrain workflows. A comparison with existing state-of-the-art workflow systems is made. These ideas are explored in practice with an illustrative example from High Energy Physics.

Graham, G E; Evans, D; Guglielmo, G; Wicklund, E; Love, P; Evans, David; Guglielmo, Gerald; Wicklund, Eric; Love, Peter

2005-01-01

89

Contextual Affordances of Rural Appalachian Individuals  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocational psychology has recently begun examining the career development of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers may affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. Contextual

Bennett, Sara Lynne Rieder

2008-01-01

90

Dynamic and Contextual Information in HMM Modeling for Handwritten Word Recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims at building an efficient word recognition system resulting from the combination of three handwriting recognizers. The main component of this combined system is an HMM-based recognizer which includes dynamic and contextual information for a better modeling of writing units. For modeling the contextual units, a state-tying process based on a decision tree clustering is introduced. Decision trees are built according to a set of 90 expert-based questions on how characters are written. Questions are divided into global questions yielding larger clusters and precise questions yielding smaller ones. Such clustering enables us to reduce by ten the total number of models and Gaussians densities. We apply this modeling to the recognition of handwritten words. Experiments are conducted on the publicly available Rimes database of handwritten mails. Experiments show that contextual information, embedded with dynamic modeling, drastically improves recognition.

Bianne-Bernard AL; Menasri F; Al-Hajj Mohamad R; Mokbel C; Kermorvant C; Likforman-Sulem L

2011-01-01

91

Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.

Parfait M. Eloundou-Enyegue; C. Shannon Stokes

2004-01-01

92

The use of contextual cues to improve warning symbol comprehension: making the connection for older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study teased apart the effects of comprehensibility and complexity on older adults' comprehension of warning symbols by manipulating the relevance of additional information in further refining the meaning of the symbol. Symbols were systematically altered such that increased visual complexity (in the form of contextual cues) resulted in increased comprehensibility. One hundred older adults, aged 50-71 years, were tested on their comprehension of these symbols before and after training. High comprehensibility-complexity symbols were found to be better understood than low- or medium-comprehensibility-complexity symbols and the effectiveness of the contextual cues varied as a function of training. Therefore, the nature of additional detail determines whether increased complexity is detrimental or beneficial to older adults' comprehension - if the additional details provide 'cues to knowledge', older adults' comprehension improves as a result of the increased complexity. However, some cues may require training in order to be effective. Practitioner Summary: Research suggests that older adults have greater difficulty in understanding more complex symbols. However, we found that when the complexity of symbols was increased through the addition of contextual cues, older adults' comprehension actually improved. Contextual cues aid older adults in making the connection between the symbol and its referent.

Lesch MF; Powell WR; Horrey WJ; Wogalter MS

2013-06-01

93

The use of contextual cues to improve warning symbol comprehension: making the connection for older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study teased apart the effects of comprehensibility and complexity on older adults' comprehension of warning symbols by manipulating the relevance of additional information in further refining the meaning of the symbol. Symbols were systematically altered such that increased visual complexity (in the form of contextual cues) resulted in increased comprehensibility. One hundred older adults, aged 50-71 years, were tested on their comprehension of these symbols before and after training. High comprehensibility-complexity symbols were found to be better understood than low- or medium-comprehensibility-complexity symbols and the effectiveness of the contextual cues varied as a function of training. Therefore, the nature of additional detail determines whether increased complexity is detrimental or beneficial to older adults' comprehension - if the additional details provide 'cues to knowledge', older adults' comprehension improves as a result of the increased complexity. However, some cues may require training in order to be effective. Practitioner Summary: Research suggests that older adults have greater difficulty in understanding more complex symbols. However, we found that when the complexity of symbols was increased through the addition of contextual cues, older adults' comprehension actually improved. Contextual cues aid older adults in making the connection between the symbol and its referent.

Lesch MF; Powell WR; Horrey WJ; Wogalter MS

2013-08-01

94

Implicit spatial contextual learning in healthy aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three experiments investigated the aging of implicit spatial and spatiotemporal context learning in 2 tasks. In contextual cuing, people learn to use repeated spatial configurations to facilitate search for a target, whereas in higher order serial learning, they learn to use subtle sequence regularities to respond more quickly and accurately to a series of events. Results reveal a dissociation; overall contextual cuing is spared in healthy aging, whereas higher order sequence learning is impaired in the same individuals. This finding suggests that these 2 forms of implicit learning rely on different neural substrates that age differently; the results are also consistent with recent evidence that fronto-striatal circuits are particularly susceptible to decline in health aging.

Howard JH Jr; Howard DV; Dennis NA; Yankovich H; Vaidya CJ

2004-01-01

95

Contextual Risk and Its Relevance in Economics  

CERN Document Server

Uncertainty in economics still poses some fundamental problems illustrated, e.g., by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. To overcome these difficulties, economists have introduced an interesting distinction between 'risk' and 'ambiguity' depending on the existence of a (classical Kolmogorovian) probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainty situations. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that 'context' plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian quantum-like framework. In this paper we introduce the notion of 'contextual risk' with the aim of modeling a substantial part of the situations in which usually only 'ambiguity' is present. More precisely, we firstly introduce the essentials of an operational formalism called 'the hidden measurement approach' in which probability is introduced as a consequence of fluct...

Aerts, Diederik

2011-01-01

96

Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images.

Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco

2009-01-01

97

Quantum Contextuality as a Measurement Disturbance Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

The question of quantum contextuality in the Mermin-Peres square is considered. It is shown that a deterministic, noncontextual hidden variable model of this problem is not inconsistent with quantum mechanics, contrary to the Kochen-Specker theorem. The key idea is that measurement outcomes may be viewed as deterministic functions of hidden variable states which are disturbed through the process of measurement. This, in turn, implies that the outcome of measuring the product of two commensurate observables need not be equal to the product of the outcomes that would have been obtained had they been measured individually. A critical analysis of some recent and proposed experimental tests of contextuality is also provided.

La Cour, Brian R.

2009-03-01

98

Quantum contextuality in neutron interferometer experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-local correlations between sufficiently separated subsystems have been extensively discussed. Such a non-locality can be interpreted as a consequence of the correlation between commuting observables. A more general concept, i.e., contextuality, compared to non-locality can be introduced to describe striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. As the first example, we report a neutron interferometer experiment, where the spin and the path degrees of freedom are used to exhibit the clear violation of a Bell-like inequality. Other aspects of the quantum contextuality is presented, e.g., a flavor of Kochen-Specker-like contradiction in neutron optical experiments, in addition to the quantum state tomography of the Bell-states which are used in the experiments.

2006-11-15

99

Calculating modules in contextual logic program refinement  

CERN Multimedia

The refinement calculus for logic programs is a framework for deriving logic programs from specifications. It is based on a wide-spectrum language that can express both specifications and code, and a refinement relation that models the notion of correct implementation. In this paper we extend and generalise earlier work on contextual refinement. Contextual refinement simplifies the refinement process by abstractly capturing the context of a subcomponent of a program, which typically includes information about the values of the free variables. This paper also extends and generalises module refinement. A module is a collection of procedures that operate on a common data type; module refinement between a specification module A and an implementation module C allows calls to the procedures of A to be systematically replaced with calls to the corresponding procedures of C. Based on the conditions for module refinement, we present a method for calculating an implementation module from a specification module. Both co...

Colvin, R; Strooper, P; Colvin, Robert; Hayes, Ian J.; Strooper, Paul

2006-01-01

100

Assessment of the magnitude of geographical variations and socioeconomic contextual effects on ischaemic heart disease mortality: a multilevel survival analysis of a large Swedish cohort.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In a public health perspective, it is of interest to assess the magnitude of geographical variations in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and quantify the strength of contextual effects on IHD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether area effects vary according to the individual and contextual characteristics of the population, socioeconomic contextual influences were assessed in different age groups and within territories of differing population densities. DESIGN: Multilevel survival analysis of a 28-year longitudinal database. PARTICIPANTS: 341 048 residents of the Scania region in Sweden, reaching age 50-79 years in 1996, followed up over 7 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for several individual socioeconomic indicators over the adult age, Cox multilevel models indicated geographical variations in IHD mortality and socioeconomic contextual effects on the mortality risk. However, the magnitude of geographical variations and strength of contextual effects were modified by the age of individuals and the population density of their residential area: socioeconomic contextual effects were much stronger among non-elderly than among elderly adults, and much larger within urban territories than within rural ones. As a consequence, among non-elderly residents of urban territories, the socioeconomic contextual effect was almost as large as the effect of individual 20-year cumulated income. CONCLUSIONS: Non-elderly residents of deprived urban neighbourhoods constitute a major target for both contextual epidemiology of coronary disease and public health interventions aimed at reducing the detrimental effects of the social environment on IHD.

Chaix B; Rosvall M; Merlo J

2007-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Is quantum contextuality a red herring?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We formulate a principle of limited quantum noncontextuality and propose experimental tests based on entanglement of orbital angular momentum states of photons as well as on multiport beam splitters. Problems associated with the operationalization of contextuality by configurations employed for proofs of the Kochen-Specker theorem are discussed; in particular the impossibility of (entangled) states allowing an 'explosion view' of the proof. (author)

2005-01-01

102

Generalized event knowledge activation during online sentence comprehension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world eventsplays an important role inguiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local linguistic context.The present study addresses this issue by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded as participants read brief scenariosdescribing typical real-world events. Experiment 1 demonstratesthat a contextually anomalous word elicits a reduced N400 if it is generally related to the described event, even when controlling for the degree of association of this word with individual words in the preceding context and with the expected continuation. Experiment 2 shows that this effect disappears when the discourse context is removed.These findings demonstrate that during the course of incremental comprehension, comprehenders activate general knowledge about the described event, even at points at which this knowledge would constitute an anomalous continuation of the linguistic stream. Generalized event knowledge activationcontributes to mental representations of described events, is immediately available to influence language processing, and likely drives linguistic expectancy generation.

Metusalem R; Kutas M; Urbach TP; Hare M; McRae K; Elman JL

2012-05-01

103

Perpendicularity misjudgments caused by contextual stimulus elements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been demonstrated in previous studies that the illusions of extent of the Brentano type can be explained by the perceptual positional shifts of the stimulus terminators in direction of the centers-of-masses (centroids) of adjacent contextual flanks [Bulatov, A. et al. (2011). Contextual flanks' tilting and magnitude of illusion of extent. Vision Research, 51(1), 58-64]. In the present study, the applicability of the centroid approach to explain the right-angle misjudgments was tested psychophysically using stimuli composed of three small disks (dots) forming an imaginary rectangular triangle. Stimuli comprised the Müller-Lyer wings or line segments (bars) as the contextual distracters rotated around the vertices of the triangle, and changes in the magnitude of the illusion of perpendicularity were measured in a set of experiments. A good resemblance between the experimental data and theoretical predictions obtained strongly supports the suggestion regarding the common "centroid" origin of the illusions of extent of the Brentano type and misperception of the perpendicularity investigated.

Bulatov A; Bulatova N; Surkys T

2012-10-01

104

Cognitive and contextual influences in determination of latent fingerprint suitability for identification judgments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined forensic fingerprint examiners' suitability determinations of latent fingerprints comparing situations in which the latent is assessed solo (in isolation) versus situations in which it is presented alongside a comparison (matching or non-matching) exemplar print. The presence of a non-matching comparison exemplar led examiners to be more inclined to draw the conclusion that the latent was suitable for comparison compared to when the latent was presented solo. This effect persisted even when the latent presented was highly unsuitable for comparison. The presence of a matching comparison exemplar led examiners to be less likely to decide that the latent was suitable and more likely to decide the latent was questionable compared to solo analysis. This effect persisted even when the latent presented was highly suitable, suggesting a strong main effect. Knowledge of another examiner's previous determination that the latent was unsuitable was found to increase the likelihood that the examiner would conclude that the latent was unsuitable. However, knowledge of a previous "suitable" determination by another examiner did not increase the likelihood of a "suitable" conclusion by examiners. The finding that effects were weaker, although not entirely removed, in those with IAI certification suggests that training may be an appropriate route for reducing the effect of contextual influence and bias in suitability determinations. It was also shown that latent prints that were previously classed as "unsuitable" in a non-biasing context, continued to be judged to be "unsuitable" in a strongly biasing context (a major case in which a previous examiner was purported to have made an Individualization).

Fraser-Mackenzie PA; Dror IE; Wertheim K

2013-06-01

105

Contextual control of flavor neophobia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of context in the retrieval of learned information has been widely analyzed in the associative learning domain. However, evidence about the effect of context on flavor memory retrieval is more limited. We have carried out four experiments with rats testing for possible interactions between neophobia habituation and the context in which flavors are presented, by manipulating prior experience with contexts. Our results point to the relevance of context familiarity for the establishment and recovery of a safe taste memory trace. More specifically, the use of the animals' home cages as experimental context favored neophobia habituation (Experiments 1A and 2), reduced dopamine levels induced by administration of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 disrupted neophobia habituation when tested in presence of a new context (Experiment 1B), and testing in the animal's home cage increases the amount of flavor consumed, even when such flavor had a previous history of aversive conditioning (Experiment 3). We propose that exploring context without aversive consequences generates a safe memory trace of such context that becomes in the basis of increased flavor consumption.

De la Casa LG; Díaz E

2013-06-01

106

Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice.Objectives: The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries.Method: After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used.Results: Nurse researchers (N = 100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD = 7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research.Conclusion: The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

Leana R. Uys; Robin P. Newhouse; Arwa Oweis; Xiaokun Liang

2013-01-01

107

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm t...

Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU; Viorel CORNESCU

108

Contextual advertisement placement in printed media  

Science.gov (United States)

Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

2010-02-01

109

Minimal proofs of state-independent contextuality  

CERN Document Server

We show that a corollary of the results in arXiv:1112.5149v1 provides proofs of state-independent contextuality (SIC) in any finite dimension d>2 with a smaller number of rays than those recently presented by Yu and Oh (arXiv:1112.5513v1). Specifically, we show that d+10 rays are sufficient to prove SIC. These results are compared with the Kochen-Specker (KS) sets with the smallest number of rays known. We also identify in which dimensions the minimum SIC and KS sets are still unknown.

Cabello, Adan

2012-01-01

110

Probabilistic Generation of Quantum Contextual Sets  

CERN Document Server

We give a method for exhaustive generation of a huge number of Kochen-Specker contextual sets, based on the 600-cell, for possible experiments and quantum gates. The method is complementary to our previous parity proof generation of these sets, and it gives all sets while the parity proof method gives only sets with an odd number of edges in their hypergraph representation. Thus we obtain 35 new kinds of critical KS sets with an even number of edges. Using a random sample of the sets generated with our method, we give a statistical estimate of the number of sets that might be obtained in an eventual exhaustive enumeration.

Megill, Norman D; Waegell, Mordecai; Aravind, P K; Pavicic, Mladen

2011-01-01

111

Probabilistic generation of quantum contextual sets  

Science.gov (United States)

We give a method for exhaustive generation of a huge number of Kochen-Specker contextual sets, based on the 600-cell, for possible experiments and quantum gates. The method is complementary to our previous parity proof generation of these sets, and it gives all sets while the parity proof method gives only sets with an odd number of edges in their hypergraph representation. Thus we obtain 35 new kinds of critical KS sets with an even number of edges. We also give a statistical estimate of the number of sets that might be obtained in an eventual exhaustive enumeration.

Megill, Norman D.; Fresl, Krešimir; Waegell, Mordecai; Aravind, P. K.; Pavi?i?, Mladen

2011-09-01

112

Explicit Substitutions for Contextual Type Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present an explicit substitution calculus which distinguishes between ordinary bound variables and meta-variables. Its typing discipline is derived from contextual modal type theory. We first present a dependently typed lambda calculus with explicit substitutions for ordinary variables and explicit meta-substitutions for meta-variables. We then present a weak head normalization procedure which performs both substitutions lazily and in a single pass thereby combining substitution walks for the two different classes of variables. Finally, we describe a bidirectional type checking algorithm which uses weak head normalization and prove soundness.

Andreas Abel; Brigitte Pientka

2010-01-01

113

Architecture Knowledge Management: Challenges, Approaches, and Tools  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capturing the technical knowledge, contextual information, and rationale surrounding the design decisions underpinning system architectures can greatly improve the software development process. If not managed, this critical knowledge is implicitly embedded in the architecture, becoming tacit knowledge which erodes as personnel on the project change. Moreover, the unavailability of architecture knowledge precludes organizations from growing their architectural capabilities. In this tutorial, we highlight the benefits and challenges in managing software architecture knowledge. We discuss various approaches to characterize architecture knowledge based on the requirements of a particular domain. We describe various concepts and approaches to manage the architecture knowledge from both management and technical perspectives. We also demonstrate the utility of captured knowledge to support software architecture activities with a case study covering the use of architecture knowledge management techniques and tools in an industrial project.

Babar, Muhammad A.; Gorton, Ian

2007-08-01

114

O wra?liwo?co kontekstowej zda? typu 'S wie, ?e p' (ON CONTEXTUAL SENSITIVITY OF SENTENCE TYPE 'S KNOWS THAT P')  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic contextualism is recently one of the most discussed epistemological theories. So far, the main part of discussion concerns contextualist solution of the skeptical problem. Nowadays it has become more clear that this theory needs strong and independent justification from a linguistic and language-philosophical point of view. In this paper The author outlines several treads concerning linguistic basis for contextualism. In part one there are presented some fundamental contextualism thesis and an example proposed by S. Cohen which has to support it. Next the following question is considered: which semantic feature is responsible for context dependence of knowledge ascription sentences? Is it indexicality, vagueness, ambiguity, ellipticity or unspecificity? Debate sketched in part three is concentrated on an analogy between linguistic behavior of knowledge ascription sentences and other context-dependent expressions, especially indexicals and gradable adjectives. The last part of this paper contains a new argument for contextualism proposed by K. De Rose. In addition such argument points out that contextualism does not confuse a truth conditions of knowledge ascribing sentences with their condition of warranted assertability.

Rafa? Palczewski

2005-01-01

115

Task characteristics and the contextual interference effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the influence of blocked and random practice on the acquisition and retention of a criterion multisegment motor task practiced alongside either two similar-distractors tasks or two different-distractors tasks. The random-practice similar-distractors group made more decision-making errors and performed the criterion task more slowly than the blocked-practice similar-distractors group during the acquisition phase. Following a brief filled retention interval, the blocked-practice similar-distractors group demonstrated a loss of acquired performance capabilities, whereas the random-practice similar-distractors group did not. The blocked- and random-practice different-distractors groups performed similarly throughout the experiment. Results are interpreted within Glenberg's component-levels theory, in which it was argued that random practice must stimulate the differential storage of multilevel contextual components associated with the multiple motor tasks being learned to produce a contextual interference effect. The theoretical and practical implications of differential storage versus nonrepetition as a function of random practice are discussed.

Kruisselbrink LD; Van Gyn GH

2011-08-01

116

Multi-level Contextual Type Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

Mathieu Boespflug; Brigitte Pientka

2011-01-01

117

DEVELOPMENTAL INTER-RELATIONS BETWEEN EARLY MATERNAL DEPRESSION, CONTEXTUAL RISKS, AND INTERPERSONAL STRESS, AND THEIR EFFECT ON LATER CHILD COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression and contextual risks (e.g. poverty) are known to impact children's cognitive and social functioning. However, few published studies have examined how stress in the social environment (i.e. interpersonal stress) might developmentally inter-relate with maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect a child in these domains. This was the purpose of the current study. METHOD: Mother-child pairs (n = 6979) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents were the study participants. Mothers reported on depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress between pregnancy and 33 months child age. At age 8, the children underwent cognitive assessments and the mothers reported on the children's social cognitive skills. RESULTS: Maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress showed strong continuity and developmental inter-relatedness. Maternal depression and contextual risks directly predicted a range of child outcomes, including executive functions and social cognitive skills. Interpersonal stress worked indirectly via maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect child outcomes. CONCLUSION: Maternal depression and contextual risks each increased interpersonal stress in the household, which, in turn, contributed to reduced child cognitive and social functioning.

Jensen SK; Dumontheil I; Barker ED

2013-09-01

118

Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s) and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions) for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004), and Embase (1996–2004). We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men), which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals) with alendronate (10 mg daily) were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83) and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44). Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

Sawka Anna M; Papaioannou Alexandra; Adachi Jonathan D; Gafni Amiram; Hanley David A; Thabane Lehana

2005-01-01

119

The relationship between contextual processing, intrusive imagery and hallucination proneness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: This study tested the hypothesis that hallucinations exist on a continuum with intrusive imagery and that contextual processing underlies this relationship. The study hypothesised that weak contextual (allocentric) processing would correlate with intrusive images that are vivid, sensory and po...

Glazer, DA

120

Contextual Control of Slot-Machine Gambling: Replication and Extension  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants were trained and tested to select stimuli of differing physical quantities in the presence of 2 color contextual cues for more than and less than. Following more than and less than relational training, participants allocated the majority of their responses to the slot machine that shared formal properties of color with the contextual

Hoon, Alice; Dymond, Simon; Jackson, James W.; Dixon, Mark R.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. METHODS: This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. RESULTS: The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

Kothari AR; Bickford JJ; Edwards N; Dobbins MJ; Meyer M

2011-01-01

122

Designing a contextually appropriate surgical training program in low-resource settings: the Botswana experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The global burden of surgical disease and severe shortage of trained surgeons around the world are now widely recognized. The greatest challenge in improving access to surgical care lies in sub-Saharan Africa, where the number of surgeons per population is lowest. One part of the solution may be to create programs to train surgeons locally. We present our experience with an approach to designing a contextually appropriate surgical curriculum in Botswana. METHODS: Surgical logbooks from the largest tertiary care center in Botswana, dating from 2004 through 2010, were analyzed to yield total case numbers within clearly defined categories. Case numbers and local surgical opinion were combined to design a contextually relevant curriculum, with the Surgical Council on Resident Education curriculum as a template. RESULTS: Logbook analysis revealed that general surgeons in Botswana manage burns and perform a large number of skin grafts and extremity amputations. However, they perform few colonoscopies and complex laparoscopic procedures. The new curriculum included greater emphasis on surgical subspecialty procedures and surgical management of locally relevant conditions, such as the complications of infectious diseases. Less emphasis was placed on management of uncommon conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. CONCLUSIONS: There are important differences in the scope of general surgery and the knowledge and skills required by general surgeons in Botswana compared with their North American counterparts. We present a simple and inexpensive approach that could serve as a potential model for designing contextually relevant surgical training programs in other low-resource settings.

Mutabdzic D; Bedada AG; Bakanisi B; Motsumi J; Azzie G

2013-07-01

123

Active Architecture for Pervasive Contextual Services  

CERN Multimedia

Pervasive services may be defined as services that are available "to any client (anytime, anywhere)". Here we focus on the software and network infrastructure required to support pervasive contextual services operating over a wide area. One of the key requirements is a matching service capable of as-similating and filtering information from various sources and determining matches relevant to those services. We consider some of the challenges in engineering a globally distributed matching service that is scalable, manageable, and able to evolve incrementally as usage patterns, data formats, services, network topologies and deployment technologies change. We outline an approach based on the use of a peer-to-peer architecture to distribute user events and data, and to support the deployment and evolution of the infrastructure itself.

Kirby, Graham; Morrison, Ron; Dunlop, Mark; Connor, Richard; Nixon, Paddy

2010-01-01

124

Measuring contextual citation impact of scientific journals  

CERN Multimedia

This paper explores a new indicator of journal citation impact, denoted as source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). It measures a journal's contextual citation impact, taking into account characteristics of its properly defined subject field, especially the frequency at which authors cite other papers in their reference lists, the rapidity of maturing of citation impact, and the extent to which a database used for the assessment covers the field's literature. It further develops Eugene Garfield's notions of a field's 'citation potential' defined as the average length of references lists in a field and determining the probability of being cited, and the need in fair performance assessments to correct for differences between subject fields. A journal's subject field is defined as the set of papers citing that journal. SNIP is defined as the ratio of the journal's citation count per paper and the citation potential in its subject field. It aims to allow direct comparison of sources in different subject fields....

Moed, Henk F

2009-01-01

125

Is there contextuality for a single qubit?  

Science.gov (United States)

Cabello and Nakamura have shown [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 190401 (2003)10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.190401] that the Kochen-Specker theorem can be applied to two-dimensional systems if one uses positive operator-valued measures (POVM). We show that the contextuality in their models is not of the Kochen-Specker type, but it is rather a result of not keeping track of the whole system on which the measurement is performed. This is connected to the fact that there is no one-to-one correspondence between the POVM elements and projectors on the extended Hilbert space, and the same POVM element has to originate from two different projectors when used in Cabello-Nakamura models. Moreover, we propose a hidden-variable formulation of the above models. PMID:18518167

Grudka, Andrzej; Kurzy?ski, Pawe?

2008-04-21

126

Is there contextuality for a single qubit?  

CERN Multimedia

It was presented by Cabello and Nakamura [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 190401 (2003)], that the Kochen-Specker theorem applies to two dimensions if one uses Positive Operator-Valued Measures. We show that contextuality in their models is not of the Kochen-Specker type. It is rather the result of not keeping track of the whole system on which the measurement is performed. This is connected to the fact that there is no one-to-one correspondence between POVM elements and projectors on the extended Hilbert space and the same POVM element has to originate from two different projectors when used in Cabello's and Nakamura's models. Moreover, we propose a hidden-variable formulation of the above models.

Grudka, Andrzej

2007-01-01

127

Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

Peck, Rick

2009-01-01

128

Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge. PMID:23437081

Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

2013-02-20

129

Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge.

Bond AE; Bodger O; Skibinski DO; Jones DH; Restall CJ; Dudley E; van Keulen G

2013-01-01

130

Contextual control of conflicting associations in the developing rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments examined the effects of manipulations of contextual cues on the expression of conflicting associations in 18-, 26-, and 35-day-old rats. Subjects learned to GO RIGHT in a water-filled T-maze, then were trained to reverse this position habit (GO LEFT). When the competing responses were learned in the same visual context, all age groups displayed a recency effect on a subsequent test in extinction; they behaved in accordance with the last-learned GO LEFT habit. If the competing responses were learned in different visual contexts, and testing took place in the context of the first problem, 35-day-old subjects behaved in a manner consistent with the GO RIGHT context (reduced recency). However, similarly trained 18-day-old subjects showed no evidence of a reduced recency effect. Given that 18-day-old rats are sensitive to other context manipulations, the present results suggest that the ability to "disambiguate" conflicting associations by context may depend upon the maturation of a relatively late-developing configural learning system. PMID:1618368

Moye, T B; Brasser, S M; Palmer, L; Zeisset, C

1992-04-01

131

Contextual control of conflicting associations in the developing rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments examined the effects of manipulations of contextual cues on the expression of conflicting associations in 18-, 26-, and 35-day-old rats. Subjects learned to GO RIGHT in a water-filled T-maze, then were trained to reverse this position habit (GO LEFT). When the competing responses were learned in the same visual context, all age groups displayed a recency effect on a subsequent test in extinction; they behaved in accordance with the last-learned GO LEFT habit. If the competing responses were learned in different visual contexts, and testing took place in the context of the first problem, 35-day-old subjects behaved in a manner consistent with the GO RIGHT context (reduced recency). However, similarly trained 18-day-old subjects showed no evidence of a reduced recency effect. Given that 18-day-old rats are sensitive to other context manipulations, the present results suggest that the ability to "disambiguate" conflicting associations by context may depend upon the maturation of a relatively late-developing configural learning system.

Moye TB; Brasser SM; Palmer L; Zeisset C

1992-04-01

132

The Contextual Quantization and the Principle of Complementarity of Probabilities  

CERN Multimedia

The contextual probabilistic quantization procedure is formulated. This approach to quantization has much broader field of applications, compared with the canonical quantization. The contextual probabilistic quantization procedure is based on the notions of probability context and the Principle of Complementarity of Probabilities. The general definition of probability context is given. The Principle of Complementarity of Probabilities, which combines the ideas of the Bohr complementarity principle and the technique of noncommutative probability, is introduced. The Principle of Complementarity of Probabilities is the criterion of possibility of the contextual quantization.

Khrenikov, A Yu; Khrennikov, Andrei; Kozyrev, Sergei

2003-01-01

133

Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families  

Science.gov (United States)

Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. However, the theory has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570 two-parent Mexican American families. Results support the negative impact of economic stress on parenting through parental depressive symptoms. Neighborhood stress influenced fathers’ depressive symptoms and parenting, but not mothers’. The effects of acculturative stress were inconsistent. Results suggest that contextual stressors common to Mexican American families impact parenting behaviors through parental depression.

White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

2009-01-01

134

Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation algorithm that makes it easy to include different types of contextual information. It models the browsing process of a user on a movie database website by taking random walks over the contextual graph. We present our approach in this paper and highlight a number of future extensions with additional contextual information.

Bogers, Toine

135

Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS) to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker’s profile. We further discuss the proposed system structure, supportive process and context-driven engine. Finally, we describe a scenario using our contextual mobile learning system.

Bingxue Zhang; Bertrand David; Chuantao Yin; Rene Chalon

2013-01-01

136

Opportunistic Adaptation Knowledge Discovery  

CERN Multimedia

Adaptation has long been considered as the Achilles' heel of case-based reasoning since it requires some domain-specific knowledge that is difficult to acquire. In this paper, two strategies are combined in order to reduce the knowledge engineering cost induced by the adaptation knowledge (CA) acquisition task: CA is learned from the case base by the means of knowledge discovery techniques, and the CA acquisition sessions are opportunistically triggered, i.e., at problem-solving time.

Badra, Fadi; Lieber, Jean

2009-01-01

137

The Effectiveness Of High Levels Of Knowledge Regarding Hiv/Aids In Reducing Discriminatory Attitudes And Behaviour Towards Hiv-Infected People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between increasing levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and perceptions of discriminatory attitudes and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS. Employees (3662) from a large accounting firm were exposed to a survey and a response rate of 41% or 1532 was received. The secondary objective of the study was to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in the mean difference of knowledge scores of groups created in terms of the different biographical variables. ANOVA’S (to determine the significance of differences between the means), t-tests (two groups only) and F-statistics were used for the analysis. Given the large sample size an F-test is not conclusive and the effect of the difference in sample size needs to be taken into account. For this reason it was also necessary to look at the Partial Eta Squared. Results indicate that respondents are generally knowledgeable about the prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS and that respondents’ level of knowledge correlates negatively with discriminatory practices.

M. Pirie; W. J. Coetsee

2006-01-01

138

Comparison of Frequency-based Contextual and Maximum Likelihood Methods for Land Cover Classification in Arid Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classification accuracy obtained from the classification of satellite images using pixel-by-pixel conventional methods can be improved if the contextual information is considered during the classification process. This study presents a comparison of frequency-based contextual and maximum likelihood approaches to identify the land cover patterns in arid environment of multi-spectral images collected by SPOT-2 satellite. In image classification, in order to obtain a good result, not only the image resolution is considered but the selection of the classifier to be used during decision making process is important as well. In present study, two classifiers have been experimented in order to evaluate their performances which is Maximum Likelihood classifier representing as conventional method whereas contextual approach representing as advanced method. Conventional classification methods commonly cannot handle the complex landscape environment in the image. The result of each method has often a salt and pepper appearances which is a main characteristic of misclassification. It seems clear that information from neighbouring pixels should increase the discrimination capabilities of the pixel based measured and thus, improve the classification accuracy and the interpretation efficiency. This information is referred to as spatial contextual information. The experimental results indicated that frequency-based contextual algorithm with 83.7% overall accuracy and 0.693 Kappa coefficient is more reliable than the maximum likelihood algorithm with 72.1% and 0.527 overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient, respectively. The high value of the frequency-based contextual classification is due to the fact that this algorithm could overcome the mixed pixel problem and reduce the speckle error in the image significantly.

M.R. Mustapha; H.S. Lim; M.Z. Mat Jafri; S. Syahreza

2011-01-01

139

Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups managing shared image collections or other types of information.

Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

2009-01-01

140

Pre- and post-selection, weak values and contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By analysing the concept of contextuality (Bell-Kochen-Specker) in terms of pre- and post-selection, it is possible to assign definite values to observables in a new and surprising way. Physical reasons are presented for restrictions on these assignments. When measurements are performed which do not disturb the pre- and post-selection (i.e. weak measurements), then novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated. We also prove that every PPS-paradox with definite predictions directly implies 'quantum contextuality' which is introduced as the analogue of contextuality at the level of quantum mechanics rather than at the level of hidden variable theories. Finally, we argue that certain results of these measurements (e.g. eccentric weak values outside the eigenvalue spectrum) cannot be explained by a 'classical-like' hidden variable theory.

2007-07-27

 
 
 
 
141

On the role of working memory in spatial contextual cueing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human visual system receives more information than can be consciously processed. To overcome this capacity limit, we employ attentional mechanisms to prioritize task-relevant (target) information over less relevant (distractor) information. Regularities in the environment can facilitate the allocation of attention, as demonstrated by the spatial contextual cueing paradigm. When observers are exposed repeatedly to a scene and invariant distractor information, learning from earlier exposures enhances the search for the target. Here, we investigated whether spatial contextual cueing draws on spatial working memory resources and, if so, at what level of processing working memory load has its effect. Participants performed 2 tasks concurrently: a visual search task, in which the spatial configuration of some search arrays occasionally repeated, and a spatial working memory task. Increases in working memory load significantly impaired contextual learning. These findings indicate that spatial contextual cueing utilizes working memory resources.

Travis SL; Mattingley JB; Dux PE

2013-01-01

142

Existential contextuality and the models of Meyer, Kent, and Clifton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the models recently proposed by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton (MKC) exhibit a novel kind of contextuality, which we term existential contextuality. In this phenomenon it is not simply the pre-existing value but the actual existence of an observable which is context dependent. This result confirms the point made elsewhere, that the MKC models do not, as the authors claim, 'nullify' the Kochen-Specker theorem. It may also be of some independent interest.

2002-01-01

143

Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

Littman Bruce H; Marincola Francesco M

2011-01-01

144

Reconstructing the fall: individual, behavioural and contextual factors associated with falls in individuals with intellectual disability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Falls are a significant and recurrent problem for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). There has been little exploration of the fall event from the perspective of the individual who falls or their carers. Research has focused predominantly on personal risk factors, leaving the behavioural and contextual analysis of falls much less understood. This study aimed to identify these additional factors as well as briefly explore the fall experience for individuals and their carers. METHOD: A qualitative design was used incorporating fall reconstructions and ethnographic-style interviews conducted in the home setting. Nine people with ID and their carers/family member participated: five pairs were living at home and four were in out-of-family-home settings. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and major themes identified via thematic analysis. RESULTS: We identified 17 themes that contributed to falls and fell under the three headings of individual, behavioural or contextual factors. Themes include decreased physical capacity, unsafe behaviours, limited hazard awareness and the impact of others in the home on an individual's fall behaviours. Additionally, families and individuals identified a number of consequences and adaptations which they implemented to alleviate possible fall impact. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative interviews, observational methods and carer assistance are valuable in offering insight into understanding the individual, behavioural and contextual factors associated with falls in people with ID. The fall reconstruction technique may be a useful supplement when evaluating intrinsic risk in programmes designed to reduce falls.

Cahill S; Stancliffe RJ; Clemson L; Durvasula S

2013-02-01

145

Representation of contextually related multiple objects in the human ventral visual pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Real-world scenes usually contain a set of cluttered and yet contextually related objects. Here we used fMRI to investigate where and how contextually related multiple objects were represented in the human ventral visual pathway. Specifically, we measured the responses in face-selective and body-selective regions along the ventral pathway when faces and bodies were presented either simultaneously or in isolation. We found that, in the posterior regions, the response for the face and body pair was the weighted average response for faces and bodies presented in isolation. In contrast, the anterior regions encoded the face and body pair in a mutually facilitative fashion, with the response for the pair significantly higher than that for its constituent objects. Furthermore, in the right fusiform face area, the face and body pair was represented as one inseparable object, possibly to reduce perceptual load and increase representation efficiency. Therefore, our study suggests that the visual system uses a hierarchical representation scheme to process multiple objects in natural scenes: the average mechanism in posterior regions helps retaining information of individual objects in clutter, whereas the nonaverage mechanism in the anterior regions uses the contextual information to optimize the representation for multiple objects.

Song Y; Luo YL; Li X; Xu M; Liu J

2013-08-01

146

Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication.

Marian DE; Shimamura AP

2013-01-01

147

Contextuality and Nonlocality in `No Signaling' Theories  

Science.gov (United States)

We define a family of ‘no signaling’ bipartite boxes with arbitrary inputs and binary outputs, and with a range of marginal probabilities. The defining correlations are motivated by the Klyachko version of the Kochen-Specker theorem, so we call these boxes Kochen-Specker-Klyachko boxes or, briefly, KS-boxes. The marginals cover a variety of cases, from those that can be simulated classically to the superquantum correlations that saturate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, when the KS-box is a generalized PR-box (hence a vertex of the ‘no signaling’ polytope). We show that for certain marginal probabilities a KS-box is classical with respect to nonlocality as measured by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt correlation, i.e., no better than shared randomness as a resource in simulating a PR-box, even though such KS-boxes cannot be perfectly simulated by classical or quantum resources for all inputs. We comment on the significance of these results for contextuality and nonlocality in ‘no signaling’ theories.

Bub, Jeffrey; Stairs, Allen

2009-07-01

148

Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

2011-01-01

149

THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE SAMPLE OF CALL CENTERS IN TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emerging of knowledge societies brought about a lot of transformations in societies in the last decades. At first, these effects have been appeared in the developed and then in the developing world not only urban area also rural. The diffusion of the technologies that is invented on the mentality of knowledge society, have been effecting all life and promising to have major changes by providing access the opportunities for training and education, media and social networks and remodeling the way we do business, the nature of work and economy. In this concept, the internet, as a tool of the knowledge society, has also been regarded an important instrument in developing the rural regions around the globe. By connecting different parts of the world, the internet and other tools of information technologies create new job opportunities for individuals and companies. There are many people who cannot have and reach to the good education as well as the job opportunities in the rural areas as much as there is in urban areas. Many state institutions and companies have easily been investing to the rural area because of information technologies’ low level entry costs. Especially, many of them open new call centers in the poor areas of countries. the purpose of this paper is that the role of information technologies in the rural area is going to be evaluated on the call centers sample in Turkey. First part of the study, the literature is reviewed about knowledge society and information technologies. In the second part, the benefits of information technologies for individuals who live in the rural areas and some model applications are explained. In the final part, call centers that established by state and private companies are investigated according to their employment and training effects for the poor in the rural areas.

ORHAN KOÇAK; ERSIN KAVI

2011-01-01

150

Steps toward knowledge-based machine translation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper considers the possibilities for knowledge-based automatic text translation in the light of recent advances in artificial intelligence. It is argued that competent translation requires some reasonable depth of understanding of the source text, and, in particular, access to detailed contextual information. The following machine translation paradigm is proposed. First, the source text is analyzed and mapped into a language-free conceptual representation. Inference mechanisms then apply contextual world knowledge to augment the representation in various ways, adding information about items that were only implicit in the input text. Finally, a natural-language generator maps appropriate sections of the language-free representation into the target language. We discuss several difficult translation problems from this viewpoint with examples of English-to-Spanish and English-to-Russian translations; and illustrate possible solutions as embodied in a computer understander called SAM, which reads certain kinds of newspaper stories, then summarizes or paraphrases them in a variety of languages.

Carbonell JG; Cullingford RE; Gershman AV

1981-04-01

151

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU; Viorel CORNESCU

2012-01-01

152

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED FIRM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For sustainable competitive advantages gain, modern organizations, knowledge-based, must promote a proactive and flexible management, permanently connected to change which occur in business environment. Contextually, the paper analyses impact factors of the environment which could determine a firm to initiate a programme strategic organizational change. Likewise, the paper identifies the main organizational variables involved in a changing process and emphasizes the essential role which managers and entrepreneurs have in substantiation, elaboration and implementation of organizational change models.

VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU; VIOREL CORNESCU

2011-01-01

153

Knowledge crash and knowledge management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the imple...

Ermine, Jean-Louis

154

A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples ideia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro.Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Maria Eveline de Castro Pereira; Pedro César Teixeira Silva; Marco Antonio Ferreira da Costa; Claudia Jurberg; Cintia de Moraes Borba

2012-01-01

155

Contextual Control of Discriminated Operant Behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1-3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R; lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S; tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Bouton ME; Todd TP; León SP

2013-09-01

156

Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende, desde una perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente la categoría de género. En los seis apartados que lo componen, se realiza una crítica profunda de la ciencia social pero desde una óptica menos rígida en el planteamiento de categorías dicotómicas excluyentes como masculino-femenino, racional-afectivo, privado-público, o liberal - comunitario, por mencionar algunos tópicos centrales en los que se han suscitado varios de los debates sobre género. La metodología utilizada es la comparativa, a partir de la cual se analizan autores como Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre otros. Una de las principales conclusiones a la que se arriba en este artículo es que los tradicionales esquematismos, aun existentes en la actualidad, hacen muy difícil la posibilidad de alcanzar consensos amplios y postergan riesgosamente el tratamiento de problemas prácticos como los que, en el caso peruano, suponen la traducción del discurso de equidad en acciones y prácticas cotidianas concretas que permitan a los ciudadanos un real acceso a la justicia.Este artigo pretende, desde uma perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente a categoria gênero. Nas seis seções que o compõem procura realizar uma crítica profunda da ciência social, a partir, porém, de uma ótica menos rígida no tratamento de categorias dicotômicas excludentes tais como masculino-feminino, racional-afetivo, privado-público, liberal-comunitário, para mencionar alguns dos tópicos centrais suscitados pelos vários debates sobre gênero. A metodologia utilizada é a comparativa, a partir da qual se analisam autores como Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre outros. Uma das principais conclusões alcançadas neste trabalho é a de que os esquemas teóricos tradicionais, ainda existentes, dificultam a possibilidade de se alcançar amplos consensos e atrasam o equacionamento de problemas práticos, tais quais, no caso peruano, aqueles oriundos da tradução do discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça.This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

Soledad Escalante Beltrán

2006-01-01

157

Functional mapping of the circuits involved in the expression of contextual fear responses in socially defeated animals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we have aimed at outlining the neural systems underlying the expression of contextual fear to social defeat. First, we have developed an experimental procedure, where defeated animals could express, without the presence of a dominant aggressive male, robust and reliable conditioned fear responses to the context associated with social defeat. Next, by examining the pattern of Fos expression, we have been able to outline a brain circuit comprising septal and amygdalar sites, as well as downstream hypothalamic paths, putatively involved in the expression of contextual fear to social threat. Of particular relevance, we have found that exposure to a defeat-associated context results in a striking Fos up-regulation in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMDdm). To further understand the role of the PMDdm in the circuit organizing conditioned fear to social threats, we have been able to observe that pharmacological blockade of the PMDdm reduced fear responses to a social defeat-associated context. Next, we observed that pharmacological blockade of the dorsomedial part of the periaqueductal gray, one of the main targets of the PMDdm, produced an even higher reduction of conditioned fear in defeated intruders, and appears as an important node for the expression of contextual defensive responses to social threats. The present results help to elucidate the basic organization of the neural circuits underlying contextual conditioned responses to social defeat, and reveal that they share at least part of the same circuit involved in innate responses to social defeat to an aggressive conspecific.

Faturi CB; Rangel MJ Jr; Baldo MV; Canteras NS

2013-04-01

158

Knowledge Management  

CERN Document Server

This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

Gerami, Mohsen

2010-01-01

159

Knowledge Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

Mohsen Gerami

2010-01-01

160

A role for anterior thalamic nuclei in contextual fear memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the neural processes that govern the attribution of a predictive value to environmental stimuli is a major issue in behavioural neuroscience. The main strategy to explore this question has been the use of Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms. While a majority of studies have focussed on the specific role of the hippocampus and amygdala in contextual versus cued fear, very few studies examined the potential role of subcortical limbic areas. Among those, the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) connect to both the hippocampus and the amygdala and also to the cingulate region which is known to support fear-related activity. Here, we show that rats sustaining ATN lesions exhibit a specific impairment following context but not tone conditioning. ATN lesions slowed down acquisition without preventing normal freezing behaviour when rats were reexposed to the conditioning context 24 h later. However, ATN rats exhibited poor retrieval of contextual but not cued fear when assessed 3 weeks after conditioning. In addition, extinction was faster in ATN rats and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear was impaired by the lesions. These deficits indicate that contextual fear memories established in the absence of the ATN are not robust. Collectively, these findings support an involvement of the ATN in the circuits underlying contextual fear memory.

Marchand A; Faugère A; Coutureau E; Wolff M

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

The Cohomology of Non-Locality and Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a previous paper with Adam Brandenburger, we used sheaf theory to analyze the structure of non-locality and contextuality. Moreover, on the basis of this formulation, we showed that the phenomena of non-locality and contextuality can be characterized precisely in terms of obstructions to the existence of global sections. Our aim in the present work is to build on these results, and to use the powerful tools of sheaf cohomology to study the structure of non-locality and contextuality. We use the Cech cohomology on an abelian presheaf derived from the support of a probabilistic model, viewed as a compatible family of distributions, in order to define a cohomological obstruction for the family as a certain cohomology class. This class vanishes if the family has a global section. Thus the non-vanishing of the obstruction provides a sufficient (but not necessary) condition for the model to be contextual. We show that for a number of salient examples, including PR boxes, GHZ states, the Peres-Mermin magic square, and the 18-vector configuration due to Cabello et al. giving a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem in four dimensions, the obstruction does not vanish, thus yielding cohomological witnesses for contextuality.

Samson Abramsky; Shane Mansfield; Rui Soares Barbosa

2012-01-01

162

Contextualizing a MALL: Practice Design and Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile technologies have been successfully implemented in language learning, and have supported various innovative designs. However, many of these designs require considerable technical knowledge and support that are beyond the workload capacity of most language teachers. This paper discusses a study using an over-the-market mobile device combined…

Tai, Yaming

2012-01-01

163

A new contextual based feature selection.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pre processing phase is essential in Knowledge Data Discovery process. We study too particularly the data filtering in supervised context, and more precisely the feature selection. Our objective is to permit a better use of the data set. Most of filtering use myopic measures, and give bad result...

Senoussi, Hafida; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte

164

Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

2007-01-01

165

Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures.

Subotic, Branka [Centre for Transport Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: branka.subotic@imperial.ac.uk; Ochieng, Washington Y. [Centre for Transport Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.ochieng@imperial.ac.uk; Straeter, Oliver [EUROCONTROL, Safety and Security Management (DAS-SSM), Rue de la Fusee 96, B-1130 Brussels (Belgium)

2007-07-15

166

A Contextual-Bandit Approach to Personalized News Article Recommendation  

CERN Multimedia

Personalized web services strive to adapt their services (advertisements, news articles, etc) to individual users by making use of both content and user information. Despite a few recent advances, this problem remains challenging for at least two reasons. First, web service is featured with dynamically changing pools of content, rendering traditional collaborative filtering methods inapplicable. Second, the scale of most web services of practical interest calls for solutions that are both fast in learning and computation. In this work, we model personalized recommendation of news articles as a contextual bandit problem, a principled approach in which a learning algorithm sequentially selects articles to serve users based on contextual information about the users and articles, while simultaneously adapting its article-selection strategy based on user-click feedback to maximize total user clicks. The contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we propose a new, general contextual bandit algorithm that is ...

Li, Lihong; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

2010-01-01

167

Evaluation of contextual analysis for computer classification of cervical smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for automated analysis of cervical smears has been implemented in an image cytometry system. Smears are described exclusively in terms of global and contextual information extracted by pattern-recognition algorithms and represented by a vector of proportions of cellular object types. Linear discriminant functions, based on a Fisher criterion, are derived to classify smears with a cross-section of diagnoses into two broad categories, normal and abnormal. Results obtained from 83 smears indicate 78% correct classification. In contrast to most automated systems, good classification results were obtained in normal smears with benign changes caused by inflammation and with postmenopausal atrophia and in abnormals with mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that contextual analysis may be sensitive to subtle changes in cellular morphology and to progressive patterns of dysplasia. When used with standard isolated cell analysis, contextual analysis may provide additional complementary information for automated cervical prescreening. PMID:3556101

Garcia, G L; Kuklinski, W S; Zahniser, D J; Oud, P S; Vooys, P G; Brenner, J F

1987-03-01

168

Evaluation of contextual analysis for computer classification of cervical smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A procedure for automated analysis of cervical smears has been implemented in an image cytometry system. Smears are described exclusively in terms of global and contextual information extracted by pattern-recognition algorithms and represented by a vector of proportions of cellular object types. Linear discriminant functions, based on a Fisher criterion, are derived to classify smears with a cross-section of diagnoses into two broad categories, normal and abnormal. Results obtained from 83 smears indicate 78% correct classification. In contrast to most automated systems, good classification results were obtained in normal smears with benign changes caused by inflammation and with postmenopausal atrophia and in abnormals with mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that contextual analysis may be sensitive to subtle changes in cellular morphology and to progressive patterns of dysplasia. When used with standard isolated cell analysis, contextual analysis may provide additional complementary information for automated cervical prescreening.

Garcia GL; Kuklinski WS; Zahniser DJ; Oud PS; Vooys PG; Brenner JF

1987-03-01

169

State-independent experimental test of quantum contextuality  

CERN Document Server

The question of whether quantum phenomena can be explained by classical models with hidden variables is the subject of a long lasting debate. In 1964, Bell showed that certain types of classical models cannot explain the quantum mechanical predictions for specific states of distant particles. Along this line, some types of hidden variable models have been experimentally ruled out. An intuitive feature for classical models is non-contextuality: the property that any measurement has a value which is independent of other compatible measurements being carried out at the same time. However, the results of Kochen, Specker, and Bell show that non-contextuality is in conflict with quantum mechanics. The conflict resides in the structure of the theory and is independent of the properties of special states. It has been debated whether the Kochen-Specker theorem could be experimentally tested at all. Only recently, first tests of quantum contextuality have been proposed and undertaken with photons and neutrons. Yet thes...

Kirchmair, G; Gerritsma, R; Kleinmann, M; Gühne, O; Cabello, A; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

2009-01-01

170

Analysis of Some Recent Tests of Quantum Contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextuality plays a central role in many key proofs for the impossibility of hidden variables in quantum mechanics. The most famous among these is the Kochen-Specker theorem, which originally applied to a Hilbert space of three dimensions, but much simpler proofs in higher dimensions have since been found. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in contextuality, and a number of experiments have been performed to test it in the four-dimensional context. Recently, it has been shown that contextuality may be interpreted as the result of simple measurement disturbance if the set of measurements chosen are time-like separated [B. La Cour, Phys. Rev. A, 79, 012102 (2009)]. In this work, several such experiments will be reviewed, and it will be shown that none are capable of ruling out a realistic, local hidden variable interpretation.

La Cour, Brian R.

2010-05-01

171

Probing contextuality with pre- and post-selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By analyzing the concept of contextuality (Bell-Kochen-Specker) in terms of pre-and-post-selection (PPS), it is possible to assign definite values to observables in a new way. Physical reasons are presented for restrictions on these assignments. When measurements are performed which do not disturb the pre- and post-selection (i.e. weak measurements), then novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated including a proof that every PPS-paradox with definite predictions implies contextuality. Certain results of these measurements (eccentric weak values with e.g. negative values outside the spectrum), however, cannot be explained by a 'classical-like' hidden variable theory. Surprising theoretical implications are discussed.

2007-01-01

172

State-independent quantum contextuality with single photons  

CERN Multimedia

Bell's theorem states that quantum predictions cannot be reproduced with hidden variable theories satisfying locality. The Kochen-Specker theorem states that quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced with non-contextual hidden variables. The result of a measurement is non-contextual when it is not affected by other compatible measurements being carried out on the same individual system. While Bell's theorem applies only to entangled states of composite systems, a distinguishing feature of the Kochen-Specker theorem is that it is valid for any quantum state, entangled or not, of any system, even for single systems. We present the first experimental state-independent violation of an inequality for non-contextual theories on single particles in the spirit of the original Kochen-Specker theorem. The tested inequality involves correlations between results of sequential compatible measurements on single photons. We show that 20 different single-photon states, ranging from states with maximal internal entanglement to m...

Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

2009-01-01

173

Analysis of Some Recent Tests of Quantum Contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contextuality plays a central role in many key proofs for the impossibility of hidden variables in quantum mechanics. The most famous among these is the Kochen-Specker theorem, which originally applied to a Hilbert space of three dimensions, but much simpler proofs in higher dimensions have since been found. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in contextuality, and a number of experiments have been performed to test it in the four-dimensional context. Recently, it has been shown that contextuality may be interpreted as the result of simple measurement disturbance if the set of measurements chosen are time-like separated [B. La Cour, Phys. Rev. A, 79, 012102 (2009)]. In this work, several such experiments will be reviewed, and it will be shown that none are capable of ruling out a realistic, local hidden variable interpretation.

2010-05-04

174

Contextual Normalization Applied to Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Diagnosis  

CERN Document Server

Diagnosing faults in aircraft gas turbine engines is a complex problem. It involves several tasks, including rapid and accurate interpretation of patterns in engine sensor data. We have investigated contextual normalization for the development of a software tool to help engine repair technicians with interpretation of sensor data. Contextual normalization is a new strategy for employing machine learning. It handles variation in data that is due to contextual factors, rather than the health of the engine. It does this by normalizing the data in a context-sensitive manner. This learning strategy was developed and tested using 242 observations of an aircraft gas turbine engine in a test cell, where each observation consists of roughly 12,000 numbers, gathered over a 12 second interval. There were eight classes of observations: seven deliberately implanted classes of faults and a healthy class. We compared two approaches to implementing our learning strategy: linear regression and instance-based learning. We have...

Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Halasz, Michael

1993-01-01

175

Liberalismo y género: una perspectiva contextual/ Liberalismo e gênero: uma perspectiva contextual/ Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo pretende, desde uma perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente a categoria gênero. Nas seis seções que o compõem procura realizar uma crítica profunda da ciência social, a partir, porém, de uma ótica menos rígida no tratamento de categorias dicotômicas excludentes tais como masculino-feminino, racional-afetivo, privado-público, liberal-comunitário, para mencionar alguns dos tópicos centrais suscitados pelos vários debates sobre gênero. A meto (more) dologia utilizada é a comparativa, a partir da qual se analisam autores como Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre outros. Uma das principais conclusões alcançadas neste trabalho é a de que os esquemas teóricos tradicionais, ainda existentes, dificultam a possibilidade de se alcançar amplos consensos e atrasam o equacionamento de problemas práticos, tais quais, no caso peruano, aqueles oriundos da tradução do discurso de eqüidade em ações e em práticas cotidianas concretas, que permitam aos cidadãos um verdadeiro acesso à justiça. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo pretende, desde una perspectiva liberal, discutir contextualmente la categoría de género. En los seis apartados que lo componen, se realiza una crítica profunda de la ciencia social pero desde una óptica menos rígida en el planteamiento de categorías dicotómicas excluyentes como masculino-femenino, racional-afectivo, privado-público, o liberal - comunitario, por mencionar algunos tópicos centrales en los que se han suscitado varios de los de (more) bates sobre género. La metodología utilizada es la comparativa, a partir de la cual se analizan autores como Kohlberg, Gilligan, Rawls, entre otros. Una de las principales conclusiones a la que se arriba en este artículo es que los tradicionales esquematismos, aun existentes en la actualidad, hacen muy difícil la posibilidad de alcanzar consensos amplios y postergan riesgosamente el tratamiento de problemas prácticos como los que, en el caso peruano, suponen la traducción del discurso de equidad en acciones y prácticas cotidianas concretas que permitan a los ciudadanos un real acceso a la justicia. Abstract in english This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such (more) as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

Escalante Beltrán, Soledad

2006-06-01

176

Knowledge Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, SCK-CEN decided to adopt and implement a practical knowledge management approach. Knowledge management activities were identified within the organisation and a co-ordinated approach to knowledge management was applied. Such an approach requires an efficient reuse of recorded knowledge and an effective transfer of the available knowledge. This approach ensures an added value to our research work and guarantees the long-term preservation of the institutional memory. Principle results and future developments regarding knowledge management at SCK-CEN are summarised.

2004-01-01

177

Visual and Contextual Modeling for the Detection of Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently, there is a lack of computational methods for the evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, the development of automated analyses has been hindered by the subtle nature of mTBI abnormalities, which appear as low contrast MR regions. This paper proposes an approach that is able to detect mTBI lesions by combining both the high-level context and low-level visual information. The contextual model estimates the progression of the disease using subject information, such as the time since injury and the knowledge about the location of mTBI. The visual model utilizes texture features in MRI along with a probabilistic support vector machine to maximize the discrimination in unimodal MR images. These two models are fused to obtain a final estimate of the locations of the mTBI lesion. The models are tested using a novel rodent model of repeated mTBI dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the fusion of both contextual and visual textural features outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches. Clinically, our approach has the potential to benefit both clinicians by speeding diagnosis and patients by improving clinical care.

Bianchi A; Bhanu B; Donovan V; Obenaus A

2013-06-01

178

Combining ethnography and object-orientation for mobile interaction design : contextual richness and abstract models  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There has been a lot of interest in ethnography within human–computer interaction over the last two decades, and its relevance within systems development is today beyond question. However, one of the challenges reported is that ethnography generates findings and knowledge with such contextual richness that it can be hard to transfer into system design. In the light of recent years' push for the use of ethnography within the area of mobile human–computer interaction, this challenge has resurfaced and is of renewed importance to the research field. In this article we describe an interdisciplinary combination of ethnography with a structured software engineering method supporting the transition from collected data to design and implementation. We explore this combination through two case studies of mobile system development for supporting distributed work activities within industrial process control. We show that when developing mobile systems ethnographic data is a highly valuable source of input for developingobject-oriented models by providing contextual richness, and that in turn, objected-oriented analysis is a highly valuable method for working with ethnographic field data in systems development by supporting the creation of abstract models. Combining the two, we have a method where ethnographic field studies inform core system design.

Kjeldskov, Jesper; Stage, Jan

2012-01-01

179

Multipartite macroscopic locality and macroscopic non-contextuality  

CERN Multimedia

We study the problem of generalizing the idea of bipartite macroscopic locality to multipartite scenarios. After pointing out that the original definition of macroscopic locality leaves out relevant experimental settings, we derive the maximal set of correlations closed under classical maps and whose members give rise to local intensities at the macroscopic scale. We also formulate a new axiom, macroscopic non-contextuality, whose falsifiability just involves single-site experiments and seems to be very robust against external noise. Finally, we characterize the sets of macroscopically local and non-contextual correlations, and comment on the differences and similarities with respect to the quantum set.

Navascues, Miguel

2010-01-01

180

Towards Lightweight and Robust Large Scale Emergent Knowledge Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a lightweight framework for processing uncertain emergent knowledge that comes from multiple resources with varying relevance. The framework is essentially RDF-compatible, but allows also for direct representation of contextual features (e.g., provenance). We support soft integration and robust querying of the represented content based on well-founded notions of aggregation, similarity and ranking. A proof-of-concept implementation is presented and evaluated within large scale knowledge-based search in life science articles.

Nová?ek, Vít; Decker, Stefan

 
 
 
 
181

Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: For decades anatomic pathology (AP) workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users' needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. OBJECTIVE: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists' needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. RESULTS: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number of processes that may possibly improve following the introduction of digital pathology systems were identified. These work processes included case management, case examination and review, and final case reporting. Furthermore, a digital slide system should integrate with the anatomic pathologic laboratory information system. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilized the contextual inquiry method to document AP workflow. Findings were used to establish key requirements for the design of digital pathology systems.

Ho J; Aridor O; Parwani AV

2012-01-01

182

Local realist (but contextual) derivation of the EPR-Bohm correlations  

CERN Multimedia

By using the contextual approach to quantum probabilities we obtained the EPR-Bohm correlations in the local realist framework. This result does not contradict to Bell's arguments, since those arguments could not be used in the contextual probabilistic approach.

Khrennikov, A Yu

2002-01-01

183

Knowledge management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emergence of the Information Age necessitates the need to manage the organisation’s knowledge asset. The competitive advantage of the organisation depends on the quality of the organisation’s knowledge asset and the successful exploitation of it. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this expl...

Breedt, Marlize; Janse van Rensburg, Antonie C.

184

Interpretive case studies on the influence of a pre-service contextual science research course on novice science and mathematics teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

I conducted a follow-up, qualitative evaluation to help me understand how participation in a contextual science research course influenced two pre-service science and/or mathematics teacher participants as they begin to teach in their own classrooms as novice teachers. My specific questions for this dissertation were: (1) What are the beliefs towards the culture of science and the culture of science in the classroom of a novice science and a novice mathematics teacher after completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course? (2) What are the classroom practices of these novice teachers after completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course with respect to: (a) implementing constructivist-based, contextual science methodology in their own classrooms? (b) forming collaborations with scientists and the science community? (c) integrating science and mathematics in the classroom? (d) implementing inquiry-based, hands-on science activities? (3) After completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course, what are the influences on the novice teachers' constructions of (a) science content knowledge and/or (b) pedagogical content knowledge? The theoretical framework for this study is that of a constructivist epistemology, using the genre of interpretive case study. I utilized cultural-historical activity theory to look at the contradictions and coherences, to see how these influenced the participants' ability to transfer their experiences from the contextual science research to their own classrooms. To insure fairness and trustworthiness criteria of this study, I utilized fourth generation evaluation and the QSR NVivo software program to categorize and analyze the qualitative data. Findings show that participants learned science content, enhanced their beliefs about the culture of science and the image of the scientist, increased their pedagogical content knowledge with respect to understanding constructivist-based teaching, and integrated science and mathematics. Their practices, however, did not always match their beliefs. While participants were enthusiastic about the idea of forming collaborations with scientists, implementing contextual learning, and implementing the use of inquiry-based, hands-on, instruction, these practices were limited. Reliance on the use of the textbook and lecture were still very apparent. Pressures faced by novice teachers during their induction years could help explain these contradictions. I make suggestions for how to improve the program.

Hahn, Lori Livingston

185

Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, kno...

F. Hayes-Roth

1980-01-01

186

O efeito da interferência contextual em idosos/ The contextual interference effect in elderly people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da interferência contextual (EIC) na aquisição de habilidades motoras em idosos. Foi utilizada uma tarefa de posicionamento manual, caracterizada pelo transporte de três bolas de tênis em uma seqüência e tempo alvo pré-determinados. O experimento constou de 4 fases: 1) aquisição, 2) transferência 1 (T1), 3) transferência 2 (T2) e 4) retenção da aquisição. Os sujeitos foram divididos aleatoriamente em (more) quatro grupos (n=12): grupo de prática aleatória-aleatória (A-A), que realizou a tarefa de forma aleatória na aquisição e na retenção; grupo de prática aleatória-blocos (A-B), que realizou a aquisição de forma aleatória e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-blocos (B-B), que realizou a aquisição e a retenção em blocos; grupo de prática em blocos-aleatória (B-A), que realizou a aquisição em blocos e a retenção de forma aleatória. Os resultados mostraram que um dos grupos que praticou em regime aleatório apresentou-se mais variável durante a fase de aquisição que os grupos que praticaram em blocos. Entretanto, este mesmo grupo aleatório, no primeiro bloco do teste de retenção da aquisição, mostrou-se mais preciso que um dos grupos em blocos. Esses resultados confirmaram parcialmente o EIC em idosos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference effect (CIE) in the acquisition of motor skills in elderly people. A manual positioning task was used, it was characterized by the transport of three tennis ball in a movement sequence and predetermined target times. The experiment consisted of 4 phases: 1) acquisition, 2) transfer 1 (T1), 3) transfer 2 (T2) and 4) retention of the acquisition. The subjects were randomly distributed into four groups: (more) random-random group (R-R), which performed the tasks in a random order in the acquisition and retention; random-blocked group (R-B), which performed the acquisition in a random order and the retention in a blocked order; blocked-blocked group (B-B), which performed the tasks in a blocked order in the acquisition and retention; blocked-random group (B-R), which performed the acquisition in a blocked order and the retention in a random order. The results showed that one of the random groups was more variable during the acquisition compared to the both blocked groups. However, this random group, in the first block of the retention was more precise than one of the blocked groups. These results partially confirm the CIE in elderly people.

Gonçalves, Wesley R.; Lage, Guilherme M.; Silva, Alexandro B. da; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Benda, Rodolfo N.

2007-08-01

187

Representing Contextualized Information in the NSDL  

CERN Multimedia

The NSDL (National Science Digital Library) is funded by the National Science Foundation to advance science and match education. The inital product was a metadata-based digital library providing search and access to distributed resources. Our recent work recognizes the importance of context - relations, metadata, annotations - for the pedagogical value of a digital library. This new architecture uses Fedora, a tool for representing complex content, data, metadata, web-based services, and semantic relationships, as the basis of an information network overlay (INO). The INO provides an extensible knowl-edge base for an expanding suite of digital library services.

Lagoze, C; Cornwell, T; Eckstrom, D; Jesuroga, S; Wilper, C; Lagoze, Carl; Krafft, Dean; Cornwell, Tim; Eckstrom, Dean; Jesuroga, Susan; Wilper, Chris

2006-01-01

188

Neuroleptic Drugs Revert the Contextual Fear Conditioning Deficit Presented by Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Potential Animal Model of Emotional Context Processing in Schizophrenia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of th...

Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy

189

Transfer of contextual cueing in full-icon display remapping.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Invariant spatial context can expedite visual search, an effect that is known as contextual cueing (e.g., Chun & Jiang, 1998). However, disrupting learned display configurations abolishes the effect. In current touch-based mobile devices, such as the iPad, icons are shuffled and remapped when the display mode is changed. However, such remapping also disrupts the spatial relationships between icons. This may hamper usability. In the present study, we examined the transfer of contextual cueing in four different methods of display remapping: position-order invariant, global rotation, local invariant, and central invariant. We used full-icon landscape mode for training and both landscape and portrait modes for testing, to check whether the cueing transfers to portrait mode. The results showed transfer of contextual cueing but only with the local invariant and the central invariant remapping methods. We take the results to mean that the predictability of target locations is a crucial factor for the transfer of contextual cueing and thus icon remapping design for mobile devices.

Shi Z; Zang X; Jia L; Geyer T; Müller HJ

2013-01-01

190

Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

2010-01-01

191

Personal and contextual factors in the construction of acting careers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research intends to explore the personal and contextual factors that are the basis of the formulation and the implementation of vocational choices in acting careers. The twenty eight student actors that participated in the study were asked to write an auto-biographical description of the...

Bahia, Sara; Janeiro, Isabel; Duarte, Ricardo

192

Personal and Contextual Factors in the Construction of Acting Careers  

Science.gov (United States)

This research seeks to explore personal and contextual factors that form the basis of formulating and implementing vocational choices in acting careers. The twenty eight student actors that participated in the study were asked to write an auto-biographical description of personal factors and educational opportunities they recognised as decisive…

Bahia, Sara; Janeiro, Isabel; Duarte, Ricardo

2007-01-01

193

Flexible cerebral connectivity patterns subserve contextual modulations of pain.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The perception of pain can be significantly modulated by the behavioral context. Here, we investigated how contextual modulations of pain are subserved in the human brain. We independently modulated the attentional and emotional context of painful stimuli and recorded brain activity by using functio...

Ploner, M; Lee, MC; Wiech, K; Bingel, U; Tracey, I

194

Leveraging Wikipedia concept and category information to enhance contextual advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a prevalent type of Web advertising, contextual advertising refers to the placement of the most relevant ads into a Web page, so as to increase the number of ad-clicks. However, some problems of homonymy and polysemy, low intersection of keywords etc., can lead to the selection of irrelevant ads ...

Wu, Zongda; Xu, Guandong; Pan, Rong; Zhang, Yanchun; Hu, Zhiwen; Lu, Jianfeng

195

The Cohomology of Non-Locality and Contextuality  

CERN Document Server

In a previous paper with Adam Brandenburger, we used sheaf theory to analyze the structure of non-locality and contextuality. Moreover, on the basis of this formulation, we showed that the phenomena of non-locality and contextuality can be characterized precisely in terms of obstructions to the existence of global sections. Our aim in the present work is to build on these results, and to use the powerful tools of sheaf cohomology to study the structure of non-locality and contextuality. We use the Cech cohomology on an abelian presheaf derived from the support of a probabilistic model, viewed as a compatible family of distributions, in order to define a cohomological obstruction for the family as a certain cohomology class. This class vanishes if the family has a global section. Thus the non-vanishing of the obstruction provides a sufficient (but not necessary) condition for the model to be contextual. We show that for a number of salient examples, including PR boxes, GHZ states, and the 18-vector configurati...

Abramsky, Samson; Barbosa, Rui Soares

2011-01-01

196

A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica/ The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vinculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas. Abstract in english This article deals with the historiographic and archeological contextualization of the Mayan civilization. Its purpose is to trace the profile of the first explorations into archeological sites, the construction of the knowledge created around the first information obtained by Archeology, as well as the diverse research links undertaken in relation to the historical contexts of its time, and the theories used at present by the Mayanists.

Navarro, Alexandre Guida

2008-01-01

197

A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vinculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas.This article deals with the historiographic and archeological contextualization of the Mayan civilization. Its purpose is to trace the profile of the first explorations into archeological sites, the construction of the knowledge created around the first information obtained by Archeology, as well as the diverse research links undertaken in relation to the historical contexts of its time, and the theories used at present by the Mayanists.

Alexandre Guida Navarro

2008-01-01

198

[The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

Pereira ME; Silva PC; da Costa MA; Jurberg C; Borba Cde M

2012-06-01

199

Contextualized perceptions of movement as a source of expanded insight: People with multiple sclerosis' experience with physiotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hospitals' outpatient clinics for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are important in the health care. Research regarding physiotherapy in such clinics is limited. The purpose was to investigate how PwMS perceive movement during single sessions of physiotherapy in a hospital's outpatient clinic, and what do these experiences mean for the patient's insight into their movement disturbances? Qualitative research interviews were performed with a purposive sample of 12 PwMS and supplemented with seven videotaped sessions. Content analysis was performed. The results indicate that contextualized perceptions of movement appear to be an essential source for PwMS to gain expanded insight with regard to their individual movement disturbances regardless of their ambulatory status. The contextualization implies that perceptions of movement are integrated with the physiotherapist's explanations regarding optimizing gait and balance or other activities of daily life. Perceptions of improvement in body part movement and/or functional activities are vital to enhancing their understanding of their individual movement disorders, and they may provide expanded insight regarding future possibilities and limitations involving everyday tasks. The implementation of movements, which transforms the perceived improvement into self-assisted exercises, appeared to be meaningful. Contextualized perceptions of improvements in movement may strengthen the person's sense of ownership and sense of agency and thus promote autonomy and self-encouragement. The findings underpin the importance of contextualized perceptions of movement based on exploration of potential for change, as an integrated part of information and communication in the health care for PwMS. Further investigations are necessary to deepen our knowledge.

Normann B; Sørgaard KW; Salvesen R; Moe S

2013-01-01

200

Kidney segmentation in CT sequences using graph cuts based active contours model and contextual continuity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose: Accurate segmentation of renal tissues in abdominal computed tomography (CT) image sequences is an indispensable step for computer-aided diagnosis and pathology detection in clinical applications. In this study, the goal is to develop a radiology tool to extract renal tissues in CT sequences for the management of renal diagnosis and treatments.Methods: In this paper, the authors propose a new graph-cuts-based active contours model with an adaptive width of narrow band for kidney extraction in CT image sequences. Based on graph cuts and contextual continuity, the segmentation is carried out slice-by-slice. In the first stage, the middle two adjacent slices in a CT sequence are segmented interactively based on the graph cuts approach. Subsequently, the deformable contour evolves toward the renal boundaries by the proposed model for the kidney extraction of the remaining slices. In this model, the energy function combining boundary with regional information is optimized in the constructed graph and the adaptive search range is determined by contextual continuity and the object size. In addition, in order to reduce the complexity of the min-cut computation, the nodes in the graph only have n-links for fewer edges.Results: The total 30 CT images sequences with normal and pathological renal tissues are used to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of our method. The experimental results reveal that the average dice similarity coefficient of these image sequences is from 92.37% to 95.71% and the corresponding standard deviation for each dataset is from 2.18% to 3.87%. In addition, the average automatic segmentation time for one kidney in each slice is about 0.36 s.Conclusions: Integrating the graph-cuts-based active contours model with contextual continuity, the algorithm takes advantages of energy minimization and the characteristics of image sequences. The proposed method achieves effective results for kidney segmentation in CT sequences.

Zhang P; Liang Y; Chang S; Fan H

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

Ovidiu NICOLESCU

2007-01-01

202

Contextual modulation of orientation discrimination is independent of stimulus processing time.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual inhibition of neural activity in the primary visual cortex begins immediately and is most pronounced in the early transient response component. Using backward masking to control available processing time, we investigated whether the interaction between perceptual contextual modulation and processing time reflects the neural dynamics of contextual inhibition. We found that the threshold elevation due to contextual inhibition in an orientation-discrimination task is essentially independent of the available processing time and that it is closely related to contextual inhibition of the early transient response component of orientation-selective neurons in the primary visual cortex. PMID:11701176

Vidnyánszky, Z; Papathomas, T V; Julesz, B

2001-10-01

203

Classical systems can be contextual too: Analogue of the Mermin-Peres square  

CERN Multimedia

Contextuality lays at the heart of quantum mechanics. In the prevailing opinion it is considered as a signature of "quantumness" that classical theories lack. However, this assertion is hardly justified. Although contextuality is certainly true of quantum mechanics, it can not be taken by itself as discriminating against classical theories. Here we consider a representative example of contextual behavior, the so-called Mermin-Peres square, and present a simple discrete model which faithfully reproduces quantum predictions that lead to contradiction with the assumption of non-contextuality. This shows that quantum-like contextual effects have their analogues in the classical realm too.

Blasiak, Pawel

2013-01-01

204

Critical knowledge map as a decision tool for knowledge transfer actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge transfer is no longer reducible to classical solutions such as face-to-face training, technical education or tutoring. Knowledge to be transferred is professional knowledge (Business Knowledge). It involves the whole Knowledge Capital within an organization. Identifying the knowledge compo...

Ermine, Jean-Louis; Boughzala, Imed; Tounkara, Thierno

205

Abnormal contextual modulation of visual contour detection in patients with schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schizophrenia patients demonstrate perceptual deficits consistent with broad dysfunction in visual context processing. These include poor integration of segments forming visual contours, and reduced visual contrast effects (e.g. weaker orientation-dependent surround suppression, ODSS). Background image context can influence contour perception, as stimuli near the contour affect detection accuracy. Because of ODSS, this contextual modulation depends on the relative orientation between the contour and flanking elements, with parallel flankers impairing contour perception. However in schizophrenia, the impact of abnormal ODSS during contour perception is not clear. It is also unknown whether deficient contour perception marks genetic liability for schizophrenia, or is strictly associated with clinical expression of this disorder. We examined contour detection in 25 adults with schizophrenia, 13 unaffected first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 28 healthy controls. Subjects performed a psychophysics experiment designed to quantify the effect of flanker orientation during contour detection. Overall, patients with schizophrenia showed poorer contour detection performance than relatives or controls. Parallel flankers suppressed and orthogonal flankers enhanced contour detection performance for all groups, but parallel suppression was relatively weaker for schizophrenia patients than healthy controls. Relatives of patients showed equivalent performance with controls. Computational modeling suggested that abnormal contextual modulation in schizophrenia may be explained by suppression that is more broadly tuned for orientation. Abnormal flanker suppression in schizophrenia is consistent with weaker ODSS and/or broader orientation tuning. This work provides the first evidence that such perceptual abnormalities may not be associated with a genetic liability for schizophrenia.

Schallmo MP; Sponheim SR; Olman CA

2013-01-01

206

Sharing knowledge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

2009-07-01

207

Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

Fricke, C.; Faust, B. [Division principale de la Securite des Installations Nucleaires, Section Information, Recherche de la Securite et Affiaires Internationales (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Brigitte.faust@hsk.ch

2006-07-01

208

Contextual Classification of Image Patches with Latent Aspect Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a novel approach for contextual classification of image patches in complex visual scenes, based on the use of histograms of quantized features and probabilistic aspect models. Our approach uses context in two ways: (1) by using the fact that specific learned aspects correlate with the semantic classes, which resolves some cases of visual polysemy often present in patch-based representations, and (2) by formalizing the notion that scene context is image-specific—what an individual patch represents depends on what the rest of the patches in the same image are. We demonstrate the validity of our approach on a man-made versus natural patch classification problem. Experiments on an image collection of complex scenes show that the proposed approach improves region discrimination, producing satisfactory results and outperforming two noncontextual methods. Furthermore, we also show that co-occurrence and traditional (Markov random field) spatial contextual information can be conveniently integrated for further improved patch classification.

Florent Monay; Pedro Quelhas; Jean-Marc Odobez; Daniel Gatica-Perez

2009-01-01

209

Investigating cue competition in contextual cuing of visual search.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fundamental principle of learning is that predictive cues or signals compete with each other to gain control over behavior. Associative and propositional reasoning theories of learning provide radically different accounts of cue competition. Propositional accounts predict that under conditions that do not afford or warrant the use of higher order reasoning processes, cue competition should not be observed. We tested this prediction in 2 contextual cuing experiments, using a visual search task in which patterns of distractor elements predict the location of a target object. Blocking designs were used in which 2 sets of predictive distractors were trained in compound, with 1 set trained independently. There was no evidence of cue competition in either experiment. In fact, in Experiment 2, we found evidence for augmentation of learning. The findings are contrasted with the predictions of an error-driven associative model of contextual cuing (Brady & Chun, 2007).

Beesley T; Shanks DR

2012-05-01

210

TECHNOLOGICAL INTEGRATION FOR INCREASING THE CONTEXTUAL LEVEL OF INFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile devices and applications are becoming increasingly present in everyday life and they represent an important success factor in business. Through this work we aim to provide end users a significant increase in the level of contextual information using the Android platform for mobile application development. The idea of the "Where?" application is based on a collaborative architecture involving actors from the business (pharmacies, banks, restaurants, hospitals, etc.) and the end users as primary beneficiaries of the system. In essence, the user needs a service that will be able to locate the best deal to suit its contextual and temporal and spatial availability of the service provider. The proposed new architecture and the application have the possibility to integrate into a single system the local customer needs and business opportunities, directing the beneficiary to the most appropriate location, taking into account the custom criteria.

Octavian DOSPINESCU; Marian PERCA

2011-01-01

211

“Inter-Communicating”: Phenomenological Perspectives on Embodied Communication and Contextuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on phenomenological perspectives on embodied communication and con-textuality, this paper contributes to a more integral understanding of the constitutive role of communicating in organising and organisations. Relating to the recent turn towards interpreting emergent communication as constitutive for organisation, the paper shows the supplementing role of advanced phenomenology of the body, embodiment and inter-corporeity as well as creative expression for transcending the materialist-idealist dualism and interpreting relational communication. After presenting a phenomenological understanding of embodied communication the status of language as a living process is discussed. Then communication is interpreted as embodied, intentional and responsive practice and as such being part of a specific contextuality in organizations. Finally the process of “inter-communicating” and further implications will be discussed.

Wendelin M. Küpers

2012-01-01

212

Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization) and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment) principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do) whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

Bertrand T. David; René Chalon; Olivier Champalle; Guillaume Masserey; Chuantao Yin

2007-01-01

213

Almost compatible observables in quantum tests of contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kochen-Specker-Theorem proves that in a hidden variable description of a quantum system, the value of a particular property (observable) depends on the context in which the value is to be revealed. The conflict here is between the hidden variable approach and the theory of quantum mechanics. In order to establish this conflict as the inability to employ a hidden variable description of an actual experiment, it has been suggested to extend the notion of non-contextuality to sequential measurements of compatible observables. However, in an experimental implementation the requirement of perfect compatibility cannot be reached. We show that this ''compatibility loophole'' can be addressed and that a recent experiment using trapped ions then excludes a large class of non-contextual hidden variable models.

2010-01-01

214

Maximal violation of state-independent contextuality inequalities  

Science.gov (United States)

The discussion on noncontextual hidden variable models as an underlying description for the quantum-mechanical predictions started in ernest with 1967 paper by Kochen and Specker. There, it was shown that no noncontextual hidden-variable model can give these predictions. The proof used in that paper is complicated, but recently, a paper by Yu and Oh [PRL, 2012] proposes a simpler statistical proof that can also be the basis of an experimental test. Here we report on a sharper version of that statistical proof, and also explain why the algebraic upper bound to the expressions used are not reachable, even with a reasonable contextual hidden variable model. Specifically, we show that the quantum mechanical predictions reach the maximal possible value for a contextual model that keeps the expectation value of the measurement outcomes constant.

Larsson, Jan-A.?ke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Budroni, Constantino; Gühne, Otfried; Cabello, Adán

2012-12-01

215

Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design : a Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer relations. Involving customer relations in the design project had a powerful effect: it was revealed that the system the organization believed they needed was irrelevant, while they needed another system nobody had thought of beforehand. The paper presents the case by describing the setting and starting point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design.

Simonsen, Jesper

1996-01-01

216

Ontological semantics for gathering and routing contextual knowledge in highly distributed autonomic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much recent research has focused on applying Autonomic Computing principles to achieve constrained self-management in adaptive systems, through self-monitoring and analysis, strategy planning, and self adjustment. However, in a highly distributed system, just monitoring current operation and context...

KEENEY, JOHN; LEWIS, DAVID; O'SULLIVAN, DECLAN

217

Contextualizing an EFL teacher's beliefs about grammar teaching  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo reporta um estudo qualitativo que enfocou as crenças e práticas de uma professora de inglês-LE relacionadas ao ensino da gramática. O estudo objetivou investigar como as crenças da professora poderiam ser contextualizadas com dados da sala de aula. No primeiro estágio de análise e coleta de dados, um questionário foi aplicado à professora. Posteriormente, para contextualizar as crenças encontradas na análise do questionário, o segundo estágio de a (more) nálise e coleta de dados enfocou episódios das aulas da professora. A análise dos dados mostrou que, de acordo com essa professora, o ensino da gramática deveria ser usado como um recurso facilitador para ajudar os alunos em seus processos de aprendizagem. Os resultados também indicaram que as crenças da professora são influenciadas por três fatores interativos: cognitivo, contextual e experiencial. Abstract in english This article reports on a qualitative study that focused on an EFL teacher's beliefs and her practices concerning grammar teaching. The study aimed at investigating how the teacher's beliefs could be contextualized with classroom data. In the first stage of data collection and analysis, an open questionnaire was given to the teacher. Then, as a means of contextualizing the beliefs found in the analysis of the questionnaire data, the second stage of data collection and ana (more) lysis focused on episodes from the teacher's classes. The analysis of the data shows that, according to this teacher, grammar teaching should be used as a facilitative device in order to help students in their learning process. The results of this study also indicate that the teacher's beliefs are influenced by three interactive sources: cognitive, contextual and experiential.

Gil, Gloria; Carazzai, Marcia Regina Pawlas

2007-01-01

218

The Contextual Character of Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics  

CERN Multimedia

In this article we discuss the contextual character of quantum mechanics in the framework of modal interpretations. We investigate its historical origin and relate contemporary modal interpretations to those proposed by M. Born and W. Heisenberg. We present then a general characterization of what we consider to be a modal interpretation. Following previous papers in which we have introduced modalities in the Kochen-Specker theorem, we investigate the consequences of these theorems in relation to the modal interpretations of quantum mechanics.

Domenech, Graciela; de Ronde, Christian

2007-01-01

219

Quantum Contextuality in a Single-Neutron Optical Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality with neutrons is presented, which intended to exhibit a Kochen-Specker-like phenomenon. Since no perfect correlation is expected in practical experiments, inequalities are derived to distinguish quantitatively the obtained results from predictions by a noncontextual hidden variable theory. Experiments were accomplished with the use of a neutron interferometer combined with spinor manipulation devices. The results clearly violate the prediction of noncontextual theories.

2006-12-08

220

Contextual Value-definiteness and the Kochen-Specker Paradox  

CERN Multimedia

Compatibility between the realist tenants of value-definiteness and causality is called into question by several realism impossibility proofs in which their formal elements are shown to conflict. We review how this comes about in the Kochen-Specker and von Neumann proofs and point out a connection between their key assumptions: a constraint on realist causality via additivity in the latter proof, noncontextuality in the former. We conclude that value-definiteness and contextuality are indeed not mutually exclusive.

Williams, K

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Contextualizing an EFL teacher's beliefs about grammar teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reports on a qualitative study that focused on an EFL teacher's beliefs and her practices concerning grammar teaching. The study aimed at investigating how the teacher's beliefs could be contextualized with classroom data. In the first stage of data collection and analysis, an open questionnaire was given to the teacher. Then, as a means of contextualizing the beliefs found in the analysis of the questionnaire data, the second stage of data collection and analysis focused on episodes from the teacher's classes. The analysis of the data shows that, according to this teacher, grammar teaching should be used as a facilitative device in order to help students in their learning process. The results of this study also indicate that the teacher's beliefs are influenced by three interactive sources: cognitive, contextual and experiential.Este artigo reporta um estudo qualitativo que enfocou as crenças e práticas de uma professora de inglês-LE relacionadas ao ensino da gramática. O estudo objetivou investigar como as crenças da professora poderiam ser contextualizadas com dados da sala de aula. No primeiro estágio de análise e coleta de dados, um questionário foi aplicado à professora. Posteriormente, para contextualizar as crenças encontradas na análise do questionário, o segundo estágio de análise e coleta de dados enfocou episódios das aulas da professora. A análise dos dados mostrou que, de acordo com essa professora, o ensino da gramática deveria ser usado como um recurso facilitador para ajudar os alunos em seus processos de aprendizagem. Os resultados também indicaram que as crenças da professora são influenciadas por três fatores interativos: cognitivo, contextual e experiencial.

Gloria Gil; Marcia Regina Pawlas Carazzai

2007-01-01

222

Contextualizing Risk in the Assessment of Intellectually Disabled Individuals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we examine the idea of expanding structured clinical judgement from primarily offender variables to a broader framework in which environmental (including staff) variables are given equal consideration in a comprehensive risk appraisal conducted for risk management purposes of intellectually disabled individuals. It is posited that only by contextualizing the individual’s risk within environmental variables can an accurate portrayal of current dynamic risk (and hence the management of that risk) be construed.

Douglas P. Boer; Keith R. McVilly; Frank Lambrick

2007-01-01

223

Emergence of non-contextuality in macroscopic systems  

CERN Multimedia

Quantum theory is no doubt the most successful invention of humanity on par with Cuban cigars and single malt whiskey. Nevertheless it has been plagued by numerous interpretational and conceptual problems since its birth. One such problem is the emergence of the classicality of the macroscopic world from its underlying quantum structure. In particular, the macroscopic world doesn't appear to be contextual, even though the fabric of reality is; we propose an explanation for this.

Kurzynski, Pawel; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2011-01-01

224

Testing contextuality on quantum ensembles with one clean qubit  

CERN Multimedia

We present a protocol to evaluate the expectation value of the correlations of measurement outcomes for ensembles of quantum systems, and use it to experimentally demonstrate--under an assumption of fair sampling--the violation of an inequality that is satisfied by any non-contextual hidden-variables (NCHV) theory. The experiment is performed on an ensemble of molecular nuclear spins in the solid state, using established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques for quantum information processing (QIP).

Moussa, O; Cory, D G; Laflamme, R

2009-01-01

225

Response-relapse patterns of building occupant electricity consumption following exposure to personal, contextualized and occupant peer network utilization data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Behavior can account for significant differences in building energy use. Monitoring and reporting of building energy use may induce occupants to conserve energy. The goal of this study was to assess the behavioral impact of providing building occupants with personal electricity utilization data contextualized with different social frames of reference. We installed monitoring equipment on the electrical meters for 83 rooms of a six-floor residential dormitory building and formulated three study groups and a control group from the building occupants. One study group was provided with their own electricity use, a second group was provided their own electricity use contextualized with average building occupant utilization, and a third group was provided with their own electricity use contextualized with both average occupant utilization and the electricity use of their peer network in the building. The only group that significantly reduced their electricity use when compared to the control group was the study group that could view peer network utilization. All three study groups exhibited response-relapse patterns after viewing their electricity consumption raising important questions about the sustainability of energy conservation and monitoring efforts. (author)

Peschiera, Gabriel; Taylor, John E. [Dept of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Columbia University, New York (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Dept of Civil Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

2010-08-15

226

A study on factors influencing implementation of knowledge management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Replacement in organization’s employees can results in knowledge loss and turnover faces a serious problem in knowledge based organizations such as knowledge based sectors of governmental organizations. The increases in sizes of some governmental organizations in recent years have increased their structural and contextual dimensions. One of the biggest problems in governmental organizations is employee turnover, which could result to knowledge loss. By using knowledge management it is possible to decrease this phenomenon. This survey identifies the effective factors in implementation of knowledge management system as a solution for preventing knowledge loss. By far this study is the first of its kind in the context of information technology sectors of governmental organizations of ARAK Province of Iran.

Behdad Gitinejad; Mohammad Ali Keramati

2013-01-01

227

Medical ultrasound image compression using contextual vector quantization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With ever increasing use of medical ultrasound (US) images, a challenge exists to deal with storage and transmission of these images while still maintaining high diagnostic quality. In this article, a state-of-the-art context based method is proposed to overcome this challenge called contextual vector quantization (CVQ). In this method, a contextual region is defined as a region containing the most important information and must be encoded without considerable quality loss. Attempts are made to encode this region with high priority and high resolution (low compression ratio and high bit rate) CVQ algorithm; and the background, which has a lower priority, is separately encoded with a low resolution (high compression ratio and low bit rate) version of the CVQ algorithm. Finally both of the encoded contextual region and the encoded background region is merged together to reconstruct the output image. As a result, very good diagnostic image quality with lower image size and enhanced performance parameters including mean square error (MSE), pick signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and coefficient of correlation (CoC) are gained. The experimental results show that the proposed CVQ methodology is superior as compared to other existing methods (general methods such as JPEG and JPEG2K, and ROI based methods such as EBCOT and CSPIHT) in terms of measured performance parameters. This makes CVQ compression method a feasible technique to overcome storage and transmission limitations.

Hosseini SM; Naghsh-Nilchi AR

2012-07-01

228

Medical ultrasound image compression using contextual vector quantization.  

Science.gov (United States)

With ever increasing use of medical ultrasound (US) images, a challenge exists to deal with storage and transmission of these images while still maintaining high diagnostic quality. In this article, a state-of-the-art context based method is proposed to overcome this challenge called contextual vector quantization (CVQ). In this method, a contextual region is defined as a region containing the most important information and must be encoded without considerable quality loss. Attempts are made to encode this region with high priority and high resolution (low compression ratio and high bit rate) CVQ algorithm; and the background, which has a lower priority, is separately encoded with a low resolution (high compression ratio and low bit rate) version of the CVQ algorithm. Finally both of the encoded contextual region and the encoded background region is merged together to reconstruct the output image. As a result, very good diagnostic image quality with lower image size and enhanced performance parameters including mean square error (MSE), pick signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and coefficient of correlation (CoC) are gained. The experimental results show that the proposed CVQ methodology is superior as compared to other existing methods (general methods such as JPEG and JPEG2K, and ROI based methods such as EBCOT and CSPIHT) in terms of measured performance parameters. This makes CVQ compression method a feasible technique to overcome storage and transmission limitations. PMID:22608347

Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad-Reza

2012-05-17

229

Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed.

Engelmann JB; Hein G

2013-01-01

230

Quantum contextual phenomena observed in single-neutron interferometer experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron optical experiments are presented, which exhibit quantum contextual phenomena. Entanglement is achieved not between particles, but between degrees of freedom, in this case, for a single-particle. Appropriate combinations of the direction of spin analysis and the position of the phase shifter allow an experimental verification of the violation of a Bell-like inequality. Our experiments manifest the fact that manipulation of the wavefunction in one Hilbert space influences the result of the measurement in the other Hilbert space: manipulation without touch! Next, we report another experiment which exhibits other peculiarity of quantum contextuality, e.g., originally intended to show a Kochen-Specker-like phenomenon. We have introduced inequalities for quantitative analysis of the experiments. The value obtained in the experiments clearly showed violations of prediction by non-contextual theory. Finally, we have accomplished a tomographic determination of entangled quantum state in single-neutrons. There, characteristics of the Bell-sate are confirmed: four poles for the real part of the density matrix are clearly seen.

2006-01-04

231

Functional mapping of the circuits involved in the expression of contextual fear responses in socially defeated animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have aimed at outlining the neural systems underlying the expression of contextual fear to social defeat. First, we have developed an experimental procedure, where defeated animals could express, without the presence of a dominant aggressive male, robust and reliable conditioned fear responses to the context associated with social defeat. Next, by examining the pattern of Fos expression, we have been able to outline a brain circuit comprising septal and amygdalar sites, as well as downstream hypothalamic paths, putatively involved in the expression of contextual fear to social threat. Of particular relevance, we have found that exposure to a defeat-associated context results in a striking Fos up-regulation in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMDdm). To further understand the role of the PMDdm in the circuit organizing conditioned fear to social threats, we have been able to observe that pharmacological blockade of the PMDdm reduced fear responses to a social defeat-associated context. Next, we observed that pharmacological blockade of the dorsomedial part of the periaqueductal gray, one of the main targets of the PMDdm, produced an even higher reduction of conditioned fear in defeated intruders, and appears as an important node for the expression of contextual defensive responses to social threats. The present results help to elucidate the basic organization of the neural circuits underlying contextual conditioned responses to social defeat, and reveal that they share at least part of the same circuit involved in innate responses to social defeat to an aggressive conspecific. PMID:23546547

Faturi, C B; Rangel, M J; Baldo, M V C; Canteras, N S

2013-04-01

232

Using evidence in health promotion in local government: contextual realities and opportunities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ISSUE ADDRESSED: New national and state preventive health investments have provided significant funding for local governments (LGs) to be involved in planning and implementing health promotion interventions. There is an expectation that this work is evidence based; however, inadequate support and systems exist for evidence-informed planning and decision making in LGs. Previous initiatives have aimed to build capacity and leadership in LG health promotion, but the training, support and infrastructure have been sporadic. METHODS: Across 2009-11 we implemented a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC)-funded university-LG research project to explore the feasibility, usefulness and outcomes of a knowledge translation (KT) intervention to increase the use of evidence in LGs. Within this exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial, one strategy being evaluated was workforce capacity building, during which group discussions revealed contextual challenges in delivering evidence-informed health promotion within the current funding context. Discussion was recorded. The group acknowledged the need to identify barriers and realistic practical solutions, and to communicate these more broadly. RESULTS: Barriers to sourcing and applying evidence to inform health promotion emerged from discussions with LG representatives. System-level contextual factors affecting decisions were also discussed, namely concerns about organisational capacity and 'culture' to plan, implement and evaluate effective initiatives in LGs. Possible solutions suggested included: systems for access to academic literature; processes that make it easier to use evidence; training in evidence-informed health promotion to build organisational culture and capacity; and research-practice partnerships and mentoring. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted strategies with individuals (LG staff) and organisations (leadership, systems) are needed to realise the potential of current health promotion investments. Research-practice partnerships are likely to be important. It seems obvious that it is impossible to be evidence informed without mechanisms to access and apply evidence. We invite other LGs to reflect upon their experiences in such initiatives, and to consider whether the strategies we propose may be useful. So what? The increased emphasis on health promotion and non-communicable disease prevention programs may be limited by the capacity, confidence and organisational culture to inform policies and programs with best-available evidence. We describe some of the current challenges and contextual factors as they are being experienced. There are opportunities for national and state governments, organisations representing local government (e.g. municipal associations) and research partners to provide targeted support to councils. This may assist in achieving effective health promotion at the community level.

Pettman TL; Armstrong R; Pollard B; Evans R; Stirrat A; Scott I; Davies-Jackson G; Waters E

2013-04-01

233

Knowledge Fascism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight.

Hendricks, Vincent Fella

234

Distinct contribution of the parietal and temporal cortex to hand configuration and contextual judgements about tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropsychological studies showed that manipulatory and semantic knowledge can be independently impaired in patients with upper-limb apraxia, leading to different tool use disorders. The present study aimed to dissociate the brain regions involved in judging the hand configuration or the context associated to tool use. We focussed on the left supramarginalis gyrus (SMG) and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), whose activation, as evidenced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, suggests that they may play a critical role in tool use. The distinctive location of SMG in the dorsal visual stream led us to postulate that this parietal region could play a role in processing incoming information about tools to shape hand posture. In contrast, we hypothesized that MTG, because of its interconnections with several cortical areas involved in semantic memory, could contribute to retrieving semantic information necessary to create a contextual representation of tool use. To test these hypotheses, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere transiently with the function of either left SMG or left MTG in healthy participants performing judgement tasks about either hand configuration or context of tool use. We found that SMG virtual lesions impaired hand configuration but not contextual judgements, whereas MTG lesions selectively interfered with judgements about the context of tool use while leaving hand configuration judgements unaffected. This double dissociation demonstrates that the ability to infer a context of use or a hand posture from tool perception relies on distinct processes, performed in the temporal and parietal regions. The present findings suggest that tool use disorders caused by SMG lesions will be characterized by difficulties in selecting the appropriate hand posture for tool use, whereas MTG lesions will yield difficulties in using tools in the appropriate context. PMID:23313011

Andres, Michael; Pelgrims, Barbara; Olivier, Etienne

2012-12-10

235

Distinct contribution of the parietal and temporal cortex to hand configuration and contextual judgements about tools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neuropsychological studies showed that manipulatory and semantic knowledge can be independently impaired in patients with upper-limb apraxia, leading to different tool use disorders. The present study aimed to dissociate the brain regions involved in judging the hand configuration or the context associated to tool use. We focussed on the left supramarginalis gyrus (SMG) and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), whose activation, as evidenced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, suggests that they may play a critical role in tool use. The distinctive location of SMG in the dorsal visual stream led us to postulate that this parietal region could play a role in processing incoming information about tools to shape hand posture. In contrast, we hypothesized that MTG, because of its interconnections with several cortical areas involved in semantic memory, could contribute to retrieving semantic information necessary to create a contextual representation of tool use. To test these hypotheses, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere transiently with the function of either left SMG or left MTG in healthy participants performing judgement tasks about either hand configuration or context of tool use. We found that SMG virtual lesions impaired hand configuration but not contextual judgements, whereas MTG lesions selectively interfered with judgements about the context of tool use while leaving hand configuration judgements unaffected. This double dissociation demonstrates that the ability to infer a context of use or a hand posture from tool perception relies on distinct processes, performed in the temporal and parietal regions. The present findings suggest that tool use disorders caused by SMG lesions will be characterized by difficulties in selecting the appropriate hand posture for tool use, whereas MTG lesions will yield difficulties in using tools in the appropriate context.

Andres M; Pelgrims B; Olivier E

2013-09-01

236

Contextually authentic science for young children: A study of two summer herpetology programs  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge, skills, and dispositions enabled for elementary school participants in two summer herpetology programs, one in North Carolina and one in Florida. An additional purpose of this study was to examine the normative scientific practices in which participants engaged and to describe how these experiences differed across each of the herpetology programs. Finally, the program structures of Herpetology and Reptiles were compared to determine how each herpetology program's activities and methodologies impacted participants' perceptions of authentic science. A goal of this study was to expand and broaden the understanding of how authentic science program structure impacts what is enabled for participants in terms of knowledge, skills, and dispositions gained. This study built on previous research of contextually authentic science practices (Buxton, 2006). This study was conducted and the data analyzed using an interpretative case study, mixed methods approach. Data collected included: video and audio data from classroom and field sessions, participant focus group interviews, photographs, and photo elicitation interviews. Participants' science journals were collected and analyzed. Pre- and post-assessments and surveys were administered and analyzed for twenty-four participants, twelve participants from the Herpetology program and twelve participants from the Reptiles program.

Scott, Catherine Marie

237

Teaching Intercultural Communication in China and Australia: Intellectual and Contextual Constraints and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the world turns more towards China through trade, tourism and knowledge exchange, Chinese professionals will increasingly need to communicate directly with foreigners inside China. This face-to-face communication will require not only linguistic and communicative competence, but also a deep cultural knowledge of China as well as of other cultures, to help strangers adapt effectively to Chinese cultural contexts and to improve mutual understanding. In this paper we suggest that it might be useful for Chinese teachers of intercultural communication to examine their assumptions and practices by comparing them with those in other countries. We illustrate this argument through a comparison of the teaching of intercultural communication in Yunnan with an equivalent program in professional education in Melbourne. We argue that there are many similarities in the two programs, reflecting their common disciplinary basis. There are also differences between the programs reflecting different assumptions about teaching and learning, and different contexts of intercultural communication. This comparison helps identify the cultural and contextual influences on what is currently identified as appropriate in Yunnan, and the possible constraints on how much the program could be altered without clashing with acceptable aims, strategies and outcomes. Key words: Intercultural Communication; Communicative Competence; Professional Education; Globalization

Ying HUANG; Keith Simkin

2011-01-01

238

Deletion or activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and contextual fear memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxin and serves multiple developmental roles. In the adult brain, while we now localize AhR mRNA to nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, its function is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that AhR participates in hippocampal neurogenesis and associated functions. AhR deletion and activation by the potent environmental toxicant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), adversely impacted neurogenesis and cognition. Adult AhR-deficient mice exhibited impaired hippocampal-dependent contextual fear memory while hippocampal-independent memory remained intact. AhR-deficient mice displayed reduced cell birth, decreased cell survival, and diminished neuronal differentiation in the DG. Following TCDD exposure, wild-type mice exhibited impaired hippocampal-dependent contextual memory, decreased cell birth, reduced neuronal differentiation, and fewer mature neurons in the DG. Glial differentiation and apoptosis were not altered in either TCDD-exposed or AhR-deficient mice. Finally, defects observed in TCDD-exposed mice were dependent on AhR, as TCDD had no negative effects in AhR-deficient mice. Our findings suggest that AhR should be further evaluated as a potential transcriptional regulator of hippocampal neurogenesis and function, although other sites of action may also warrant consideration. Moreover, TCDD exposure should be considered as an environmental risk factor that disrupts adult neurogenesis and potentially related memory processes. PMID:23240617

Latchney, Sarah E; Hein, Amy M; O'Banion, M Kerry; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Opanashuk, Lisa A

2013-01-07

239

Deletion or activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and contextual fear memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxin and serves multiple developmental roles. In the adult brain, while we now localize AhR mRNA to nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, its function is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that AhR participates in hippocampal neurogenesis and associated functions. AhR deletion and activation by the potent environmental toxicant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), adversely impacted neurogenesis and cognition. Adult AhR-deficient mice exhibited impaired hippocampal-dependent contextual fear memory while hippocampal-independent memory remained intact. AhR-deficient mice displayed reduced cell birth, decreased cell survival, and diminished neuronal differentiation in the DG. Following TCDD exposure, wild-type mice exhibited impaired hippocampal-dependent contextual memory, decreased cell birth, reduced neuronal differentiation, and fewer mature neurons in the DG. Glial differentiation and apoptosis were not altered in either TCDD-exposed or AhR-deficient mice. Finally, defects observed in TCDD-exposed mice were dependent on AhR, as TCDD had no negative effects in AhR-deficient mice. Our findings suggest that AhR should be further evaluated as a potential transcriptional regulator of hippocampal neurogenesis and function, although other sites of action may also warrant consideration. Moreover, TCDD exposure should be considered as an environmental risk factor that disrupts adult neurogenesis and potentially related memory processes.

Latchney SE; Hein AM; O'Banion MK; DiCicco-Bloom E; Opanashuk LA

2013-05-01

240

Leitura contextual e o processamento metalinguístico: considerações teóricas Lectura contextual y proceso metalingüístico: consideraciones teóricas Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing: theorectical considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O ato de ler não é um processo simples, pois envolve uma série de operações cognitivas, principalmente operações metalinguísticas. Estudos que investigam o papel dessas habilidades, na leitura, demonstram que a capacidade de refletir sobre os sons da fala, a consciência fonológica, contribui para leitura de palavras isoladas e compreensão de texto, ajudando a decodificação. Já outros estudos apontam que as pistas sintáticas e semânticas presentes no contexto são um forte recurso para a leitura, principalmente em leitores com dificuldades, pois ajudam a criança a reconhecer as palavras sem mediação fonológica. Recentemente, modelos interativos sugerem que a leitura contextual envolve a mediação fonológica que interage com as informações sintático-semânticas. Este estudo discute as implicações teóricas dessa questão.El acto de leer no es un proceso simple, por que engloba una clase de operaciones cognitivas, principalmente de las acciones metalingüísticas. Estudios que investigan el papel de estas habilidades en la lectura demuestran que la capacidad de reflecións sobre los sonidos de hablar, la consciencia fonológica, contribuye para lectura de palabras aislados y comprensión de textos, ayudando a decodificación. Ya otros estudios apuntan que las pistas semánticas e sintácticas del contexto, consciencia morfosintáctica, son un fuerte recurso para la lectura, principalmente en lectores, con dificultades, pues ayudan los niños reconocer las palabras sin mediación fonológica. Recientemente, modelos interactivos sugieren que la lectura contextual engloba la mediación fonológica que interactúa con las informaciones sintáctico/semántico. Ese artigo discute las implicaciones teóricas de la cuestión.The act of reading is not a simple process, as it involves a series of cognitive operations, specially metalinguisticoperations. Studies that investigate the role that these abilities play in reading show that the capacity to reflect upon word's sounds, phonological awareness, contributes to reading single words and reading comprehension. Others point out that syntact and semantic cues from context are a powerful resource for aiding reading, especially for readers, that experience difficulties, as they help the child to recognize words without phonological mediation. Recently, interactive models suggest that contextual reading interact with syntactic/semantic information. This papers discuss this issue theoretical implications.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota; Silvia Brilhante Guimarães

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Leitura contextual e o processamento metalinguístico: considerações teóricas/ Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing: theorectical considerations/ Lectura contextual y proceso metalingüístico: consideraciones teóricas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O ato de ler não é um processo simples, pois envolve uma série de operações cognitivas, principalmente operações metalinguísticas. Estudos que investigam o papel dessas habilidades, na leitura, demonstram que a capacidade de refletir sobre os sons da fala, a consciência fonológica, contribui para leitura de palavras isoladas e compreensão de texto, ajudando a decodificação. Já outros estudos apontam que as pistas sintáticas e semânticas presentes no contex (more) to são um forte recurso para a leitura, principalmente em leitores com dificuldades, pois ajudam a criança a reconhecer as palavras sem mediação fonológica. Recentemente, modelos interativos sugerem que a leitura contextual envolve a mediação fonológica que interage com as informações sintático-semânticas. Este estudo discute as implicações teóricas dessa questão. Abstract in spanish El acto de leer no es un proceso simple, por que engloba una clase de operaciones cognitivas, principalmente de las acciones metalingüísticas. Estudios que investigan el papel de estas habilidades en la lectura demuestran que la capacidad de reflecións sobre los sonidos de hablar, la consciencia fonológica, contribuye para lectura de palabras aislados y comprensión de textos, ayudando a decodificación. Ya otros estudios apuntan que las pistas semánticas e sintácti (more) cas del contexto, consciencia morfosintáctica, son un fuerte recurso para la lectura, principalmente en lectores, con dificultades, pues ayudan los niños reconocer las palabras sin mediación fonológica. Recientemente, modelos interactivos sugieren que la lectura contextual engloba la mediación fonológica que interactúa con las informaciones sintáctico/semántico. Ese artigo discute las implicaciones teóricas de la cuestión. Abstract in english The act of reading is not a simple process, as it involves a series of cognitive operations, specially metalinguisticoperations. Studies that investigate the role that these abilities play in reading show that the capacity to reflect upon word's sounds, phonological awareness, contributes to reading single words and reading comprehension. Others point out that syntact and semantic cues from context are a powerful resource for aiding reading, especially for readers, that e (more) xperience difficulties, as they help the child to recognize words without phonological mediation. Recently, interactive models suggest that contextual reading interact with syntactic/semantic information. This papers discuss this issue theoretical implications.

Mota, Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da; Guimarães, Silvia Brilhante

2011-08-01

242

Knowledge Channels  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we present a new framework to extract knowledgefrom today's non-semantic web. It associates semantics with theinformation extracted, which improves agent interoperability; it can alsodeal with changes to the structure of a web page, which improves adaptability;furthermore, it achieves to delegate the knowledge extractionprocedure to specialist agents, easing software development and promotingsoftware reuse and maintainability.

J. L. Arjona; R. Corchuelo; D. Ruiz; J. Pena; M. Toro

243

Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality  

CERN Multimedia

We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting "hybrid" entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion, by employing a $q$-plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also non-local, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022115

2011-01-01

244

Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting ''hybrid'' entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion by employing a q plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also nonlocal, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

2010-01-01

245

Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes  

CERN Multimedia

We continue the development of a so called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric $\\cos$-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic $\\cos$-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability.

Khrennikov, A Yu

2004-01-01

246

Proposed Experiment for Testing Quantum Contextuality with Neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that an experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality using 2 degrees of freedom of single neutrons based on a violation of an inequality derived from the Peres-Mermin proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem would be more conclusive than those obtained from previous experiments involving pairs of ions [M. A. Rowe et al., Nature (London) 409, 791 (2001)] and single neutrons [Y. Hasegawa et al., Nature (London) 425, 45 (2003)] based on violations of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-like inequalities.

2008-04-04

247

Proposed experiment for testing quantum contextuality with neutrons  

CERN Document Server

We show that an experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality using 2 degrees of freedom of single neutrons based on a violation of an inequality derived from the Peres-Mermin proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem would be more conclusive than those obtained from previous experiments involving pairs of ions [M. A. Rowe et al., Nature (London) 409, 791 (2001)] and single neutron [Y. Hasegawa et al., Nature (London) 425, 45 (2003)] based on violations of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-like inequalities.

Cabello, Adan; Rauch, Helmut; Hasegawa, Yuji

2008-01-01

248

Experimental test of quantum contextuality in neutron interferometry  

CERN Multimedia

We performed an experimental test of the Kochen-Specker theorem based on an inequality derived from the Peres-Mermin proof, using spin-path (mometum) entanglement in a single neutron-system. Following the strategy proposed in A. Cabello et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 130404 (2008), a Bell-like state was generated and three expectation values were determined. The observed violation 2.291 +/- 0.008 > 1 clearly shows that quantum mechanical predictions cannot be reproduced by non-contextual hidden variables theories.

Bartosik, H; Schmitzer, C; Sponar, S; Cabello, A; Rauch, H; Hasegawa, Y

2009-01-01

249

Proposed experiment for testing quantum contextuality with neutrons.  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that an experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality using 2 degrees of freedom of single neutrons based on a violation of an inequality derived from the Peres-Mermin proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem would be more conclusive than those obtained from previous experiments involving pairs of ions [M. A. Rowe, Nature (London) 409, 791 (2001)10.1038/35057215] and single neutrons [Y. Hasegawa, Nature (London) 425, 45 (2003)10.1038/nature01881] based on violations of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-like inequalities. PMID:18517923

Cabello, Adán; Filipp, Stefan; Rauch, Helmut; Hasegawa, Yuji

2008-04-04

250

Non-contextuality and free will in modal quantum theory  

CERN Document Server

Modal quantum theory (MQT) is a simplified cousin of ordinary Hilbert space quantum theory. We show that two important theorems of actual quantum theory, the Kochen-Specker theorem excluding non-contextual hidden variables and the Conway-Kochen "free will theorem" about entangled systems, have direct analogues in MQT. The proofs of these analogue theorems are similar to, but much simpler than, the originals. We also show that the structure of possible measurement results for an entangled system in MQT cannot be represented by probability assignments satisfying the no-signaling principle, such as those given by ordinary quantum theory.

Schumacher, Benjamin

2010-01-01

251

Maximally Epistemic Interpretations of the Quantum State and Contextuality  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the relationship between quantum contextuality (in both the standard Kochen-Specker sense and in the generalized sense proposed by Spekkens) and models of quantum theory in which the quantum state is maximally epistemic. We find that preparation noncontextual models must be maximally epistemic, and these in turn must be Kochen-Specker noncontextual. This implies that the Kochen-Specker theorem is sufficient to establish both the impossibility of maximally epistemic models and the impossibility of preparation noncontextual models. The implication from preparation noncontextual to maximally epistemic then also yields a proof of Bell’s theorem from an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-like argument.

Leifer, M. S.; Maroney, O. J. E.

2013-03-01

252

Contextual Models and the Non-Newtonian Paradigm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biological systems exhibit a wide range of contextual effects, and this often makes it difficult to construct valid mathematical models of their behaviour. In particular, mathematical paradigms built upon the successes of Newtonian physics make assumptions about the nature of biological systems that are unlikely to hold true. After discussing two of the key assumptions underlying the Newtonian paradigm, we discuss two key aspects of the formalism that extended it, Quantum Theory (QT). We draw attention to the similarities between biological and quantum systems, motivating the development of a similar formalism that can be applied to the modelling of biological processes.

Kitto K; Kortschak RD

2013-04-01

253

The contextual brain: implications for fear conditioning, extinction and psychopathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contexts surround and imbue meaning to events; they are essential for recollecting the past, interpreting the present and anticipating the future. Indeed, the brain's capacity to contextualize information permits enormous cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behaviour. Dysfunction in this network may be involved in several forms of psychopathology, including post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders.

Maren S; Phan KL; Liberzon I

2013-06-01

254

Haunted quantum contextuality versus value indefiniteness - a minority report  

CERN Document Server

Physical entities are ultimately (re)constructed from elementary yes/no events, in particular clicks in detectors or measurement devices recording quanta. Recently, the interpretation of certain such clicks has given rise to unfounded claims which are neither necessary nor sufficient, although they are presented in that way. In particular, clicks can neither inductively support nor "(dis)prove" the Kochen-Specker theorem, which is a formal result that has a deductive proof by contradiction. More importantly, the alleged empirical evidence of quantum contextuality, which is "inferred" from violations of bounds of classical probabilities by quantum correlations, is based on highly nontrivial assumptions, in particular on physical omniscience.

Svozil, Karl

2011-01-01

255

Controle de injúrias sob a ótica da pediatria contextual/ Injury control from the perspective of contextual pediatrics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever relações entre controle de injúrias e pediatria contextual. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão quase-sistemática dos bancos MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, usando combinações das seguintes palavras: contextual, comunidade, injúria, acidente e violência; revisão não-sistemática de capítulos de livros e artigos clássicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A segurança depende de uma interação entre hábitos familiares, normas culturais e entorno. A pediatria contextu (more) al vê a criança, a família e a comunidade como um conjunto contínuo. Um de seus pontos-chave é o diagnóstico de saúde (observação seqüencial dos problemas e trunfos). Alterar fatores intrapessoais de injúrias requer a aplicação de estratégias passivas e ativas. Fatores familiares e culturais de risco de injúria: superpopulação do domicílio, mudanças de endereço, pobreza, pais jovens, analfabetos e desempregados. Principais fatores da vizinhança: privação material e trânsito. Fatores culturais: analfabetismo, produtos inseguros, transporte de massa insuficiente, armas de mão, ambientes de trabalho sem normas de segurança, organização comunitária precária, falta de comunicação entre setores sociais, legislação inadequada, baixa prioridade da segurança entre as ações do governo, escassez de recursos econômicos e baixo comprometimento acadêmico com o campo da segurança. CONCLUSÕES: Os papéis do pediatra são reforçar o relacionamento longitudinal com as famílias, trabalho interdisciplinar integrado, intervenção construtiva, parceria com a comunidade, orientação sobre os riscos de injúria inerentes a cada etapa do desenvolvimento, por meio de listas com processo e conteúdo explícitos e entrega de material escrito. Advogar ativamente pela promoção da segurança, em instâncias variadas, além do âmbito clínico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between injury control and contextual pediatrics. SOURCES OF DATA: Quasi-systematic review of MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, using combinations of the words contextual, community, injury, accident and violence; and non-systematic review of book chapters and classic articles. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Safety depends on the interaction of family habits, cultural patterns and surroundings. Contextual pediatrics sees the child, th (more) e family, and the community as a continuum; health diagnosis (sequential observation of problems and assets) is one of its cornerstones. Changing intrapersonal factors for injuries requires the use of both passive and active strategies. Family and cultural risk factors for injury: home overcrowding, moving, poverty, and young, illiterate and unemployed parents. The main neighborhood factors: material deprivation and traffic. Cultural factors: illiteracy, unsafe products, lack of mass transportation, handguns, workplaces without safety rules, faulty community organization, lack of communication between social sectors, inadequate legislation, low priority for safety among government actions, lack of economic resources, and low academic commitment with the field of safety. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatrician's roles include strengthening of the longitudinal relationship with families, integrated interdisciplinary work, constructive intervention, partnership with community, counseling on injury risks pertaining to each developmental stage, by using lists with explicit processes and contents, and by handing out written materials. Active advocacy for safety promotion in different environments, besides the clinical setting.

Blank, Danilo

2005-11-01

256

Knowledge-based utility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today`s utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed.

Chwalowski, M. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-08-01

257

Content Coding for Contextualization of Care: Evaluating Physician Performance at Patient-Centered Decision Making.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: and OBJECTIVE: . Adapting best evidence to the care of the individual patient has been characterized as "contextualizing care" or "patient-centered decision making" (PCDM). PCDM incorporates clinically relevant, patient-specific circumstances and behaviors, that is, the patient's context, into formulating a contextually appropriate plan of care. The objective was to develop a method for analyzing physician-patient interactions to ascertain whether decision making is patient centered. METHODS: . Patients carried concealed audio recorders during encounters with their physicians. Recordings and medical records were reviewed for clues that contextual factors, such as an inability to pay for a medication or competing responsibilities, might undermine an otherwise appropriate care plan, rendering it ineffective. Iteratively, the team refined a coding process to achieve high interrater agreement in determining (a) whether the clinician explored the clues-termed "contextual red flags"-for possible underlying contextual factors affecting care, (b) whether the presence of contextual factors was confirmed and, if so, (c) whether they were addressed in the final care plan. RESULTS: . A medical record data extraction instrument was developed to identify contextual red flags such as missed appointments or loss of control of a treatable chronic condition which signal that contextual factors may be affecting care. Interrater agreement (Cohen's kappa) for coding whether the clinician explored contextual red flags, whether a contextual factor was identified, and whether the factors were addressed in the care plan was 88% (0.76, P < 0.001), 94% (0.88, P < 0.001), and 85% (0.69, P < 0.001) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: . PCDM can be assessed with high interrater agreement using a protocol that examines whether essential contextual information (when present) is addressed in the plan of care.

Weiner SJ; Kelly B; Ashley N; Binns-Calvey A; Sharma G; Schwartz A; Weaver FM

2013-06-01

258

Steps toward knowledge-based machine translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers the possibilities for knowledge-based automatic text translation in the light of recent advances in artificial intelligence. It is argued that competent translation requires some reasonable depth of understanding of the source text, and, in particular, access to detailed contextual information. The following machine translation paradigm is proposed. First, the source text is analyzed and mapped into a language-free conceptual representation. Inference mechanisms then apply contextual world knowledge to augment the representation in various ways, adding information about items that were only implicit in the input text. Finally, a natural-language generator maps appropriate sections of the language-free representation into the target language. We discuss several difficult translation problems from this viewpoint with examples of English-to-Spanish and English-to-Russian translations; and illustrate possible solutions as embodied in a computer understander called SAM, which reads certain kinds of newspaper stories, then summarizes or paraphrases them in a variety of languages. PMID:21868959

Carbonell, J G; Cullingford, R E; Gershman, A V

1981-04-01

259

The price of access: capitalization of neighborhood contextual factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies of neighborhood context on health behavior have not considered that the health benefits of context may be 'capitalized' into, or included in, higher housing values. This study examines the associations of better neighborhood context with neighborhood housing values. METHODS: We use the third wave of Add Health (2000-2001) to estimate the association of neighborhood contextual variables and housing values first across then within income types. This is a census block group-level analysis. RESULTS: We find that neighborhood context, especially access to fruit and vegetable outlets, is capitalized into, or associated with, higher housing values. Fast food and convenience store access are associated with lower housing values. Capitalization differs by income quartile of the neighborhood. Even those in the poorest neighborhoods value access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and those in the wealthier neighborhoods value activity resources. All neighborhood incomes types place negative value on fast food access and convenience store access. CONCLUSIONS: Access to health-related contextual attributes is capitalized into higher housing prices. Access to fresh fruits and vegetables is valued in neighborhoods of all income levels. Modeling these associations by neighborhood income levels helps explain the mixed results in the literature on the built environment in terms of linking health outcomes to access.

Brown HS 3rd; Yarnell LM

2013-01-01

260

Prepulse inhibition modulation by contextual conditioning of dopaminergic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

When a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a drug, an association is established between them that can induce two different responses: either an opponent response that counteracts the effect of the drug, or a response that is similar to that induced by the drug. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the associations that can be established between the contextual cues and the administration of dopamine agonists or antagonists. Our hypothesis suggests that repeated administration of drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity in the presence of a specific context leads to the establishment of an association that subsequently results in a conditioned response to the context that is similar to that induced by the drug. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments that revealed that contextual cues acquired the property to modulate pre-pulse inhibition by prior pairings of such context with the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (Experiment 1), and with the dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (Experiment 2). The implications of these results are discussed both at a theoretical level, and attending to the possibilities that could involve the use of context cues for the therapeutic administration of dopaminergic drugs. PMID:23756135

Mena, Auxiliadora; De la Casa, Luis G

2013-06-10

 
 
 
 
261

Contextual modulation of mirror and countermirror sensorimotor associations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Automatic imitation-the unintended copying of observed actions-is thought to be a behavioral product of the mirror neuron system (MNS). Evidence that the MNS develops through associative learning comes from previous research showing that automatic imitation is attenuated by countermirror training, in which the observation of one action is paired contingently with the execution of a different action. If the associative account of the MNS is correct, countermirror training should show context specificity, because countermirror associations render action stimuli ambiguous, and ambiguity promotes contextual control. Two experiments that confirm this prediction are reported. In Experiment 1 we found less residual automatic imitation when human participants were tested in their countermirror training context. In Experiment 2, sensorimotor training where participants made action responses to novel abstract stimuli was insensitive to the same context manipulation, confirming that the former result was not a procedural artifact. Contextual modulation may enable the MNS to function effectively in spite of the fact that action observation often excites multiple conflicting MNS responses.

Cook R; Dickinson A; Heyes C

2012-11-01

262

Contextual modulation of mirror and countermirror sensorimotor associations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic imitation-the unintended copying of observed actions-is thought to be a behavioral product of the mirror neuron system (MNS). Evidence that the MNS develops through associative learning comes from previous research showing that automatic imitation is attenuated by countermirror training, in which the observation of one action is paired contingently with the execution of a different action. If the associative account of the MNS is correct, countermirror training should show context specificity, because countermirror associations render action stimuli ambiguous, and ambiguity promotes contextual control. Two experiments that confirm this prediction are reported. In Experiment 1 we found less residual automatic imitation when human participants were tested in their countermirror training context. In Experiment 2, sensorimotor training where participants made action responses to novel abstract stimuli was insensitive to the same context manipulation, confirming that the former result was not a procedural artifact. Contextual modulation may enable the MNS to function effectively in spite of the fact that action observation often excites multiple conflicting MNS responses. PMID:22428612

Cook, Richard; Dickinson, Anthony; Heyes, Cecilia

2012-03-19

263

Prepulse inhibition modulation by contextual conditioning of dopaminergic activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a drug, an association is established between them that can induce two different responses: either an opponent response that counteracts the effect of the drug, or a response that is similar to that induced by the drug. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the associations that can be established between the contextual cues and the administration of dopamine agonists or antagonists. Our hypothesis suggests that repeated administration of drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity in the presence of a specific context leads to the establishment of an association that subsequently results in a conditioned response to the context that is similar to that induced by the drug. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments that revealed that contextual cues acquired the property to modulate pre-pulse inhibition by prior pairings of such context with the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (Experiment 1), and with the dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (Experiment 2). The implications of these results are discussed both at a theoretical level, and attending to the possibilities that could involve the use of context cues for the therapeutic administration of dopaminergic drugs.

Mena A; De la Casa LG

2013-09-01

264

Leveraging Wikipedia concept and category information to enhance contextual advertising  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As a prevalent type of Web advertising, contextual advertising refers to the placement of the most relevant ads into a Web page, so as to increase the number of ad-clicks. However, some problems of homonymy and polysemy, low intersection of keywords etc., can lead to the selection of irrelevant ads for a page. In this paper, we present a new contextual advertising approach to overcome the problems, which uses Wikipedia concept and category information to enrich the content representation of an ad (or a page). First, we map each ad and page into a keyword vector, a concept vector and a category vector. Next, we select the relevant ads for a given page based on a similarity metric that combines the above three feature vectors together. Last, we evaluate our approach by using real ads, pages, as well as a great number of concepts and categories of Wikipedia. Experimental results show that our approach can improve the precision of ads-selection effectively.

Wu, Zongda; Xu, Guandong

2011-01-01

265

Local model for contextual modulation in the cerebral cortex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A neural response to a sensory stimulus in cerebral cortex is modulated when other stimuli are presented simultaneously. The other stimuli can modulate responses even when they do not drive the neural output alone, indicating a non-linear summation of synaptic activity. The mechanisms of the nonlinearity have remained unclear. Here, I explore a model which considers both network and intracellular processes, and which can account for various types of contextual modulation. The processes include synaptic sensitivity function, determination of inhibition strength, dendritic decay of membrane voltage, and summation of excitatory and inhibitory membrane voltages. First, the model assumes that excitatory and inhibitory units have the same input sensitivity function, which is more broadly tuned than the output tuning function. Second, a central property of the model is that inhibition is a fraction of excitation, determined by covariance between the input and the sensitivity function. With proper fraction, a model neuron sums apparently decorrelated input, regardless of correlations in the original input. Third, the model assumes that synaptic input lands anisotropically on the dendrites, which together with passive dendritic decay cause exponential decay in summation along the input space. This explains the difference between input sensitivity function and output tuning function, and thus accounts for the division between driving classical and modulating extra-classical receptive fields. The model simulations replicate single-cell area summation function, far surround facilitation, and a shift in tuning function due to contextual stimulation. The model is very general, and should be applicable to various interactions between cortical representations.

Vanni S

2012-01-01

266

Knowledge management - a programmatic view  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation give a programmatic view of knowledge management in the nuclear industry. A knowledge management program must deal with forecasting needs, acquisition, retention, training and supporting elements of culture, process, codification error prevention, information management and networks to reduce exposure.

Froats, J.P.S. [CANDU Owners Group (COG), Ontario (Canada)

2007-07-01

267

A Distributed Intelligence Paradigm for Knowledge Management  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

become a new fashioned managerial practice. Though KM theories seem to benefit from a "contamination" with cognitive and social sciences, which emphasize a subjective, contextual, and distributed approach to knowledge representation and integration, current technologies support what we may call a "god's eye" paradigm, in which knowledge is viewed as an objective resource. In this paper we discuss artificial intelligence theories and technologies that can support a shift to a new paradigm, called the "distributed intelligence" paradigm, in designing KM systems. Using the evolution of KM systems within Arthur Andersen Consulting as a motivating case study, we propose the framework of MultiContext Systems as a specification language for distributed intelligence KM systems, and sketch an agent-based architecture as an example of a KM system which embodies the assumptions of the distributed intelligence paradigm.

M. Bonifacio; P. Bouquet; A. Manzardo

268

The Use of Contextual Learning to Teach Biochemistry to Dietetic Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article describes the use of contextualized and "blended" learning to teach biochemistry to dietetic students during the second year of their professional training in a 4-year undergraduate degree (Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics). Contextualized content was used to engage students and motivate them to learn biochemistry, which many…

Macaulay, J. O.; Van Damme, M. -P.; Walker, K. Z.

2009-01-01

269

Health, Quality of Life and Population Density: A Preliminary Study on "Contextualized" Quality of Life  

Science.gov (United States)

|Quality of life concerns individual (physical and psychological health), interpersonal (social relationships) and contextual (environment) aspects, which are both subjective and objective. In considering contextual characteristics, empirical findings have demonstrated that people's relation to their living environment is a key issue for their…

Fassio, Omar; Rollero, Chiara; De Piccoli, Norma

2013-01-01

270

The Effects of Congruency between Structural & Contextual Dominance in Image Processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

|In an instructional message the contextual dominance is most often conveyed in the form of printed or spoken sentences. Within any sentence used in conjunction with a picture are nouns or phrases that directly relate to contextual elements within the picture. These are called referents since they refer to objects perceptible in the picture. This…

Appelman, Bob

271

Principals' Self-Efficacy: Relations with Job Autonomy, Job Satisfaction, and Contextual Constraints  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual

Federici, Roger A.

2013-01-01

272

The influence of contextual factors on tic expression in Tourette's syndrome: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Symptoms of Tourette's syndrome vary in frequency and intensity. Although such variability may be the result of deficits in the underlying neurological system, tic expression can also be systematically impacted by contextual factors. This article reviews research on the impact of several contextual factors on tic expression and discusses implications for future research and treatment development.

Conelea CA; Woods DW

2008-11-01

273

Linear and nonlinear analogues of the Schroedinger equation in the contextual approach in quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] One derived the general evolutionary differential equation within the Hilbert space describing dynamics of the wave function. The derived contextual model is more comprehensive in contrast to a quantum one. The contextual equation may be a nonlinear one. Paper presents the conditions ensuring linearity of the evolution and derivation of the Schroedinger equation

2005-01-01

274

Health, Quality of Life and Population Density: A Preliminary Study on "Contextualized" Quality of Life  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of life concerns individual (physical and psychological health), interpersonal (social relationships) and contextual (environment) aspects, which are both subjective and objective. In considering contextual characteristics, empirical findings have demonstrated that people's relation to their living environment is a key issue for their…

Fassio, Omar; Rollero, Chiara; De Piccoli, Norma

2013-01-01

275

The Contextual Effect of School Satisfaction on Health-Risk Behaviors in Japanese High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|Background: The importance of school contextual effects on health and well-being among young people is currently recognized. This study examines the contextual effects of school satisfaction as well as the effects of individual-level school satisfaction on health-risk behaviors in Japanese high school students. Methods: Self-administered…

Takakura, Minoru; Wake, Norie; Kobayashi, Minoru

2010-01-01

276

Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

2010-01-01

277

Aprendizagem motora e síndrome de Down: efeitos da frequência relativa reduzida de conhecimento de resultados/ Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos de duas frequências (100 e 33%) de conhecimento de resultados (CR) na aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora em indivíduos com síndrome de Down (SD). Vinte participantes com SD foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em dois grupos. O grupo 100% recebeu CR após cada tentativa, enquanto o grupo 33% recebeu CR em um terço das tentativas, ou seja, uma tentativa com CR em cada bloco de três tentativas. A tarefa consistiu em (more) arremessar um implemento em um alvo, com a mão dominante, sem visualizar o alvo. A fase de aquisição constou de 60 tentativas de prática, enquanto a fase de retenção, realizada 48 horas após, de 10 tentativas, sem CR. Os resultados indicaram a inexistência de diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclui-se que frequências relativas reduzidas de CR podem ser tão efetivas quanto altas frequências para a aprendizagem de habilidades motoras em adultos com SD. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to verify the effects of two frequencies (100 and 33%) of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of a motor skill, in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty participants with DS were randomly assigned into two groups.While the 100% group received KR after each trial, the 33% group received KR in a third of the trials. The task consisted of throwing an implement on a target, with the dominant hand, while blindfolded. The acqui (more) sition phase consisted of 30 practice trials, while the retention phase, performed 48 hours later, consisted of 10 trials without KR. The results showed no differences between the groups. We concluded that reduced relative frequencies of KR are as effective as high frequencies on the learning of simple motor tasks in adults with DS.

Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Machado, Camila; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde; Schild, José Francisco Gomes; Drews, Ricardo

2013-04-01

278

Competitive Trace Theory: A Role for the Hippocampus in Contextual Interference during Retrieval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much controversy exists regarding the role of the hippocampus in retrieval. The two dominant and competing accounts have been the Standard Model of Systems Consolidation (SMSC) and Multiple Trace Theory (MTT), which specifically make opposing predictions as to the necessity of the hippocampus for retrieval of remote memories. Under SMSC, memories eventually become independent of the hippocampus as they become more reliant on cortical connectivity, and thus the hippocampus is not required for retrieval of remote memories, only recent ones. MTT on the other hand claims that the hippocampus is always required no matter the age of the memory. We argue that this dissociation may be too simplistic, and a continuum model may be better suited to address the role of the hippocampus in retrieval of remote memories. Such a model is presented here with the main function of the hippocampus during retrieval being "recontextualization," or the reconstruction of memory using overlapping traces. As memories get older, they are decontextualized due to competition among partially overlapping traces and become more semantic and reliant on neocortical storage. In this framework dubbed the Competitive Trace Theory (CTT), consolidation events that lead to the strengthening of memories enhance conceptual knowledge (semantic memory) at the expense of contextual details (episodic memory). As a result, remote memories are more likely to have a stronger semantic representation. At the same time, remote memories are also more likely to include illusory details. The CTT is a novel candidate model that may provide some resolution to the memory consolidation debate.

Yassa MA; Reagh ZM

2013-01-01

279

On pigs and packers: Radically contextualizing a practice of science with Mexican immigrant students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on instructional practices observed in a high school English Learner (EL) Science course serving newcomer Mexican immigrant youth. The school is located in a rural Midwestern meatpacking community in which labor at the hog plant is economically- and racially-segmented; it is the town's Mexican residents, many of them undocumented, who comprise most of the unskilled labor force. The general purpose of the paper is to document how the economic and racial context of this community influences science instruction in the EL Science course and to describe how this presents particular challenges in achieving equitable science instruction for Mexican immigrant youth in these rural, globalizing places. Entering the data via critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995) and then utilizing Barton's (2003) "practice of science" perspective, with an eye toward achieving "radical contextuality" (Grossberg, 1997), we describe the science events, identities, and structures of the pig dissection lesson and detail how what these students could do with science, as rendered by that lesson, was limited by the roles the teacher attributed to the students, her inability to draw on their funds of knowledge as resources for learning, and the voice and position she allowed them to take up. The data reinforce conventional understandings of schools as sites of cultural reproduction (Bowels & Gintis, 1976), as well as of resistance (Giroux, 1983), but afford us a glimpse of the particularity of those mechanisms within the demographically-transitioning American Heartland, iconic of the era of global capitalism.

Richardson Bruna, Katherine; Vann, Roberta

2007-01-01

280

Compositional and contextual predictors for emotional problems among adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from a random sample of Danish schools. Students answered a questionnaire including mental health and the classroom environment. The outcome measure emotional problems was defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having difficulties falling asleep. Further, school-administrators answered a questionnaire on school environment and characteristics, e.g. policies against bullying. We applied multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at individual, classroom and school levels. Results Initially a large variation in emotional problems was observed from one school to another. The proportion of students with daily experience of emotional problems varied between 7% and 32% across schools. Individual level variables such as socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Students from low (OR=1.74 (CI:1.37;2.22)) and medium (OR=1.53 (CI:1.24;1.87)) social class, girls (OR=1.37 (CI:1.15;1.63)) and students exposed to bullying (OR=3.20 (CI:2.17;4.72)), had increased odds of experiencing emotional problems. At the classroom level, a high proportion of students who reported a negative classroom climate was significantly associated with emotional problems (OR=1.43 (CI:1.07;1.92)). Further, bullying seems to reach beyond the individual. In classes with a high prevalence of bullying, students have significantly higher odds (OR=1.33 (CI:1.05;1.70)) of experiencing emotional problems compared to classes where bullying didn´t appear. These findings suggest that contextual exposure affects emotional problems. Conclusions We expected compositional factors to explain much of the variation in prevalence of emotional problems between schools. This study suggests that contextual factors at the school and class level are important to take into account in studies of emotional problems among children and adolescents.

Meilstrup, Charlotte; ErsbØll, Annette Kjær

 
 
 
 
281

"Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge" : Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, theexplicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held byindividuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, andthe development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulatedknowledge within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization.

Sanchez, Ron

2004-01-01

282

Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium). While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

Hans Martens

2012-01-01

283

Justice in context: assessing contextualism as an approach to justice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moral and political philosophers are increasingly using empirical data to inform their normative theories. This has sparked renewed interest into questions concerning the relationship between facts and principles. A recent attempt to frame these questions within a broader approach to normative theory comes from David Miller, who has on several occasions defended ‘contextualism’ as the best approach to justice. Miller argues that the context of distribution itself brings one or another political principle into play. This paper examines this claim. It considers several plausible strategies for carrying out Miller's general project and argues that each strategy fails. Nevertheless, the author maintains that an investigation into why they fail paves the way for a philosophically plausible account of the relationship between facts and principles.

Michael Buckley

2012-01-01

284

AUTOMATIC CONTEXTUAL TEXT CORRECTION USING THE LINGUISTIC HABITS GRAPH LHG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG) also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were compared with commercial programs which also enableto make text correction: Microsoft Word 2007, Open Office Writer 3.0 and search engineGoogle. The achieved results of text correction were much better than correction made bythese commercial tools.

Marcin Gadamer; Adrian Horzyk

2009-01-01

285

Simple unified proof of state-independent contextuality  

CERN Multimedia

For years, the statement that quantum mechanics exhibits state-independent contextuality (SIC) has been based on a mathematical result pointed out by Kochen and Specker (KS) and Bell: the existence of the so-called KS sets. Recently, Yu and Oh have observed that KS sets are not necessary to prove SIC. Here we show that a set of observables in dimension d represented by rank-1 projectors reveals SIC if and only if the graph in which vertices represent vectors and edges link orthogonal ones has chromatic number larger than d. This provides a simple unified characterization of all SIC proofs, including KS, Peres-Mermin, Yu-Oh, and others' proofs. We apply this result to prove Yu and Oh's conjecture about the simplest SIC proof and to prove that any SIC set assisted with maximum entanglement generates nonlocality which cannot be improved by nonsignaling resources.

Cabello, Adan

2011-01-01

286

Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV) system for road following. However, current vision?based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour), variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured roads. Two traditional algorithms, support vector machine (SVM) and k?nearest neighbour (KNN), are carried out to verify the helpfulness of the proposed confidence map. Following this, a novel algorithm, which combines SVM, KNN and the confidence map under a Bayesian framework, is proposed to improve the overall performance of the unstructured road detections. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using different types of unstructured roads and the experimental results show its effectiveness.

Erke Shang; Xiangjing An; Jian Li; Lei Ye; Hangen He

2013-01-01

287

Contextual control of attentional allocation in human discrimination learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 3 human predictive learning experiments, we investigated whether the allocation of attention can come under the control of contextual stimuli. In each experiment, participants initially received a conditional discrimination for which one set of cues was trained as relevant in Context 1 and irrelevant in Context 2, and another set was relevant in Context 2 and irrelevant in Context 1. For Experiments 1 and 2, we observed that a second discrimination based on cues that had previously been trained as relevant in Context 1 during the conditional discrimination was acquired more rapidly in Context 1 than in Context 2. Experiment 3 revealed a similar outcome when new stimuli from the original dimensions were used in the test stage. Our results support the view that the associability of a stimulus can be controlled by the stimuli that accompany it.

Uengoer M; Lachnit H; Lotz A; Koenig S; Pearce JM

2013-01-01

288

Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We continue the development of a so-called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric cos-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic cos-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability. We also discuss possibilities of experimental verification of hyperbolic quantum mechanics: in physics of elementary particles, string theory as well as in experiments with nonphysical systems, e.g., in psychology, cognitive sciences, and economy

2005-01-01

289

Experimental Certification of Random Numbers via Quantum Contextuality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intrinsic unpredictability of measurements in quantum mechanics can be used to produce genuine randomness. Here, we demonstrate a random number generator where the randomness is certified by quantum contextuality in connection with the Kochen-Specker theorem. In particular, we generate random numbers from measurements on a single trapped ion with three internal levels, and certify the generated randomness by showing a bound on the minimum entropy through observation of violation of the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality. Concerning the test of the KCBS inequality, we close the detection efficiency loophole for the first time and make it relatively immune to the compatibility loophole. In our experiment, we generate 1 × 10(5) random numbers that are guaranteed to have 5.2 × 10(4) bits of minimum entropy with a 99% confidence level. PMID:23568082

Um, Mark; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Ye; Yangchao, Shen; Deng, D-L; Duan, Lu-Ming; Kim, Kihwan

2013-04-01

290

Experimental Certification of Random Numbers via Quantum Contextuality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intrinsic unpredictability of measurements in quantum mechanics can be used to produce genuine randomness. Here, we demonstrate a random number generator where the randomness is certified by quantum contextuality in connection with the Kochen-Specker theorem. In particular, we generate random numbers from measurements on a single trapped ion with three internal levels, and certify the generated randomness by showing a bound on the minimum entropy through observation of violation of the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality. Concerning the test of the KCBS inequality, we close the detection efficiency loophole for the first time and make it relatively immune to the compatibility loophole. In our experiment, we generate 1 × 10(5) random numbers that are guaranteed to have 5.2 × 10(4) bits of minimum entropy with a 99% confidence level.

Um M; Zhang X; Zhang J; Wang Y; Yangchao S; Deng DL; Duan LM; Kim K

2013-04-01

291

Contextual and Conceptual Information Retrieval and Navigation on the Web  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this chapter is to propose a methodology and tools to enhance information retrieval and navigation on the Web through contextual and conceptual help. This methodology provides users with an extended navigation space by adding a conceptual and a semantic layer above Web data. The conceptual layer is made of Galois lattices which cluster Web pages into concepts according to their common features (in particular their textual content). These lattices represent the Global Conceptual Context of Web pages. An additional navigation layer is provided by ontologies which are connected to the conceptual level through specific concepts of the lattices. Users may navigate transparently within each of these three layers and go from one to another very easily.

Le Grand, Bénédicte; Aufaure, Marie-Aude; Soto, Michel

292

Adult-born neurons are necessary for extended contextual discrimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

New neurons are continuously produced in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It has been shown that one of the functions of adult neurogenesis is to support spatial pattern separation, a process that transforms similar memories into nonoverlapping representations. This prompted us to investigate whether adult-born neurons are required for discriminating two contexts, i.e., for identifying a familiar environment and detect any changes introduced in it. We show that depleting adult-born neurons impairs the animal's ability to disambiguate two contexts after extensive training. These data suggest that the continuous production of new dentate neurons plays a crucial role in extracting and separating efficiently contextual representation in order to discriminate features within events. PMID:21049483

Tronel, Sophie; Belnoue, Laure; Grosjean, Noelle; Revest, Jean-Michel; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Koehl, Muriel; Abrous, Djoher Nora

2010-11-03

293

Adult-born neurons are necessary for extended contextual discrimination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New neurons are continuously produced in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It has been shown that one of the functions of adult neurogenesis is to support spatial pattern separation, a process that transforms similar memories into nonoverlapping representations. This prompted us to investigate whether adult-born neurons are required for discriminating two contexts, i.e., for identifying a familiar environment and detect any changes introduced in it. We show that depleting adult-born neurons impairs the animal's ability to disambiguate two contexts after extensive training. These data suggest that the continuous production of new dentate neurons plays a crucial role in extracting and separating efficiently contextual representation in order to discriminate features within events.

Tronel S; Belnoue L; Grosjean N; Revest JM; Piazza PV; Koehl M; Abrous DN

2012-02-01

294

A Representation Of Processes Of Contextual Nets By Matrices  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

StreszczenieGeneralized Place/Transition Petri nets, called contextual nets, and processesof such nets are considered. A correspondence between processes of contextualnets and partitioned matrices over semirings that are freely generated by therespective sets of transition symbols is described. This correspondence implies acorrespondence between operations of composing processes sequentially and inparallel and operations of multiplying and juxtaposing the respective partitionedmatrices. It results in a characterization of partitioned matrices correspondingto processes of a given net and, consequently, allows one to represent processesby their matrices.REPREZENTOWANIE PROCES'OW SIECI KONTEKSTOWYCHMACIERZAMIRozwazane sa uog'olnione sieci Petriego zwane sieciami kontekstowymi i procesytakich sieci. Pokazano, ze procesom sieci kontekstowych odpowiadaja podzielonena bloki macierze o elementach z p'o/lpier'scieni generowanych wolno przez zbiorysymboli tranzycji. Pokazano, ...

Instytut Podstaw; Informatyki Pan

295

Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries : The Tension between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature on the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policy-makers are also discussed.

Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

2012-01-01

296

Knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge in school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of school knowledge from the point of view of scientific knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The starting point is that neither school nor curricula pay attention to what knowledge is, what types of knowledge there are, and what kind of relationship exists between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The first part offers an answer to the question what knowledge is. In the second part presented are some theoretical viewpoints on knowledge: gnoseological, sociological and psychological. The third part deals with the notions of ignorance and "faulty" knowledge. Pointed out are some forms of mystical ignorance. The forms of faulty knowledge are: erroneous notions, prejudices, illusions. In the final part, the author considers their relationship in school education. The starting point is that ignorance is a predecessor of any knowledge. The difference between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge exists in every system of school education, but differs in extent and mode when it comes to nature, society, man and art. The author maintains that school should not be defined as an absolute carrier of knowledge, or the system of foolproof knowledge that the student should acquire uncritically. Instead of absolute confidence in scientific knowledge, the paper concludes with suggesting the option of an "elastic form" of school knowledge. This is a type of knowledge which, in its programme, counts on both ignorance and faulty knowledge and their differing roles in studying and real life of students.

Avramovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

297

Getree: a knowledge management tool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In practical expert systems, regardless of inference technology, the accuracy and completeness of the knowledge base determine expert system performance, and the cost of acquiring that knowledge base tends to dominate all other hardware and software costs. To reduce knowledge acquisition cost and error rate, Getree-a new interactive knowledge management system-is being designed and implemented in GE Corporate Research. In the new system, the knowledge base is represented as an (almost tree-like) network of nodes which can be displayed and manipulated on a personal computer workstation. Users-even unsophisticated users-can build and navigate these networks, modify nodes and connecting arcs, verify correctness visually, follow the execution of inference engines, and generate equivalent code to be run in more constrained target environments. Consequently, with Getree the user-organization can have full responsibility for and control of the knowledge base. 7 references.

Lewis, J.W.; Lynch, F.S.

1983-01-01

298

Relações de equivalência após treino com pareamento consistente de estímulos sob controle contextual Equivalence relations after stimulus matching consistent training under contextual control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alguns estudos têm produzido relações condicionais que se mostraram também equivalentes, através do treino com pareamento consistente de estímulos. O presente estudo buscou verificar se essas relações podem ocorrer também sob controle contextual. Quatro universitários foram submetidos ao treino AB, AC e AD, intercalado aos testes de simetria correspondentes BA, CA e DA. Em seguida, ao treino AD e ao teste de simetria DA sob controle contextual. Por último, foram testadas as relações de equivalência BC, CB, BD, DB, CD e DC, na ausência de estímulos contextuais, e DB e DC, com estímulos de contexto. Os participantes alcançaram o critério de acerto em todos os treinos. Três participantes apresentaram as relações simétricas, na ausência de estímulos contextuais, e a relação DA, em sua presença. Estes resultados replicam e expandem estudos anteriores, mostrando que mesmo sem conseqüências diferenciais, é possível obter um desempenho consistente sob controle condicional de segunda ordem.Some studies, using stimulus matching consistent training, had produced conditional relations that have also yielded equivalence relations. The objective of this experiment was to ascertain whether the same type of discriminations would occur under contextual control. Four university students were submitted to sequential relationships. AB, AC, and AD, interspersed with corresponding tests for symmetry: BA, CA, and DA. Subsequently, AD was tested with the DA test for symmetry. Finally, the equivalence relations BC, CB, BD, DB, CD, and DC were evaluated without the contextual stimuli, whereas the relations DB and DC were tested with contextual stimuli. The participants reached the criterion for accuracy in all training sessions. Three participants presented symmetrical relations without contextual stimuli, while the DA relationship was obtained in the presence of contextual cues. These results replicate and extend previous studies showing that even without differential consequences, it was possible to obtain consistent performance under second-order conditional control.

Grauben José Alves de Assis; Marcelo Quintino Galvão Baptista; Olívia Misae Kato; Keila Regina Alves

2000-01-01

299

Low-frequency stimulation of the ventral hippocampus facilitates extinction of contextual fear.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Difficulties to treat fear-associated disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder, are thought to result from dysfunction in fear extinction learning and/or memory. Animal studies on extinction modulation are therefore promising for the development of new treatments. Recent rat studies, including ones using low-frequency stimulation (LFS), have demonstrated that the ventral hippocampus (VH) modulates extinction memory. The present study explores whether the VH also modulates extinction learning. For this, rats were implanted with stimulating electrodes in the VH and experienced contextual fear conditioning, followed 6 or 24 h later by VH LFS and three sessions of extinction training. We found that, whatever the delay used (6 or 24 h), animals that received VH LFS displayed persistent low levels of freezing from the second extinction session, whereas control rats showed low levels of freezing only during the third session. In animals submitted to a stress condition (provoked by a single inescapable foot-shock followed by three sessions of situational reminders) prior to fear conditioning, VH LFS also reduced freezing levels, which, in contrast, remained high in control rats during the course of extinction training. These data suggest that LFS, targeting the VH, may be useful in reducing fear responses during extinction learning.

Cleren C; Tallarida I; Guiniec EL; Janin F; Nachon O; Canini F; Spennato G; Moreau JL; Garcia R

2013-03-01

300

Multi Agent Knowledge Management Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, knowledge in Public Sector environment becomes very vast and increasing day by day at speedy pace. So, to handle and manage the knowledge becomes a tedious job, resulting into degrading the overall affectivity and productivity of the system. Hence, the need of effective architecture arises, which can increase the performance of disseminating knowledge in public sector. This results the implementation of knowledge management (KM) using Multi Agents (MA). Using Multi Agents reduces the time overhead for serving relevant knowledge to end users. The objective of this paper is to propose KM architecture using MA which will be helpful and effective in circulating knowledge to public sectors in a much better and easier manner, due to which it enhances the productivity and performance. The paper firstly, gives the understanding of literature on various knowledge management frameworks and tools for implementing Multi Agents. Then it proposes a MA enterprise knowledge management architecture (MAEKM), stating that how knowledge circulation will be done. At the end, using JADE framework, paper implements MAEKM architecture for public sector. The paper describes the necessity of implementing this architecture and its usefulness in disseminating knowledge in public sectors.

Sheikh Amanur Rahman; Dipti Yadav; Prerna Agarwal; Pankaj Singh Bisht

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The Living Values-Based Contextual Learning to Develop the Students' Character  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: University has an important role in the process of young generation character education. The character education should be integrated through the living values-based contextual learning model in order to be easier internalized and implemented. This study aimed at describing: (1) the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing; (2) the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model in lecturing and (3) the effect of the living values-based contextual learning model on students? character improvement. Approach: This study used Research and Development design. The technique of data collection used observation, documentation, Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire. The analysis of qualitative data used data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion stages. Meanwhile, quantitative data analysis used correlation and regression analysis. The subjects of study were 98 students of Civic Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education of academic year 2011/2012. Results: The finding showed that: (1) the living values-based contextual learning model conceptually in lecturing was the integration of living values into material, method, media, learning source and lecturing evaluation conceptually; (2) the living values-based contextual learning model was implemented through value learning variation in contextual learning (problem-based learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, service learning and work-based learning); (3) the implementation of the living values-based contextual learning model had an effect by 26% on the students? character development Conclusion: The living values-based contextual learning is an alternative of character education integration model in university learning process. This model can be applied in lecturing to develop the students? characters including religious, honest, tolerant, well-mannered, discipline, hard working, creative, independent, democratic, homeland love, respecting achievement, collaborating and responsible.

Kokom Komalasari

2012-01-01

302

MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL) and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3). Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.

Hankeln Wolfgang; Buttigieg Pier; Fink Dennis; Kottmann Renzo; Yilmaz Pelin; Glöckner Frank

2010-01-01

303

The Implications of Knowledge Management Sustainability For Leadership In An Organization: An Exploration and Analysis of Leadership Theories and Knowledge Management Practices In Bangwita Flores, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge management has been recognized as an effective tool for improving the performance and productivity of organizations in this knowledge era. In this sense, knowledge management is a process. Knowledge management is a process of acquisition, validation,utilization, sharing, storage and diffusion of knowledge. However, many organizations have not implemented knowledge management in their strategic vision, mission and goals. Some organizations have articulated knowledge management, however, in an unsustainable way. One of the reasons is the limitation of leadership in accessing knowledge and the sources of knowledge. For that reason, this study attempts to address the implications of knowledge management sustainability for leadership in organizations through reviewing the contemporary literature and analyzing knowledge management practices in Bangwita. This study concludes that knowledge management sustainability in the organization has the implications for leadership. These implications are that knowledge management is a driving force for leaders in designing vision and mission in the organization, creating a conducive environment for knowledgemanagement initiatives, empowering, creating knowledge management systems and openness to change. This study is contextual. The objective is to offer insights into the knowledge sharingprocess and the results to a wider community who can consider the transferability of knowledge in their own context.

Nikolaus Salo

2009-01-01

304

Pigeons integrate past knowledge across sensory modalities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advanced inferring abilities that are used for predator recognition and avoidance have been documented in a variety of animal species that produce alarm calls. In contrast, evidence for cognitive abilities that underpin predation avoidance in nonalarm-calling species is restricted to associative learning of heterospecific alarm calls and predator presence. We investigated cognitive capacities that underlie the perception and computation of external information beyond associative learning by addressing contextual information processing in pigeons, Columba livia, a bird species without specific alarm calls. We used a habituation/dishabituation paradigm across sensory modes to test pigeons' context-dependent inferring abilities. The birds reliably took previous knowledge about predator presence into account and responded with predator-specific scanning behaviour only if predator presence was not indicated before or if the perceived level of urgency increased. Hence, pigeons' antipredator behaviour was not based on the physical properties of displayed stimuli or their referential content alone but on contextual information, indicated by the kind and order of stimulus presentation and different sensory modes.

Stephan C; Bugnyar T

2013-03-01

305

Pigeons integrate past knowledge across sensory modalities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced inferring abilities that are used for predator recognition and avoidance have been documented in a variety of animal species that produce alarm calls. In contrast, evidence for cognitive abilities that underpin predation avoidance in nonalarm-calling species is restricted to associative learning of heterospecific alarm calls and predator presence. We investigated cognitive capacities that underlie the perception and computation of external information beyond associative learning by addressing contextual information processing in pigeons, Columba livia, a bird species without specific alarm calls. We used a habituation/dishabituation paradigm across sensory modes to test pigeons' context-dependent inferring abilities. The birds reliably took previous knowledge about predator presence into account and responded with predator-specific scanning behaviour only if predator presence was not indicated before or if the perceived level of urgency increased. Hence, pigeons' antipredator behaviour was not based on the physical properties of displayed stimuli or their referential content alone but on contextual information, indicated by the kind and order of stimulus presentation and different sensory modes. PMID:23487497

Stephan, Claudia; Bugnyar, Thomas

2013-03-01

306

Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Knowledge, and Children's Subsequent Developmental Outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; Mage  = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (Mage  = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child assessments. Adolescents both underestimated and overestimated children's developmental timing, and showed differences in their knowledge of specific developmental domains. Instrumental support from mother figures was positively linked to adolescents' knowledge accuracy, whereas emotional support was negatively related to adolescents' knowledge confidence. Furthermore, whereas mother figures' autonomy granting was positively linked to knowledge confidence, psychological control was associated with less accurate adolescent parenting knowledge. Toddlers of adolescents with more accurate knowledge showed positive developmental functioning. Intervention implications are discussed.

Jahromi LB; Guimond AB; Umaña-Taylor AJ; Updegraff KA; Toomey RB

2013-09-01

307

Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. DISCUSSION: Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. SUMMARY: This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange, between communities, community-based organizations, decision makers, and researchers is likely to be beneficial when ensuring that 'evidence' meets the needs of all end users and that decisions are based on both relevant research and community requirements. Further exploratory work is needed to identify alternative methods for evaluating these strategies when applied within community-based settings.

Kothari A; Armstrong R

2011-01-01

308

Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange, between communities, community-based organizations, decision makers, and researchers is likely to be beneficial when ensuring that 'evidence' meets the needs of all end users and that decisions are based on both relevant research and community requirements. Further exploratory work is needed to identify alternative methods for evaluating these strategies when applied within community-based settings.

Kothari Anita; Armstrong Rebecca

2011-01-01

309

Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)

Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

310

The Glocalization of Responsible Investment : Contextualization Work in France and Québec  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actor–network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work that sustains RI glocalization. Empirical data from two case studies highlight how entrepreneurial actors imported the notion of RI from the US to France and Québec. Our findings uncover three types of contextualization work—filtering, repurposing, and coupling—that sustain RI glocalization, and show how actors employed them in both settings to overcome the lack of technical, cultural, or political fit between the imported practice and their local context. Our results explain how divergent glocalized versions of RI are developed and adapted through contextualization work. Last, we discuss how our repertoire of contextualization work can account for local forms of a global concept and the uneven pattern of its diffusion.

Gond, Jean-Pascal; Boxenbaum, Eva

2013-01-01

311

A contextual study of the information literacy of aspirant barristers in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study upon which the article is based investigated the information literacy of aspirant barristers in Nigeria andexamined the efforts undertaken to restructure the legal education system in Nigeria. It explored the connectionbetween contextual influences and professional development, particularl...

Vicki Lawal; Christine Stilwell; Rose Kuhn; Peter G. Underwood

312

Role of individual and contextual effects in injury mortality: new evidence from small area analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To analyse the role of individual and contextual variables in injury mortality inequalities from a small area analysis perspective, looking at the data for the city of Barcelona (Spain) for 1992–98.

Borrell, C; Rodriguez, M; Ferrando, J; Brugal, M; Pasarin, M; Martinez, V; Plasencia, A

313

Islamic Conceptualisation of Knowledge Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is an attempt to address "The Fundamental Theory of Knowledge Management" from Islamic point of views, to draw the notion of ?Islamic Worldview" of knowledge, especially in terms of understanding its nature in the reality of knowledge society as a step toward conceptualizing ?Islamic Knowledge Management" (IKM) as an answer to the uncertainty situation of contemporary knowledge development, management and utilization especially for Muslim user and application. To obtain this, they have to explore new techniques and processing tools that helps them harness knowledge in according to their conceptual believe system, especially in term of knowledge investigation and sharing in which help them to improve their vicegerent (VG) status and humanistic relationship. Approach: Indeed, knowledge should be realised comprehensively. Thus, with the assumption that once knowledge is realized and managed, then it is possible to look at its behaviors, functions and process of development in the form of scientific realm. Hypothetically, if there were no single theory formulated to identify the nature of knowledge, then how it can be managed and achieved its goals. Results: In this regard, IKM as an Islamic system is intended for particular areas of application and objectives based on "knowledge intensive processing action" (KIPA), in which it is depending on some human expert intervention in order to establish a comprehensive and integrated organizational culture, commitments and management, or to better perform the process in producing a production, marketing campaigns, systems analysis and design and strategy in reducing operational cost and business risk, in improving decision making for strategic future development and identifying new technical approaches in problem solving, or even for the purpose to harmonize inter-cultural and personalities gaps within an organizational community. Conclusion: Obviously, knowledge classification is very much influenced by the way a society conceptualizes and realizes knowledge. Any classification will lead to a way of utilization. Therefore, any success achieved by a person was absolutely an output of his knowledge understanding and knowledge growth within himself. In this status, as a human, he might be influenced by a certain situation, limitation and constrain internally or externally that lead him to persuade either body knowledge or the functional usage of knowledge in making his own individual success i.e. user-centric based values.

M. B.H. Yaakub

2011-01-01

314

Glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of contextual fear memory consolidation in rats: Involvement of D1 receptor activity of hippocampal area CA1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the role of dopamine (DA) receptors in area CA1 of the hippocampus in modulating the effects of glucocorticoids on the contextual fear memory consolidation. Adult male rats were given systemic injections of corticosterone (CORT; 3mg/kg) immediately after training in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) task and the percentage of time spent freezing in the CFC context was recorded 24h after training. Intra-CA1 infusion of the DA type 1 (D1) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (SCH; 30ng/0.5µl per side) immediately after CORT injection attenuated CORT-induced enhancement of memory consolidation. However, intra-CA1 infusion of the DA type 2 (D2) receptor antagonist sulpiride (SUL; 60ng/0.5µl per side) was ineffective. Neither antagonist alone altered freezing behavior in the 24h CFC retention test. Furthermore, the memory enhancing dose of CORT used in these experiments reduced D1, but not D2, receptor mRNA expression in area CA1. Neither D1 nor D2 antagonism in area CA1 affected total locomotor activity. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of hippocampal D1 receptor activity in area CA1 in CORT-induced enhancement of contextual fear memory consolidation.

Liao Y; Shi YW; Liu QL; Zhao H

2013-08-01

315

Contextual effects in interval-duration judgements in vision, audition and touch.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the effect of temporal context on discrimination of intervals marked by auditory, visual and tactile stimuli. Subjects were asked to compare the duration of the interval immediately preceded by an irrelevant "distractor" stimulus with an interval with no distractor. For short interval durations, the presence of the distractor affected greatly the apparent duration of the test stimulus: short distractors caused the test interval to appear shorter and vice versa. For very short reference durations (?100 ms), the contextual effects were large, changing perceived duration by up to a factor of two. The effect of distractors reduced steadily for longer reference durations, to zero effect for durations greater than 500 ms. We found similar results for intervals defined by visual flashes, auditory tones and brief finger vibrations, all falling to zero effect at 500 ms. Under appropriate conditions, there were strong cross-modal interactions, particularly from audition to vision. We also measured the Weber fractions for duration discrimination and showed that under the conditions of this experiment, Weber fractions decreased steadily with duration, following a square-root law, similarly for all three modalities. The magnitude of the effect of the distractors on apparent duration correlated well with Weber fraction, showing that when duration discrimination was relatively more precise, the context dependency was less. The results were well fit by a simple Bayesian model combining noisy estimates of duration with the action of a resonance-like mechanism that tended to regularize the sound sequence intervals.

Burr D; Rocca ED; Morrone MC

2013-09-01

316

Contextual influences of dimension, speed, and direction of motion on subjective time perception.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research has indicated that the direction of motion and the speed of motion can influence the subjective estimates of temporal duration of two-dimensional (2-D) stimuli expanding and contracting within the picture plane. In this study, we investigated whether the contextual cues of stimulus/movement-plane dimensionality (2-D stimuli with implied movement in the picture plane or depth-rendered "3-D" stimuli with implied movement in the depth plane) influence and interact with speed and implied movement direction during interval estimation. Participants viewed a series of standard stimulus durations followed by a test stimulus duration and determined whether the test and standard durations differed. The results indicated that moving stimuli were overestimated relative to stationary stimuli, regardless of the direction of motion or dimensionality. Also, faster-moving stimuli were overestimated relative to slower-moving stimuli. Importantly, an interaction between movement direction and dimensional cues indicated that the loom/recede distinction occurs for 2-D but not for 3-D stimuli. It is possible that the loom/recede distinction for the 2-D condition may be an artifact arising from reduced or from a lack of perceived motion in 2-D "recede" conditions, rather than a specific overestimation for looming stimuli.

Kline SR; Reed CL

2013-01-01

317

Contextual Information and Covariance Descriptors for People Surveillance: An Application for Safety of Construction Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In computer science, contextual information can be used both to reduce computations and to increase accuracy. This paper discusses how it can be exploited for people surveillance in very cluttered environments in terms of perspective (i.e., weak scene calibration) and appearance of the objects of interest (i.e., relevance feedback on the training of a classifier). These techniques are applied to a pedestrian detector that uses a LogitBoost classifier, appropriately modified to work with covariance descriptors which lie on Riemannian manifolds. On each detected pedestrian, a similar classifier is employed to obtain a precise localization of the head. Two novelties on the algorithms are proposed in this case: polar image transformations to better exploit the circular feature of the head appearance and multispectral image derivatives that catch not only luminance but also chrominance variations. The complete approach has been tested on the surveillance of a construction site to detect workers that do not wear the hard hat: in such scenarios, the complexity and dynamics are very high, making pedestrian detection a real challenge.

Gualdi Giovanni; Prati Andrea; Cucchiara Rita

2011-01-01

318

Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

R. Savolainen

2006-01-01

319

Contextual and sequential effects on judgments of sweetness intensity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presenting stimuli from skewed concentration distributions affects mean responses on category scales. However, if the number of categories on the response scale is increased, the degree of separation between the mean responses obtained for a positively as opposed to a negatively skewed concentration distribution diminishes. The present study investigates the effect of skewed concentration distributions upon ratings on a line scale and compares it to the context effect found for a 7-point category scale. In addition, sequential dependencies between consecutive stimuli and responses are investigated in order to assess their relevance in taste-intensity scaling studies. The context effects are similar for the 7-point category scale and for the line scale. The analyses of sequential effects show that both preceding responses and preceding stimuli affect current responses. However, since these two factors work in opposite directions, only a small contrast effect from the previous stimulus is significant in an overall analysis. The present study shows that even though the overall sequential effects between consecutive stimuli and responses are small, the effect of experimental context may be considerable. Since subjective context is established at the beginning of a session and sequential dependencies operate throughout the whole session, it is argued that contextual and sequential effects are only indirectly related.

Schifferstein HN; Frijters JE

1992-09-01

320

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of (more) the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv) teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Blignaut, Seugnet; Els, Christo; Howie, Sarah

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Contextualized access to electronical health records in cardiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we propose a new approach for accessing the electronical health records (EHR), and we apply it to the cardiology medical specialty. Though the use of EHR improves the storage and access to the information in it regarding the previous health records in papers, it entails the risk of having the same problems of huge size and of becoming inoperative and really difficult to handle, especially if the user is looking for a specific data item. Our proposal is based on the contextualization of the access, providing the user with the most important information for the assistance act in which he/she is involved. To do this, we define the set of possible contexts and consider different aspects of the pertinence of the documents to each context. We do it by using fuzzy logic and pay special attention to the efficiency, due to the huge size of the involved databases. Our proposal does not limit the access to the EHR, but establishes a prioritization based on the access needs, which provides the system with an additional advantage, easily enabling the use of new terminals and devices like tablet PCs and PDAs, which have great limitations in the interfaces.

Prados-Suárez B; Molina C; Peña Yañez C; Prados de Reyes M

2012-05-01

322

Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv) teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

Seugnet Blignaut; Christo Els; Sarah Howie

2010-01-01

323

Contextual information-aided kidney segmentation in CT sequences  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the continuity of adjacent slices in a medical image sequence, a slice-based 3-D segmentation framework is constructed to extract the intact kidney by processing all slices automatically in the whole sequence. The framework includes four sections: initial segmentation, selection of the most reliable initial segmentation, location and modification of leakage. The crucial section of the proposed framework is selecting the most reliable initial segmentation image, which will be regarded as the reference image to evaluate the continuity of the following slice. Leakage location is carried out based on the contextual features, and the local iterative thresholding (LIT) is used to modify the leakage. As test examples of the framework, abdominal computed tomography (CT) images in enhanced phases are processed to segment kidney automatically. The total of 392 CT images in 7 sequences from 3 patients are selected as training images to determine the parameters in the database, and other 898 CT images in 21 sequences from 7 patients are used as test images to evaluate the effectiveness of the method. An average of three dimensional Dice similarity coefficient (3-D DSC) of 94.7% and average symmetric surface distance (ASSD) of 0.91 mm are obtained, which indicate that the intact kidney can be perfectly extracted with hardly any leakage automatically.

Zhao, Enwei; Liang, Yanmei; Fan, Hailun

2013-03-01

324

Contextual determinants of maternal health care service utilization in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the high maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria, the use of maternal health care services is very poor. Attempts to explain this situation has focused on individual level factors and the influence of community contextual factors have not received much attention. This study examined the relation of community factors to the use of antenatal care in Nigeria, and explored whether community factors moderated the association between individual characteristics and antenatal care visits. Data were drawn from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey among 16,005 women aged 15-49 years who had had their last delivery in the five years preceding the survey. Results from multi-level models indicated that living in communities with a high proportion of women who delivered in a health facility was associated with four or more antenatal care visits. Residence in high-poverty communities decreased the likelihood of antenatal care attendance. Living in communities with a high proportion of educated women was not significantly related to antenatal care visits. Community factors acted as moderators of the association between educational attainment and antenatal care attendance. Improvement in antenatal care utilization may therefore be enhanced by targeting poverty reduction programs and increasing health facility delivery in disadvantaged communities. PMID:24093448

Ononokpono, Dorothy Ngozi; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby; Imasiku, Eunice; Adedini, Sunday

2013-10-01

325

Contextual determinants of maternal health care service utilization in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the high maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria, the use of maternal health care services is very poor. Attempts to explain this situation has focused on individual level factors and the influence of community contextual factors have not received much attention. This study examined the relation of community factors to the use of antenatal care in Nigeria, and explored whether community factors moderated the association between individual characteristics and antenatal care visits. Data were drawn from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey among 16,005 women aged 15-49 years who had had their last delivery in the five years preceding the survey. Results from multi-level models indicated that living in communities with a high proportion of women who delivered in a health facility was associated with four or more antenatal care visits. Residence in high-poverty communities decreased the likelihood of antenatal care attendance. Living in communities with a high proportion of educated women was not significantly related to antenatal care visits. Community factors acted as moderators of the association between educational attainment and antenatal care attendance. Improvement in antenatal care utilization may therefore be enhanced by targeting poverty reduction programs and increasing health facility delivery in disadvantaged communities.

Ononokpono DN; Odimegwu CO; Imasiku E; Adedini S

2013-10-01

326

Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Eriksson, I. [Maelardalen University (Sweden)

2004-04-01

327

Contextual variables associated with psychosocial adjustment of adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated associations of contextual variables of risk (stressful events and exposure to community violence), variables of protection (family environment, connectivity to the school and community perceptions) and demographic variables (gender and age) with indicators of psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem, involvement in illegal activities and alcohol use in past month) among adolescents. The participants were 685 students (61.5% girls) aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 15.10, SD = 1.52) of public schools in southern Brazil. They answered a questionnaire with 77 questions and an inventory for assessment of family relationships. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the negative perception of family environment, poor connectivity to the school and exposure to community violence were associated with low self-esteem. Involvement in illegal activities was associated with low connectivity to school, stressful events, exposure to community violence and male sex. Finally, alcohol use/month was associated with negative perception of the community, community violence, stressful events, and particularly at the ages of 15-16 years.

Sbicigo JB; Dell'aglio DD

2013-01-01

328

Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

2004-01-01

329

Thermokinetic model of borosilicate glass dissolution: contextual affinity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short and long-term geochemical interactions of R7T7 nuclear glass with water at 1000C were simulated with the DISSOL thermokinetic computer code. Both the dissolved glass quantity and the resulting water composition, saturation states and mineral quantities produced were calculated as a function of time. The rate equation used in the simulation was first proposed by Aagaard and Helgeson. It simulates a gradually diminishing dissolution rate as the reaction affinity diminishes. The best agreement with 1-year experimental data was obtained with a reaction affinity calculated from silica activity (Grambow's hypothesis) rather than taking into account the activity of all the glass components as proposed by Jantzen and Plodinec. The concept of residual affinity was introduced by Grambow to express the fact that the glass dissolution rate does not cease. We prefer to replace the term residual affinity by contextual affinity, which expresses the influence on the dissolution rate of three factors: the solution chemistry, the metastability of SiO2(m), and the possible precipitation of certain aluminosilicates such as zeolites. 19 refs

1989-12-02

330

Contextual self-organizing map: software for constructing semantic representations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article, we introduce a software package that applies a corpus-based algorithm to derive semantic representations of words. The algorithm relies on analyses of contextual information extracted from a text corpus--specifically, analyses of word co-occurrences in a large-scale electronic database of text. Here, a target word is represented as the combination of the average of all words preceding the target and all words following it in a text corpus. The semantic representation of the target words can be further processed by a self-organizing map (SOM; Kohonen, Self-organizing maps, 2001), an unsupervised neural network model that provides efficient data extraction and representation. Due to its topography-preserving features, the SOM projects the statistical structure of the context onto a 2-D space, such that words with similar meanings cluster together, forming groups that correspond to lexically meaningful categories. Such a representation system has its applications in a variety of contexts, including computational modeling of language acquisition and processing. In this report, we present specific examples from two languages (English and Chinese) to demonstrate how the method is applied to extract the semantic representations of words.

Zhao X; Li P; Kohonen T

2011-03-01

331

Dynamics of unconscious contextual effects in orientation processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contextual effects abound in the real world; how we perceive an object depends on what surrounds it. A classic example of this is the tilt illusion (TI) whereby the presence of a surround shifts the perceived orientation of a target. Surprisingly, the magnitude and direction of this shift depend on the orientation difference between the target and surround: when their orientations are similar, the perceived difference is amplified and the target appears repelled in orientation from the surround (i.e., the TI). However, when their orientations are close to perpendicular, the difference is decreased and the target appears attracted in orientation toward the surround (i.e., the indirect TI). These misperceptions of orientation have revealed much about the underlying detectors involved in visual processing and how they interact with each other. What remains at stake are the levels of processing involved. To examine this, we designed a reverse-correlation technique whereby observers are blind to the orientation of the surround. We find that the TI and indirect TI occur reliably and over a similar time course, supporting the role of a single mechanism underlying orientation biases that operates in the early stages of visual processing before the conscious extraction of the surround orientation.

Mareschal I; Clifford CW

2012-05-01

332

Differential effects of total sleep deprivation on contextual and spatial memory: modulatory effects of modafinil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present work was to investigate in mice the effects of a total 10-hr sleep deprivation on contextual (episodic-like) and spatial (reference) memory tasks. For that purpose, mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a 4-hole board involving either identical (Serial Spatial Discrimination, SSD) or distinct (Contextual Serial Discrimination, CSD) internal contextual cues. In a second step, we intended to assess the corrective effect of modafinil on memory impairments generated by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was triggered through an alternative platform apparatus (water box), previously validated using EEG recording and spectral analysis. We showed that a 10-hr total sleep deprivation impaired the CSD task but not the SSD one. Moreover, the impairment of contextual memory in sleep-deprived animals was dose-dependently corrected by modafinil. Indeed, modafinil administered after the sleep deprivation period and 30 min before the test session restored a memory retrieval pattern identical to non sleep-deprived animals at the doses of 32 and 64 mg/kg, however not at 16 mg/kg. Results hereby evidence that the vigilance-enhancing drug modafinil is able to restore the contextual memory performance at a low dose as compared to other memory tasks, possibly by an enhancement of hippocampal activity known to be both involved in the processing of contextual information and impaired following our sleep deprivation procedure.

Pierard C; Liscia P; Chauveau F; Coutan M; Corio M; Krazem A; Beracochea D

2011-01-01

333

Time-Dependent Effects of Cortisol on the Contextualization of Emotional Memories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder. Altered memory contextualization most likely involves effects of the stress hormone cortisol, acting via receptors located in the memory neurocircuitry. Cortisol via these receptors induces rapid nongenomic effects followed by slower genomic effects, which are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite, complementary ways. Here, we targeted these time-dependent effects of cortisol during memory encoding and tested subsequent contextualization of emotional and neutral memories. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 64 men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 30 minutes (rapid cortisol effects) before a memory encoding task; 2) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 210 minutes (slow cortisol) before a memory encoding task; or 3) received placebo at both times. During encoding, participants were presented with neutral and emotional words in unique background pictures. Approximately 24 hours later, context dependency of their memories was assessed. RESULTS: Recognition data revealed that cortisol's rapid effects impair emotional memory contextualization, while cortisol's slow effects enhance it. Neutral memory contextualization remained unaltered by cortisol, irrespective of the timing of the drug. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows distinct time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of specifically emotional memories. The results suggest that rapid effects of cortisol may lead to impaired emotional memory contextualization, while slow effects of cortisol may confer protection against emotional memory generalization.

van Ast VA; Cornelisse S; Meeter M; Joëls M; Kindt M

2013-08-01

334

Contextualizing Smoking Behaviour over Time: A Smoking Journey from Pleasuring to Suffering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports a qualitative study describing the basic psychosocial process of contextualizing smoking behaviour in the life fabric of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs). A classical grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze the data derived from a theoretical (purposeful) sample of eight Jordanian psychiatric nurses in 2009-2010. The constant comparative method of data analysis was used; thus, data collection, coding and analysis occurred simultaneously. Strategies were used throughout the study to ensure trustworthiness; that is, fulfill the requirements for credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. “Contextualizing smoking behaviour over time” was the core concept that explained how JPNs integrate smoking behaviour into their life fabric. For these nurses, smoking is contextualized in four phases: becoming a novice smoker, becoming a formal smoker as a nursing student, becoming a heavy smoking psychiatric nurse, and becoming an exhausted smoker. Contextualizing smoking among JPNs demonstrates that those nurses frequently normalize smoking as part of the fabric of everyday life. Participants described their smoking as a journey in a manner that reflected how it started with pleasuring and ended with suffering. Although this study presents a deep understanding of smoking behaviour, further studies are required to develop the theory of contextualized smoking. A developed contextualized theory of smoking is required to guide culturally sensitive smoking cessation and prevention programmes capable of influencing smoking behaviours.

Khaldoun Aldiabat; Michael Clinton

2012-01-01

335

Contextual cueing impairment in patients with age-related macular degeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visual attention can be guided by past experience of regularities in our visual environment. In the contextual cueing paradigm, incidental learning of repeated distractor configurations speeds up search times compared to random search arrays. Concomitantly, fewer fixations and more direct scan paths indicate more efficient visual exploration in repeated search arrays. In previous work, we found that simulating a central scotoma in healthy observers eliminated this search facilitation. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who suffer from impaired foveal vision. AMD patients performed visual search using only their more severely impaired eye (n = 13) as well as under binocular viewing (n = 16). Normal-sighted controls developed a significant contextual cueing effect. In comparison, patients showed only a small nonsignificant advantage for repeated displays when searching with their worse eye. When searching binocularly, they profited from contextual cues, but still less than controls. Number of fixations and scan pattern ratios showed a comparable pattern as search times. Moreover, contextual cueing was significantly correlated with acuity in monocular search. Thus, foveal vision loss may lead to impaired guidance of attention by contextual memory cues.

Geringswald F; Herbik A; Hoffmann MB; Pollmann S

2013-01-01

336

Diarréia aguda: o conhecimento materno sobre a doença reduz o número de hospitalizações nos menores de dois anos?/ Acute diarrhea: does mother's knowledge of the disease reduce admission of children under two years of age?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Analisar o conhecimento materno sobre as causas, sinais de desidratação e manejo da diarréia aguda e a ocorrência de hospitalização, por complicações desta doença, em seus filhos menores de dois anos. MÉTODOS: Desenho de corte transversal aninhado em estudo de caso _ controle. Casos: crianças internadas por complicações da diarréia aguda no Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco. Controles: crianças com doenças ambulatoriais exceto diarréia a (more) guda. Variáveis: internamento por diarréia aguda (dependente); condições socioeconômicas; estado nutricional das crianças; tempo de aleitamento materno; conhecimento materno sobre diarréia aguda e seu manejo. Na análise foi utilizado software Epi-info 6.0. RESULTADOS: Houve associação estatística entre internamento por diarréia aguda e condições socioeconômicas precárias (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship of mother's knowledge about signs of dehydration, causes and management of acute diarrhea with admission of children under two years of age with the disease. METHODS: A nested cross-sectional and case-control study was carried out with children who were admitted at the "Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco" with acute diarrhea: and control children admitted with other diseases. Variables were: patient admission having or not acu (more) te diarrhea (dependent); social-economic condition, nutritional state; duration of breastfeeding; mother's knowledge about acute diarrhea and its management (independent). The Epi-info software, 6.0 was used for analysis. RESULTS: There was statistical association between patient admission with acute diarrhea and poor social-economic conditions (p= 0.01); malnutrition (p=0.01); short time of breastfeeding (p=0.01), lack of mother's knowledge about how to avoid dehydration (p=0.05) and effectiveness of oral rehydration solutions (p=0.02). There was no statistical association with knowledge about causes, signs of dehydration or management of acute diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: The study disclosed association between admission of children under two years of age with acute diarrhea and poor social-economic conditions; short time of breastfeeding, malnutrition, mother's lack of knowledge on how to avoid dehydration and effectiveness of oral rehydration solutions. Data suggests that lack of mother's knowledge reflects poor social-economic conditions.

Vanderlei, Lygia Carmen de Moraes; Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da

2004-09-01

337

Diarréia aguda: o conhecimento materno sobre a doença reduz o número de hospitalizações nos menores de dois anos? Acute diarrhea: does mother's knowledge of the disease reduce admission of children under two years of age?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar o conhecimento materno sobre as causas, sinais de desidratação e manejo da diarréia aguda e a ocorrência de hospitalização, por complicações desta doença, em seus filhos menores de dois anos. MÉTODOS: Desenho de corte transversal aninhado em estudo de caso _ controle. Casos: crianças internadas por complicações da diarréia aguda no Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco. Controles: crianças com doenças ambulatoriais exceto diarréia aguda. Variáveis: internamento por diarréia aguda (dependente); condições socioeconômicas; estado nutricional das crianças; tempo de aleitamento materno; conhecimento materno sobre diarréia aguda e seu manejo. Na análise foi utilizado software Epi-info 6.0. RESULTADOS: Houve associação estatística entre internamento por diarréia aguda e condições socioeconômicas precárias (p OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship of mother's knowledge about signs of dehydration, causes and management of acute diarrhea with admission of children under two years of age with the disease. METHODS: A nested cross-sectional and case-control study was carried out with children who were admitted at the "Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco" with acute diarrhea: and control children admitted with other diseases. Variables were: patient admission having or not acute diarrhea (dependent); social-economic condition, nutritional state; duration of breastfeeding; mother's knowledge about acute diarrhea and its management (independent). The Epi-info software, 6.0 was used for analysis. RESULTS: There was statistical association between patient admission with acute diarrhea and poor social-economic conditions (p= 0.01); malnutrition (p=0.01); short time of breastfeeding (p=0.01), lack of mother's knowledge about how to avoid dehydration (p=0.05) and effectiveness of oral rehydration solutions (p=0.02). There was no statistical association with knowledge about causes, signs of dehydration or management of acute diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: The study disclosed association between admission of children under two years of age with acute diarrhea and poor social-economic conditions; short time of breastfeeding, malnutrition, mother's lack of knowledge on how to avoid dehydration and effectiveness of oral rehydration solutions. Data suggests that lack of mother's knowledge reflects poor social-economic conditions.

Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei; Gisélia Alves Pontes da Silva

2004-01-01

338

Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal explanations, assumptions, models and evidence in engineering analysis need to include and interpret also non-numerical and contextual data

2008-01-01

339

Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal explanations, assumptions, models and evidence in engineering analysis need to include and interpret also non-numerical and contextual data

Sanne, Johan M.

2008-09-15

340

Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type of management- knowledge based management and a new type of enterprise-knowledge based enterprise.Taking in consideration these predictable evolutions, this paper will try to present: • The main ideas of the researches the field of the knowledge based economy • The characteristics and principles of the knowledge based organizations and knowledge based management • The challenges and opportunities for knowledge based organizations.The first part of the paper will present the principles of the new economy- knowledge base economy, the essential and interrelated elements necessary to build and to implement a strategy in a knowledge economy and the opportunities and challenges to the countries as they seek to build regionally and globally competitive knowledge-based economies.The second part of the paper will present the characteristics of the knowledge based organizations, the principles and characteristics of their management. For many organizations, knowledge management is a relatively new concept, because they are discovering the knowledge value in their operations. Many firms have undertaken formal and informal knowledge management initiatives designed to improve process performance, increase customer responsiveness and spur innovation. But while some organizations have reaped significant benefits from their investment in knowledge efforts, others have run into noteworthy challenges.

Madalina Cristina Tocan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The classification of knowledge and expertise in Finnish nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The difficulties in sharing tacit knowledge may compromise the safe performance of high-reliability organisations. This threat has been recognised in nuclear power plants worldwide, owing to the risk of simultaneous retirements. In this study, the nature of tacit knowledge in Finnish nuclear power plants was examined and the expertise of nuclear workers modelled. The results of this interview study showed that the tacit nuclear knowledge can be classified in two dimensions: technical and contextual. According to this classification, the employees in plants can be categorised in four categories: the experts; the novices; the technical specialists; the context sensitives. (author)

Kuronen, T. [Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)]. E-mail: tanja.kuronen@hut.fi; Rintala, N. [Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)]. E-mail: Niina.Rintala@hut.fi

2006-07-01

342

Tacit knowledge emergence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge.

Garland, B. [McMaster Univ., Univ. Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering, Hamilton, Ontario, (Canada)], E-mail: garlandw@mcmaster.ca

2008-07-01

343

Spatial and identity cues differentially affect implicit contextual cueing in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present studies examined implicit contextual cueing in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In Study 1, 16 individuals with ASD and 20 matched individuals with typical development completed a contextual cueing task using stimulus-identity cues. In Study 2, 12 individuals with ASD and 16 individuals with typical development completed a revised version of the contextual cueing task, using both stimulus-identity cues and global spatial-configuration cues. The results suggest that when only stimulus-identity cues were provided, individuals with ASD had difficulty with implicit contextual cueing (Study 1). However, when both stimulus-identity and spatial-configuration contextual cues were provided, individuals with ASD demonstrated successful contextual cueing (Study 2). Nuances in implicit learning and clinical implications are discussed.

Travers BG; Powell PS; Mussey JL; Klinger LG; Crisler ME; Klinger MR

2013-10-01

344

Spatial and identity cues differentially affect implicit contextual cueing in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present studies examined implicit contextual cueing in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In Study 1, 16 individuals with ASD and 20 matched individuals with typical development completed a contextual cueing task using stimulus-identity cues. In Study 2, 12 individuals with ASD and 16 individuals with typical development completed a revised version of the contextual cueing task, using both stimulus-identity cues and global spatial-configuration cues. The results suggest that when only stimulus-identity cues were provided, individuals with ASD had difficulty with implicit contextual cueing (Study 1). However, when both stimulus-identity and spatial-configuration contextual cues were provided, individuals with ASD demonstrated successful contextual cueing (Study 2). Nuances in implicit learning and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23417264

Travers, Brittany G; Powell, Patrick S; Mussey, Joanna L; Klinger, Laura G; Crisler, Megan E; Klinger, Mark R

2013-10-01

345

Productivist Education vs. Contextual Learning: Evaluation and the Place of ?Flexibility? in Discourses of Online Education Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Productivist Education vs. Contextual Learning: Evaluation and the Place of ?Flexibility? in Discourses of Online Education Systems Daniel TEGHE Bruce Allen KNIGHT Central Queensland University Rockhampton-AUSTRALIA ABSTRACT This paper provides a largely conceptual discussion which focuses on how productivist education systems can be perpetuated in approaches to online education. We hold that, since notions of flexibility can shape educational contexts, evaluators of online courses would benefit from the knowledge that flexibility is a concept that bears a particular meaning in productivist perspectives. The paper highlights the difference between using new technologies to continue to ?educate? and using those technologies to address the needs that account for learners? contexts. We argue that education (in its productivist tradition) refers to teaching according to pre-determined notions and rules of what learners should do in order to become knowledgeable about (and often have the ?right? attitude towards) something. Relevant learning, on the other hand, refers to teaching through interactive processes that are sufficiently flexible to account for the myriad of individual learning approaches/styles, capacities to adapt to or to mould a learning environment and the varying degrees of technological proficiency relevant to accessing online courses.

Daniel TEGHE; Bruce Allen KNIGHT

2004-01-01

346

Contextual marketing--the real business of the Internet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The painful truth is that the Internet has been a letdown for most companies--largely because the dominant model for Internet commerce, the destination Web site, doesn't suit the needs of those companies or their customers. Most consumer product companies don't provide enough value or dynamic information to induce customers to make the repeat visits--and disclose the detailed information--that make such sites profitable. In this article, David Kenny and John F. Marshall suggest that companies discard the notion that a Web site equals an Internet strategy. Instead of trying to create destinations that people will come to, companies need to use the power and reach of the Internet to deliver tailored messages and information to customers. Companies have to become what the authors call "contextual marketers." Delivering the most relevant information possible to consumers in the most timely manner possible will become feasible, the authors say, as access moves beyond the PC to shopping malls, retail stores, airports, bus stations, and even cars. The authors describe how the ubiquitous Internet will hasten the demise of the destination Web site--and open up scads of opportunities to reach customers through marketing "mobilemediaries," such as smart cards, e-wallets, and bar code scanners. The companies that master the complexity of the ubiquitous Internet will gain significant advantages: they'll gain greater intimacy with customers and target market segments more efficiently. The ones that don't will be dismissed as nuisances, the authors conclude. They suggest ways to become welcome additions--not unwelcome intrusions--to customers' lives.

Kenny D; Marshall JF

2000-11-01

347

Contextual marketing--the real business of the Internet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The painful truth is that the Internet has been a letdown for most companies--largely because the dominant model for Internet commerce, the destination Web site, doesn't suit the needs of those companies or their customers. Most consumer product companies don't provide enough value or dynamic information to induce customers to make the repeat visits--and disclose the detailed information--that make such sites profitable. In this article, David Kenny and John F. Marshall suggest that companies discard the notion that a Web site equals an Internet strategy. Instead of trying to create destinations that people will come to, companies need to use the power and reach of the Internet to deliver tailored messages and information to customers. Companies have to become what the authors call "contextual marketers." Delivering the most relevant information possible to consumers in the most timely manner possible will become feasible, the authors say, as access moves beyond the PC to shopping malls, retail stores, airports, bus stations, and even cars. The authors describe how the ubiquitous Internet will hasten the demise of the destination Web site--and open up scads of opportunities to reach customers through marketing "mobilemediaries," such as smart cards, e-wallets, and bar code scanners. The companies that master the complexity of the ubiquitous Internet will gain significant advantages: they'll gain greater intimacy with customers and target market segments more efficiently. The ones that don't will be dismissed as nuisances, the authors conclude. They suggest ways to become welcome additions--not unwelcome intrusions--to customers' lives. PMID:11184966

Kenny, D; Marshall, J F

348

Properties of Contextual Memory Formed in the Absence of ?CaMKII Autophosphorylation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (?CaMKII) is a major synaptic kinase that undergoes autophosphorylation after NMDA receptor activation, switching the kinase into a calcium-independent activity state. This ?CaMKII autophosphorylation is essential for NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP), induced by a single tetanus, in hippocampal area CA1 and in neocortex. Furthermore, the ?CaMKII autophosphorylation is essential for contextual long-term memory (LTM) formation after a single training trial but not after a massed training session. Here, we show that in the absence of ?CaMKII autophosphorylation contextual fear conditioning is hippocampus dependent and that multi-tetanus-dependent late-LTP cannot be induced in hippocampal area CA1. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of ?CaMKII autophosphorylation contextual LTM persists for 30 days, the latest time point tested. Additionally, contextual, but not cued, LTM formation in the absence of ?CaMKII autophosphorylation appears to be impaired in 18 month-old mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that ?CaMKII autophosphorylation-independent plasticity in the hippocampus is sufficient for contextual LTM formation and that ?CaMKII autophosphorylation may be important for delaying age-related impairments in hippocampal memory formation. Furthermore, they propose that NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in hippocampal area CA1 is essential for contextual LTM formation after a single trial but not after massed training. Finally, our results challenge the proposal that NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in neocortex is required for remote contextual LTM.

Irvine Elaine E; Danhiez Arthur; Radwanska Kasia; Nassim Charlotte; Lucchesi Walter; Godaux Emile; Ris Laurence; Giese K

2011-01-01

349

Deconstructing Interaction Dynamics in Knowledge Sharing Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Online knowledge sharing sites have recently exploded in popularity, and have began to play an important role in online information seeking. Unfortunately, many factors that influence the effectiveness of the information exchange in these communities are not well understood. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap by exploring the dynamics of information sharing in such sites - that is, identifying the factors that can explain how people respond to information requests. As a case study, we use Yahoo! Answers, one of the leading knowledge sharing portals on the web with millions of active participants. We follow the progress of thousands of questions, from posting until resolution. We examine contextual factors such as the topical area of the questions, as well as intrinsic factors of question wording, subjectivity, sentiment, and other characteristics that could influence how a community responds to an information request. Our findings could be useful for improving existing collaborative question answering systems, and for designing the next generation of knowledge sharing communities.

Aji, Ablimit; Agichtein, Eugene

350

How knowledge affects radical innovation: Knowledge base, market knowledge acquisition, and internal knowledge sharing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines how existing knowledge base (i.e., knowledge breadth and depth) interacts with knowledge integration mechanisms (i.e., external market knowledge acquisition and internal knowledge sharing) to affect radical innovation. Survey data from high technology companies in China demonstra...

Zhou, KZ; Li, CB

351

Knowledge translation in healthcare: Incorporating theories of learning and knowledge from the management literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The authors draw selectively on theories of learning and knowledge, which currently have received little attention from knowledge translation (KT) researchers, and suggest how they might usefully inform future development of the KT literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide conceptual tools and strategies for the growing number of managers, clinicians and decision makers navigating this arena DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors conducted a narrative review to synthesise two streams of literature and examine evolving conceptual landscape concerning knowledge translation over the previous three decades. Conceptual mapping was used iteratively to develop and synthesise the literature. Iterative feedback from relevant research and practice stakeholder groups was used to focus and strengthen the review. FINDINGS: KT has been conceptualised along three competing frames; one focusing on linear (largely unidirectional) transfer of knowledge; one focusing on KT as a social process; and another that seeks to more fully incorporate contextual issues in understanding research implementation. Three overlapping themes are found in the management literature that inform these debates in the health literature, namely knowledge boundaries, organisational learning and absorptive capacity. Literature on knowledge boundaries problematizes the nature of boundaries and the stickiness of knowledge. Organisational learning conceptualises the need for organisational wide systems to facilitate learning processes; it also draws on a more expansive view of knowledge. Absorptive capacity focuses at the firm level on the role of developing organisational capabilities that enable the identification, assimilation and use of new knowledge to enable innovation. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The paper highlights the need to consider KT processes at multiple levels, including individual, organisational and strategic levels. These are important not only for research but also have practical implications for individuals and organisations involved in KT processes. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This review summarises and integrates two largely separate literature streams on knowledge translation - namely health services research and management scholarship. In addition to outlining and organising the conceptual landscape around knowledge transfer, the paper contributes by highlighting how management literature on knowledge and learning theories might inform health services research on knowledge translation.

Oborn E; Barrett M; Racko G

2013-01-01

352

Time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextual dependency of negative and neutral memories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context may be an important vulnerability factor for developing anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such altered memory contextualization may develop through the effects of the well-known stress hormone cortisol on underlying memory neurocircuitry, rich in corticosteroid receptors. By binding to these receptors, cortisol induces rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in various ways. Here, we tested these time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of negative versus neutral memories. Methods : In a double blind, placebo-controlled design, 60 men were randomly assigned to one out of three possible groups. 1) In the rapid cortisol group, participants received 10mg hydrocortisone 30 min before completing the “associative imagination task” (AIT), 2) while the slow cortisol group received the drug 240 min before the task. 3) A third group received placebo at both times. During the AIT task, participants were instructed to vividly imagine 30 neutral and 30 negative words in unique background pictures. Approximately, 24 h later, participants completed two surprise memory tests: cued retrieval and recognition. Crucially, to assess memory contextualization, half of the negative and neutral words were tested in intact contexts, whereas the other half of the words were tested in rearranged context combinations. Results : Recognition data showed that negative memories were generally less context-bound than neutral memories. Moreover, cortisol exerted time-dependent effects on contextual dependency of negative memories: Cortisol’ rapid effects impaired contextualization, whereas cortisols’ slow effects enhanced negative memory contextualization. In contrast, neutral memory contextualization remained unaltered by cortisol irrespective of the timing of the drug. Conclusions : This study shows distinct time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of negative memories. These results suggest that non-genomic effects of cortisol may underlie impaired memory contextualization observed in PTSD, whereas genomic effects of cortisol may open avenues for cortisol as a protective agent against (traumatic) fear memory generalization.

Vanessa A. van Ast; Sandra Cornelisse; Martijn Meeter; Marian Joëls; Merel Kindt

2012-01-01

353

Multi-class Multi-scale Series Contextual Model for Image Segmentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contextual information has been widely used as a rich source of information to segment multiple objects in an image. A contextual model utilizes the relationships between the objects in a scene to facilitate object detection and segmentation. However, using contextual information from different objects in an effective way for object segmentation remains a difficult problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework, called multi-class multi-scale (MCMS) series contextual model, which uses contextual information from multiple objects and at different scales for learning discriminative models in a supervised setting. The MCMS model incorporates cross-object and inter-object information into one probabilistic framework and thus is able to capture geometrical relationships and dependencies among multiple objects in addition to local information from each single object present in an image. We demonstrate that our MCMS model improves object segmentation performance in electron microscopy images and provides a coherent segmentation of multiple objects. By speeding up the segmentation process, the proposed method will allow neurobiologists to move beyond individual specimens and analyze populations paving the way for understanding neurodegenerative diseases at the microscopic level.

Seyedhosseini M; Tasdizen T

2013-07-01

354

Statistical learning in the past modulates contextual cueing in the future.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Observers' capability to extract statistical regularities from the visual world can facilitate attentional orienting. For instance, visual search benefits from the repetition of target locations by means of probability learning. Furthermore, repeated (old) contexts of nontargets contribute to faster visual search in comparison to random (new) arrangements of nontargets. Chun and Jiang (1998) called this effect "contextual cueing" because old contexts provide spatial cues to repeated target locations. In the present study, we investigated how probability learning modulates the adaptation of contextual cueing to a change in target location. After an initial learning phase, targets were relocated within their respective contexts to new positions that were, however, familiar from previous presentations in other spatial contexts. Contextual cueing was observed for relocated targets that originated from old contexts, but it turned into costs when relocated targets had previously been presented in new contexts. Thus, probability learning was not sufficient to observe adaptive contextual cueing for relocated targets. Instead, the contextual past of target locations--whether they had been cued or not--modulated the integration of relocated targets into a learned context. These findings imply that observers extract multiple levels of available statistical information and use them to infer hypotheses about future occurrences of familiar stimuli.

Zellin M; von Mühlenen A; Müller HJ; Conci M

2013-01-01

355

Multi-class multi-scale series contextual model for image segmentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contextual information has been widely used as a rich source of information to segment multiple objects in an image. A contextual model uses the relationships between the objects in a scene to facilitate object detection and segmentation. Using contextual information from different objects in an effective way for object segmentation, however, remains a difficult problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework, called multiclass multiscale (MCMS) series contextual model, which uses contextual information from multiple objects and at different scales for learning discriminative models in a supervised setting. The MCMS model incorporates cross-object and inter-object information into one probabilistic framework and thus is able to capture geometrical relationships and dependencies among multiple objects in addition to local information from each single object present in an image. We demonstrate that our MCMS model improves object segmentation performance in electron microscopy images and provides a coherent segmentation of multiple objects. Through speeding up the segmentation process, the proposed method will allow neurobiologists to move beyond individual specimens and analyze populations paving the way for understanding neurodegenerative diseases at the microscopic level.

Seyedhosseini M; Tasdizen T

2013-11-01

356

Multi-class multi-scale series contextual model for image segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contextual information has been widely used as a rich source of information to segment multiple objects in an image. A contextual model uses the relationships between the objects in a scene to facilitate object detection and segmentation. Using contextual information from different objects in an effective way for object segmentation, however, remains a difficult problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework, called multiclass multiscale (MCMS) series contextual model, which uses contextual information from multiple objects and at different scales for learning discriminative models in a supervised setting. The MCMS model incorporates cross-object and inter-object information into one probabilistic framework and thus is able to capture geometrical relationships and dependencies among multiple objects in addition to local information from each single object present in an image. We demonstrate that our MCMS model improves object segmentation performance in electron microscopy images and provides a coherent segmentation of multiple objects. Through speeding up the segmentation process, the proposed method will allow neurobiologists to move beyond individual specimens and analyze populations paving the way for understanding neurodegenerative diseases at the microscopic level. PMID:23893724

Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga

2013-07-23

357

Project management knowledge engineering system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines a knowledge-based optimal scheduling system designed to monitor the progress towards project objectives and minimize delays in scheduled completion dates. This computerized system was developed to reduce management by exception techniques (crisis management) and to help concentrate efforts on project objectives. The system's operation and use are discussed.

Rahbar, F.F. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States)); Yates, J.K. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Spencer, G.R. (Benham Group, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-07-01

358

Using local experts as benchmarks for household local ecological knowledge: scoring in South African savannas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is well recognised that local ecological knowledge is an important facet of natural resource management in rural regions of the developing world. However, techniques to assess levels and to integrate it into formal or informal management approaches require further development. In particular, quantitative tools are missing, which would allow more robust analysis of the factors that positively or negatively affect local ecological knowledge and vice versa. This paper reports on a quick assessment approach that provides a quantitative score of generalist local ecological knowledge at the household level. It does so by comparing responses to the knowledge of local people identified as experts within the community. In this way it is both locally constructed and contextualized, and thereby avoids pitfalls of trying to score local ecological knowledge relative to conventional scientific knowledge which frequently cannot account for local constructs. The approach is applied at eight villages throughout the savanna biome in South Africa.

Steele MZ; Shackleton CM

2010-08-01

359

Auto-caotización en la sociedad mundial: Lineamientos para una teoría de la diferenciación contextual/ Self-chaotization in World Society: An Outline for a Theory of Contextual Differentiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La sociedad mundial moderna se caracteriza por su alta complejidad, es decir, por la continuamente cambiante interrelación de sus elementos. El resultado de ello es una constante diferenciación y especialización de espacios sociales orientada a manejar la incertidumbre que esa complejidad genera. Paradójicamente, la diferenciación y especialización es nuevamente una fuente de complejidad. Para enfrentar esta ambigüedad auto-producida, determinadas operaciones socia (more) les se distinguen por generar interdependencias estructurales que logran una estabilidad operacional suficiente para distinguirlas de su entorno. A ello se le denomina en este artículo diferenciación contextual, esto es, la emergencia de contextos diferenciados de interacción, decisión y simbolización que posibilitan una concretización múltiple de funciones sociales en espacios supranacionales. Esto se observa especialmente a propósito de la diferenciación del derecho, la economía y el deporte, y se ilustra con cuatro estudios de caso: la Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, el Bank for International Settlements, la FIFA, el juego y sus públicos, y el arbitraje comercial internacional. Abstract in english A high level of complexity and a continuous and always changing relationship among its elements characterizes modern world society. As a result, a constant differentiation and specialization of diverging social fields aiming to reduce the uncertainty emerging from that complexity takes place. Paradoxically, as differentiation and specialization increase, they become a new source of uncertainty. In order to confront this self-producing ambiguity, some social operations dev (more) elop structural interdependencies with a sufficient level of operational stability that distinguish them from their environment. In this paper this is called contextual differentiation, i.e. the emergence of differentiated contexts of interaction, decision and symbolization that make possible a mutilayered concretization of social functions in supranational contexts. With regard to the differentiation of law, economy and sports this process is analyzed and illustrated in four case studies: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Bank for International Settlements, FIFA, the game and its publics, and the international commercial arbitration.

Mascareño, Aldo

2012-09-01

360

Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV and AIDS in Nicaragua: a community-level perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nicaragua's HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men. Nevertheless, the increasing number of HIV cases among heterosexuals, high levels of poverty and migration rates, and incomplete epidemiological data suggest the need to improve the understanding of the epidemic. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual risk-taking behaviors, and their predictors among the adult population. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among 520 participants ages 15-49 from an ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Nicaragua. Bivariate analysis and adjusted prevalence ratios were use to examine factors associated with HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior. RESULTS: Contributing factors for risk-taking behaviors included cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional elements. Insufficient knowledge affecting the accurate assessment of HIV risk were low educational level, poverty, and rural origin, especially among females. Recognizing risk was not sufficient to promote safer sex: 90% of the females and 70% of the males who reported being sexually active in the past year did not use condoms during their last sexual encounter. Inconsistent condom use among men was associated with older age, long-term relationships, and lack of awareness about acquiring HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce social-structural contextual factors in Nicaragua are needed so that individuals may adopt and maintain HIV risk reduction strategies. Increased gender-specific HIV education and skills-building programs need to be implemented. Sensitive mass media messages may also increase the knowledge of HIV and AIDS, and serve to encourage protective attitudes and behaviors.

Ugarte WJ; Högberg U; Valladares E; Essén B

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT) usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

Wole M. Olatokun; Isioma N. Elueze

2012-01-01

362

Scientific Foundations of Knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose that knowledge can be initially designed like any scientific object such a rudimentary automobile, airplane or spacecraft. The premise is based on the theme that a specific body of knowledge rests on the embedded noun objects and the structural relation between these keygroups of knowledge centric objects (KCOs). The events, interactions and forces in the society alter such KCOs and their structural relationships. The design of knowledge deploys a very pragmatic approach that knowledge based on these key objects, their interrelationships, and their interactions can be processed by knowledge machines. Knowledge thus undergoes dynamic changes in the society, the minds of human beings and in the knowledge structures stored in the memories and knowledge banks. Structures of knowledge can be altered in the KPUs of knowledge machines much like data structures are altered in the CPU’s of traditional computers

Victor B. Lawrence, Syed V. Ahamed

2011-01-01

363

Contextual cueing under working memory load: Selective interference of visuospatial load with expression of learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a series of experiments, we investigated the dependence of contextual cueing on working memory resources. A visual search task with 50 % repeated displays was run in order to elicit the implicit learning of contextual cues. The search task was combined with a concurrent visual working memory task either during an initial learning phase or a later test phase. The visual working memory load was either spatial or nonspatial. Articulatory suppression was used to prevent verbalization. We found that nonspatial working memory load had no effect, independent of presentation in the learning or test phase. In contrast, visuospatial load diminished search facilitation in the test phase, but not during learning. We concluded that visuospatial working memory resources are needed for the expression of previously learned spatial contexts, whereas the learning of contextual cues does not depend on visuospatial working memory.

Manginelli AA; Langer N; Klose D; Pollmann S

2013-08-01

364

Paradigm shifts: from pre-web information systems to recent web-based contextual information retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the types of user accessible data and information escalates, so does the variety of Information Retrieval (IR) practices which can match to achieve the challenges instigated. By expanding its applicability which can broaden the use, integrating technologies and methods and as long as the quest for the perfectly accurate system continues to exist it is quite possible and likely that Information Retrieval can become one of the key technology areas for current and future research and practice. This paper expounds the recent research advances in the area of Contextual Information Retrieval. It tracks and investigates the evolution of retrieval models from the pre-web (traditional) Information Retrieval paradigm and Web information retrieval to the most prominent interactive Web information retrieval field of contextual information retrieval focusing on developing models and strategies of contextual IR.

MPS Bhatia; Akshi Kumar

2010-01-01

365

Effect of intensity of unconditional stimulus on reconsolidation of contextual fear memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Memory reconsolidation is ubiquitous across species and various memory tasks. It is a dynamic process in which memory is modified and/or updated. In experimental conditions, memory reconsolidation is usually characterized by the fact that the consolidated memory is disrupted by a combination of memory reactivation and inhibition of protein synthesis. However, under some experimental conditions, the reactivated memory is not disrupted by inhibition of protein synthesis. This so called "boundary condition" of reconsolidation may be related to memory strength. In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the intensity of unconditional stimulus (US) determines the strength of the fear memory. In this study, we examined the effect of the intensity of US on the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Strong contextual fear memory, which is conditioned with strong US, is not disrupted by inhibition of protein synthesis after its reactivation; however, a weak fear memory is often disrupted. This suggests that a US of strong intensity can inhibit reconsolidation of contextual fear memory.

Kwak C; Choi JH; Bakes JT; Lee K; Kaang BK

2012-10-01

366

Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study  

CERN Document Server

M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment). We are studying various mobile learning contexts related to professional activities, in order to master appliances (Installation, Use, Breakdown diagnostic and Repairing). Contextualization, traceability and checking of execution of prescribed operations are based mainly on the use of RFID labels. Investigation of the appropriate training methods for this kind of learning situation, applying mainly a constructivist approach known as "Just-in-time learning", "learning by doing", "learning and doing", constitutes an important topic of this project. From an organizational point of view we are in perfect...

David, Bertrand; Chalon, René

2010-01-01

367

The contextual influence of coal abandoned mine lands in communities and type 2 diabetes in Pennsylvania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coal abandoned mine lands (AMLs), persistent and prevalent across Pennsylvania, offer an instructive evaluation of potential contextual influences of chronic environmental contamination (CEC) on individual health. We evaluated associations between the burden of AMLs, represented by 10 contextual metrics at the community level, and individual-level type 2 diabetes using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a biomarker. Cross-sectional and longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted with over 28,000 diabetic primary care patients of the Geisinger Clinic. Adjusted models revealed five AML burden measures were associated (p<0.05), and three additional were borderline associated (0.05?p?0.10), with higher and/or change in HbA1c levels. This study provides key empirical evidence of adverse impacts of CEC in communities on an important chronic disease, illustrating the contextual effects of living in long-term degraded landscapes and communities.

Liu AY; Curriero FC; Glass TA; Stewart WF; Schwartz BS

2013-07-01

368

Contextual Multi-armed Bandits for the Prevention of Spam in VoIP Networks  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we argue that contextual multi-armed bandit algorithms could open avenues for designing self-learning security modules for computer networks and related tasks. The paper has two contributions: a conceptual and an algorithmical one. The conceptual contribution is to formulate the real-world problem of preventing SPIT (Spam in VoIP networks), which is currently not satisfyingly addressed by standard techniques, as a sequential learning problem, namely as a contextual multi-armed bandit. Our second contribution is to present CMABFAS, a new algorithm for general contextual multi-armed bandit learning that specifically targets domains with finite actions. We illustrate how CMABFAS could be used to design a fully self-learning SPIT filter that does not rely on feedback from the end-user (i.e., does not require labeled data) and report convincing simulation results.

Jung, Tobias; Ernst, Damien; Leduc, Guy

2012-01-01

369

One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local/global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation.

Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

2006-01-01

370

Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

The attention paid to the burgeoning "knowledge economy" continues to grow, particularly within the halls of higher education, the federal government, and in the private sector. This past January, the National Science Foundation (in collaboration with other institutions) convened a conference designed "to broaden and deepen common understanding of how difficult-to-measure knowledge resources drive an increasing virtualized economy and to assess prospects for advancing and regenerating knowledge infrastructure, institutions, and policies." While the conference itself is finished, users interested in these themes will appreciate this site, which offers some material about these various issues, along with material on the program itself and the work presented there. After examining these background materials, visitors will want to peruse the draft papers presented at the conference, which deal with networks of knowledge, measuring knowledge, and knowledge clusters.

371

The sheaf-theoretic structure of non-locality and contextuality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting that generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples—due to Bell, Hardy and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively—occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for the Kochen-Specker-type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the ‘parity proofs’ commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product. (paper)

2011-01-01

372

A general quantum information model for the contextual dependent systems breaking the classical probability law  

CERN Multimedia

There exist several phenomena (systems) breaking the classical probability laws. Such systems are contextual dependent adaptive systems. In this paper, we present a new mathematical formula to compute the probability in those systems by using the concepts of the adaptive dynamics and quantum information theory -- quantum channels and the lifting. The basic examples of the contextual dependent phenomena can be found in quantum physics. And recently similar examples were found in biological and psychological sciences. Our novel approach is motivated by traditional quantum probability, but it is general enough to describe aforementioned phenomena outside of quantum physics.

Asano, Masanari; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Yamato, Ichiro

2011-01-01

373

Proposal of a Two-Qutrit Contextuality Test Free of the Finite Precision and Compatibility Loopholes  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been argued that any test of quantum contextuality is nullified by the fact that perfect orthogonality and perfect compatibility cannot be achieved in finite precision experiments. We introduce experimentally testable two-qutrit violations of inequalities for noncontextual theories in which compatibility is guaranteed by the fact that measurements are performed on separated qutrits. The inequalities are inspired by the basic building block of the Kochen-Specker proof of quantum contextuality for a qutrit, despite the fact that their proof is completely independent of it.

Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra

2011-05-01

374

Proposal of a two-qutrit contextuality test free of the finite precision and compatibility loopholes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been argued that any test of quantum contextuality is nullified by the fact that perfect orthogonality and perfect compatibility cannot be achieved in finite precision experiments. We introduce experimentally testable two-qutrit violations of inequalities for noncontextual theories in which compatibility is guaranteed by the fact that measurements are performed on separated qutrits. The inequalities are inspired by the basic building block of the Kochen-Specker proof of quantum contextuality for a qutrit, despite the fact that their proof is completely independent of it.

Cabello A; Cunha MT

2011-05-01

375

State-Independent Experimental Test of Quantum Contextuality with a Single Trapped Ion  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a single trapped ion, we have experimentally demonstrated state-independent violation of a recent version of the Kochen-Specker inequality in a three-level system (qutrit) that is intrinsically indivisible. Three ground states of the Yb+171 ion representing a qutrit are manipulated with high fidelity through microwaves and detected with high efficiency through a two-step quantum jump technique. Qutrits constitute the most fundamental system to show quantum contextuality and our experiment represents the first one that closes the detection efficiency loophole for experimental tests of quantum contextuality in such a system.

Zhang, Xiang; Um, Mark; Zhang, Junhua; An, Shuoming; Wang, Ye; Deng, Dong-ling; Shen, Chao; Duan, Lu-Ming; Kim, Kihwan

2013-02-01

376

Stress, distress and air traffic incidents: job dysfunction and distress in airline pilots in relation to contextually-assessed stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study used contextual stress measurement to look at the occupational sequelae of stress. One hundred and five civil aviation pilots were interviewed. Events and difficulties were dated and rated for contextual threat; dating information was also obtained for distress symptoms and air traffic in...

Loewenthal, K M; Eysenck, M; Harris, D; Lubitsh, G; Gorton, T; Bicknell, H

377

The NEA knowledge management project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Over the last 50 years significant knowledge has been accumulated in nuclear technology. This knowledge can be categorized as explicit and tacit. Explicit knowledge includes documented information while tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge acquired by experts over a long time and is more difficult to capture. The goals of knowledge management program are to retain explicit and tacit knowledge, encourage sharing of this knowledge, create and facilitate communities of practice and insure that knowledge is easy to find and readily accessible. The NEA committees have had extensive involvement in the accumulation of technical information in the scientific research, engineering studies, state of the art reports and many other endeavours that contribute to the technical basis for many safety and technology decisions. Many of the NEA reports (SOARs, Survey reports on safety topics, etc.) are in fact examples of knowledge management activities. The NEA committees' working groups are an excellent example of communities of practice. Over the past decade or more there has been an erosion of scientific resources due to reductions in budgets, aging and retirement of many outstanding scientists, engineers and managers, loss of experimental facilities and reductions in educational programs in nuclear engineering. The NEA has fully recognized this concern and has published many reports on this topic (e.g. Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, Future Nuclear Regulatory Challenges). With the industry push to reduce conservatisms in decisions and increased interest in building new nuclear power plants it becomes imperative that additional mechanisms be developed to make available both the tacit and the explicit knowledge to the new generation of engineers and scientists for safety and technology decisions. The NEA strategic plan (also the individual committees' strategic plans) recognizes the importance of this issue and recommends: - Promote the transfer and management of knowledge; - Promote the collection and safeguarding of important and well documented results from experimental studies. A small magnitude of effort pilot project, focused on documented (codifiable and explicit) activities of three committees, was undertaken. Boron Dilution was selected as the pilot topic based on previously agreed to prioritization criteria by the three committees. This presentation provides the lessons learned regarding the ease or the difficulty of accessibility of the documented information on the pilot topic as well as the clarity of purpose and the relevance of the results as documented. This project also examined the degree of integration and linking of the documented activities of the three committees on boron dilution. These lessons will be considered by the NEA to determine what NEA processes could be improved to ease access and transfer of relevant NEA generated scientific information. (author)

2007-01-01

378

MANAGEMENT. THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issues surrounding the management of tacit knowledge are entirely different and the creation of value from such knowledge may require fundamentally new approaches to organizational structures and management systems. Knowledge also differs according to its importance. Despite the widespread interest in organizational capabilities and competency modeling, most firms have a poor understanding of which types of knowledge are critical to their future success.What are the purposes and characteristics of the knowledge management processes? There has been a profusion of glib talk about the need to learn, to transfer knowledge, to absorb knowledge from competitors and partners, and the like. The danger is that we use knowledge management processes that are not suited to the task at hand. Consider the example of managing relationships with strategic alliance partners. The type of knowledge management that is appropriate depends on the knowledge goals of the alliance.

Leonard Sergiu B?lan

2013-01-01

379

Exploring Knowledge Governance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes: sharing, retaining, and creating knowledge. We survey the papers in this volume of the special issue, and discuss the remaining research challenges.

Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

2010-01-01

380

Knowledge and Strategy  

CERN Document Server

This is the first knowledge book in the Resources for the Knowledge-Based Economy Readers' series to link the two hot topics of knowledge and strategy. The book centers around the concept of treating organizational knowledge as a valuable strategy asset. Knowledge strategy is a natural extension of the historical development of business strategy in general. The book includes seminal articles on the subject as well as an introduction written by Michael Zack.

Zack, Michael H

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook  

CERN Multimedia

Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

Kantola, Jussi

2012-01-01

382

Knowledge Management Basics for Emerging Economies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this fast moving world of Globalisation, the World economy is getting much more service driven and knowledge oriented one. Compared to the previous era of imperialistic and localised economic growth orientation, the current trend in Global economic growth is a Trans - national one. The national barriers are reduced, supported by liberal economic policies of developing nations in South America, Asia – Pacific and the like. Especially in an IT driven economic development, Knowledge management is the need of the hour to safeguard the organisations to give themselves the Competitive edge. The paper discusses on the fundamentals of Knowledge management (KM), KM models, KM strategies, the Knowledge management life cycle, Knowledge capture techniques, Knowledge transfer, Motivation and Knowledge sharing and KM ethical issues.

Kalpana; B.Premkumar

2008-01-01

383

Knowledge sharing in a multicultural environment: challenges and opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article underscores the process of knowledge sharing in a multicultural organisational environment. Generally,multiculturalism emanates from being influenced by different contexts that provide the potential for human diversity. Itresults in disparate behavioural patterns and bodies of knowledge which lead to variance in terms of racial, sexual, ageand cultural orientations. The process of sharing knowledge is complex and is susceptible to multicultural variances.Considering that knowledge sharing processes and probable multicultural influences are contextual, the purpose of thearticle is to establish the extent of knowledge flows in the Department of Information Science at the University of SouthAfrica. In particular the article seeks to give an overall view on how knowledge is shared across intergenerational, culturaland interracial lines in the Department. The qualitative approach was considered appropriate for this study because itfocuses on observing events from the perspectives of those who are involved and is aimed at understanding the attitude,behaviour and opinions of those individuals (Powell & Connaway 2004). A basic interpretive qualitative research designwas used for this study. Data was collected through interviews and document analysis. The data were inductively analysedand the findings are presented and discussed using references to the literature that informed the study.

Luyanda Dube; Patrick Ngulube

2012-01-01

384

Knowledge Organization And Interpretation Process In Engineering Drawing Interpretation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the way knowledge is organized and used in our CELESSTINdocument interpretation system, which is a blackboard-based, multi-expert prototypesystem for extracting functional CAD information from scanned engineeringdrawings. After a general overview of the way CELESSTIN is implemented, we describein detail several of the specialists cooperating to perform the high-level drawinginterpretation: extraction of symmetric entities, disassembling, kinematics analysis.1. IntroductionIn the design of a complete document analysis system, a lot of attention is given to theindividual components, especially the low-level image analysis procedures and the patternrecognition methods used in the interpretation process. But in the case of systemswhich aim at attaining high-level understanding of the document and semantical interpretation,the issue of knowledge organization and contextual reasoning becomes alsocrucial.This is the case in our work on the conversion of mec...

Pascal Vaxiviere; Karl Tombre

385

Leitura contextual e processamento metalingüístico no português do Brasil: um estudo longitudinal/ Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing in Brazilian portuguese: a longitudinal study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Habilidade metalingüística é a habilidade de refletir sobre a linguagem como objeto do pensamento. Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas duas parecem estar associadas à leitura e a escrita: a consciência morfológica e consciência fonológica. Consciência fonológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os fonemas que compõem a fala e a consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta última parece ser particu (more) larmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre essas habilidades e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze em um estudo longitudinal. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação utilizando-se regressões múltiplas. Os resultados dão certo apoio à hipótese de que a consciência morfológica contribui independentemente da fonológica para leitura contextual no português. Abstract in english Metalinguistic skill is the ability to reflect upon language as an object of thought. Amongst metalinguistic skills, two seem to be associated with reading and spelling: morphological awareness and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the phonemes that compose words, and morphological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the morphemes that compose the words. The latter seems to be particularly important for reading compre (more) hension and contextual reading, as beyond phonological information, syntactic and semantic information are required. This study is set to investigate - with a longitudinal design - the relation between those abilities and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test. The first part of the study explores the relationship between morphological awareness tasks and Cloze scores through simple correlations and, in the second part, the specificity of such relationship was inquired using multiple regressions. The results give some support to the hypothesis that morphological awareness offers an independent contribution regarding phonological awareness to contextual reading in Brazilian Portuguese.

Mota, Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da; Vieira, Marcel de Toledo; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Dias, Jaqueline; Paiva, Nádia; Mansur-Lisboa, Stella; Andrade-Silva, Danielle

2012-01-01

386

Nuclear knowledge management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

2007-01-01

387

On Granular Knowledge Structures  

CERN Document Server

Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

Zeng, Yi

2008-01-01

388

Tacit Knowledge Codification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: In managing knowledge and competencies as a strategic advantage to an organization, there are difficulties in capturing, storing, sharing and reusing all this knowledge. Researchers have agreed that assessing tacit knowledge is difficult because knowhow of an employee are elusive and what more to assess them. It is compounded when employees leave the organization or become unavailable due to their mobility within the organization. As a result various approaches to collection and codification of knowledge have emerged. One of the most important approaches to emerge is knowledge management. Approach: In this study, we presented Knowledge Extract, Profiling and Sharing Network (KEPSNet), framework to facilitate the codification knowledge and competencies management adapting knowledge management processes in capturing, storing, sharing and reusing knowledge and competencies. Results: We enhanced these processes autonomously by capturing knowledge and competencies in tacit and explicit form from members of group project implementation in the form of concept maps and managed, according to knowledge management process. A case study in a software development group setting was evaluated and results of knowledge management processes output generated from KEPSNet prototype are compared with the result from the project manager in managing the project based. Two sets of questionnaires were given to the group members before and after implementing KEPSNet. Conclusion/Recommendations: The result of the evaluation validates the viability of the key concept presented. Codification of tacit knowledge has resulted in the codified knowledge and competencies recognized.